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Concreting Methodology

UPGRADING OF APPROXIMATELY 104KM OF ROAD D104/D791 CHIPATA TO MFUWE IN EASTERN PROVINCE CONCRETING METODOLOGY 1.0 INTRODUCTION

This method statement covers the manufacture, transportation, placing and testing of concrete that will be used on the Upgrading of Approximately 104km of Road D104/D791 Chipata to Mfuwe in Eastern Province. The summary includes notes on materials to be used and their storage, quality of concrete, measurement of materials, mixing, placing and compacting concrete, falsework/formwork and surface finish, construction joints, curing and protecting concrete, weather considerations, pre-cast concrete, quality and workmanship, demolition and removal of existing concrete works, equipment requirements and, safety, workers and protective clothing. 2.0 a) MATERIALS Cement: Cement used for concrete shall be any complying with the requirements of ZS EN 197-1 as specified. From the Zambian market, this shall either be Portland Limestone Cement from Lafarge or Zambezi Portland Cement. Aggregates: Both the coarse (19mm crushed stones) and fine (sand) aggregates shall be of approved quality i.e. grading and shape, complying with the requirements of SABS 1083 or equivalent and shall fall within set limits for drying shrinkage in accordance with SABS 836, flakiness Index and Aggregate Crushing Value as determined by TMH 1 Method B3, and the Fineness Modulus of the fine aggregate. The aggregates shall be clean and free of dust, clay, organic matter and any other deleterious matter. c) Water: Water shall be clean portable fresh water, free from detrimental concentrations of chemicals and organic impurities such as acids, alkalis, salts and sugar that could impair the durability and strength of concrete or the imbedded steel. Admixtures: No admixtures or curing agents shall be used in this project without the approval of the Project Manager. Steel Reinforcements: The steel reinforcement used for this project shall be A193 Fabric Mesh, Conforce 257 or deformed bars of specified sizes

b)

d) e)

Upgrading of Approximately 104Km of Road D104/D791 Chipata to Mfuwe in Eastern Province Final Draft March 2011

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Concreting Methodology

conforming to SATCC M31-Grade 400 as specified or according to the drawings. For each consignment of steel reinforcement delivered to site, the product certificate from a recognized testing authority shall be submitted to the Engineer to confirm compliance with project specifications. f) Pre-cast Concrete Materials: The following specified pre-cast materials shall be used in the project; Standard kerb stones and, concrete pipes and portal frames of various specified sizes. 3) STORAGE OF MATERIALS a) Cement: Cement will be stacked closely and neatly (to heights not exceeding 12 bags) in the storage shed located at our depot in Chipata, for a period not exceeding 8 weeks. Cement from Lafarge and Zambezi shall be stacked separately in the order that they are delivered. It shall be ensured that cement bags are not in contact with the ground or walls of the storage shed. Cement on site shall be stored in containers covered in strong waterproof fabric sheets or polythene sheets. b) Aggregates: The concrete stones (19 mm) and the surfacing aggregates (13.2mm and 6.7mm) shall be stockpiled in such a manner as to avoid segregation, intermixing and contamination. Storage Capacity: Adequate storage for cement, aggregates and water shall be made available so as to avoid any interruptions to the progress of work occasioned by lack of materials. Unsuitable Material: Deteriorated, contaminated and damaged materials shall not be used in any concrete works, but shall be removed from site immediately it is discovered that the material is unsuitable.

c)

d)

Upgrading of Approximately 104Km of Road D104/D791 Chipata to Mfuwe in Eastern Province Final Draft March 2011

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Concreting Methodology

4)

CONCRETE QUALITY a) Concrete Strength: The classes of concrete specified in the Contract and our mix designs are as tabulated below;
Characteristi c 28-Day Cube Crushing Strength (Mpa)

Class of concret e

Design Mix

Maximum Size of Coarse Aggregate (mm)

Application

WATER:CEMENT RATIO

10/19 15/19 20/19 25/19

1:4:8 1:3:6 1:2:4 1:2:3

19 19 19 19

10 15 20 25

30/19 35/19

1:1.5:3 1:1:2

19 19

30 35

Blinding of culvert bedding Culvert surround & bedding, Blinding of foundation for bridge Concrete backfill on culverts, Guide Posts and Marker Posts Culvert toewalls & keywalls ,Head & wingwalls, Inlet & outlet structures; bridge abutments, piers, lining for open drains, backfill below chutes, edge beams Chute, Abutment & pier stems Bridge approach slabs, deck and pedestrian walkway

0.50 048 0.48 0.46

0.43 0.40

Upgrading of Approximately 104Km of Road D104/D791 Chipata to Mfuwe in Eastern Province Final Draft March 2011

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Concreting Methodology

If there are any changes in the material sources, type or sizes for any constituent material for concrete, samples, product certificates and a statement of the proposed mixed proportions shall be submitted for the approval of the Resident Engineer before starting any concrete works. Product Certificates shall also be submitted for approval for each consignment of cement.

Upgrading of Approximately 104Km of Road D104/D791 Chipata to Mfuwe in Eastern Province Final Draft March 2011

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Concreting Methodology QUANTITIES: ONE CEMENT BAG MIX

DESIGN STENGTH

MATERIAL

QUANTIES/ M BY WEIGHT (Kg) BY VOLUME (M) 0.308 0.615 0.077 0.30 0.60 0.10 0.286 0.571 0.143 0.333 0.500 0.167 0.273 0.546 0.181 0.25 0.50 0.25

QUANTIES/ONE BAG MIX BY WEIGHT (Kg) 194 389 50 146 292 50 99 199 50 97 146 50 73 146 50 47 97 50 BY VOLUME (M) 0.144 0.288 0.036 0.108 0.216 0.036 0.072 0.144 0.036 0.072 0.108 0.036 0.054 0.108 0.036 0.036 0.072 0.036

10Mpa 15Mpa

SAND STONE CEMENT SAND STONE CEMENT SAND STONE CEMENT SAND STONE CEMENT SAND STONE CEMENT SAND STONE CEMENT

831 1662 106 405 810 138 385 771 197 450 675 230 369 737 250 338 675 345

20Mpa

25Mpa

30Mpa

35Mpa

Assumed Densities; Cement 1380Kg/m

Aggregate 1350Kg/m w/c 0.4 to o.5

For routine quality control, a minimum of four 150mm x 150mm x 150mm concrete test cubes shall be sampled for testing for a full days work, as and when required by Resident Engineer. Samples of aggregates and concrete cubes shall be taken at random as directed by the Resident Engineer. A minimum of six steel moulds shall be provided. b) Prescribed-mix concrete: Samples of every constituent material of concrete shall be submitted for approval by Resident Engineer. The prescribed mix design, and use of suitable material shall be ensured to avoid excessive bleeding of concrete.

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Concreting Methodology

Consistency and Workability It shall be ensured that concrete used is of suitable workability by taking slump measurements in accordance with the test method described in TNH-1 Method D3. These slump measurements shall fall within the provisions of table 6404/2 of SATCC. 5) MEASURING OF MATERIALS

The cement and aggregates be used for the concrete works shall be measured by the batch using a batch box of size 300mm x 300mm x 400mm. Water shall be measured by volume while the reinforcement will be as per supplied drawings. Cement will be supplied in standard bags, and each bag will be assumed to be 50kg 6) MIXING

Concrete shall be mixed either by hand or mechanical batch mix depending on the volume of concrete required and this shall be done with the approval of the Resident Engineer. The amount of water shall be sufficient to give a good workable mix and produce the specified strength as described above. The mixing water for each batch shall be measured, either by mass or by volume accurate to 3% of the required quantity. Where damp aggregate is used, the quantity of water added to the mix shall be adjusted to make allowances for the moisture already in the stones and/or sand. Discharging of concrete from mixer Discharge of concrete from mixer shall be carried out at a minimum slope of 1:3 and not exceeding 1:2 to avoid segregation of materials in the mix. The mixer shall be washed thoroughly before any concrete is mixed and whenever it is stopped running for more than 30 minutes, to get rid of any built-up material in the drum, loader and blades. A standby mixer shall be provided whenever it is important for casting to continue without interruption. 7) a) PLACING AND COMPACTING Placing: Concrete shall be cast in-situ, and deposited vertically whenever possible, but where chutes will be used, their length and slope will be such that concrete is discharged and deposited at the slope specified in (6) above. Efforts will be made to place entire thicknesses of Page 6

Upgrading of Approximately 104Km of Road D104/D791 Chipata to Mfuwe in Eastern Province Final Draft March 2011

Concreting Methodology

slabs and decks in one pass, and whenever necessary, construction joints shall be formed before placing fresh concrete against the old one. Steel reinforcements shall be cut and bent to the dimensions specified on project bending schedule and, in accordance with SABS 82. Prior to placing of concrete, the reinforcements shall be positioned in accordance with project drawings and shall be firmly tied in position within specified tolerances. b) Compaction: Concrete shall be compacted thoroughly, to form a solid mass free from voids, honeycombing and planes of weakness, by means of a poker vibrator or tamping rods for small volumes of concrete immediately after placing. CONSTRUCTION JOINTS Preparing the surfaces: When the concrete has set, the surface will be roughened and washed with clean water to remove all dirt and loose material before placing fresh concrete. Placing: The fresh concrete shall be cast directly against the construction joint. Epoxy resins for bonding old concrete to new will only be used as directed by the Resident Engineer. FALSEWORK, FORMWORK AND CONCRETE FINISH MATERIALS: Generally, the materials used in the construction of falsework and formwork shall be suitable for the purpose for which they are required, and shall be of such quality as to produce the specified standard of work. The timber, structural steel and scaffolding used shall be free from any defects that may prejudice the stability of the falsework. The boarding for the formwork shall be of suitably dried timber which will not warp, distort or cause discoloration of the concrete. Jacks, devices, clamps and fittings shall all be in good working condition, and of adequate design and strength to ensure safety. CONSTRUCTION: The falsework and formwork shall be constructed sufficiently rigid and tight and in correct position, shape and profile in order to avoid undue losses or leakages of the mortar component of the
Upgrading of Approximately 104Km of Road D104/D791 Chipata to Mfuwe in Eastern Province Final Draft March 2011

8) a)

b)

8)

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Concreting Methodology

concrete, and to ensure that the specified dimensional tolerances are achieved when concrete is placed and compacted. Prior to placing reinforcing steel and/or concrete, dimensions shall be checked and unevenness of surface shall be corrected. Special attention shall be paid to adequacy and tightness of all bolts, ties and bracings as well as to the soundness of foundation. Notice will be issued to the Resident Engineer 24hrs before placing of concrete for approval. REMOVING THE FALSEWORK AND FORMWORK: Falsework and formwork shall not be removed before concrete has attained sufficient strength to support its own weight and any other loads which may be imposed on it. Tab 6206/1 to 6203/3 SATCC shall provide a general guidance on the minimum periods of time for specific situations. SURFACE FINISHES: It shall be ensured that surface finishes comply with the specified classes. All surface defects noted after removal of formwork shall be remedied as directed by the Resident Engineer. 9) CURING AND PROTECTING

After being placed and compacted in its final position the concrete shall be left undisturbed whilst setting, and it shall be protected from vibration, loading, traffic or running water for a period of not less than 72 hours after placing. The concrete shall be thoroughly cured by being continuously maintained in a moist condition after setting by means of wet sacking, spraying or other approved means for a minimum period of 7 days. Whenever necessary, formwork shall be kept in place for a full curing period. 10) a) ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS Cold weather: Concrete shall not be placed during falling and rising temperatures when the ambient air temperatures are below 7C and 3C respectively. Hot Weather: Concrete shall not be paced when the ambient air temperature exceeds 30C. PRECAST CONCRETE Page 8

b) 11)

Upgrading of Approximately 104Km of Road D104/D791 Chipata to Mfuwe in Eastern Province Final Draft March 2011

Concreting Methodology

All precast members (kerbs, culvert pipes, portal frames, etc) manufactured on site shall comply with the requirements specified for cast in situ concrete. For all precast members on site, product certificates indicating concrete mixes and strength tests shall be submitted for approval. Any precast member which shall be cracked, warped or otherwise damaged to such an extent that it cannot be repaired and adversely affects the appearance, function or structural integrity of the member, shall not be used but shall be removed from site 12) QUALITY OF WORKMANSHIP AND MATERIALS

Routine inspections and quality control shall be done in accordance with the provisions relevant clauses of section 7200 of SATCC. 13) DEMOLITION AND REMOVAL OF EXISTING CONCRETE

Existing concrete shall be demolished manually or using mechanical means and removed from site. Existing prefabricated pipes earmarked for replacement shall be removed and kept aside for inspection by the Resident Engineer before disposal. 14) EQUIPMENT

The following equipment shall be made available in good working order; ITEM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 DESCRIPTION Excavator Tipper Poker Vibrator Plate Compactor Concrete Mixer Batch Boxes 150mmx150mmx150mm Moulds Shovels Picks Wheel Barrows 20 ltr Container Builders Line Square Spirit Level Dumpy Level QUANTITY 01 02 02 02 02 06 20 20 20 10 04 02 02 02 02

Upgrading of Approximately 104Km of Road D104/D791 Chipata to Mfuwe in Eastern Province Final Draft March 2011

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16 17 18 19 15)

Staff Steel Cutter Rammers Tamping Rods

02 02 04 07

SAFETY, WORKERS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

Generally all works will be supervised by a Site Engineer, who shall ensure that safe environment is always maintained, and that on-site safety procedures are followed at all times. The Site Engineer shall see to it that adequate measures are taken to warn and protect road users and construction workers. He shall instruct all supervisors and foremen in safety measures including traffic control and use of clean standard temporary road signs The Safety Officer shall conduct regular on-site inspections of works, equipment, tools and personnel. He shall also hold regular safety meetings with all work groups to discuss and instruct in safety, and shall produce weekly reports to Management. Good working and handling practices shall be ensured on site All workers shall be provided with such protective clothing such as hand gloves, overall suits, boots, reflective jackets and dust masks. Where necessary, workers will also be provided with helmets. Only suitable hand tools and devices, free from any defect, shall be used. Only experience operators shall be used to operate such equipment, as concrete mixer, compressor, etc. Falsework, formworks and scaffolding shall sufficiently and rigidly be secured in position before placing of concrete as described in 8) above. 16) PERSONNEL Working Force 1 1 1 2 1 Concreting Foreman Overseer for each 10 Workmen Concrete Mixer Operator Bricklayers to 2 Steel Fixers

Upgrading of Approximately 104Km of Road D104/D791 Chipata to Mfuwe in Eastern Province Final Draft March 2011

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10 to 20 General Workers 2 Traffic Controllers Plant Operators and Drivers 1 Tipper Truck driver 1 Light Vehicle driver (for foreman or overseer) 1 Water Bowser Driver

Upgrading of Approximately 104Km of Road D104/D791 Chipata to Mfuwe in Eastern Province Final Draft March 2011

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