You are on page 1of 20

Foreword

The Duncan Black Macdonald Center for the Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations created in 1973 at Hartford Seminary was, of course, named for Duncan Black Macdonald (1863-1943). Some awareness of his considerable scholarship about, and his deep appreciation for, Islam has existed since, largely because of the work of the center which bears his name. But now, thanks almost entirely to the work and passion of Dr. Yahya Michot who, through painstaking investigations of our library holdings related to and once belonging to this scholar, Macdonald’s scholarship and biography have been brought into sharp focus and the precise nature and details of his work and life are accessible to us all. We are deeply grateful to Dr. Michot. We are also thankful to The Connecticut Humanities Council and the International Institute of Islamic Thought for their support of this conference and exhibition. I have had the pleasure of talking with Yahya during the year of his research on Macdonald and also of peeking at the material related to the exhibition. What stands out clearly to me is the wonderful continuity between Macdonald and his work and our work at Hartford Seminary today. Thus Macdonald was an ordained Christian pastor who was clearly grounded in Christianity but also, significantly, an appreciative student of Islam and Judaism. He saw himself as a bridge builder between peoples and traditions, and this remains the spirit in which we approach our work and our relationships with each other at Hartford Seminary. Macdonald was a deep and critical intellectual who enjoyed teaching those whose interests were not simply intellectual but, as future religious leaders, were also practical and pastoral. The practice of ministry, chaplaincy and religious leadership more broadly conceived, remains a common commitment among us today. When one digs further one finds many other aspects of Macdonald’s work and life that echo here at Hartford Seminary today. As you will note in the exhibition, Macdonald cooperated with the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, and indeed was given an honorary degree by that institution. Today, JTS is a sister seminary with whom we have on-going relations to the extent that our 2013 graduation speaker is a professor at JTS, we have a multi-year program to enable JTS students to take courses here at Hartford Seminary, and a number of our Islamic Chaplaincy students do their Clinical Pastoral Education at JTS. Surely Macdonald would enjoy the open spirit and the substance of this relationship. For all of these reasons—and more—the faculty, board, students and staff of Hartford Seminary rejoice in this occasion and are grateful for the opportunity to examine afresh this major figure in our institutional history, who, in many ways serves as a mirror for us today. Heidi Hadsell
PRESIDENT

Hartford Seminary

Introduction
Last summer, our Library Director, Rev. Dr. Steven Blackburn, happened to tell me that a number of unrecorded photos taken by Duncan Black Macdonald in Cairo had just been found in the archives of the Seminary. Having lived myself in Egypt in the seventies, I showed some interest. Little did I know then where this conversation would lead me. It didn’t indeed take me long before realizing that, as Macdonald was born in 1863, 2013 marked his 150th anniversary. As for the newly discovered photos, I soon learned two things about them. One, he had taken them in 1908, during his sabbatical leave in the Middle East. Two, these photos were all the more interesting as the Seminary’s archives also preserve the diary kept by Macdonald in Egypt, in which he refers to them. During the winter break, I went back to Egypt—the first time in many years— with a transcript of “DBM”’s Cairo Diary and no other purpose than to take new shots of the monuments and locations which he had photographed a century ago. Five months later, I have not only walked in his footsteps in the Middle East, but also in Pemaquid Point, Maine, where he spent his summers, and here in Connecticut where he lived, died, and was buried. Moreover, I explored his publications and career, discovered a fascinating personality, and suggested to the Seminary the organization of this conference and exhibition. I am very thankful to the Seminary’s President, Prof. Heidi Hadsell, for welcoming the idea of a Macdonald 150th anniversary celebration and giving it her support. My thanks also go to CT Humanities and IIIT for their financial aid, to the City of Hartford for restoring Macdonald’s grave in the Old North Cemetery, and to Wiley, publisher of The Muslim World journal, for putting online a special virtual issue devoted to D. B. Macdonald. The idea of a conference and an exhibition might come from one individual, but its concretization always entails a collegial endeavour. I am deeply indebted to Amy, Andrea, David, Jonathan, Karen, Lilyne, Marie, Mary, Nancy, Nick, Pilar, Rachelle, Ron, Roseann, Sami, Susan, Tricia, Yehezkel, and my wife, Louise: in their various capacities, but with the same patience and dedication, they have each contributed to make this project a reality and once again demonstrated what great things can be achieved, together, at our Seminary. I feel a particular gratefulness toward our Library Director, Rev. Dr. Steven Blackburn, who entrusted me with the key to the archives room. It is thanks to him that, like Ali Baba in his cave, I was able to unearth the treasures displayed in the exhibition. Four professors—Jane I. SMITH, Muhsin al-MUSAWI, Kenneth GARDEN, Yehezkel LANDAU—have kindly accepted to speak with me about different dimensions of Duncan Black Macdonald’s life and scholarship. May they be assured of my gratitude. Finally, you who are reading these words, let me also thank you for joining us in our celebration of Duncan Black Macdonald and wish you the most pleasant time on this Sunday, June 2, 2013. Yahya Michot

Left: D. B. Macdonald’s wife, Mary Leeds Bartlett (1850-1929), Pemaquid Point, c. 1900? Right: D. B. Macdonald and his bike, Pemaquid Point?, c. 1898

D. B. Macdonald, his wife and friends in front of their cottage, Pemaquid Point, c. 1915?

The faculty of Hartford Theological Seminary, 1897

D. B. Macdonald teaching Hebrew, Broad Street campus, c. 1897

Conference Program 12:00 pm. Duncan Black Macdonald Gravesite Commemoration (Old North Cemetery, Main Street, Hartford) with Rev. Dr. Steven BLACKBURN (Hartford). 12:45 pm. Lunch at the Seminary. 1:35 pm. Opening of the Exhibition in the Library. 2:00 pm. Conference: Encountering the Religious Other. 2:00 pm. Prof. Heidi HADSELL, President of the Seminary: Welcome and Introduction. 2:15 pm. Prof. Emer. Jane SMITH (Hartford): Duncan Black Macdonald: A Man Ahead of his Time? 3:00 pm. Prof. Muhsin AL-MUSAWI (Columbia University): The Translatibility of The Arabian Nights Revisited. 3:45 pm. Tea Break. 4:00 pm. Prof. Kenneth GARDEN (Tufts University): Re-reading Duncan Black Macdonald’s Pioneering Studies of al-Ghazālī: Paths not Taken. 4:45 pm. Prof. Yehezkel LANDAU (Hartford): Duncan Black Macdonald’s Views on Jewish Thought. 5:30 pm. Prof. Yahya MICHOT (Hartford): Cairo 1908. Duncan Black Macdonald’s Sabbatical in the Middle East. 7:30 pm. Movie: Azur & Asmar, The Princes’ Quest (2006). 9:15 pm. Closing Remarks.

Speakers
Professor Jane I. SMITH retired in 2012 from the position of Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and Senior Lecturer in Islamic Studies at Harvard Divinity School. Currently, she is Professor Emerita at Hartford Seminary, where for ten years she was Professor of Islamic Studies, co-director of the Macdonald Center for Christian-Muslim Relations and co-editor of The Muslim World journal. Her teaching and research interests include Islamic movements in America, history of religions, and interfaith dialogue. Prof. Smith is the author of Islam in America (1999, revised 2009) and Muslims, Christians and the Challenge of Interfaith Dialogue (2007). The books she has co-edited include Muslim Women in America (with Y. Haddad, 2006), Religion and Immigration: Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Experiences in the United States (with Y. Haddad and J. Esposito, 2003), and The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection (with Y. Haddad, 1981, revised 2003). Currently, she is co-editing a Handbook on Islam in America. Professor Muhsin al-MUSAWI is a literary critic of international reputation and a scholar of classical and modern Arabic literature, comparative and cultural studies. He taught for over two decades at universities in the Arab world before moving to Columbia University. He is the author of twenty-eight books (including four novels) and over sixty scholarly articles. He has been the editor of the Journal of Arabic Literature since 2000. He was once the Secretary General for Iraqi Writers (2003-2009). His books include: Scheherazade in England (1981); The Society of One Thousand and One Nights (2000); The Islamic Context of the Thousand and One Nights (Columbia University Press, 2009). He also wrote the introduction and notes to the Barnes & Noble edition of The Thousand and One Nights (2007). His forthcoming book is Politics of the Medieval Islamic Republic of Letters. He was the recipient of the Owais Award in Literary Criticism (2002). Professor Kenneth GARDEN grew up in Wisconsin and studied Comparative Literature at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His interest in Islam and the Middle East grew out of conversations with Arab fellow students at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms Universität in Bonn while there on a junior year abroad. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 2005, writing his dissertation on controversies over al-Ghazālī’s Revival of the Religious Sciences in Khurasān and al-Andalus. He is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Religion at Tufts University. His book on al-Ghazālī and his Revival is forthcoming from Oxford University Press. Dr. Yehezkel LANDAU is Associate Professor of Interfaith Relations and holder of the Chair in Abrahamic Partnerships at Hartford Seminary. A dual IsraeliAmerican citizen, his work has been in the fields of interfaith education and Jewish-Arab peacemaking. From 1991 to 2003, he was co-founder and co-director of the Open House Center for Jewish-Arab Coexistence and Reconciliation in Ramle, Israel. He lectures internationally on Jewish-Christian-Muslim relations and Middle East peace issues. The author of numerous journal articles, he has notably co-edited the book Voices from Jerusalem: Jews and Christians Reflect on the Holy Land (1992) and authored a research report entitled Healing the Holy

Land: Interreligious Peace building in Israel/Palestine for the United States Institute of Peace (2003). At Hartford Seminary, Prof. Landau directs an interfaith training program for Jews, Christians, and Muslims called Building Abrahamic Partnerships. Professor Yahya M. MICHOT (born in Belgium, 1952) has been Professor of Islamic Studies and Christian-Muslim Relations at the Macdonald Center, Hartford Seminary, since September 2008. He is also the current editor of The Muslim World journal. From 1983 to 1997, he taught Arabic philosophy at Louvain (Belgium) and, from 1998 to 2008, Islamic theology at Oxford (UK). He has published a number of books and articles about Islamic classical thought, drugs in Muslim societies, and European Islam. As a student, he lived four years in Cairo. His books include Ibn Taymiyya: Against Extremisms (2012), Ahmad al-Aqhisārī: Against Smoking. An Ottoman Manifesto (2010), Avicenne: Réfutation de l’astrologie (2006). His articles include Pilgrimage frescoes in Cairo (1978), Quand Loti pleurait la mort du Caire… (1989), and Le Désert : l’expédition de Pierre Loti au Sinaï et la presse égyptienne (1894).

Duncan Black Macdonald, c. 1935

D. B. Macdonald’s Biography
1863, April 9: birth in Glasgow, Scotland. 1885, April 30: Master of Arts degree, Glasgow University. 1888, April 27: Baccalaureate in Theology degree, Glasgow University. June 13: Licence, Presbytery of Glasgow. 1890-1891: Semitic studies in Berlin. 1892: appointment as Instructor in Hebrew at the Hartford Theological Seminary. 1893: summer in Berlin, to study Egyptology. 1898, June 22: marriage to Mary Leeds Bartlett. Construction of their Pemaquid Point cottage, where they spent most summers. 1899: publishes the article The Life of al-Ghazālī, with especial reference to his religious experiences and opinions. 1900, March 20: inaugural address as Professor at the Hartford Theological Seminary. 1903: publishes The Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory. 1904, September: delivers his paper The Problems of Muhammadanism before the International Congress of Arts and Sciences at St. Louis, Missouri, and visits the World’s Fair. 1905: Publishes A Selection from the Prolegomena of Ibn Khaldūn with Notes and an English-German Glossary and the article The Moral Education of the Young among Muslims. 1906: Haskell lecturer on Comparative Religion at the University of Chicago. 1907: special lecturer at Wellesley College (also in 1909 and 1912). November 14: arrival in Cairo, Egypt. 1908, June 19: departure from Cairo to the Holy Land. June 20 - July 14: stay in Jerusalem. July 25 - August 3: stay in Damascus. August 12: arrival in Constantinople for 12 days. September 23: leaves Liverpool to New York on the R.M.S. Umbria. 1909: publishes The Religious Attitude and Life in Islam. Doctor of Divinity degree from Trinity College, Hartford. Lamson lecturer on Muhammadanism at the Hartford Theological Seminary. 1910: publishes the article “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves” in Arabic from a Bodleian Manuscript. 1910-1911: W. H. T. Gairdner studies five months in Hartford with him. 1911: publishes Aspects of Islam. Organization of the Kennedy School of Missions at the Seminary. Becomes head of the Muhammadan Department (until 1925). 1912: special lecturer at the Cambridge Episcopal Divinity School.

1914: Haskell lecturer on Arabic Literature and the Literature of the Hebrews at Oberlin College. 1916: publishes The Presentation of Christianity to Moslems. 1917-1918: lecturer on the Old Testament at the Berkeley Divinity School, New Haven. 1920, June 24: Honoris Causa Doctorate in Theology, Glasgow University. Moves from 853 Asylum Avenue to 143 Sigourney Street, Hartford. 1923: publishes the article The Near East Tangle. 1926: move of the Seminary from Broad Street to Elizabeth Street. 1929, August 3: death of his wife, Mary Bartlett. 1932: becomes Professor Emeritus of the Hartford Theological Seminary and Honorary Consultant Professor at the Kennedy School of Missions. Publishes the article A Bibliographical and Literary Study of the First Appearance of the Arabian Nights in Europe. 1933: publishes The Hebrew Literary Genius. April 8: receives The Macdonald Presentation Volume during a dinner celebrating his 70th birthday. 1935: publishes the article The Unity of the Mystical Experience in Islam and Christendom. 1936: publishes The Hebrew Philosophical Genius. 1937, June 6: Honorary Doctorate of Hebrew Letters, Jewish Theological Seminary of America. 1938: publishes the entry Alf Laila wa-Laila in the Supplement to the Encyclopaedia of Islam. 1941, May: moves from Sigourney Street to Mrs. McKean’s Convalescent Home in South Glastonbury. 1943, September 6: dies in South Glastonbury, after a long illness. September 17: burial of his ashes in his wife’s grave, Old North Cemetery, Hartford. Dr. Macdonald was a member of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain, the American Oriental Society, Glasgow University Oriental Society, and corresponding member of the Arab Academy of Damascus. Beside his own books and many articles, he contributed an impressive number of entries in the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the Encyclopedia Britannica, the Jewish Encyclopedia, A New Standard Bible Dictionary and the Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.

Sayings of D. B. Macdonald, from A to Z
– Only keep on looking at things for yourself and don’t allow “authorities” to impose upon you. (1932, October 8, Letter to Judith Mackensen, p. 1)
AUTHORITY.

– In fact as I now, as an old man, look back over my life I can see that I have always been in revolt against divisions and trying to build bridges. That has been wider than objection to religious parties. It has been objection to intellectual divisions and specializing. I have wanted to grasp all knowledge and bring all the knowledges together and make each help and illustrate the other. So of late I have been trying to persuade the students of medieval Europe that medieval Islam is part of their field—that the Mediterranean civilization was one civilization.
BRIDGE. (1930, April 19, Letter to Murray Titus, in India) CONNECTICUT.

– I don’t think Connecticut is exactly a scenic State but Illinois!
(1933, July 28, Letter to Judith Mackensen in Chicago, p. 1)

Ugh!
DEMOCRACY.

– The Muslim peoples theoretically, and to a great extent practically, are the most democratic in the world, although this is modified always by their respect for learning, provided it is the kind of learning that appeals to them.
(1911, Aspects of Islam, p. 5)

– For nearly thirteen centuries the Egyptian people has been moulded to the image of Islam, and for more than half of that time Cairo has been the leading centre of Moslem learning in the world. It would be hard to find another people into whose blood and brain Islam has, in consequence, so entered and which has so completely accepted Islam as the essential in their patriotism.
EGYPT. (1921, The New Egyptian Constitution, p. 306)

FRIENDSHIP. – I have done my best to help; but I never thought of myself as an especially “friendly” person. I certainly felt friendly towards people but I wasn’t a “little friend of all the world” like Kim. (1933, April 13, Letter to Judith Mackensen, p. 2) – A born story-teller; he had a flair for a good story and a knack to retell it well; hence the success of his Nights […] For more than a century Galland’s French version meant the Nights for Europe and it was exceedingly fortunate that both his sources, manuscript and oral, were of such excellent quality.
GALLAND. (1938, Alf Laila wa-Laila, p. 18)

– Several times I have felt like throwing Hartford out of the window, but I have always been drawn back. Hartford has its fascination and I have found it a friendly town. (1933, December 29, Letter to Judith Mackensen, p. 1)
HARTFORD. ISLAM.

– If there is to be any dividing, theologically and religiously, Islam, Christendom and Judaism must go together as one household of faith, and Islam may have its lessons to teach to its two brethren of the West. Certain it is that Islam feels very sure that it has. (1933, Whither Islam?, p. 3)

– Would the revelation of an immortality with God have satisfied Job? I do not think so. In the first place it can hardly be doubted that the thought of such an immortality as a possibility was current when the book was written. But the writer does not make use of it. Secondly, Job could not have considered his miseries and the loss of his children as balanced by any such future. This world would still have been as full of wrong and injustice. What Job demands from God is a vindication of him here; not future bliss. (1894-1897, Autograph teaching notes)
JOB.

– I struggled against limitation to specialization and sought wideembracing views. I sought to be thorough in my knowledge of each thing but I refused to be bound to any one thing. So it came about that I, a theologian and Semitist, a student of philosophy and literature, was one of the original founders of the Society for the History of Science and am still one of the editors of Isis, its organ. (1937, Autobiographical Notes, p. 15)
KNOWLEDGE.

– I am a student of literature and I believe in taking peoples as they show themselves clearly in their literatures. I do not believe, either, that literature can be profitably studied in a concordance any more than botany can be profitably studied in horto sicco. It must be studied as a thing alive, bearing its own life in it and having its own laws of life. That holds of the literature of every people and it holds of the literature of the Hebrew people.
LITERATURE. (1933, The Hebrew Literary Genius, p. xvi-xvii)

– I am quite sure I should never myself have made a good missionary. I have always been too much interested in knowing what the other man thought and in seeing how he could think that. (1930, April 19, Letter to Murray Titus)
MISSIONARY.

– The Nights were written for Muslims by Muslims, with perfect simplicity and unconscious devotion to the Real, and just on account of this simplicity of attitude and unconsciousness of art, they are an indefinitely truer picture of life than any painted by our hyperconscious devotees to a supposed realism.
NIGHTS. (1919, From the Arabian Nights to Spirit, p. 337)

– If we are, then, to consider the Old Testament as containing the surviving literature of the Hebrews we must look at it as the Hebrews themselves put it together and not in any later non-Hebrew forms, however interesting these may be in their witness to theological changes.
OLD TESTAMENT. (1933, The Hebrew Literary Genius, p. 221)

– When Temple Gairdner came to me to study Islam he came seeking knock-down arguments against Muslims. I never gave him such but he went away understanding the genius of Islam and able to enter into the minds of Muslims. He had passed from controversy to persuasion.
PERSUASION. (1937, Autobiographical Notes, p. 15-16)

– You will find everywhere some educated Muslims who feel driven back to the Qur’ān as a sure basis for their faith, as opposed to the traditions (Goldziher, Snouck, Lammens) and also see that a more defensible picture of Muhammad
QUR’ĀN.

himself can be constructed from the Qur’ān alone; that the traditions bearing on his life are really a handicap in the modern world. (1924, March 31, Letter to Murray Titus) – All manifestations of religious emotion are surrounded with possibilities of hypocrisy, self-delusion and abandonment of self-control. But those who know the theological literature of Islam will remember how elaborately its clearest and most spiritual minds have dealt with these dangers.
RELIGIOUSNESS. (1913, The Vital Forces of Christianity and Islam, p. 658)

– Never on this side of the Atlantic can you reproduce Scotland exactly. This is very like the West Highlands—but it isn’t.
SCOTLAND. (1933, July 28, Letter to Judith Mackensen, from Pemaquid Point)

– I never really learned theology until I had to learn that of Islām. To work out the Articles of Belief of Nasafī was a more thorough theological training than was given then in the University of Glasgow. (1937, Autobiographical Notes, p. 3-4)
THEOLOGY.

– Don’t imagine that the readers of that periodical know anything to speak of about Islam. How many people in this country know anything really about Islam. Your job all your life will be to tell people things about Islam.
USA. (1933, June 16, Letter to Judith Mackensen, p. 1)

– When Muslims of the present time—that is, educated Muslims—speak about the veil, they invariably explain that the veil is not binding upon all women; that it was binding only upon the wives of the Prophet. By that means an attempt is now being made to get rid of the obligation of wearing it. (1911, Aspects of Islam, p. 105)
VEIL.

– The picture would be utterly incomplete and out of drawing if it did not take in my wife. From the very beginning she set herself, in her own words, “to be a scholar’s wife.” She knew my possibilities—I can say that now, she being dead—before any one else and gave herself utterly to fulfill them. We were not so fortunate as to have children and so the world of our home was the two of us; in that our lives were linked of the closest. My wife knew about all my work, followed it and understood it. She learned enough of Arabic for that purpose and typed and criticized all my writing. (1937, Autobiographical Notes, p. 13)
WIFE.

– There is a point at which Plato and Ecclesiastes come strangely together. That all things are controlled by God, Plato is certain; that is his theological position. But he cannot help seeing also the facts of life and these are that chance (τύχη) and occasion (καιρός) and accidents (ξυµφοραί) of all kinds control human affairs. (1936, The Hebrew Philosophical Genius, p. 140)
XYMPHORAI.

– To the dream of Ottomanizing everything the Young Turks sacrificed the fruits of their revolution and thus sealed the fate of historical Turkey.
YOUNG TURKS. (1920, Constantinople and the Turks, p. 325)

– I would like to go into a Zāwiya and sit there in the shadows and say my prayers. (1933, October 29, Letter to Judith Mackensen, p. 1)
ZĀWIYA. ————————————————

Top: the Sulṭāniyya mausoleum (1350s). Bottom: the facade of Sulṭān Qalāwūn’s funerary complex (1284-5), Cairo (1908 photos by Duncan Black Macdonald. 2012 photos by Yahya Michot)

D. B. Macdonald, Cairo Diary, 1908. Autograph manuscript calligraphy of a pious sentence in Arabic: Every thing that passes through your mind is perishable longing, and God is the opposite of that.

Pirated edition of Galland’s Les Mille et Une Nuit, The Hague, 1730-1746

Tales from the Nights, in Hebrew (Oran, 1882) and Arabic (Cairo, c. 1900)

The Exhibition Arabian Nights, Christian Mission, Hebrew Genius: The Pioneering Journey of Duncan Black Macdonald (1863-1943)
Come and explore the life, works and ideas of Hartford Seminary’s famous professor, Rev. Dr. Duncan Black Macdonald (1863-1943), and get inspired by his avant-garde approach to Islam and Muslims, Christian mission, and the Hebrew Bible. Discover how a Scottish Presbyterian academic became the first Islamic studies expert in the United States, acquired one of the finest collections of The Arabian Nights in the world and never ceased to love Pemaquid Point, in Maine. Follow him and his wife, Mary Leeds Bartlett, to the Middle East, during their 1908 sabbatical leave in Cairo… This exhibition documents seven dimensions of Duncan Black Macdonald’s life and scholarship: 1. From Scotland to Connecticut 2. Forty years at Hartford Seminary 3. Training Christian missionaries 4. The expert in Islamic theology 5. Celebrating the Hebrew genius 6. The Arabian Nights collector 7. A sabbatical in Egypt Highlights include a 100 year old piece of the cover (kiswa) of the Ka‘ba, Islam’s most sacred sanctuary, in Mecca; the first edition of Galland’s Les Mille et Une Nuits (1705) and other early European and American versions of The Arabian Nights; Macdonald’s private Book of Common Prayer, in a pierced and repoussé silver binding made in Rome; Macdonald’s Hebrew edition of the Book of Job with his autograph teaching notes; a number of unpublished photographs of Cairo, Jerusalem and Damascus made by Macdonald in 1908…
The exhibition will remain open until June 29, 2013. Admission & hours: MondayThursday 10am-8pm; Friday 10am-4pm; Saturday 10am-3pm. Closed Sunday. Admission is free. Donations are welcome. The Hartford Seminary’s Library is wheelchair accessible. There is no cafeteria or lunchroom at the Seminary. Visitors are welcome to picnic on the lawn or the wooden tables behind the Seminary’s main building. Free guided educational tours of the exhibit, for groups of all ages (6 persons or more), are available by reservation Monday through Saturday. Please make an appointment by emailing Sami Shamma at: sshamma@hartsem.edu. Photography of the exhibited documents and artifacts is not allowed.

Piece of the Meccan Kiswa

Hebrew examination questions, 1925

D. B. Macdonald: On the road from Sulṭān Barqūq’s tomb-mosque, Cairo, 1908

This conference is sponsored by

and the exhibition by

Hartford Seminary is grateful to these sponsors for their support.