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- Fluent-Intro 14.5 WS07b Vortex Shedding
- Fluent-Intro 14.5 L03 BoundaryConditions
- Fluent-Intro 14.5 L08 HeatTransfer
- Fluent-Intro 14.5 L05 SolverSettings
- Mesh-Intro 14.5 L01 Introduction to ANSYS
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- Fluent HeatTransfer L02 Conduction
- Mechanical Intro 14.5 L01 Intro
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- Mesh-Intro 14.5 L08 Mesh Quality
- Mesh-Intro 14.5 L07 Assembly Meshing
- Mesh-Intro 14.5 L06 Local Mesh Controls
- DM-Intro 14.5 L03 Introduction to DM
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14.5 Release

2012 ANSYS, Inc. November 15, 2012 1 Release 14.5

Introduction

Lecture Theme:

All CFD simulations follow the same key stages. This lecture will explain how to go from the original planning stage to analyzing the end results

Learning Aims: You will learn: The basics of what CFD is and how it works The different steps involved in a successful CFD project Learning Objectives: When you begin your own CFD project, you will know what each of the steps requires and be able to plan accordingly

Introduction

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

CFD Approach

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What is CFD?

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and related phenomena. To predict these phenomena, CFD solves equations for conservation of mass, momentum, energy etc.. CFD is used in all stages of the engineering process:

Conceptual studies of new designs Detailed product development Optimization Troubleshooting Redesign

CFD analysis complements testing and experimentation by reducing total effort and cost required for experimentation and data acquisition

Introduction

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

CFD Approach

November 15, 2012

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Summary

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ANSYS CFD solvers are based on the finite volume method

species, etc. are solved on this set of control volumes

Control Volume*

Unsteady

Convection

Diffusion

Generation

Equation

Continuity X momentum Y momentum Z momentum Energy

f

1 u v w h

Partial differential equations are discretized into a system of algebraic equations All algebraic equations are then solved numerically to render the solution field

Fluent control volumes are cell-centered (i.e. they correspond directly with the mesh) while CFX control volumes are node-centered

Introduction

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CFD Approach

November 15, 2012

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What results are you looking for (i.e. pressure drop, mass flow rate), and how will they be used? What are your modeling options?

What simplifying assumptions can you make (i.e. symmetry, periodicity)? What simplifying assumptions do you have to make? What physical models will need to be included in your analysis

What degree of accuracy is required? How quickly do you need the results? Is CFD an appropriate tool?

Introduction

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

CFD Approach

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How will you isolate a piece of the complete physical system? Where will the computational domain begin and end?

these boundaries? Can the boundary condition types accommodate that information? Can you extend the domain to a point where reasonable data exists?

Introduction

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

CFD Approach

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How will you obtain a model of the fluid region?

Make use of existing CAD models? Extract the fluid region from a solid part? Create from scratch?

Can you simplify the geometry?

meshing (fillets, bolts)? Make use of symmetry or periodicity? Are both the flow and boundary conditions symmetric / periodic?

Do you need to split the model so that boundary conditions or domains can be created?

Introduction

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

CFD Approach

November 15, 2012

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What degree of mesh resolution is required in each region of the domain? Can you predict regions of high gradients?

The mesh must resolve geometric features of interest and capture gradients of concern, e.g. velocity, pressure, temperature gradients

What type of mesh is most appropriate? How complex is the geometry? Can you use a quad/hex mesh or is a tri/tet or hybrid mesh suitable? Are non-conformal interfaces needed? Do you have sufficient computer resources? How many cells/nodes are required? How many physical models will be used?

Introduction

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

CFD Approach

November 15, 2012

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Summary

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For a given problem, you will need to:

Define material properties

Fluid Solid Mixture

For complex problems solving a simplified or 2D problem will provide valuable experience with the models and solver settings for your problem in a short amount of time

Provide initial values or a previous solution Set up solver controls Set up convergence monitors

Introduction

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

CFD Approach

November 15, 2012

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Summary

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The discretized conservation equations are solved iteratively until convergence Convergence is reached when:

to the next are negligible

Residuals provide a mechanism to help monitor this trend

Imbalances measure global conservation

steady values

Monitor points track quantities of interest

A converged and meshindependent solution on a wellposed problem will provide useful engineering results!

Appropriateness and accuracy of physical models Assumptions made Mesh resolution and independence Numerical errors

Introduction

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

CFD Approach

November 15, 2012

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Examine the results to review solution and extract useful data

as:

What is the overall flow pattern? Is there separation? Where do shocks, shear layers, etc. form? Are key flow features being resolved?

quantitative results:

Forces and Moments Average heat transfer coefficients Surface and Volume integrated quantities Flux Balances

Examine results to ensure correct physical behavior and conservation of mass energy and other conserved quantities. High residuals may be caused by just a few poor quality cells.

Introduction

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

CFD Approach

November 15, 2012

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Are the physical models appropriate?

Is the flow turbulent? Is the flow unsteady? Are there compressibility effects? Are there 3D effects?

Is the computational domain large enough? Are boundary conditions appropriate? Are boundary values reasonable?

High residuals may be caused by just a few poor quality cells

Can the mesh be refined to improve results? Does the solution change significantly with a refined mesh, or

Introduction

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

is the solution mesh independent? Does the mesh resolution of the geometry need to be improved?

CFD Approach

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Summary:

All CFD simulations (in all mainstream CFD software products) are approached using the steps just described

Remember to first think about what the aims of the simulation are prior to creating the geometry and mesh Make sure the appropriate physical models are applied in the solver, and that the simulation is fully converged (more in a later lecture)

Scrutinize the results, you may need to rework some of the earlier steps in light of the flow field obtained

What Next: Trainer will now demonstrate Fluent in action

Introduction

2012 ANSYS, Inc.

1. Define Your Modeling Goals 2. Identify the Domain You Will Model 3. Create a Solid Model of the Domain 4. Design and Create the Mesh 5. Set Up the Solver 6. Compute the Solution 7. Examine the Results 8. Consider Revisions to the Model

CFD Approach

November 15, 2012

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Release 14.5

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