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# UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

## DO NOT TURN OVER UNTIL TOLD TO BEGIN

PH2130D: MATHEMATICAL METHODS Time Allowed: TWO hours Answer QUESTION 1 and TWO other questions. No credit will be given for attempting any further questions.

## Only CASIO fx85WA Calculators or CASIO fx85MS Calculators are permitted

PH2130D/100
Royal Holloway and Bedford New College 2007

2006 -07

## GENERAL PHYSICAL CONSTANTS Permeability of vacuum Permittivity of vacuum

0 0
1/40

= = = = = = = = = = =

4 10-7 8.85 10-12 9.0 109 3.00 108 1.60 10-19 9.11 10-31 1.66 10-27 1.67 10-27 1.67 10-27 1.76 1011 6.63 10-34 1.05 10-34 1.38 10-23 5.67 10-8 8.31 6.02 1023 6.67 10-11 9.81 2.24 10-2 1.01 105

H m-1 F m-1 m F-1 m s-1 C kg kg kg kg C kg-1 Js Js J K-1 W m-2 K-4 J mol-1 K-1 mol-1 N m2 kg-2 m s-2 m3 N m-2

Speed of light in vacuum Elementary charge Electron (rest) mass Unified atomic mass constant Proton rest mass Neutron rest mass Ratio of electronic charge to mass Planck constant

c e me mu mp mn e/me h = h/2

= = = = = = = =

Boltzmann constant Stefan-Boltzmann constant Gas constant Avogadro constant Gravitational constant Acceleration due to gravity Volume of one mole of an ideal gas at STP One standard atmosphere

R NA G g

P0

## MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS e 2.718 3.142 loge10 2.303

page 1

PH2130
PART MARKS

ANSWER ONLY FIVE sections of Question One. You are advised not to spend more than 40 minutes answering Question One. The Fourier series for the function f ( x ) = x , which is defined over the interval L x L is x =
L 2L + 2 n =1 n 2 2

1.

(a)

{( 1) 1} cos ( n x / L ) .
n

Sketch the periodic function, and use the series to show that 2 1 1 1 1 = + + + + . 8 12 32 52 7 2  (b)

## m the Schrdinger equation for a quantum harmonic oscillator

, to convert

d 2 ( x ) 2m m 2 2 2 + 2 E 2 x ( x ) = 0 dx 2
into the dimensionless form:

d 2 + ( y 2 ) = 0. 2 dy

 (c) The following summation holds for the spherical harmonics

m = l

Y ( , )
m l

m =l

2l + 1 . 4

## Show that the relation is true for the l = 1 orbitals:

Y10 =

1 3 cos , 2

Y11 =

1 3 sin e i 2 2



What does this result say about the symmetry of filled p-orbitals?

(d)

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## page 2 differential equation

PH2130
PART MARKS

2 2 = 2 + 2 =0 x y
2

into two ordinary differential equations. Show all the steps carefully, but do not solve the resulting differential equations.



(e)

## Use Stirlings approximation,

ln N ! N ln N N ,
to calculate the number of different ways that 100 footballs may be picked out of a box containing 150 identical balls.  (f) The function can written as a superposition of basis functions
( x ) = ai i ( x ) .
i =1 n



( x ) ( x ) dx =
b a i j b a

ij

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page 3

PH2130
PART MARKS

2.

(a)

## The equation of motion for a damped simple harmonic oscillator is

2 x + x + 0 x = 0.

What are the dimensions of and 0 ? Using x ( t ) = Ae pt is a trial solution to the differential equation, show that there are two solutions p+ and p given by p = 2 402 . 2



(b)

 (c) Obtain the given solutions for the following three cases: (a) 0 (b) 0

## , x ( t ) = et / { A sin 0t + B cos 0t} , , x ( t ) = Aet /1 + Bet / 2 ,

(c) 0 = / 2. x ( t ) = ( A + Bt ) et / . For each case sketch a typical solution, and identify critical damping, light damping, and heavy damping. 

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page 4

PH2130
PART MARKS

3.

## The function F ( x ) is given by

F ( x) = 1/ a =0

for x a / 2 otherwise.

(a)

## Sketch the function F ( x ) .



(b)

Write down the Maclaurins series (the Taylor series about x = 0 ) for a function g ( x ) , and hence show that lim g ( x ) F ( x ) dx = g ( 0 ) .
a 0



Comment on how this result is related to the properties of the Dirac delta function ( x ) .



(c)

## Find the Fourier transform of F ( x ) , which is given by



f ( k ) = F ( x ) eikx dx.

Sketch f ( k ) and find a measure of its width k , and describe what happens to f ( k ) in the limit a 0.



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page 5

PH2130
PART MARKS

4.

(a)

Write down the auxiliary function of the following second order differential equation y + 4 y = 0, and hence find the general solution.



(b)

## Solve the same differential equation using a simple series

y = an x n ,
n =0

and compare how your solutions compare to this obtained in part (a).



(c)

Describe how the Frobenius technique is a powerful extension of the simple series solution for solving differential equations. Describe the type of solutions that can be obtained.



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page 6

PH2130
PART MARKS

5.

(a)

Write down the diffusion equation and the wave equation in one dimension. What is the essential difference between the solutions to these  equations?

We wish to solve the following equation 2 f f = . x 2 t (b) Verify that a solution to this equation is f ( x, t ) = 1 x 2 / 4t . e t 

Sketch the solution for different times t , for example t = 1, 10,100,... What does f ( x, t ) look like in the limit when t 0? (c) Suppose that the equation is modified to 2 f f f = , x 2 t t and the solution is of the form f ( x, t ) = g ( t ) 1 x2 / 4t e t Eq.1

 

## Show that the first order ordinary differential equation satisfied by g ( t ) is

dg g = , dt t

 

Solve this differential equation and hence find the general solution to Eq. 1.

TURN OVER