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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000

VESSEL MODEL TANKER LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100) TRAINEE MANUAL

Document Code: ERS5-M-052A

Transas Ltd. June, 2005

Transas Ltd. 2005 All rights reserved. The information contained herein is proprietary to Transas Ltd. and shall not be duplicated in whole or in part. The technical details contained in this manual are the best that are available at the date of issue but are subject to change without notice. Transas Ltd. pursues the policy of continuous development. This may lead to the product described in this manual being different from the product delivered after its publication.

This document contains: Preamble Chapter 1


This chapter provides general information for the work with document. 3

Ship Diesel Propulsion Plant.


This chapter contains the description of the simulator module for training the watch personnel in skill of proper operating the Ship diesel propulsion plant.

Chapter 2

Ship Electrical Power Plant.


This chapter contains the description of the simulator module for training the watch personnel in skill of proper operating the Ship Electrical Power Plant.

87

Chapter 3

Auxiliary Machinery and Systems.


This chapter contains the description of the simulator module for training the watch personnel in skill of proper operating the ship auxiliary machinery and systems.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

PREAMBLE
This chapter provides general information for the work with document.

Copyright Transas Ltd., June 2005

Printing House Conventions

PRINTING HOUSE CONVENTIONS


Sample of an entry Comments on the use To highlight the current document sections To highlight keyboard key names To highlight, in a printed document, names of a window, page, tab, button, etc.

Control Panel

<F4> POWER

Preamble

CHAPTER 1
Ship Diesel Propulsion Plant
This chapter contains the description of the simulator module for training the watch personnel in skill of proper operating the Ship diesel propulsion plant.

Copyright Transas Ltd., June 2005

This chapter contains: Introduction ..............................................................................................................11 Purpose ..............................................................................................................11 Vessel ......................................................................................................11 Main Engine .............................................................................................12 Simulator Module Systems .....................................................................................13 Main Engine Control System ( Page) ...........................................................13 Purpose....................................................................................................13 System Components................................................................................13 Control Panel ...........................................................................................15 Power .......................................................................................................17 Steering Gear...........................................................................................17 Emergency Control ..................................................................................18 ME Safety System ...................................................................................19 Alarm Signals ...........................................................................................19 ME Safety System ...................................................................................20 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor .............................................20 System Operation ....................................................................................20 Freshwater Cooling System (FW Page).............................................................21 Purpose....................................................................................................21 System Components................................................................................21 Control Panel ...........................................................................................23 Alarm Signals ...........................................................................................24 ME Safety System ...................................................................................25 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor .............................................25 System Operation ....................................................................................25 Seawater Cooling System (SW Page) ...............................................................26 Purpose....................................................................................................26 System Components................................................................................26 Control Panel ...........................................................................................28 Alarm Signals ...........................................................................................30 Protection System....................................................................................30 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor .............................................30 System Operation ....................................................................................31 Fuel Oil Supply System (FOS Page)..................................................................32 Purpose....................................................................................................32 System Components................................................................................33 Control Panel ...........................................................................................35 Alarm Signals ...........................................................................................38 Protection System....................................................................................38 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor .............................................38 System Operation ....................................................................................39 Fuel Oil Transfer System (FOT Page) ...............................................................41 Purpose....................................................................................................41 System Components................................................................................41 Control Panel ...........................................................................................42 Alarm Signals ...........................................................................................44 Protection System....................................................................................44 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor .............................................44 System Operation ....................................................................................44

Chapter 1. Ship Diesel Propulsion Plant

Oil and Fuel Separators (OFS Page) ................................................................ 46 Purpose ................................................................................................... 46 System Components ............................................................................... 47 Control Panel........................................................................................... 48 Alarms ..................................................................................................... 51 Safety System ......................................................................................... 51 System Faults Entered by the Instructor ................................................. 51 System Operation.................................................................................... 52 System of Circulation Lubrication and Piston Cooling (LO Page)..................... 54 Purpose ................................................................................................... 54 System Components ............................................................................... 55 Control Panel........................................................................................... 57 Alarm Signals .......................................................................................... 61 ME Safety System................................................................................... 61 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor............................................. 62 System Operation.................................................................................... 62 Compressed Air System ( Page) .................................................................. 64 Purpose ................................................................................................... 64 System Components ............................................................................... 64 Control Panel........................................................................................... 66 Alarm Signals .......................................................................................... 67 Protection System ................................................................................... 67 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor............................................. 67 System Operation.................................................................................... 68 Exhaust Gas & Turbocharging System (EXH Page) ......................................... 69 Purpose ................................................................................................... 69 System Components ............................................................................... 69 Control Panel........................................................................................... 71 Alarm Signals .......................................................................................... 73 ME Safety System................................................................................... 73 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor............................................. 73 System Operation.................................................................................... 74 Panel for Control and Tuning the Combustion Process in Cylinders (CYL Page) ........................................................................................................ 75 Purpose ................................................................................................... 75 System Components ............................................................................... 75 Control Panel........................................................................................... 76 Alarm Signals .......................................................................................... 80 ME Safety System................................................................................... 80 System Faults, Introduced by Instructor.................................................. 80 System Operation.................................................................................... 80 Local ME Control Post in the ER (ELC Page) ................................................... 81 Purpose ................................................................................................... 81 System Components ............................................................................... 81 Control Panels ......................................................................................... 82 Alarms ..................................................................................................... 85 ME Safety System................................................................................... 85 System Faults Entered by the Instructor ................................................. 85 System Operation.................................................................................... 86

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Introduction

INTRODUCTION
Purpose
The simulator module is designed for training the cargo ship engine room watch personnel in skill of proper operating the Ship diesel propulsion plant (SDPP) systems, including: Preparing and putting into operation machinery and systems; Monitoring their operation by measured parameters with the aid of the alarm system; Trouble shooting; SDPP control during vessel manoeuvring.

In addition to training in practical skills, the simulator allows the user to learn the basic principles of the structure, functions, and interaction of SDPP components and systems. The simulator composition corresponds to SDPP standard setup. Parameters and performance of the simulated mechanisms and systems correspond to the real ones, because the simulator simulates all basic processes interrelated in SDPP (thermal, mechanical, gas/hydrodynamic, and electrical). This is simulation of SDPP of the Tanker LCC of 65.000 DWT having a two-stroke reversible low-speed turbo charged diesel and direct transmission to a fixed pitch propeller (FPP).

Vessel

Length o.a., m Length b.p.p, m Breadth mld, m Depth to main deck, m Draught at design WL, m Deadweight at SLM, t Cargo capacities, cub. m Speed in full load at 8.0 m draught, kn

242.8 228.0 32.2 18 12.5 67,980 70,140 13.6

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Introduction

Main Engine

Type Cylinder bore, mm Piston stroke, mm No. of cylinders MCR, kW Corresp. Engine speed, rpm MEP, bar Propeller Propeller blades

MAN B&W 6S60MC 600 2292 6 12,240 105 18 FPP 4

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

SIMULATOR MODULE SYSTEMS


Main Engine Control System ( Page)
Purpose
The control system for a two-stroke reversible low-speed turbocharged diesel main engine is described on the page. The system designed for automated remote control (ARC) of the ship reversible diesel from the Engine Control Room (ECR), and namely: Diesel slow turning prior to engine start; Starting diesel; Stopping diesel; Reversing diesel; Changing diesel RPM; Control of emergency/pre-emergency situation.

System Components
The page is presented as a control panel (see Fig. 1), containing all necessary controls and monitoring tools:

Fig. 1

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Simulator Module Systems

The system includes the following components modeled by the simulator: Propulsive part of the ship the hull, the mover (fixed pitch propeller), the main transmission (drive shafting with bearings), and ME; ME automated remote control (ARC) system; System of ME protection and emergency control.

Operation of each element is modeled using the characteristics related to dependencies between the main operation parameters and environmental conditions. For the ship hull, this is dependence of the resistance force to the ship speed, draught, weather condition, and biofouling. For the propeller, this is dependence of the thrust created by the propeller and the moment used by the propeller to its RPM, pitch, and vessels speed. For the main transmission, this is dependence of friction loss to RPM and lubrication conditions. For the main engine, this is dependence of engine torque to fuel consumption and RPM. The steady-state mode of the propulsion complex operation can be described by operational parameters of each complex component. These values are determined by the cross-feed of complex component characteristics and the exterior sailing conditions. The parameter values are derived from the system of energy balance equations. The transient modes of operation can be described by a system of propulsion complex component dynamic equations depending on the value of control actions and external actions in consideration of complex component inertia. Schematically, the algorithm of the propulsive complex component interaction can be described as follows: The control system sets a fuel supply rate to the diesel cylinders via the RPM governor; The diesel produces torque, part of which is lost overcoming friction in the diesel and the main transmission; The propeller uses the torque to rotate, the torque value depending on RPM, the propeller pitch, and the ship speed; The propeller shaft RPM keep changing up to the moment of balance between the propeller resistance torque and the diesel torque; The propeller provides thrust for vessel movement; When moving, the ship hull overcomes the hydrodynamic/aerodynamic drag, which depends on ship speed and sailing conditions.

The ship speed keeps changing up to the moment of balance between the resistance force and the propeller thrust.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

The ARC system operates in combination with subsystems for ME slow turning, reversing, and stopping: The ME slow-turn system provides remote (from ECR) switching on (using the SLOW TURN button) the compressed air to turn ME, if the ME slow turn device is ON in the engine room; The stop subsystem turns off fuel feed to the diesel cylinders; The reverse subsystem starts the stop subsystem and, when diesel RPM drop to the reverse value, turns on the reverse servomotor; If necessary, the start subsystem turns on the reverse subsystem, sets the diesel fuel lever to the start fuel feed position, opens the start air; assigns a task to the all-mode governor equal to startup RPM, and, when the diesel reaches the RPM, cuts off the start air, releases the fuel lever, relaying its control to the all-mode governor. If the diesel does not gain the start rate of revolutions in the pre-set time, the start is considered unsuccessful, and the start subsystem launches the stop system, after which it tries to start the diesel again. If there are three successive start failures, the start subsystem becomes locked sending the Start Failed message. To unlock, set the control handle to the STOP position.

Control Panel
The central part of the control panel houses the engine telegraph (ET), which lever serves at the same time as the ARC lever. The ET left arrow points to the prescribed ET position (command from the bridge, if the ERS simulator is run together with the NTPro navigation simulator, or the Instructors command in case of ERS simulator stand-alone mode), the right-hand arrow repeats the ET lever position. If the ET arrows do not coincide, the ET buzzer will sound. True values of the assigned ET position and the ET lever position are shown digitally in the windows BRIDGE ORDER and SPEED SETPOINT as percent values of the ET lever maximum position.

To set a mode of operation for the diesel, move the ET lever to the required position using the mouse (trackball) to bring together the ET left-hand and right-hand arrows. You can fine-tune the ET lever position using the more/less buttons located to the right of the SPEED SETPOINT window.

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Simulator Module Systems

The following is used as indicators of diesel operation (located in the control panel upper part): The Engine R.P.M. analog/digital indicator of ME current RPM;

ME reverse indicator window REVERSE AHEAD/ASTERN; Ship knot speed window of the digital indicator Speed; ME kW power window of the POWER digital indicator; The analog/digital indicator of the rudder degree position RUDDER ANGLE;

The analog/digital FUEL INDEX indicator of the ME HP fuel pump lever position (HPFP), %;

The analog/digital START AIR PRESSURE indicator of start air pressure, bar.

ARC can be turned on using the CNTRL ON button it provides control air supply, when the control system power supply is on.

Prior to engine start, is should be slow-turned using the SLOW TURN button. To start ME, open the main start air valve by pressing the MAIN START VALVE button.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

Manoeuvring program can be selected by pressing the MANOEUVR. PROG. button.

In the ARC mode, you can select a control station using the ECR/BRIDGE button.

In the ECR control mode (the indicator ECR CONTROL is on), the diesel is controlled from ECR by command from the bridge/Instructor. In the bridge control mode (the indicator BRIDGE CONTROL is on), the command comes from the bridge ET directly to the ARC system. The ET lever doesnt function as a control means in ECR. The ARC system will be blocked if Main Engine local control selected on engine side, in Engine Room (the indicator ENGINE LOCAL CONTROL is on).

Power
Three green lamps of power supply indication for: REMOTE CONTROL SYSTEM; ENGINE TELEPRAPH; SAFETY SYSTEM.

Steering Gear
The panel for remote control of Steering Gear pumps. The panel contains AUTO/MANUAL switch for the control of the pump plant and on/off buttons for the pumps: PUMP 1 and PUMP 2.

PUMP 1 and PUMP 2 buttons do not function unless the switch is set to the manual mode of the pump plant operation: MANUAL. The AUTO position of the switch sets the automatic mode of the pump plant operation (STAND-BY mode). The POWER indicators show that the pumps are powered. The ER LOCAL CONTROL indicator is operating for indication of Steering Gear local manual (non-follow-up) control mode from Engine Room.

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Simulator Module Systems

Emergency Control
The emergency control buttons and indicators are in the lower right-hand corner of the panel: SLOW DOWN indicator accomplished fact of slow down;

SHUT DOWN indicator accomplished fact of shut down;

EMERGENCY RUN button ME operation according to an emergency program providing for turning OFF the ME safety system (except Overspeed protection) and the slowed programs for ME heating/cooling;

EMERGENCY STOP ME emergency stop button;

SAFETY RESET ME safety system reactivation (arming) button, after its tripping.

The emergency diesel operation mode buttons are protected against an unintentional depressing by the user. To press the required button, it is first necessary to lift the protection cover from the button (To lift glass) by a left click and then press the button. The left-hand part of the screen page contains: LOAD DIAGRAM in ME power ME RPM coordinates restrictive ME curve (according to the manufacturer) and the field of permitted ME loads. The current ME power/RPM values are indicated in the diagram by a moving point; POWER DEVIATION diagram showing power distribution by diesel cylinders, in percent, relative to the average value of cylinder power.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

ME Safety System
The ME safety system is designed for protecting the diesel against breakdown under conditions different from those of normal operation. The system consists of two independent subsystems: SLOW DOWN system provides load shedding for a two-stroke reversible low-RPM diesel with output to a fixed pitch propeller, by reducing engine RPM; SHUT DOWN system stops the engine by cutting off fuel supply.

After actuation of the system, you can unlock it using the SAFETY RESET button. A safety system trip can be locked (except Overspeed) using the EMERGENCY RUN button. The Shut down system is actuated with a preset-time delay of about 10 s under the following conditions: lube oil pressure at diesel inlet is less than 1.8 bar; lube oil pressure before ME camshaft lubrication system is less than 1.8 bar; diesel RPM is higher than 105 % of the rated value.

The Slow down system is actuated with a preset time delay of 30 s under the following conditions: Cylinder exhaust gas temperature exceeds 550 ; Presence of oil vapours (oil mist) in the crankcase; Cylinder cooling water temperature at exit is above 95 ; Cylinder cooling water pressure at inlet is below 1.5 bar; Air temperature in the scavenging spaces and in the scavenge air receiver above 120 ; Temperature of piston cooling oil at exit is above 85 .

Alarm Signals
OVERLOAD ME overload, ME load is outside the restrictive load curve; OVERSPEED ME RPM above the limit, (ME racing); REVERSE FAILED failure of reverse operation; START ATT. FAILED 1 start attempt 1 not executed; START ATT. FAILED 2 start attempt 2 not executed; START ATT. FAILED 3 start attempt 3 not executed; START FAILED start not executed, further starts locked; LOW PRESS. CONTROL AIR low pressure of control air; LOW PRESS. START AIR low pressure of start air (still 3 attempts of ME start are possible); SLOWDOWN will be safety system actuation ME Slow Down; SHUTDOWN will be safety system actuation ME Shut Down.

Chapter 1. Ship Diesel Propulsion Plant

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Simulator Module Systems

ME Safety System
ME start locking after reverse system failure; ME start locking after failure of three start attempts.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Medium fouling of the vessel hull increase of resistance to movement, increase of ME load; Heavy fouling of the vessel hull increase of resistance to movement, increase of ME load.

System Operation
System Preparation and Putting in Operation 1. Turn ON the ARC system by the CNTRL ON button. 2. In case of joint work with the NTPro navigation simulator, select in cooperation with the bridge a control station (BRIDGE or ECR). In case of the simulators stand-alone mode, select ECR as the control station. 3. Check for readiness of the other systems. 4. Prior to starting ME, slow-turn the diesel (SLOW TURN button), pumping simultaneously the lubricating pumps (LO system). 5. Open the main start valve, check start air pressure using the START AIR PRESSURE indicator. Diesel Control 1. Diesel operation mode setting comes to the ARC system: In the BRIDGE CONTROL model from the engine telegraph located on the bridge; In the ECR CONTROL mode from the engine telegraph located in ECR, being monitored by SPEED SET POINT digital indicator. 2. The current mode of diesel operation is monitored using: LOAD DIAGRAM; RPM meter; Digital POWER indicator; FUEL INDEX analog/digital indicator of FUEL INDEX fuel lever position. 3. Camshaft position is monitored by the REVERSE indicator. 4. The SPEED digital indicator monitors ships speed. 5. The Slow Down and Shut Down indicators register actuation of the safety diesel protection system. The safety system can be unlocked using the SAFETY RESET button. To turn off the safety system, press the EMERGENCY RUN button. 6. To stop diesel in emergency, use the EMERGENCY STOP button.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

Freshwater Cooling System (FW Page)


Purpose
The system is designed for cooling cylinders, covers, and the turbocharger of the Main Engine (ME) and the diesel-generators (DGs). Fresh water, which is cooled, in its turn, in the cooler by seawater, is pumped through the systems closed circuit.

System Components
See Fig. 2 for a system schematic diagram.

Fig. 2

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Simulator Module Systems

The system scheme realized in the simulator, i.e. the system mnemonic diagram, can be seen in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3

The system includes the following components modelled by the simulator: Pipeline system as a hydrodynamic object; ME and DG as thermodynamic objects; Centrifugal electrically driven pumps 1, 2 that provide for circulation of cooling freshwater through ME. The pumps can be controlled in manual or automatic mode; DG attached centrifugal pumps; VP valve for adjustment of water flow through ME (water pressure in the system); The expansion tank used for compensating water temperature expansion in the cooling system. The tank capacity is approximately 10 % of the total system water volume. The height of the tank mounting determines the system static pressure in the system and ensures filling the system with water; VL valve for expansion tank replenishment; Water coolers 1 and 2, equipped with remote-control valves at cooler inlets; Temperature controller and a three-way valve VT, which is controlled manually or automatically by the temperature controller. The temperature controller maintains constant water temperature after ME by way of full or partial bypassing the coolers. The temperature controller sensor is installed at water exit after ME. In the automatic mode, the temperature controller settings can be changed within the range of 70 to 90 . The DGs are equipped with similar thermostatic valves; Deaerator designed for prevention of air/gas accumulation in the cooling system; Remote-control valves for changing system configuration for in-port operation.


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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

Control Panel
The right-hand part of the screen page contains the system control panel. The control panel consists of the following modules: Adjustment of water pressure and flow rate in the system; Remote control of a number of valves; Adjustment of water temperature.

Circulation of water in the system (pressure and flow rate) is provided by two electrically driven pumps. The water-pressure/flow-rate adjustment module includes buttons for turning on/off the pumps PUMP 1 and PUMP 2, the MANUAL/AUTO pump control mode switch, the water pressure gauge, the controller of water flow adjustment valve to control the rate of water flow through the engine and water pressure in the system. The MANUAL/AUTO pump control mode switch has two positions:

AUTO automatic pump control mode; MANUAL manual pump control mode.

When turning on/off the pumps, automatic control of their valves is performed at pump discharge side. The pumps are switched on, working on the shut valve flap. Then the flap automatically opens with a certain delay. After the pump is switched off, the flap shuts automatically with a time delay. The PUMP 1 and PUMP 2 buttons are active only in case the pump control mode switch is in the MANUAL position. In the AUTO mode, the automation system turns on the pump, when pressure in the system is low. First, it starts pump 1, and if the system pressure doesnt rise, it will turn on pump 2. In the auto mode, the button for turning the pumps on/off are not active. The upper right-hand corner of the control panel houses the ME FLOW controller for opening the valve that regulates water flow rate in ME and system pressure.

The 0 position of the controller corresponds to a closed valve, the water flow through ME being zero, and the pressure being at maximum. The 100 position corresponds to a fully opened valve, the water flow through ME being maximum and the pressure being decreased.

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Simulator Module Systems

The system control panel has buttons to control the COOLER 1 and COOLER 2 cutoff valves of water coolers, the PORT MODE button for turning on the in-port mode of system operation (for partial opening/closing part of valves, through which the system provides ME heating by cooling water from running DGs), and the TANK MAKE UP button for turning on/off the expansion tank replenishment pump.

The water temperature regulation controls of the system are combined in the TEMPERATURE CONTROL module on the control panel.

These include: The MANUAL/AUTO control mode switch for water temperature regulation; The COOLER FLOW controller, which is used to manually control the water temperature regulation valve. The 0 position corresponds to full bypassing the cooler, the 100 position corresponding to full flow of water through the cooler; The SET POINT turning knob for setting water temperature for the temperature controller operating in the Auto mode. The temperature controller setting can be changed within the range of 70 to 90 C; The ME INLET and ME OUTLET water temperature indicators (before ME and after ME, respectively) are located in the upper part of the control panel represented as thermometers calibrated 0 to 110 .

The left part of the screen page has a mnemonic diagram of the system, showing the current status of system valves/pumps, the expansion tank level and the flow of water (m3/h) through ME and the water coolers.

Alarm Signals

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PUMP AUTOSTART automatic start of the stand-by pump following a system low pressure signal; LOW TO ME INLET low temperature before ME; HIGH TO ME OUTLET high temperature after ME; HIGH TO CYLS OUTLET high temperature after the cylinder cooling jacket; LOW LEVEL EXPAN. TANK low level in the expansion tank; HIGH LEVEL EXPAN. TANK high level in the expansion tank; LOW PRESS. ME COOLING low pressure in the system.

ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

ME Safety System
Actuation of the Slow Down system by low system pressure (1.5 bar); Actuation of the Slow Down system by high temperature in the system (95 C).

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Water leakage leakage of water from the system; Cavitation in FW system circulation pump failure, cavitation in the system; Pump 1 Breakdown emergency stop of pump 1; Pump 2 Breakdown emergency stop of pump 2; Cooler 1 Fouling fouling of water cooler 1 in the freshwater end; Cooler 2 Fouling fouling of water cooler 2 at the weather forecast end; Temp. Controller Breakdown temperature controller breakdown.

System Operation
System Preparation and Putting in Operation 1. Check if there is water in the expansion tank. Add, if necessary (TANK MAKE UP valve). 2. Start the pump (PUMP 1 or PUMP 2 button in the Manual mode). 3. Adjust pressure before diesel using the valve ME FLOW, check if there is water flow through the diesel. 4. Switch the pump control mode to AUTO. 5. Switch the thermostatic valve control mode to AUTO. 6. Specify SET POINT for the temperature controller. 7. Open valves of a cooler: COOLER 1 or COOLER 2. 8. Check that there is no alarm signal in the system. Control Over System Operation 1. Check water pressure before diesel. 2. Check that there is water flow through the diesel. 3. Check water temperature after diesel for each cylinder, and after turbocharger. 4. Check water temperature before diesel. 5. Check for correctness of temperature controller operation maintaining the proper temperature value. 6. Check level in the expansion tank. 7. Check for alarm signals in the system. Switching Over to In-Port Mode 1. Retain the system running mode for 4060 min after ME stop. 2. Switch the pump control mode to MANUAL. 3. Stop the pump (PUMP 1 or PUMP 2 buttons in the Manual mode). 4. Use the PORT MODE button to switch ME to heating from the operating DGs. 5. Check that there is water flow through diesel. 6. Check if there is water in the expansion tank. Add, if necessary (TANK MAKE UP valve).

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Simulator Module Systems

Seawater Cooling System (SW Page)


Purpose
The system is designed to cool lub. oil in ME and DG, the ME camshaft, the cooling freshwater in the closed circuit, the scavenge air for the diesels, the air compressors, and the propeller shaft bearings. For this purpose, seawater is pumped through respective coolers/mechanisms and out overboard. If temperature of seawater is low (below 10 ), it gets partially recirculated.

System Components
See Fig. 4 for a system schematic diagram.

Fig. 4

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

See Fig. 5 for the system scheme realized in the simulator, i.e. the system mnemonic diagram.

Fig. 5

The system includes the following components modelled by the simulator: Pipeline system as a hydrodynamic object; ME, DG, compressors, water cooler, lube coolers and shafting bearing units as thermodynamic objects; Water intake sea chests, the lower and upper ones, equipped with filters and stop valves; Electrically driven centrifugal pumps: the main ones 1 and 2, and the in-port one Aux; Lub. oil coolers 1 and 2, and coolers of camshaft oil Cam. LO; Freshwater coolers 1 and 2; ME scavenge air cooler; DG oil/air coolers; Air compressor coolers; Propeller shaft bearing oil coolers; Overboard valve; Temperature controller and three-way valve VT, which is controlled manually or automatically by the temperature controller. The temperature controller maintains water temperature before LO coolers below 10 C by way of its partial recirculation after cooler to pump inlets. The temperature controller setting can be changed within the range of +5 to +32 .

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Simulator Module Systems

Control Panel
The control panel located in the right-hand part of the screen page, contains the following modules: Adjustment of water pressure and flow rate in the system; Water temperature regulation; Remote control of some valves and required indicators.

Circulation of water in the system (pressure and flow rate) is provided by two electrically driven main pumps and an auxiliary one. The water-pressure/flow-rate adjustment module includes the PUMP 1, PUMP 2 and AUX PUMP buttons for turning ON/OFF the pumps, the MANUAL/AUTO switch of control modes for pumps PUMP 1 and PUMP 2, and water pressure gauges for the system. The control mode switch for pumps PUMP 1 and PUMP 2 has two positions: AUTO automatic pump control mode; MANUAL manual pump control mode.

When turning on/off the pumps, automatic control of its valves is performed at the pump discharge side. The PUMP 1 and PUMP 2 buttons are active only in case the pump control mode switch is in the MANUAL position. In the Auto mode, the automation system turns ON the pump, when pressure in the system is low. First, it starts pump 1, and if the system pressure doesnt rise, it will turn ON pump 2. In the Auto mode, the buttons for turning on/off the pumps are not active. The AUX PUMP button is always active in the Manual mode. Above the pump control buttons you can find pressure gauges that indicate pressure at the pressure side of main pumps 1 and 2, and the AUX in-port pump, respectively. Control of the valve that regulates water flow through the ME air cooler, is performed using the SCAV. AIR COOLER FLOW controller:

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

The 0 position of the controller corresponds to a closed valve, the water flow through the ME air cooling being zero. The 100 position corresponds to a fully opened valve, the water flow through the ME air cooling being maximum. The current position of the controller (the rate of valve opening) is shown in the mnemonic diagram. The water temperature regulation module is located on the control panel, left to the controller:

It includes: 1. The MANUAL/AUTO control mode switch for water temperature regulation. 2. The RECIRCULATION controller used to control the valve that regulates water temperature in the Manual mode. The 0 position corresponds to full drain of seawater overboard, while the 100 position indicates full recalculation of seawater. The current position of the controller (the rate of valve opening) is shown in the mnemonic diagram. 3. The SET POINT turning knob for setting water temperature for the temperature controller in the Auto mode. The temperature controller setting can be changed within the range of +10C to +32C. The temperature controller maintains water temperature before LO coolers below the specified value by way of partial recalculation of water after coolers directing it to the pumps. The remote control module for some valves:

Contains the following control buttons: LO COOLER 1 cut-off valve of lube oil cooler 1; LO COOLER 2 cut-off valve of lube oil cooler 2; FW COOLER 1 cut-off valve of cooler freshwater 1; FW COOLER 2 cut-off valve of freshwater cooler 2; UPPER CHEST valve of water intake from the upper sea chest; LOWER CHEST valve of water intake from the lower sea chest; COMPR. COOLER cut-off valve of compressor coolers 1 and 2; SHAFT BEAR. cut-off valve of the propeller shaft bearing oil coolers; CAMSH. LO COOLER cut-off valve of the camshaft oil cooler.

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Simulator Module Systems

The control panel also features temperature indicators:

LO Cooler Inlet before ME lube oil cooler; FW Cooler Inlet before freshwater cooler; FW Cooler Outlet after freshwater cooler; Air Cooler Outlet after scavenge air cooler; Sea Water water temperature from the sea chest (in the upper right-hand corner of the control panel).

The left part of the screen page has a mnemonic diagram showing the current status of system valves/pumps and the temperature of the shafting bearing units.

Alarm Signals
LOW PRESSURE low pressure before air cooler (after the pumps); PUMP AUTOSTART automatic start of the stand-by circulation pump following a system low pressure signal; HIGH T SHAFT BEAR high temperature after shafting bearing coolers; HIGH T COMPRESS. 1 high temperature of compressed air after compressor 1; HIGH T COMPRESS. 2 high temperature of compressed air after compressor 2; LOW T LO COOL. IN. low water temperature before lube oil coolers.

Protection System
No protection system is foreseen for the prototype and neither is modeled by the simulator.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Pump 1 Breakdown emergency stop of pump 1; Pump 2 Breakdown emergency stop of pump 2; Pump Aux. Breakdown emergency stop of Aux. pump; LO Cooler 1 Fouling fouling of lube oil cooler 1 on the seawater side; LO Cooler 2 Fouling fouling of lube oil cooler 2 on the seawater side; FW Cooler 1 Fouling fouling of freshwater cooler 1 on the seawater side; FW Cooler 2 Fouling fouling of freshwater cooler 2 on the seawater side; Scav. Air Cooler Fouling fouling of the scavenge air cooler on the seawater side; Temp. Controller Breakdown temperature controller failure; Upper Chest Filter Fouling fouling of the upper sea chest filter; Lower Chest Filter Fouling fouling of the lower sea chest filter; Cavitation in SW system circulation pump failure, cavitation in the system.

In addition, the instructor can specify the seawater temperature.


30 ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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System Operation
System Preparation and Putting in Operation 1. Open the upper sea chest (when in port) UPPER CHEST. 2. Check that the overboard valve is open. 3. Start the pump (the PUMP 1 or PUMP 2 button in the Manual mode). 4. Open the FW COOLER water cooler valve, the LO COOLER oil cooler valve of ME, and the CAMSH. LO COOLER camshaft oil cooler valve. 5. Open the COMPR. COOLER and SHAFT BEAR cooler valves. 6. Check water pressure in the system. 7. Switch the pump control mode to AUTO. 8. Switch the recalculation valve control mode AUTO. 9. Specify SET POINT for the temperature controller. 10. Check that there is no alarm signal in the system.

Control Over System Operation 1. When putting to sea, switch over to the lower sea chest LOWER CHEST. 2. Check water pressure in the system. 3. Check water temperature after/before the coolers. 4. Check for correctness of temperature controller operation maintaining the proper temperature value. 5. Adjust the rate of flow through the air cooler using the SCAV. AIR COOLER FLOW valve to maintain scavenge air temperature within the working range. 6. Check that there is no alarm signal in the system. Switching Over to In-Port Mode 1. When in port, switch over to the upper chest UPPER CHEST. 2. Switch the pump control mode to MANUAL. 3. Stop the pump (PUMP 1, PUMP 2 in the Manual mode). 4. Start the auxiliary (port) pump AUX. PUMP. 5. Shut the valves of the unused coolers.

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Fuel Oil Supply System (FOS Page)


Purpose
The system is used to supply fuel from the service tank to the diesel high-pressure fuel pumps (HPFP). The system allows the main engine and the diesel-generators to be run on heavy fuel oil or diesel fuel oil. Fuel circulation in the system is provided by two pairs of electrically driven pumps supply pump, and circulation pumps, operating in the Stand-by mode i.e. one pump operating, the other one being a Stand-by. The fuel is supplied: Under certain pressure that ensures HPFP priming; At certain temperature that ensures viscosity of 10 to 15 cSt, necessary for proper fuel atomisation by the burner; Through the filter that ensures removal of particles greater than 50 m in order to prevent abrasive wear and jam of high-precision components of the diesel fuel equipment.

After final preparation and supply of fuel to HPFP, the system performs continuous fuel circulation via HPFP and the burners. This makes it possible, independent of diesel operation mode, including a stopped diesel, to: Maintain system readiness for operation on heavy fuel; Maintain proper thermal conditions and deaeration of the burners and HPFP.

To make the heavy fuel less viscous, heating is provided: preliminary heating in the expansion tank and the pipelines (steam trace heating); and final heating in the fuel preheater. The heating temperature to get the required viscosity depends on the fuel grade, amounting up to 150 . Therefore, to prevent fuel boiling (because generation of vapours and foam can result in failure of fuel supply to the pumps), a high pressure is to be maintained in the circulation system i.e. about 10 bar at discharging side and about 4 bar at the suction side of the circulation pump. Pressure at the suction side of the circulation pump is provided by the supply pump.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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System Components
See Fig. 6 for a system schematic diagram.

Fig. 6

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See Fig. 7 for the system scheme realized in the simulator, i.e. the system mnemonic diagram.

Fig. 7

The system includes the following components modelled by the simulator: Pipeline system as a hydrodynamic object; Tanks and pipelines as thermodynamic objects; HFO/DO service tanks, which are replenished by separators from the HFO settle tanks and the DO reserve tanks (see Fuel Oil Transfer the FOT page). The service tank overflow pipe connects to the settle tank. The reserve tanks are provided with taps in their lower parts, designed for draining sludge to the sludge tanks. The receiver pipe is located somewhat higher of the tank bottom to prevent sludge entering the system. Therefore, there is always a dead stock of fuel in the tank, which cannot be pumped out. The tank dead stock can be removed through the sludge drain tap. The HFO tank and the connected pipelines are steam-heated to reduce viscosity of the pumped fuel. The HFO/DO suction pipes are connected with the suction sides of the supply pump via a three-way plug valve (2/1), which is foreseen for switching ME to another fuel grade while running. There are similar valves at each of the diesel-generator; Supply pumps 1 and 2 (one Stand-by) create a pressure of at least 4 bar in the circulation system. These are electrically driven pumps of, usually, the gear type or the screw type. The capacity of each pump covers the fuel consumption by the diesels. The constant pressure at the charging side is maintained by a bypass valve; Circulation pumps 1 and 2 (one Stand-by) perform continuous pumping of fuel through the fuel preheater, filter and diesel fuel equipment, which allows the system to be retained in the state of continuous readiness. These are electrically driven pumps of, usually, the gear type or the screw type. The circulation pumps feature capacity about twice as much as the supply pumps;

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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The fuel preheater heats fuel up to the required temperature/viscosity. This is a steam heat exchanger of the shell-and-tube type. Fuel temperature is controlled after heater with the aid of the steam supply valve. It can be performed manually or using the VISCOSITY CONTROL temperature controller. The heating temperature for the required viscosity of 10 to 15 cSt is determined by the fuel grade; A duplex fuel filter for removal of particles greater than 50 m from fuel. The clean filter pressure drop doesnt exceed 0.3 bar. When if becomes higher than 0.5 bar, you should switch over to a clean section and then clean out the filter; The circulation system is completed by a return fuel tank equipped with an automatic deaeration valve. The tank is located higher than the service one, its middle being at the level of the service tank top; Fuel leakage collector. In particular, it is connected to the protection jackets of the HP fuel injection tubes. The pipeline drains to the spill tank.

Control Panel
The upper part of the fuel supply system control panel contains the pump control modules. They are as follows: The SUPPLY PUMPS module of supply pumps. The PUMP 1 and PUMP 2 buttons for turning on/off two supply pumps (one being a Stand-by) that create a pressure of at least 4 bar at circulation pump inlets. The pumps have two control modes, i.e. manual, and automatic; The CIRCULATION PUMPS module. The PUMP 1 and PUMP 2 buttons for turning on/off two circulation pumps (one being a Stand-by) that continuously pump fuel through the fuel preheater, the filter and the diesel fuel equipment. This allows the system to be retained in the state of continuous readiness. The pumps have two control modes, i.e. manual and automatic. If the button is not highlighted, pressing it will start the respective pump (the button highlights). If you press an unlighted button, it will stop the respective pump.

Pump control mode switches, each having two positions: MANUAL and AUTO. The PUMP 1 and PUMP 2 buttons are active only in case the pump control mode switch is in the MANUAL position. In the Auto mode, the system turns on the pump automatically, when pressure in the system is low. First, it starts pump 1, and if the system pressure doesnt rise, it will turn on pump 2. In the Auto mode, the buttons for turning on/off the pumps are not active; Pressure gauges that indicate pressure after supply pumps and circulation pumps.

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Fuel is supplied via a duplex fuel filter that ensures removal of particles greater than 50 m. The filter condition is assessed by the pressure drop through it. The clean filter pressure drop doesnt exceed 0.3 bar. When it becomes higher than 0.5 bar, you should switch over to a clean section and then clean out the filter. The control panel has the FILTER switch for selection of filter sections 1 or 2, with position indications 1 and 2, as well as analog/digital indicators of fuel pressure before HPFP ENGINE INLET, and of pressure drop through the filter FILTER DROP.

Viscosity of the pumped heavy fuel is adjusted by heating: the preliminary one in the service tank and the pipelines and the final one in the fuel preheater. To provide for these functions, there are following controls on the control panel: The TRACING button to turn on the steam trace heating of the pipelines; The HEATING controller to regulate steam supply for heating heavy oil in the service tank (fuel temperature in the service tank is monitored by the temperature indicator);

The PREHEATER ON and PREHEATER BYPASS buttons for remote control of the fuel preheater cut-off valve and the bypass valve.

Fuel temperature after the preheater can be regulated by the valve of steam supply to the fuel preheater. It is performed with the aid of the VISCOSITY CONTROL fuel viscosity module on the control panel, which includes:

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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MANUAL/AUTO mode switch of fuel viscosity control; HEATING controller used to control the steam supply valve in the Manual mode. The 0 position of the controller corresponds means the preheater of OFF, while the 100 position corresponds to preheater maximum capacity. The current position of the HEATING controller is shown on the digital indicator in the mnemonic diagram.

The SET POINT rotating knob for setting a value of fuel temperature after the VISCOSITY CONTROL controller in the Auto mode.

Fuel temperature is monitored by temperature indicators at the following points: PREHEATER INLET before preheater; PREHEATER OUTLET after preheater. The lower part of the control panel contains tap control buttons to drain sludge from the service tanks: DO DRAIN from the diesel fuel oil tank and DRAIN (the HFO TANK module) from the heavy fuel oil tank.

Fuel type selection for ME and two DGs is made using the HFO/OFF/DO three-way switches that remotely control the fuel receiving taps. The switch positions correspond to the following: HFO from the HFO service tank; OFF the tap is closed (the middle tap position); DO from the DO service tank.

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The left-hand part of the screen page contains a mnemonic diagram, showing the current state of system devices, and also:

Level in DO/HFO service tanks (diesel oil and heavy fuel oil); Setting of the HEATING controller, for reduction of fuel viscosity; DO/HFO consumption, m3/h.

Alarm Signals
PUMP SUPP. AUTOSTART automatic start of the Stand-by supply pump by a low-pressure-after-pumps signal; PUMP CIRC. AUTOSTART automatic start of the Stand-by circulation pump by a low-pressure-after-pumps signal; FILTER DIRTY fouled filter, increased filter pressure drop; T HFO TANK high/low fuel temperature in the HFO service tank; T ME INLET high/low temperature (viscosity) of fuel before ME; LOW PRESS. ME INLET low fuel pressure before ME; LEVEL HFO TANK high/low fuel level in the heavy fuel oil service tank; LEVEL DO TANK high/low fuel level in the diesel oil service tank.

Protection System
No protection system is foreseen for the prototype and neither is modelled by the simulator.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Supply Pump 1 Breakdown emergency stop of supply pump 1; Supply Pump 2 Breakdown emergency stop of supply pump 2; Circul. Pump 1 Breakdown emergency stop of circulation pump 1; Circul. Pump 2 Breakdown emergency stop of circulation pump 2; Filter 1 Fouling fouling of filter 1, increase of pressure drop through it; Filter 2 Fouling fouling of fuel 2, increase of pressure drop through it; Temp. Controller Breakdown temperature controller failure; Preheater Fouling fouling of preheater (viscosity control system).

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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System Operation
System Preparation and Putting in Operation 1. Check the level in the DO service tank. Drain sludge (DO DRAIN button). Fill up the tank, if necessary (the DO TRANSFER PUMP in the FOT system the START/STOP button). 2. Check the level in the HFO service tank. Drain sludge (DRAIN button). Fill up the tank, if necessary (SEPARATOR in the FOT system the START/STOP button). 3. Check temperature in the heavy fuel service tank HFO TANK. Turn on HFO TANK HEATING, if necessary. 4. Set switches of fuel type selection for ME and DGs to the required position: HFO/OFF/DO and AE1/AE2, respectively. 5. When running on heavy fuel oil turn on the heating of the fuel pipelines by the TRACING button. 6. Start the supply pump pump (the PUMP 1 or PUMP 2 button of the SUPPLY PUMPS module, in the Manual mode). Check its operation on the pressure gauge. 7. Switch the pump control mode to AUTO. 8. Start the circulation pump (the PUMP 1 or PUMP 2 button of the CIRCULATION PUMPS module in the Manual mode). Check its operation on the pressure gauge. 9. Switch the pump control mode to AUTO. 10. When running on heavy fuel oil, open the preheater valves (PREHEATER ON button); if operating on diesel oil, open the bypass valve (PREHEATER BYPASS button). Check fuel pressure before diesel (ENGINE INLET pressure gauge). Check filter pressure drop (FILTER DROP pressure gauge); change over to the filter Stand-by section, if necessary. Switch to the Manual mode of thermostatic valve control. Use the HEATING controller to adjust fuel temperature before diesel (PREHEATER OUTLET). Check that there is no alarm signal in the system.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Control Over System Operation 1. After starting the diesel, switch to the Auto mode of thermostatic valve control. 2. Specify SET POINT for the temperature controller. 3. Check fuel temperature before diesel. 4. Check for correctness of temperature controller operation maintaining the proper temperature value. 5. Check fuel pressure before diesel. 6. Check pressure drop through the filter; change over to the Stand-by section of the fuel, if necessary. 7. Check the flow rate for the fuel from the service tanks.

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8. Check the level in the DO service tank. Drain sludge (DO DRAIN button). Fill up the tank, if necessary (DO TRANSFER PUMP in the FOT system the START/STOP button). 9. Check the level in the HFO service tank. Drain the sludge (DRAIN button). Fill up the tank, if necessary (SEPARATOR in the FOT system the START/STOP button). 10. 11. Check temperature in the heavy fuel service tank HFO TANK. Turn on HFO TANK HEATING, if necessary. Check that there is no alarm signal in the system.

Switching to In-Port Mode 1. If your stay in port is of short duration, you can continue to use the running mode of the FOS system for the purpose of being ready for operation on heavy fuel oil. 2. Before a long-duration stay, change the system in due time to DO before manoeuvring. To do so, act per items 3 to 8. 3. Switch to the Manual mode of thermostatic valve control. 4. Set the fuel type selection switch HFO/OFF/DO of the main engine to the DO position. 5. Use the HEATING controller to gradually reduce fuel temperature before diesel (PREHEATER OUTLET). 6. Check fuel pressure before diesel (ENGINE INLET pressure gauge). 7. Open the preheater bypass valve (PREHEATER BYPASS button); close the preheater valves (PREHEATER ON button). 8. Turn on the fuel pipeline heating using the TRACING button. 9. After stopping the diesel, change control of the circulation/fuel-supply pumps to the Manual mode; stop the pumps.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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Fuel Oil Transfer System (FOT Page)


Purpose
The system is designed for fuel storage, settling, pumping, separating, and directing to the diesel service tank.

System Components
See Fig. 8 for a system schematic diagram.

Fig. 8

See Fig. 9 for the system scheme realized in the simulator, i.e. the system mnemonic diagram.

Fig. 9

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The system includes the following components modelled by the simulator: Heavy fuel oil storage bunker. Equipped with steam heating coils; Diesel oil storage bunker; HFO pump for replenishment of fuel in the settling tank and for other fuel transfer operations. This is an electrically driven pump, of, usually, the gear type or the screw type; DO transfer pump for replenishment of fuel in the DO service tank and for other fuel transfer operations. This is an electrically driven pump, of, usually, the gear type or the screw type; HFO settling tank. It is replenished from the bunker by the HFO transfer pump. The settling tank overflow pipe connects to the spill fuel tank. The tap in the lower part of the settling tank is designed for draining sludge to the sludge tank. The settling tank is provided with steam heating coils. The fuel pipelines draining to the tank are heated by steam to reduce viscosity of the pumped fuel; The fuel separators (please see page OFS) is designed for removal of water and mechanical particles from HFO fuel or DO fuel. Separation wastes are removed to the sludge tank; The spill tank is designed as an assurance against overfill of the settling/service tanks. When it is overfilled, the fuel will run out through the air gosling onto the deck (emergency situation). The fuel can be pumped out from the spill tank to the settling tank; The sludge tank serves as a collector of separation waste, sludge and other kinds of fouled fuel and oil.

Control Panel
The upper left part of this systems control panel contains control modules for heavy fuel oil transfer pumps HFO TRANSFER PUMP and diesel oil transfer pumps DO TRANSFER PUMP:

The HFO transfer pump is designed for replenishment of the settling tank and for other fuel transfer operations. The pump is controlled by the START-STOP button, which turns on/off the HFO pump. You can select the source, from which fuel is to be transferred, i.e. the bunker or the spill tank, using the remotecontrolled two-way valve. This valve can be controlled using the FROM BUNKER/FROM SPILL TANK switch. To check the pressure on the suction side (SUCTION) and the discharge side (DISCHARGE) of the fuel transfer pump, two respective analog/digital indicators are provided.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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The DO TRANSFER PUMP is designed for replenishment of the DO service tank. The pump can be turned on/off using the START-STOP button. To show the suction/discharge pressure, two analog/digital pressure gauge are available: SUCTION and DISCHARGE.

The lower part of the panel has: HFO BUNKER control module for the heavy fuel oil bunker:

HEATING controller of the tank heating control system (the controller setting is shown in the mnemonic diagram digital indicator of the tank heater); fuel temperature indicator; TRACING button for turning on the pipeline heating, which is required for normal transfer of heavy fuel oil. HFO SETTLE TANK control module for the heavy fuel oil settling tank:

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HEATING controller of the tank heating control system (the controller setting is shown in the mnemonic diagram digital indicator of the tank heater); fuel temperature indicator; DRAIN button for control of the tap draining sludge from the settling tank to the sludge tank. SEPARATOR SELECTIONS control module: FUEL (DO/HFO) switch for selection of fuel for separation; SUCTION (FROM SERVICE/FROM SETTLE) switch for selection of separator suction direction (for HFO); DISCHARGE (TO SERVICE/TO SETTLE) switch for selection of separator discharge direction (for HFO). The left-hand part of the screen page contains a mnemonic diagram of the system, showing the current state of system devices, fuel levels in tanks, as well as the statuses of the heating systems in the bunker, the HFO settling tank and the separator.

Alarm Signals
HIGH LEVEL SPILL TANK high level in the spill tank; HIGH LEVEL SLUDGE TANK high level in the sludge tank; LEVEL HFO SETT. TANK low/high level in the HFO settling tank; TO HFO SETTL. TANK high/low fuel temperature in the HFO settling tank.

Protection System
No protection system is foreseen for the prototype and neither is modelled by the simulator.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Not provided for in the simulator for the given system.

System Operation
DO Service Tank Replenishment 1. Start the DO TRANSFER PUMP to transfer diesel oil from the DO bunker to the DO service tank (START-STOP button). 2. Check pump operation using the pressure gauges on the suction side (SUCTION) and the discharge side (DISCHARGE). 3. Check the fuel level in the DO service tank. 4. Stop the pump in time to prevent overflow.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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HFO Settling Tank Replenishment 1. Turn on the heating of the HFO bunker in due time to provide for its normal transfer. 2. Turn on the heating of the fuel pipelines by the TRACING button. 3. Set the HFO TRANSFER PUMP suction switch to the required position, i.e. FROM BUNKER or FROM SPILL TANK. 4. Start the HFO TRANSFER PUMP (the START-STOP button). 5. Check pump operation using the pressure gauges on the suction side (SUCTION) and the discharge side (DISCHARGE). 6. Check the level in the HFO settling tank. 7. Stop the pump in time to prevent overflow. 8. Turn on the fuel pipeline heating using the TRACING button. HFO Service Tank Replenishment 1. Turn on the heating of the HFO settling tank in due time to provide for its normal transfer. 2. Drain sludge. 3. Set the separator suction switch (SUCTION) to the FROM SETTLE position. 4. Set the separator discharge switch (DISCHARGE) to the TO SERVICE position. 5. Turn on the heating of the fuel to be treated. 6. Start the separator(s) please see the page OFS. 7. Check the fuel level in the HFO service tank and stop the separator in time to prevent overflow. 8. Turn off the heating of the separated fuel.

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Oil and Fuel Separators (OFS Page)


Purpose
Before being used in the diesel engine, fuel and lubricating oil should be treated to remove water and solid particles from it. This is necessary for ensuring adequate fuel burning, decreasing fuel equipment wear and damage to the engine parts. To accomplish this, along with filtering and settling, the centrifugal separation process is used. The centrifugal separator is used for separating two fluids (e.g., oil and water) or for separating a liquid from solid particles (e.g., oil from metal inclusions, coke, etc.). Alfa-Laval separators have been chosen as prototype for simulation in general. The most essential and interesting functionality has been accentuated specially (for purposes of education and for training) and some generic separator has been modeled as a result. The separator can operate in two modes: Purification mode purification mode with the permanent removal of water from the separator bowl and with the regular removal (shooting off) of separated sludge. It is used for purifying fuel containing a large amount of water (> 1%); Clarification mode clarification/refining mode with the regular removal (shooting off) of separated solid particles (sludge) and small amount of water from the separator bowl.

The separator can operate in manual and automatic modes. Some automatic operations are applied in the manual mode. In the simulator, the separator operation can only be started manually. Automatic separator operation mode ensures proper purification of a product, provided automatics parameters are correctly chosen, and separators are turned on in the optimum manner.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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System Components
The system block diagram is shown in Fig. 10.

Fig. 10

The block diagram of the system implemented in the simulator is presented on the mnemonic diagram shown in Fig. 11:

Fig. 11

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The system includes the following components which are modelled in the simulator: Three separators. Separators 1 and 2 are used for the fuel oil purification (separation) or clarification for choice. Separator 3 is used for the clarification/ refinement of lubricating oil. It is possible to combine operation of separators 1 and 2 by turning them on, one by one or in twosome, in parallel or serially in different service modes (purification or clarification) depending on the condition (quality) of the fuel to be purified. The separator has a separator bowl which separates the fuel or lubricating oil from admixtures by centrifuging. The separator bowl is rotated by an electric motor via a belt transmission (the rate of revolutions is up to 10000 min-1). Fed to the separator is operating water, closing water, opening water and the product to be purified. Released from the separator is the purified product, water, and sludge with some amount of water separated from the product; Pipelines for feeding the product to and removing the product from the separator. Pipelines are fitted out with necessary valves and pumps. Feed pumps ensure the product circulation in the system; Pipelines of unlocking, locking, and operating water. The pipelines are fitted out with necessary valves; Steam heaters for the product to be separated and operating water. These are intended for ensuring the necessary viscosity of the product to be separated and maintaining the required water temperature in the system; Control unit with the automatics equipment fitted out with the monitoring and control panel.

Control Panel
The top part of the control panel incorporates controls for the system as a whole: CONTROL AIR pressure gauge to show the compressed control air pressure;

OPERATING WATER pressure gauge to show the operating water pressure;

WATER ON button to open the valve for feeding operating water in the system; OPEN WATER button to open the valve for feeding opening water in the system; CLOS. WATER button to open the valve for feeding closing water in the system;

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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Operating mode switch for separators 1 and 2. It has two positions: PARAL. and SERIES. It controls a closing (three-way) valve and allows the separators to work in series or in parallel;

TO SEP.2 button to open the valve for feeding the product to be purified direct to separator 2 in parallel mode.

To select separator 1, or 2, or 3, use the tabs:

Arranged below is the selected separator monitoring and control units:

POWER on/off indicator; Separator START button; Separator STOP button; Separator EMERGENCY STOP button; DISCHARGE button for turning on the separator drain mode (in AUTO mode); BRAKE button for stopping the separator; Separator PURIFICATION and CLARIFICATION buttons in operation mode (OPER MODE) (for separators 1 and 2); Separator AUTO/MANUAL mode switch; Separator bowl R.P.M. indicator; WATER CONT. % INLET display showing the water per cent content in the product at the separator inlet, and at the outlet WATER CONT. % OUTLET display; IMPUR. CONT. INLET ppm display showing the content of solid particles in product at the separator inlet, and at the outlet IMPUR. CONT. OUTLET.

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Then the following groups are arranged: Group of controls of back pressure at the side of the purified product outlet from the separator:

BACK PRESSURE gauge; SET POINT back pressure controller.

Control group for product supply to the separator:

FEED PUMP pressure gauge showing product pressure after the feed pump; ON button for start of Feed pump; FUEL INLET pushbutton for opening product supply to the cleaning system; FLOW controller for adjustment product supply to the separator.

Separator water control and sludge drain control group:

OPER. WATER button to open operating water feed valve to the separator (in the event of separator start and wash in MANUAL mode, refilling of separator bowl, with the supply of water for the lubricating oil clarification); SEPARATOR OPEN button to open separator opening water supply valve (in MANUAL mode) and separator status OPEN indicator; SEPARATOR CLOSE button to open separator closing water supply valve (in MANUAL mode) and separator status CLOSE indicator; TIMER setter used in draining sludge from the separator by time in automatic mode.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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TEMPERATURE CONTROL group for the control of the product heating:

HEATING button to open the valve feeding steam to the product and water heaters; SET POINT, C product temperature controller; Temperature gauge showing the temperature of the product at the heater outlet/separator inlet.

Heating of water is turned on simultaneously with the heating of the product. In addition to the indicators arranged on the control panel, there are also some indicators on the system mnemonic diagram. The mnemonic diagram has indicators of: Separator drive operation; Status of valves and solenoids; Output of purified product, water, sludge; Level in operating water tank; Feeding of steam to the heaters.

Alarms
HIGH WATER LEVEL separator overfilled with water (for Separators 1, 2, and 3); LOW INLET T low product temperature at the separator inlet (for Separators 1, 2 and 3); HIGH VIBRATION high vibration level of the separator bowl (for Separators 1, 2 and 3); LOW BACK PRESSURE low pressure at the separator outlet (for Separators 1, 2 and 3); WATERLOCK BREAK break of the waterlock in the separator bowl (for Separators 1 and 2); DRY FUEL low water content in the fuel at the separator inlet (for Separators 1 and 2).

Safety System
Closing of product output line in case of high water contents, waterlock break, and low back pressure (in the Auto mode only).

System Faults Entered by the Instructor


Separator drive breakdown (for separators 1, 2, and 3); Separator bowl fouling - high vibration (for separators 1, 2, and 3);

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Waterlock break (for separators 1, and 2); Pressostat fault (for separators 1, 2, and 3); Closing Water solenoid valve fault (for separators 1, 2, and 3); Opening Water solenoid valve fault (for separators 1, 2, and 3); High water contents high water level in product (5% in Service HFO and DO tanks); Medium water contents medium water level in product (3 %); High impurity contents high level of mechanical admixtures in product (10000 ppm).

System Operation
Separators 1 and 2 in the simulator are intended for the fuel purification or clarification, if necessary. Separator 3 in the simulator is intended for the clarification of the lubricating oil. Separators 1 and 2 can operate: In parallel in this case both separators operate separately; In series in this case, e.g. separator 1 operates in the purification mode, whereas separator 2 operates in clarification mode (for example).

Serial or parallel operation of separators is enabled by the pipeline valve which opens the supply of non-purified fuel oil in separator 2 (TO SEP. 2 button) and three-way valve at the outlet from separator 1 (PARAL./SERIES switch). Before starting the separator(s), it is necessary to supply operating water in the system (WATER ON) and open supply of opening and closing water in the separators (OPEN WATER and CLOS. WATER buttons). Starting the Separator 1. In the simulator, the separator is started in the manual control mode: AUTO/MANUAL switch is in MANUAL position. 2. Select the separator operating mode: PURIFICATION or CLARIFICATION buttons. 3. Check the separator Brake BRAKE button must be off. 4. Open WATER ON valve. 5. Lock the bowl. Feed the closing water CLOSE button. Check the status of the OPEN button (must be off). 6. Start the separator drive electric motor (START button). Check that the separator bowl develops its rated revolutions (about 10000 rpm). As this is done, the bowl is opened, and the remains of water, product and sludge are removed from it. 7. Open FUEL INLET valve. 8. Turn on the pump for supplying the product to the separator (FEED PUMP button is on). As this is done, FLOW valve feeding fuel to the separator is closed. 9. Turn on the heating (HEATING button) and set the required product temperature (SET POINT, C controller). 10. Supply the operating water for water lock OPER. WATER button and the bowl is filled with water until the water appears in the indicator (peep-hole) in the water drain line.

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11.

The separator bowl is filled with fuel FLOW valve opens slowly to supply the product to the separator (check the required fuel temperature before). The product pressure at the separator outlet (BACK PRESSURE) is controlled with the aid of SET POINT, bar controller. If the waterlock is broken because of the high back pressure, it is necessary to reduce the back pressure by 0.5-1 bars and/or to decrease the fuel feed. Safety solenoid valve is opened if back pressure more than 1 bar and closed if back pressure less then 0.8 bar or in emergency, if sludge or water will appeared in separator outlet (product discharge line). Back pressure regulator especially significant in manual mode. In automatic mode, WATER DRAIN valve is closed, if water level in bowl is reduced. Use AUTO/MANUAL switch to switch the separator to AUTO mode. Set the time of removing the sludge from the separator bowl the time is set by using TIMER, min controller (in AUTO mode). Check the separation quality water content in the product before/after the separator or the content of solid particles. Its simulated by WATER CONT., % INLET/OUTLET and IMPUR. CONT., ppm INLET/OUTLET displays. Check the separator operating parameters by using the indicators on the control panels.

12. 13.

14.

Separator Washing 1. The separator operates in AUTO mode. 2. Empty the bowl (DISCHARGE button). 3. Switch the separator to MANUAL mode. 4. Supply closing water CLOSE button. 5. Supply operating water OPER. WATER button. The bowl is filled with water and is washed. 6. Empty the bowl. Operations can be repeated several times depending on how dirty the separator is. Stopping the Separator 1. The separator operates in AUTO mode. 2. Empty the bowl (DISCHARGE button). 3. Switch the separator to MANUAL mode. 4. Cut the water supply to the separator. 5. Stop the separator drive electric motor (STOP button). 6. Brake the separator (BRAKE button). 7. In emergencies, use EMERGENCY STOP button. Specific Features of Separator Operation in Clarification Mode In the case of product clarification, the sludge and remains of water are removed at regular intervals rather than constantly. The sludge is removed either when some amount of it is accumulated in the bowl (by level) or over a certain time interval (by timer). In the separation of lubricating oil, hot operating water used for clarifying the lub. Oil it is deoxidation in MANUAL control mode.

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System of Circulation Lubrication and Piston Cooling (LO Page)


Purpose
The system is designed for lubrication of bearings and cooling of diesel pistons (main system), for lubrication of camshaft bearings, fuel pump drive cam faces and exhaust valve cam faces (camshaft lubrication system), and for lubrication of diesel cylinders. In the main system, lube oil of certain temperature is supplied under certain pressure to circulation lubrication points, including: Main bearings and connecting-rod bearings; Crosshead bearings and crosshead guides; Thrust bearing; Bearings and camshaft drive; Other drives and attached mechanisms.

Part of lube oil supplied to the crosshead bearings is directed for cooling the pistons, from where it drains to the collecting tank via pipes equipped with sight glasses, which allow the cooling oil flow to be checked. In the camshaft lubrication system, lube oil of certain temperature is supplied under certain pressure to circulation lubrication points, including: Camshaft bearings; Valve tappet guides.

Lube oil is collected in the camshaft crankcase oil pan, where it is maintained at a level sufficient for being caught by rotating cams for the purpose of lubricating the cam working face; then lube oil is directed to the camshaft lubrication tank. In the diesel cylinder lubrication system, lube oil is supplied via special nipples directly to the bushing work face. Thus, the system page includes three subsystems: Circulation lubrication of ME bearings and piston cooling (Main Circulation System). The devices and mechanisms of the main system are in the right-hand part of the mnemonic diagram, while the controls/indicators thereof are located in the upper part of the control panel; Camshaft Lubricating Oil System. Components of the system are presented in the left-hand part of the mnemonic diagram, while the controls/indicators thereof are in the lower part of the control panel; Diesel cylinder lubrication (Lubricators).

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System Components
See Fig. 12 for a system schematic diagram.

Fig. 12

See Fig. 13 for the system scheme realized in the simulator, i.e. the system mnemonic diagram.

Fig. 13

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The system includes the following components modelled by the simulator: Main Circulation System The tank of circulating oil is a collecting reservoir located under the diesel, where lube oil drains by gravity from the lubrication points. The receiver pipe connects the tank to the circulation pumps. The overflow pipe drains to the spill tank; The circulating oil stock tank for replenishment of the circulating oil tank and the camshaft lubrication tank; The circulating oil pumps 1 and 2 (one Stand-by) create required pressure in the lubrication system. These are electrically driven pumps of, usually, the gear type or the screw type. The constant pressure at the charging side is maintained by a bypass valve; Lube oil cooler 1 and 2. These are heat exchangers of the shell-and-tube type or plate type, pumped through with water. They maintain lube oil temperature at a specified level, which is necessary for keeping lube oil under certain pressure. Temperature rise results in reduction of lube oil viscosity, which, in turn, effects pressure reduction in the circulation lubrication points impairing tribological situation; Temperature controller and the three-way valve (controlled automatically by the temperature controller or manually), which maintains lube oil temperature constant before ME by partial or full bypassing the oil cooler. The temperature controller setting can be changed within the range of 3550 . There are similar thermostatic valves installed at the diesel-generator; A duplex lube oil filter for removal of particles greater than 50 m from lube oil is installed directly before diesel; The lube oil separator removes water and mechanical particles from lube oil. Lube oil is drawn by the separator pump from the circulating oil tank, to where it subsequently returns after treatment; The settling tank or the used-lube oil tank. Lube oil is pumped from the circulating oil tank to the settling tank by the separator pump. Lube oil in the settling tank can also be treated by the separator; The pump for dirty lube oil transfer; Stuffing box drain collection tank; Drains from all tanks and separation waste are directed to the separator; tank (sludge tank). Lube oil tank, which is a collecting reservoir, to where lube oil drains by gravity from the lubrication points. The receiver pipe connects the tank to the pumps; Circulation oil pumps 1 and 2 (one Stand-by) create required pressure in the lubrication system. These are electrically driven pumps of, usually, the gear type or the screw type. The necessary discharge pressure is controlled by a diverter valve; Lube oil cooler represented by a heat exchanger of the shell-and-tube type or plate type, pumped through with water (the simulator models a plate-type exchanger). It helps to maintain lube oil temperature at a level of 40 to 50 , which is necessary for maintaining required lube oil viscosity and working pressure in the lubrication system. At lower oil temperature, its circulation is performed at a partially or fully opened bypass valve of the oil cooler. Temperature can be controlled manually with the aid of the bypass valve;

ME Camshaft Lubrication System

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A duplex lube oil filter for removal of particles greater than 50 m from lube oil is installed directly before the camshaft; A fine filter removes water and mechanical particles of 1m and bigger from lube oil. Lube oil is drawn by the filter pump from the circulating oil tank, to where it subsequently returns again after treatment; A magnetic filter at the engine oil outlet for removal of metal particles from lube oil. The cylinder oil tank is located under the diesel. The oil flows by gravity to the lubricating pumps. The tank is replenished from the stock tank using a special hand pump that directs oil through a filter. The tank volume is usually equal to twoday cylinder oil consumption. A overflow pipe runs to the stock tank; Cylinder oil stock tank; Hand pump for cylinder oil tank replenishment; Lubricating pumps (one per cylinder). These are special pumps to lubricate the cylinders; they are provided with a main drive from the diesel and an additional manual drive designed for pumping oil to the cylinder before starting the diesel. The lubricating pumps are equipped with transparent tubes for visual control over oil flow to each and every lubrication point. There is a possibility to adjust volume of oil feed per revolution depending on the load and diesel operation conditions.

Cylinder Lubrication System

Control Panel
Main Circulation System The upper part of the control panel features the lubrication system pressure adjustment module. This function is performed by circulation oil pumps 1 and 2 (operating in the Stand-by regime). Oil is supplied to the pumps from the tank via a receiver pipe. The switch of pump control mode allows for selection of MANUAL or AUTO mode. In the AUTO mode, the system turns on pump 1 automatically, if the pressure in the system drops too low. If the system pressure doesnt rise, it will turn on pump 2. Use PUMP 1 and PUMP 2 button to turn on/off the circulation oil pumps. The PUMP 1 and PUMP 2 buttons are active only in case the pump control mode switch is in the MANUAL position. The oil pressure at the suction/discharge side of the pumps is monitored by the analog/digital SUCTION/DISCHARGE pressure indicators. Maximum pump discharge pressure is determined by the PRESSURE LIMIT diverter valve using the controller (setpoint in bar). The rate of diverter valve opening is shown in % (0 to 100) on the diverter valve digital indicator located in the mnemonic diagram under the pumps. Note that the valve 100%-opening corresponds to the lowest controller setting.

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The temperature controller and the three-way valve are used to maintain oil temperature at the ME inlet at a constant level by way of full or partial bypassing the oil cooler. The controller sensor is installed at the oil cooler exit. The oil temperature adjustment valve is controlled with the aid of the TEMPERATURE CONTROL module.

It includes: MANUAL/AUTO valve control mode switch; SET POINT rotating knob for setting the value oil temperature in the Auto mode of controller operation. The temperature controller setting can be changed within the range of 35 to 50C; COOLER FLOW controller, operating in the Manual mode. The controller setpoint is shown in the mnemonic diagram digital indicator to the right of the coolers (see Figure). The 0 position corresponds to full bypassing the cooler, the 100 position corresponding to full flow of oil through the cooler.

Oil temperature before the cooler and before ME is shown by the COOLER INLET and ENGINE INLET temperature indicators, respectively, calibrated 0 to 80 . Lube oil goes through a duplex filter installed directly before the engine (it catches foreign particles larger that 50 m). Clean filter pressure drop doesnt exceed 0.2 bar. If the filter pressure drop is more that 0.5 bar, it should be switched over to the clean section. The control panel houses the FILTER switch for toggling between filters 1 and 2 of the circulation oil system, as well as analog/digital indicators: oil pressure before diesel (ENGINE INLET), and filter pressure drop (FILTER DROP) (above the filter switch).

An oil separator is used to remove water and mechanical particles from oil. Lube oil is drawn by the separator pump from the circulating oil tank, to where it comes back again after treatment. Turning the oil separator on/off is performed by the SEPARATOR button. Besides, the panel houses the following control buttons:

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MAKE UP the valve for replenishment of the circulation oil tank from the oil stock tank; COOLER 1 the cutoff valve of oil cooler 1; COOLER 2 the cutoff valve of oil cooler 2.

The left-hand part of the screen page contains a mnemonic diagram, which shows the current status of devices, oil level in the tanks, and system parameter values. In particular, the two-stroke diesel has (from the top down):

Lubricating pump operation indicators (one per cylinder); Digital indicators of oil temperature at piston cooling outlet (one per cylinder); Indicators of oil flow at piston cooling outlet (one per cylinder); Digital indicators of diesel main bearing temperature.

Lubricating Pumps The graphical representation of a two-stroke diesel in the mnemonic diagram has 6 buttons for manual rotation of lubricating pumps, which are used specially for lubricating cylinders (one per cylinder) numbered 1 to 6. In addition, the diagram has lubricating pump operation indicators (one per cylinder). See figure above. ME Camshaft Lubrication System The circulation lubrication system provided for the camshaft is controlled from the lower part of the control panel, this is CAMSHAFT LO SYSTEM control module.

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Just like in the main lubrication system, the function of oil pressure adjustment in the lubrication system is performed by two circulation oil pumps: pump 1 and pump 2 (one Stand-by). Oil is supplied to the pumps via the receiver pipe from lube oil tank, where it flows to from the lubrication points by gravity. The pumps are controlled in the same way as for the main system, i.e. using the MANUAL/AUTO switch of control mode and the PUMP 1 and PUMP 2 buttons. Oil pressure at lube oil discharge side is shown by analog/digital DISCHARGE indicator. Control of lube oil working temperature (4050 ) is provided by the oil cooler. The COOLER button controls then cutoff valve of the oil cooler. If the button is pressed (highlighted), the valve is open: the valve indicator in the mnemonic diagram comes on.

At lower oil temperatures, circulation is performed at a partially or fully opened bypass valve of the oil cooler. Temperature can be controlled manually with the aid of the bypass valve in the Manual mode using the COOLER BYPASS controller.

The oil temperature before the cooler, before diesel, and after the diesel is shown by the COOLER INLET, ENGINE INLET ENGINE OUTLET temperature indicators, respectively, calibrated 0 to 80. Oil goes through a duplex filter installed directly before the engine. It serves for removal of particles greater than 50 m from lube oil. The filter is installed directly before ME, before camshaft. Clean filter pressure drop doesnt exceed 0.2 bar. If the filter pressure drop is more than 0.5 bar, it should be switched over to the clean section. The control panel houses the FILTER switch for toggling between filters 1 and 2 of the camshaft circulation lubrication with position indications 1 and 2, as well as the ENGINE INLET and FILTER DROP analog/digital indicators of oil pressure before diesel and of filter pressure drop, respectively.

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For the purpose of removal of water and mechanical particles larger than 1 m from oil, the system includes a fine oil filter. Lube oil is drawn by the filter pump from the camshaft circulating oil tank, to where it subsequently returns again after treatment. The level of lube oil in the tank can be checked on the scaleplate and digital indicator (see fig. below). The fine filter pump can be started/stopped using the FINE FILTR. button. To open/close the valve for replenishing the tanks with lube oil from the stock tank, the MAKE UP button is used.

The buttons on the control panel and valve indicators in the mnemonic diagram are highlighted, when the valves are in the open state.

Alarm Signals
PUMP AUTOSTART automatic start of the Stand-by circulation pump following a system low pressure signal; FILTER DIRTY fouled filter, increased filter pressure drop; LEVEL LO TANK low/high level in the circulation oil tank; LOW PRESS. ME INLET low pressure of circulation oil before ME; T ME INLET high/low temperature of circulation oil before ME; OIL MIST actuation of oil mist sensor in the ME crankcase; LEVEL CAM. TANK low/high level in the camshaft oil tank; LOW PRESS. CAM. INLET low pressure of oil before the camshaft lubrication system; CAM. FILTER DIRTY fouled filter of the camshaft lubrication system; CAM. PUMP AUTOSTART automatic start of the stand-by pump of the camshaft lubrication system by a signal of low pressure in the system; HIGH T CAM. INLET high temperature of oil before camshaft lubrication system; LEVEL CYL. OIL low/high level in the cylinder oil tank; HIGH T PIST. OUTLET high temperature of piston cooling oil; LOW PRESS. PISTON low temperature of piston cooling oil.

ME Safety System
Actuation of the Shut Down system (ME stopping) by low oil pressure (1.8 Bar) before diesel; Actuation of the Shut Down system (ME stopping) by low oil pressure (1.8 Bar) in the camshaft lubrication system; Actuation of the Slow Down system (ME slowing down) by a high temperature (85 ) of the piston cooling oil at exit; Actuation of the Slow Down system (ME slowing down) by oil mist in the diesel crankcase.

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System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Pump 1 Breakdown emergency stop of pump 1; Pump 2 Breakdown emergency stop of pump 2; Cooler 1 Fouling fouling of cooler 2; Cooler 2 Fouling fouling of cooler 2; Oil Leakage oil leakage in the system; Filter 1 Fouling fouling of filter 1; Filter 2 Fouling fouling of filter 2; Temperature Controller Breakdown temperature controller failure; Camshaft Oil Leakage oil leakage from the camshaft lubrication system; Camshaft Oil Pump 1 Breakdown emergency stop of pump 1 of the camshaft lubrication system; Camshaft Oil Pump 2 Breakdown emergency stop of pump 2 of the camshaft lubrication system; Camshaft Oil Filter 1 Fouling fouling of filter 1 of the camshaft lubrication system; Camshaft Oil Filter 2 Fouling fouling of filter 2 of the camshaft lubrication system; Camshaft Oil Cooler Fouling fouling of the camshaft lubrication system cooler.

System Operation
System Preparation and Putting in Operation 1. Check the level of circulation oil in the collecting tank. If replenishment is required, use the MAKE UP valve. 2. Check the level of cylinder oil in the tank. 3. Set the PRESSURE LIMIT valve of pressure adjustment to the position that ensures the minimum pressure in the system. 4. Switch to the AUTO mode of thermostatic valve control. 5. Specify the SET POINT for the temperature controller. 6. Open the valve of a cooler: COOLER 1 or COOLER 2. 7. Select the MANUAL mode for the circulation oil pumps and start of them (the PUMP 1 or PUMP 2 button). Make sure there is pressure in the system. 8. Adjust pressure before diesel using the PRESSURE LIMIT valve. 9. Set the circulation oil pump control to the Auto mode. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.
62

Check the level of oil in the camshaft lubrication tank. If replenishment is needed, use the MAKE UP valve. Set the COOLER BYPASS valve to the 100 position (fully open). Start a pump of the camshaft lubrication system using the Manual mode. Make sure the oil is under required pressure. Set the control of camshaft lubrication system pumps to AUTO. Open the COOLER valve of the camshaft oil cooler. Adjust oil temperature using the COOLER BYPASS valve. Make sure there is no alarm signals in the LO system.

ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

Control Over System Operation 1. Before starting the diesel, rotate the lubricate pumps (of 1 to 6 button in the mnemonic diagram). 2. Check the pressure of oil before diesel and for camshaft lubrication. 3. Check the level of circulation oil in the collecting tank and the camshaft lubrication tank. If replenishment is required, use the MAKE UP valve. 4. Check pressure drop through the filter; change over to the filter Stand-by section, if necessary. 5. Check the temperature oil before diesel and oil used for camshaft lubrication. 6. Check flow and temperature of oil at its exit after picture cooling, for each cylinder. 7. Check for correctness of temperature controller operation maintaining the proper temperature value. 8. Start the oil treatment separator regularly. 9. Start the camshaft oil pump through the FINE FILTER. 10. 11. Control over operation of the lubricating pumps. Check for alarm signals in the LO system.

Setting the System to the In-Port Mode 1. Maintain the system running mode for 60 to 80 min after stopping ME. 2. Switch over to the Manual mode of circulation oil pump control and camshaft lubrication control. 3. Set the PRESSURE LIMIT valve of pressure adjustment for minimum pressure. 4. Stop the running pumps: the circulation one and the camshaft lubrication one (the PUMP 1 and PUMP 2 buttons in the Manual mode).

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Compressed Air System ( Page)


Purpose
The system is designed for production, storage and supply of compressed air, including air for the diesel start/control.

System Components
See Fig. 14 for a system schematic diagram.

Fig. 14

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See Fig. 15 for the system scheme realized in the simulator, i.e. the system mnemonic diagram.

Fig. 15

The system includes the following components modelled by the simulator: The system of pipelines and reservoirs as a gas-dynamic object; Electrically driven two-stage air compressor 1 with water cooling and an air cooler pumping air under a pressure of 30 bar to two main bottles; Electrically driven two-stage air compressor 2 with water cooling and an air cooler pumping air under a pressure of 30 bar to two main bottles; Electrically driven emergency compressor for pumping air to the auxiliary compressed air bottle, designed basically for starting the DGs duration reanimation of a ship taken out of service; Main compressed air bottles 1 and 2. The bottled air is used for starting diesels, the main and auxiliary ones (without pressure reduction), also for the control system (via the reducing station that decreases pressure down to about 7 bar), and for service needs through a reducing valve; The automation system that starts compressor 1, when the pressure in the main bottles drops to 22 bar, and stops the compressor at 30 bar (such system is not provided for compressor 2 from the procedure point of view); After the compressors, there is a oil/water separator blown down to the bilge well automatically, when the compressor is started, or manually during its operation. Besides, there are valves for blowing down the main bottles to remove the accumulated moisture here.

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Control Panel
The control panel houses the following means of compressor control:

MANUAL/AUTO control mode switch for compressor 1; MANUAL/AUTO control mode switch for compressor 2; STOP-START (COMPRESSOR 1) button; STOP-START (COMPRESSOR 2) button; STOP-START (EMERGENCY COMPRESSOR) button.

The STOP-START button are active, only if the compressor control mode switch is in the MANUAL position. In the Auto mode, the system starts compressor 1 automatically, when the pressure in the main bottles drops to 22 bar, and stops the compressor at 30 bar (such system of automatic start/stop of compressors by bottle 2 pressure is not provided in the simulator, from the procedure point of view). In the Auto mode, the compressor start/stop buttons are not active. The both main bottles are provided with three cutoff valves each, which are remotely controlled using the buttons located in the control modules RECEIVER 1 (for main bottle 1) and RECEIVER 2 (for main bottle 2):

START AIR a cutoff valve for providing air to start the main/auxiliary diesels without air reduction; CNTRL AIR a cutoff valve for providing air to the control system via a reducing station, where air pressure drops down to about 7 bar; FROM COMPR. a valve for connecting the main bottle to the compressors.

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After the compressors, there is a oil/water separator blown down manually to the bilge well using the SEPARATOR button, and valves for blowing down main bottles 1 and 2 to remove accumulated moisture, which are controlled by the RECEIV. 1 and RECEIV. 2 buttons, respectively (BLOW DOWN control module).

The upper part of the control panel houses pressure gauges, which show the air pressure in two main bottles, i.e. AIR RECEIVER 1 and AIR RECEIVER 2; in the emergency bottle EMERGENCY RECEIVER, and after the reducing station CONTROL AIR.

The left-hand part of the screen page contains a mnemonic diagram, mirroring the current status of system devices.

Alarm Signals
HIGH PRESS. AIR RCVR 1 high pressure in main bottle 1; HIGH PRESS. AIR RCVR 2 high pressure in main bottle 2; COMPRESS. SAFET. VALVE actuation of the compressor relief valve; AIR RCVR 1 SAFET. VALVE actuation of the relief valve of main bottle 1; AIR RCVR 2 SAFET. VALVE actuation of the relief valve of main bottle 2.

Protection System
The system is implemented by providing relief valves.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Compressor N1 Breakdown of the Motor failure of the compressor 1 motor; Compressor N2 Breakdown of the Motor failure of the compressor 2 motor; Emergency Compressor Breakdown of the Motor failure of the emergency compressor motor; Compressor N1 Wear of the Rings and Valves tear and wear of the compressor 1 rings and valves; Compressor N2 Wear of the Rings and Valves tear and wear of the compressor 2 rings and valves; Significant Air Leakage from the Start system relates to the ME start system.

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System Operation
System Preparation and Putting in Operation 1. Blow down the RECEIVER 1, RECEIVER 2 bottles (BLOW DOWN module). 2. Open the bottle 1 valves (RECEIVER 1 module) button FROM COMPR.. 3. Open the bottle 2 valves (RECEIVER 2 module) button FROM COMPR.. 4. Make sure the cooling of components is on in the SW system. 5. Start the compressor (the STOP-START buttons for COMPRESSOR 1 and COMPRESSOR 2 in the Manual mode), fill up both bottles up to 30 bar. 6. Set compressor control to the AUTO mode. 7. Open the bottle 1 valves (RECEIVER 1 module) buttons START AIR, CNTRL. AIR. 8. Check that there is no alarm signal in the system. Control Over System Operation 1. Check and maintain proper pressure in bottle 1. 2. In emergency, if short of compressed air supply, open the valves of bottle 2 (RECEIVER 2 module) buttons START AIR, CNTRL. AIR. 3. Regularly blow down the RECEIV. 1, RECEIV. 2 bottles (BLOW DOWN module). 4. When starting the compressor, check operation of the SEPARATOR valve designed for automatic blow-down of the water separator (the BLOW DOWN module). 5. Control over the reducing station by the CONTROL AIR pressure gauge. 6. Check that there is no alarm signal in the system.

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Exhaust Gas & Turbocharging System (EXH Page)


Purpose
The system is designed to release exhaust gases from the ME cylinders, to replace air charge in the cylinders and to increase pressure in the diesel cylinders at the compression stroke beginning.

System Components
See Fig. 16 for a system schematic diagram.

Fig. 16

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See Fig. 17 for the system scheme realized in the simulator, i.e. the system mnemonic diagram.

Fig. 17

The system includes the following components modeled by the simulator: ME gas/air paths as gas-dynamic objects; ME as a thermodynamic object; Turbocharger (gas turboblower, GTB) as a thermodynamic object; An electrically driven air blower.

The exhaust gases go from the cylinders to the exhaust manifold, from where they are directed to the turbocharger turbine and then to the exhaust-gas boiler, the silencer and out. Air is drawn from the engine room by the compressor via a filter, and then it is directed via the air cooler and condensate hotwell to the blow-down receiver, and subsequently to the diesel cylinders. In addition, the system includes an electrically driven auxiliary air blower designed to supply the diesel with air at starting and at slower speeds, when the exhaust gas energy is not sufficient for the rated turbocharger operation.

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Control Panel
The left part of the control panel of this system houses the SCAVENGE AIR module for control over the scavenge air parameters and the air blower. It includes:

A pressure gauge showing the scavenge air pressure (in the air receiver); To the right of the latter a scavenge air temperature indicator; The BLOWER button for turning ON the blower; The MANUAL/AUTO blower control mode switch.

The BLOWER button is active, only if the blower control mode switch is in the MANUAL position. In the Auto mode, the blower starts automatically, when the scavenge air pressure drops below 0.55 bar, and stops automatically at 0.7 bar. The TURBINE module contains indicators of the exhaust gas temperature before the turbine (INLET) and after the turbine (OUTLET).

The TURBOCHARGER analog/digital indicator of turbocharger RPM is located under the described modules.

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The SMOKE INDICATOR analog indicator is designed to control over the supercharge system. The indicator is scaled 0 to 100, 0 corresponding to normal operation and sufficient air supply. An increase of the SMOKE INDICATOR value attests to poor fuel combustion, which can be related to supercharge system problems or fuel injection problems.

The lower part of the control panel contains the EXHAUST TEMPERATURE curve, showing distribution of exhaust gas temperature in the diesel cylinders, its mean value, and temperature deviations from the mean value for each cylinder.

The WASHING control module for turbocharging system water cleaning (for two-stroke diesels) contains:

TURBINE button to open the valve of water supply for turbocharger turbine washing; COMPR. button to open the valve of water supply for turbocharger compressor washing; COOLER button to open the valve of water supply for air cooler washing (it is active on a stopped diesel only).

The air receiver drain valve (AIR RECEIVER module) is controlled using the DRAIN button. The valve is used to drain wastes to the separation waste tank. In the course of normal operation, the valve is open, but it should be closed, when extinguishing fire in the air receiver and scavenging spaces. The FIRE button is used for turning on the fire system in the receiver and the scavenging spaces.

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The left-hand part of the screen page contains a mnemonic diagram, showing the current status of devices and parameter values for the system: valve opening; auxiliary air blower operation; turbocharger flow rate, m3/sec; pressure drop across the turbocharger filter, air blower, and the exhaust-gas boiler, in mm of water column (U-shape liquid pressure gauges).

Alarm Signals
HIGH T TURBINE high temperature of exhaust gases before/after GTB; HIGH T CYL. EX. GAS high temperature of exhaust gases after cylinders; HIGH T SCAV. AIR high temperature of scavenge air; DEVIATION LARGE high deviation of exhaust gas temperature from the mean value, after any cylinder; LOW PRESS. SCAV. AIR low pressure of scavenge air; WATER IN SCAV. RCVR water in the blow-down receiver; SCAVENGE SPACE FIRE high temperature of air in the cylinder scavenge space (scavenging space fire).

ME Safety System
Actuation of the Slow Down system (ME slowing down), when air temperature in the scavenging spaces and in the scavenge air receiver rises above 120 , i.e. scavenge space fire; Actuation of the Slow Down system (ME slowing down), when the exhaust gas temperature rises above 550 for any cylinder.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Aux. Blower Breakdown failure (breakdown) of the auxiliary air blower; Turbocharger Breakdown emergency failure of GTB; Air Cooler Fouling on the Air side fouling of the air cooler at the air side; Turbine Blades Fouling fouling of the GTB turbine through part; Turbine Nozzle Fouling fouling of the GTB turbine nozzle; Compressor Blades Fouling fouling of the GTB compressor through part; Compressor Filter Fouling fouling of the GTB compressor filter; Exhaust Boiler Fouling fouling of the exhaust path after turbine (exhaust-gas boiler).

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System Operation
System Preparation and Putting in Operation 1. Make sure the receiver drain is open (AIR RECEIVER module). 2. Before starting the diesel and during manoeuvring, set the Auto mode of the auxiliary air blower. Control Over System Operation 1. Check exhaust gas temperature for each cylinder. During diesel start, alarm can be actuated due to a short-time rise of exhaust gas temperature beyond the upper limit, while the turbocharger is speeding up. 2. Check exhaust gas temperature before and after the turbine. 3. Adjust water flow through the air cooler using the SCAV. AIR COOLER FLOW valve in the SW system to maintain scavenge air temperature within the range. 4. Control over turbocharger operation observing the charging pressure, RPM and air consumption. 5. Check for fouling of the air cooler, the gas path of the boiler, and the turbocharger filter using indications of the corresponding differential pressure gauges. 6. Check that there is no alarm signal in the system. Servicing the System 1. When washing the air cooler make sure the diesel is stopped and the DRAIN valve is open. 2. The washing of the turbine (TURBINE) and the compressor (COMPR.) should be performed, when the diesel is run at full speed. 3. The FIRE button is designed for turning on the fire extinguishing system in the blow-down receiver and the scavenging spaces. When pressing the button make sure the DRAIN is closed.

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Panel for Control and Tuning the Combustion Process in Cylinders (CYL Page)
Purpose
The panel is designed for diagnostics of the working process in the ME cylinders and for tuning the fuel supply system, i.e.: Graphical representation of dependence of the pressure curve for a two-stroke low-speed diesel to the crank angle (P- type) and to the piston stroke/cylinder volume (P-V type), the so called indicator diagram; Graphical representation of dependence of the injector needle valve lift curve to the crank angle combined with indicator diagram of P- type; Graphical representation of dependence of the combustion rate curve (as calculated parameter) to the crank angle combined with indicator diagram of P- type; Adjustment of the fuel supply system according to the value of injection portion to each of the cylinders; Adjustment of the fuel supply system on the fuel injection advance angle for each cylinder; Comparison of fuel combustion process parameters between diesel cylinders.

System Components
See Fig. 18 for the system mnemonic diagram:

Fig. 18

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The system includes the following components modeled by the simulator: ME as a thermo-gas-dynamic object; Pressure sensors for each ME cylinder; Diagram curves screen for ME cylinders; Adjustment controls for the ME fuel equipment.

Control Panel
Curve Management The left part of the screen is designed for display of indicator diagrams for all ME cylinders. Only those indicator diagrams are displayed, which were selected in the PRESSURE SENSOR module located in the screen right-hand part.

Each cylinder is assigned its own colour for the P- type indicator diagram curve:

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and for the P-V type indicator diagram curve:

The switching between P- and P-V type of diagram is available by buttons:

The P- indicator diagram is combined with the injector needle valve lift curve and with the combustion rate curve:

The diagram (curve) legend is located on the top of diagram:

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The following options are provided for indicator diagram management: Change of the abscissa axis range from -180 to 180 degrees of crank angle (CA). This provides for a possibility to scale the curve along axis ; Change of the ordinate axis range within 0 to 200 bar. Axis Y to be scaled. The control for scaling axes and Y are located in the lower right-hand part of the screen; The RESET button is used to reset the scale status of axes and Y to their initial state, the button being located in the axis scaling panel:

Entering an arbitrary fixed value of CA angle within -180 to 180 degrees, CA with automatic indication of pressure in each cylinder at the point in the lower line of the table presented in the right-hand part of the screen (line P).

Cylinder Process Adjustment The upper right-hand part of the screen houses controls for adjustment of the cyclic injection of fuel to cylinders, i.e. the FUEL PORTION CORRECTION module. The range of cyclic injection change is within -10 to +10%, but not higher than 60 g/cycle/cylinder. The knob calibration is -15 to +15 units.

The cyclic injection adjustment is performed for the purpose of: Tuning ME rated parameters; Power leveling of all cylinders to provide a uniform torque during maintenance works; Cyclic injection correction for each cylinder in case of non-uniform wear of the fuel equipment.

When performing the adjustments, one should use the design rate indicator diagram (designated REF in the PRESSURE SENSOR module). Turning the knob clockwise or counter-clockwise, try to match the design indicator diagram with the indicator diagram of the selected cylinder. You can check for cylinder power disagreement on the POWER DEVIATION page.

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Below you can see the controls used to change the fuel injection advance angle for each cylinder, i.e. the TIMING CORRECTION module. The change mechanism is identical with the VIT level action (MAN B&W technology). In case of a partial load of 45% to 85%, the fuel injection advance angle changes depending on the diesel load. Within 85% to 100%, the fuel injection advance angle mechanism sets the advance angle automatically so as to maintain pressure of the combustion cycle (Pz) at the maximum permitted level.

The range of the fuel injection advance angle is within -2.5 to 3.5 crank angle degrees (CA) from the top dead centre (TDC). The knob is calibrated between -5 to +5 units. Adjustment of the fuel injection advance angle is to be performed: during maintenance works to limit the combustion pressure in each cylinder; to tune to the most optimum ME operation conditions; during maintenance works to adjust the fuel injection advance angle for all cylinders to provide a uniform torque.

When performing the adjustments, one should use the design rate indicator diagram (designated REF in the PRESSURE SENSOR module). By rotating the knob to the right/left, try to match the design indicator diagram with the indicator diagram of the selected cylinder. Parameter Table In the middle part of the screen, just to the right, you can see a table with values of cycle parameters corresponding to each of the cylinders, while the values of the design indicator process are given in the REF column.

The following parameters are tabulated there: Mean indication pressure Pi (bar); Maximum combustion pressure Pz (bar); Pressure at the end of compression process (bar); Maximum pressure angle pz (CA); Angle of the visible combustion start in cylinder ign (CA); Compressor pressure increase level Pz-Pc (bar); Pressure value in a selected point of the curve P (bar).

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Alarm Signals
Not modeled.

ME Safety System
Indirect impact on the ME protection system parameters.

System Faults, Introduced by Instructor


The following faults are available for each engine cylinder: Cooling Jacket Fouling on Cylinder; Main Bearing Wear; Main Bearing Lubrication Fouling; Piston Cooling Breakdown; Piston Ring Wear; Injection Pump Wear; Injection Pump Jamming; Injection Pump Cavitation; Injection Valve Wear (poor atomization); Clogging of Injection Valve Nozzle; Early Injection; Late Injection.

System Operation
See the Control Panel paragraph.

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Local ME Control Post in the ER (ELC Page)


Purpose
The local Main Engine (ME) control post in the Engine Room (ER) is intended for starting, stopping and control of the ME in the mode of manual non-automated nonfollow-up control from the ER, bypassing the Remote Automated Control system (RAC). The local control post enables: Turning on/off of turn gear; Diesel turning before the start; Turning on/off of the ME auxiliary air blower; Diesel start/shut down; Diesel reversing; Change of the diesel rpm; Monitoring of a number of ME operating parameters; ME shut down (SHUT DOWN) by the safety system.

System Components
The page is implemented as a set of control panels (see Fig. 19) and contains the necessary monitoring and control units:

Fig. 19

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The local ME control post in the simulator is implemented in compliance with requirements and recommendations of the manufacturer: MAN B&W. It includes: ME control panel; Additional equipment control panel; ME safety system panel; ME parameters display panel; Repeater engine telegraph.

Control Panels
ME control panel: Controls arranged on the panel allow selection of the ME control mode: from the local post in the ER or from the ECR/bridge in RAC mode. The panel also allows setting the direction of the ME crankshaft rotation (reversing), starting or shutting down the ME, setting the ME rpm. Arranged on the panel are: ME rpm controller. By moving the controller slide, you can set the ME start rpm and the ME rpm within minimum-to-maximum range;

ME START button;

ME STOP button;

ME EMERGENCY STOP button;

REMOTE/ENGINE SIDE control 2-position switch;

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ME crankshaft direction AHEAD/ASTERN 2-position switch;

Indicator showing that the ME control is executed from the ER: LOCAL CONTROL; Indicator showing that the ME control is executed in RAC mode from the ECR CONTROL; Indicator (tableau) showing that the ME control is executed in RAC mode from the BRIDGE CONTROL.

Additional equipment control panel: BLOWER button to turn on the auxiliary electrically driven ME air blower; TURN GEAR button to turn on/off the turn gear;

ME SLOW TURN button;

WRONG WAY indicator signals that the direction of crankshaft rotation does not correspond to the Bridge Order (position of the telegraph repeater arrow); ACK. button to acknowledge alarms.

ME safety system panel:

El. Power POWER indicator; SHUT DOWN indicator warns that the ME will be shut down by the safety system or signals that the ME has been shut down by the safety system;

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OVERSPEED indicator explains why the ME safety system has been actuated (maximum ME rpm exceeded); ENGINE LOW PRESSURE indicator explains why the ME safety system has been actuated (low pressure in the ME lubrication system); CAMSHAFT LOW PRESSURE indicator explains why the ME safety system has been actuated (low pressure in the ME camshaft lubricating system); SAFETY CANCEL button to cancel the engine shut-down by the safety system, possibly in the time interval between the appearance of safety system alarm and safety system actuation; SAFETY RESET button reactivate (lead up) the ME safety system after its actuation.

ME parameters display panel: While on watch in the ER, the watch keeper can move around the ER and monitor the operation of the ME and systems supporting the ME, by using the gauges/ indicators installed direct on the ME and on the pipelines of systems supporting the ME operation. A number of indicators (recommended by the ME manufacturer: MAN B & W), are built into the panel of the local ME control post: START AIR pressure gauge showing the start air pressure;

CONTROL AIR pressure gauge showing the control air pressure;

Pressure gauge showing lubricating oil pressure at the ME inlet (crankshaft bearing line, etc.);

Pressure gauge showing fresh cooling water pressure at the ME inlet (jacket cooling);

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Tachometer showing the ME crankshaft rpm and direction.

The telegraph repeater is also set on this panel:

The repeater has a circular scale divided into two halves: AHEAD and ASTERN and marked in accordance with the ship speeds (STOP, DEAD SLOW, SLOW, etc.). Travelling around the scale is a needle whose motion repeats the motion of the engine telegraph handle on the bridge (i.e., the setting from the bridge is indicated). As soon as the needles moves to a new position, the engine telegraph bell start ringing. Coaxial with the needle is an engine telegraph order acknowledgement knob. As the watch keeper turns the acknowledgement knob to the position corresponding to the position of the engine telegraph arrow, it means that the order from the bridge has been accepted. The ringing sound disappears. The watch keeper changes the ME rpm in accordance with the ship speed/ME rpm table.

Alarms
WRONG WAY AHEAD-ASTERN reversing position is not coincident with the position of the repeater engine telegraph needle (setting from the bridge); SHUT DOWN ME safety system signal; Overspeed ME shut down by the safety system/Limit ME rpm exceeded (ME racing); ENGINE LOW PRESSURE ME shut down by the safety system/low lubricating oil pressure for the ME camshaft lubrication; CAMSHAFT LOW PRESSURE ME shut down by the safety system/low lubricating oil pressure for the ME camshaft lubrication.

ME Safety System
See the description for ME page.

System Faults Entered by the Instructor


See the description for ME page.

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System Operation
Switching control to the local ME control post: Local control has a higher priority as compared to the Remote Automated Control (RAC) system. This is why, to switch control to the local ME control post you will only have to put REMOTE/ENGINE SIDE two-position switch in ENGINE SIDE position. RAC system ME control lines are then disabled. There is an indication in the ECR and on the bridge that the ME control is executed from the local control post. Repeater engine telegraph is turned on. Switching control of RAC mode: Put REMOTE/ENGINE SIDE two-position switch to REMOTE position. There will be an indication at the local ME control post of where the control in RAC mode will be executed from: BRIDGE or ECR. Before switching to RAC mode, you should: Check the position of ECR/BRIDGE control post switch in the ECR; At the active RAC post, put the engine telegraph handle (ME rpm controller in the RAC system) in the position corresponding to the current rpm and direction of the ME crankshaft. This will prevent the so-called shock switching associated with an abrupt change of the ME operation.

Starting the ME from the local post: 1. The ship electrical power plant is operating in a standard manner and supplies power to all the systems, devices, and machinery. 2. Prepare the systems supporting the ME operation for the start and start them: perform all the necessary procedures. 3. Check the system parameter values (pressure, temperature, levels, etc.). Parameter values should be within the operating range. 4. Press SAFETY RESET button for re-activation of Safety system. 5. Check the indicator readings at the local ME control post. 6. Turn on the turn gear (TURN GEAR button). As this is done, locking of the ME start is turned on. 7. ME cylinders are pre-lubricated, one by one, by lubricators. 8. The ME crankshaft is turned slowly by the turn gear (SLOW TURN button). 9. Turn off the turn gear. 10. Select the ME crankshaft rotation direction (AHEAD/ASTERN switch). Check is there is WRONG WAY alarm signal. 11. Set the ME rpm controller to START position. 12. Press START button to start the ME. 13. Set the rpm controller to the minimum steady rpm position, and then as per the orders read from the repeater engine telegraph. ME reversing: Main Engine reversing cannot be made unless the engine is stopped. Stopping: 1. Set the rpm controller to STOP position. 2. Press STOP button (or EMERGENCY STOP, in case of emergency conditions).
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CHAPTER 2
Ship Electrical Power Plant
This chapter contains the description of the simulator module for training the watch personnel in skill of proper operating the Ship Electrical Power Plant.

Copyright Transas Ltd., June 2005

This chapter contains: Introduction ..............................................................................................................95 Simulated System ....................................................................................................96 Ship Electrical Power System (SEPS) ...............................................................96 Purpose....................................................................................................96 System Components................................................................................96 EPP Control .............................................................................................96 Protection System....................................................................................98 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor ...........................................100 Ship Electrical Network and Consumers..........................................................101 Purpose..................................................................................................101 System Components..............................................................................101 Circuit Breakers .....................................................................................102 Automatic Circuit Breakers...............................................................................104 Diesel Generator, Shaft Generator and Turbo Generator and Automatic Circuit Breakers (Generator Circuit Breakers)...............104 Emergency Generator and Shore Supply Circuit Breakers ...................105 Insulation Monitoring ........................................................................................106 Purpose..................................................................................................106 Components...........................................................................................106 Switches.................................................................................................106 Monitored Parameters and Indicators....................................................106 Diesel Generator ..............................................................................................106 Purpose..................................................................................................106 Components...........................................................................................106 DG Control System ................................................................................106 DG Monitoring System...........................................................................107 DG Alarm System ..................................................................................107 DG Protection System ...........................................................................107 Turbogenerator.................................................................................................108 Purpose..................................................................................................108 Components...........................................................................................108 TG Controls............................................................................................108 TG Monitoring System ...........................................................................108 TG Alarm System...................................................................................108 TG Protection System............................................................................109 Common Failures...................................................................................109 Shaft Generator................................................................................................109 Purpose..................................................................................................109 Components...........................................................................................109 ShG Control System ..............................................................................109 ShG Monitoring System .........................................................................110 ShG Generator Alarm System ...............................................................110 ShG Generator Protection System ........................................................110 Emergency Diesel Generator...........................................................................111 Purpose..................................................................................................111 Components...........................................................................................111 Control System ......................................................................................111 Monitoring System .................................................................................111 Alarm System.........................................................................................111 Protection System..................................................................................111

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Shore Supply Switchboard .............................................................................. 112 Purpose ................................................................................................. 112 Shore Power Supply Components ........................................................ 112 Controls ................................................................................................. 112 Monitoring System................................................................................. 112 Alarm System ........................................................................................ 112 Protection System ................................................................................. 112 Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................................ 112 Main Switchboard (MSB) ................................................................................. 113 Purpose ................................................................................................. 113 Components .......................................................................................... 113 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................... 113 Emergency Switchboard (ESB) ....................................................................... 115 Purpose ................................................................................................. 115 MSB Components ................................................................................. 115 AB Charging Unit Controls .................................................................... 115 AB Charging Unit Monitoring System.................................................... 115 AB Charging Unit Alarm System ........................................................... 116 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................... 116 Auxiliary Diesel Engine .................................................................................... 118 Purpose ................................................................................................. 118 Components .......................................................................................... 118 Control System ...................................................................................... 118 Monitoring System................................................................................. 119 Diesel Alarm System ............................................................................. 119 Diesel Engine Protection System .......................................................... 119 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................... 120 Turbogenerator Drive....................................................................................... 120 Purpose ................................................................................................. 120 Components .......................................................................................... 120 Control System ...................................................................................... 120 Monitoring System................................................................................. 120 Alarm System ........................................................................................ 120 Common Failures .................................................................................. 120 Shaft Generator Drive...................................................................................... 121 Purpose ................................................................................................. 121 Components .......................................................................................... 121 Control System ...................................................................................... 121 Monitoring System................................................................................. 121 Alarm System ........................................................................................ 121 Protection System ................................................................................. 121 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................... 122 Emergency Diesel Engine ............................................................................... 122 Purpose ................................................................................................. 122 Components .......................................................................................... 122 Control System ...................................................................................... 122 Monitoring System................................................................................. 123 Alarm System ........................................................................................ 123 Protection System ................................................................................. 123 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................... 123

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Simulator Control Panels ......................................................................................124 SEPS Control Panel .........................................................................................126 Auxiliary Diesel Generator Control Panel ........................................................127 Auxiliary Diesel Engine System Control Panel ......................................128 Diesel Engine Protection System Panel ................................................129 Diesel Engine Condition Indicating Meters ............................................129 Diesel Engine Alarm System Indicator Panel ........................................130 Shaft Generator Drive Control Panel ...............................................................131 Control Panel .........................................................................................132 ShG Gearbox Protection Control System Panel....................................132 ShG Drive Status Indicating Meters.......................................................133 Shaft Generator Drive Alarm Panel .......................................................133 Turbogenerator Drive Control Panel ................................................................134 Control Panel .........................................................................................134 TG Gearbox Protection Control System Panel ......................................135 TG Drive Status Indicating Meters .........................................................135 Turbogenerator Drive Alarm System .....................................................135 Emergency Diesel Generator Engine Control Panel........................................136 Control Panel .........................................................................................137 Diesel Engine Protection System Panel ................................................137 Diesel Engine Parameter Indicating Meters ..........................................137 Diesel Engine Alarm System Panel .......................................................138 MSB Generator Section ...................................................................................138 Generator Circuit Breaker ......................................................................139 Controls..................................................................................................140 Instruments for Monitoring Generator Parameters ................................141 Status Indicators for the Diesel Engine and Power Supply for SEPS Buses ......................................................................................142 Panel of Generator Alarm/Protection Indicators ....................................143 MSB Turbogenerator Section...........................................................................144 MSB Shaft Generator Section..........................................................................144 Generator Circuit Breaker ......................................................................145 Shaft Generator Controls .......................................................................146 Shaft Generator Indicating Meters.........................................................147 MSB Voltage Indicators .........................................................................147 Panel of Generator Alarm/Protection Indicators ....................................148 Synchronization Section...................................................................................148 Controls..................................................................................................149 Indicating Meters....................................................................................149 Synchronoscope ....................................................................................150 Insulation Monitoring Panel..............................................................................150 Shore Supply Switchboard...............................................................................151 Circuit Breaker .......................................................................................151 Indicating Meters....................................................................................152 Indicators of Shore Supply Phase Sequence ........................................152 Alarm Indicator Panel.............................................................................153 380V Consumer Switchboard ..........................................................................153 Controls..................................................................................................154 Indicating Meters....................................................................................154

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220V Consumer Switchboard.......................................................................... 155 Controls ................................................................................................. 155 Indicating Meters ................................................................................... 155 Emergency Switchboard (ESB). Emergency Generator Section .................... 156 Generator Circuit Breaker ..................................................................... 157 Emergency Generator Indicating Meters .............................................. 157 Panel of Generator Alarm/Protection Indicators.................................... 158 ESB. 380V Consumer Section ........................................................................ 159 Controls ................................................................................................. 159 Indicating Meters ................................................................................... 159 ESB. 220V Consumer Section ........................................................................ 160 Controls ................................................................................................. 161 Indicating Meters ................................................................................... 161 ESB. 24V Consumer Section .......................................................................... 161 Controls ................................................................................................. 162 Indicating Meters ................................................................................... 162 Accumulator Battery (AB) Charging Unit ......................................................... 162 Controls ................................................................................................. 163 Indicating Meters ................................................................................... 163 Alarm Indicator Panel ............................................................................ 163 Main Current Circuit......................................................................................... 164 SEPS Operation Instructions ............................................................................... 165 SEPS Control................................................................................................... 165 SEPS Manual Control Mode ................................................................. 165 SEPS Control in the Automatic Mode ................................................... 165 Auxiliary Diesel Engine Control ....................................................................... 165 Startup Preparation ............................................................................... 165 Standard Start ....................................................................................... 165 Emergency Start.................................................................................... 165 Standard Shut Down ............................................................................. 165 Emergency Stop .................................................................................... 166 Shaft Generator Drive Control ......................................................................... 166 Standard Coupling Engagement ........................................................... 166 Emergency Coupling Engagement ....................................................... 166 Coupling Disengagement ...................................................................... 166 Diesel Generator.............................................................................................. 166 Closing to Dead MSB Buses ................................................................. 166 Switching to the Parallel Operation (MSB Energized)........................... 166 Active Power Distribution in Parallel Operation..................................... 167 Reactive Power Distribution in Parallel Operation ................................ 167 Taking Generator out of Parallel Operation .......................................... 167 Turbogenerator ................................................................................................ 168 Closing to Dead MSB Buses ................................................................. 168 Setting to the Parallel Operation (MSB Energized)............................... 168 Active Power Distribution in Parallel Operation..................................... 169 Reactive Power Distribution in Parallel Operation ................................ 169 Taking Generator out of Parallel Operation..................................................... 169

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Shaft Generator Control ...................................................................................169 Closing to Dead MSB Buses..................................................................169 Setting to the Parallel Operation (MSB Energized) ...............................169 Taking out of Operation .........................................................................170 Emergency Diesel Generator Control ..............................................................170 Automatic Mode of Operation ................................................................170 Manual Mode of Operation ....................................................................170 Control of MSB Shore Power Supply ...............................................................171 Closing Shore Power Supply to MSB ....................................................171 Disconnection of Shore Supply from MSB.............................................171

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Introduction

INTRODUCTION
The Ship Electrical Power Plant simulator module is designed for training the engine room watch personnel in skill of proper operating the Ship Electrical Power System (SEPS), including: Preparation of equipment/systems for operation, startup and shutdown; Monitoring of operation using variable parameters; Trouble shooting.

In addition to training in practical skills, the simulator allows the user to learn the basic principles of the structure, functions and interaction of SEPS components and systems. The simulator composition corresponds to SEPS standard setup. Parameters and performance of the simulated mechanisms and systems correspond to the real ones. This is a SEPS simulation of a tanker (Tanker LCC) of 65,000 DWT with a two-stroke reversible low-speed turbo charged diesel and direct transmission to a fixed pitch propeller.

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Simulated System

SIMULATED SYSTEM
Ship Electrical Power System (SEPS)
Purpose
The ship electrical power system (SEPS) is designed for meeting the ships electrical power demands in standard and emergency conditions. The modelled SEPS corresponds to a single-propeller tanker with a fixed pitch propeller. The power values of the generators and power consumers are determined by the ships displacement.

System Components
SEPS consists of the ship electrical power plant (EPP), ship electrical network, and power consumers. The ship electrical network in turn consists of switchboards (SB) and electric cables (feeders). The EPP includes: the main switchboard (MSB), two diesel generators (DG), a shaft generator (ShG), a turbogenerator (TG), an emergency switchboard (ESB), an emergency diesel generator (EDG), a shore supply switchboard (SSS) and power transformers. The ship power plant has two DGs of 1000 kVA (n = 1000 rpm) each, a ShG of 1375 kVA (n = 1000 rpm), a turbogenerator of 1375 kVA (n = 1000 rpm), 400 A shore supply, 160 kVA transformers: T1, T2, T3, and 63 kVA transformers: T4 and T5. Structurally, the SEPS consists of a set of control panels for monitoring and control of the drives and the power plant in the Engine control room (ECR), a set of MSW control panels, and a MSB monitoring/control set of panels.

EPP Control
EPP control is provided in the manual and automatic modes for standard and emergency situations. In the manual mode, the watch engineer can use a standard or emergency procedure to start/stop the DG, switch the generators to the parallel operation, switch to the shore supply via the power plant de-energising or switch from the shore supply to the DG.

ATTENTION!
The parallel operation of the DG and ShG is permissible for a short while only (up to 15 min) and in the manual EPP control mode. No parallel operation of four generators (DG1, DG2, ShG, and TG), neither parallel operation of ShG and TG is foreseen. The EPP enables the generators to be switched to the parallel operation both manually and automatically (generator synchronising). The automatic generator synchronising is possible with both manual and automatic EPP control modes. In case of automatic generator synchronising, the matching (equalization) of generator frequencies is carried out, so that the synchronised generators frequency is higher than the network frequency by a certain value, which depends on the EPP load and does not exceed 0.3 Hz (differential frequency). At the moment of closing the generator to the MSB buses, the following conditions are provided: the phase difference of the MSB and the synchronised generator is less than 20; whilst the synchronised generators frequency deviation (the differential frequency taken into account) from the MSB frequency should not exceed 0.1 Hz.

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Switching between the ShG (or TG) and DG is effected in the manual EPP control mode only. In the automatic mode, EPP operates with one or two DGs. The following modes of DG operation are provided for: Equal DG power mode; Optimum DG load mode; Cyclic DG load mode; Constant frequency mode.

In the equal power mode, the DGs have identical loads. In the optimum load mode, the load is distributed between the operating generators as follows: If the plant total load is more than 2 80 % of either generators power (the plant total load is equal to 2 80 %), the load is distributed between the generators in equal parts; If the plant total load is 2 25 % to 2 80 %, the higher-priority generator takes up 80 % of the power. The remainder is given over to the second generator. If the so calculated part given over to the second generator is less than 25 %, it is exactly 25 % of the total load which is given over to it, whilst the higher-priority generator takes the remaining power of more than 25 %. In case of a total load of less than 2 25 %, the lower-priority DG is taken out of operation with a time delay (first the generator circuit breaker, i.e. GCB will be switched off, then the diesel engine will shut down).

In the cyclic load distribution mode, the load is distributed between the operating generators the same as in the optimum load mode, the generator priority, however, changes in accordance with the set period. In the constant frequency mode, the load is divided between the DGs in equal parts with a more accurate stabilisation of the current frequency within 49-50 Hz limits. In this mode, the rpm governor of the higher-priority DG ensures the frequency stabilisation, whilst the rpm governor of the other DG ensures the load distribution. In all automatic control modes, if the total load on the plant is less than 2 25 % (one of the DGs is loaded to less than 25 %), the lower-priority DG is taken out of operation with time delays. The second DG is put into parallel operation when the operating DG is loaded to 80 % and more. In case of complete de-energizing of the EPP buses, it is the higher-priority DG, which is started and connected to the electrical network in the automatic mode first. The electrical power plant enables the following modes of vessels motion: Thruster operation is enabled by two DGs operating in parallel or by one ShG or TG; Sailing in the open sea is enabled by one DG or ShG or TG.

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Simulated System

ATTENTION!
No provision has been made for a long parallel operation of a DG with ShG (no more than 15 minutes). No parallel operation of four generators (DG1, DG2, ShG, and TG), neither parallel operation of ShG and TG is foreseen. There can be no operation in parallel with the shore supply. Switching to and from the shore supply involves de-energising of the plant. With the generator circuit breaker switched on, the shore supply cannot be switched on. In case of a phase wire break or a wrong phase order, the shore supply cannot be switched on either. The thruster cannot be started unless two DGs are operating simultaneously or the shaft generator (or TG) operates. The established values of consumers powers are fixed and do not change with the change of the vessels motion mode (running, manoeuvring, stay at a port).

Protection System
The protection system of the ship electrical power plant includes several levels of protection: disconnection in case of overload of specific consumers, disconnection in case of overload of consumer groups, protection of generator circuit breakers (GCB), protection of generators and generator drive protection system.

Fig. 1. Electrical Power Plant Circuit Breaker and Protection system

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulated System

During diesel generator operation:


Electrical network protection Disconnection of consumers I > Irated st 1 priority* 15 s 2 priority** 15 s
nd

GCB protection settings GCB disconnection U < 300 V I > 1.21 Irated I > 3 Irated I > 10 Irated Irev > 0.1 Irated 5s 60 s 0,4 s 0s 10 s

Generator protection

Diesel engine protection Diesel engine stop, GCB disconnection

U < 320 V U > 440 V I > 1.21 Irated I > 3 Irated Irev > 0.08 Irated f < 45 Hz

3s 3s 40 s 0.2 s 6s 4s

Cooling water temperature (output) > 95 C Oil pressure < 1.1 bar Rpm > 110 %

During Shaft-Generator operation:


Electrical network protection Disconnection of consumers I > Irated 1 priority 15 s; 2 priority 15 s
nd st

Protection settings (GCB) GCB disconnection U < 300 V I > 1.21 Irated I > 3 Irated I > 10 Irated Irev > 0.1 Irated 5s 60 s 0.4 s 0s 10 s

Shaft generator protection (ShG)

ShG drive protection ShG coupling disconnection, GCB disconnection

U < 320 B U > 440 B I > 1.21 Irated I > 3 Irated Irev > 0.08 Irated F < 45 Hz

3s 3s 40 s 0.2 s 6s 4s

Oil temperature in gear > 60 C Oil pressure < 1.5 bar

During turbogenerator operation:


Electrical network protection Disconnection of consumers I > Irated 1 priority* 15 s; 2 priority** 15 s
nd st

Protection settings (GCB) GCB disconnection U < 300 V I > 1.21 Irated I > 3 Irated I > 10 Irated Irev > 0.1 Irated 5s 60 s 0.4 s 0s 10 s

Turbogenerator protection

TG drive protection Turbine Shut Down

U < 320 B U > 440 B I > 1.21 Irated I > 3 Irated Irev > 0.08 Irated F < 45 Hz

3s 3s 40 s 0.2 s 6s 4s

the disconnected power of the 1st priority consumers on a ship with a two-stroke main diesel engine is 422.7 kW. the disconnected power of the 2nd priority consumers on a ship with a two-stroke main diesel engine is 388.7 kW, on a ship with a four-stroke diesel engine 146.5 kW. GCB settings are specified relative to the rated current (Irated) of the generator circuit breakers.

Generator protection system settings are specified relative to the generator rated currents (Irate).

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Simulated System

During shore supply connection (SS):


Electrical network protection Circuit breaker protection settings (CB) CB disconnection U < 300 V I > 1.21 Irated I > 3 Irated I > 10 Irated 5s 60 s 0.38 s 0.19 s Shore supply switchboard protection CB disconnection Incorrect phase connection

Phase break protection

During operation of the emergency diesel generator (EDG):


Electrical network protection Protection settings (GCB) GCB disconnection U < 300 V I > 1,2 Irated I > 10 Irated 6s 120 s 0.19 s Rpm > 110 % Generator protection Diesel engine protection Diesel engine stop, GCB disconnection Oil pressure < 0.8 bar

All disconnectable power plant consumers are ranked in three priorities in accordance with degree of their significance, taking into account their power demand. Consumers are disconnected as follows: after 5 s the first priority consumers will be switched off; if the generator remains overloaded, in another 15 s, the second priority consumers will be is switched off. Power of the disconnected first- and second-priority consumers are: for a vessel with a low- speed diesel engine 422.7 and 388.7 kW, for the first and the second priorities, respectively. Disconnection succession of consumers for a vessel with a low-speed diesel engine is specified in Table 1. There are also some automatically started (auto run) fixed consumers on board, enabling operation of the main power plant. In accordance with the requirements of classification societies, there is a group of fixed consumers on the ship, powered from the emergency switchboard (ESB) in case of power plant de-energising. Consumers circuit breakers have shorter time lags as compared to the generator automatic circuit breakers, which insures disconnection of faulty consumers loading the plant without turning off the generator automatic circuit breaker. This is the way the selective protection of the electrical power plant is arranged.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor



100

Automated Control Fault; Equal mode fault; Cyclic mode fault; Optimal mode fault; Const. frequency mode fault; 24 V DC Supply Fault; Transformer 1 Fault; Transformer 2 Fault; Transformer 3 Fault; Transformer 4 Fault; Transformer 5 Fault; Transformer 6 Fault.

ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulated System

Ship Electrical Network and Consumers


Purpose
The ship electrical network is designed for delivering electrical power from the ship EPP to the consumers. The ship electrical network supplies consumers with 3-phase 50 Hz AC of 380 V and 220 V as well as 24 V DC.

System Components
The ship electrical network consists of the SB and electrical cables (feeders). All the SBs and feeders are provided with automatic switches. Parameters of electrical power consumers for a vessel are specified in Table 1.
Table 1. Parameters of electrical power consumers
N EPP Load 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Instructor Variable Load Engine Room load 1 Designation Bow Thruster Warp. Winch Tr. Refcont L. O. Pump ME (1) Ranges Ship Ventilation MS Ventilation Air Conditional Deck Main Air Compressor (1) Fresh Water Pump (1) Fuel Supply Pump (1) Circulating Pump (1) Steering gear (1) Fire Pump (1) Culinar Water Switch Board Defroster Bow Cargo Space Ventilation Steering Gear (2) Fire Pump (2) L.O. Pump (2) Navigational lighting Bridge light Marine Radio Anti-panic lighting MS Light Switchboard No.6 Switchboard No.7 Voltage, V 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 380 Disconn. priority Auto run 2 2 Auto run 1 1 2 1 Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run 1 1 1 1 Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run 1 Auto run 3 3 Auto run MSB section SBB MBB3-380 MBB1-380 MBB2-380 MBB2-380 MBB2-380 MBB3-380 MBB4-380 MBB2-380 MBB1-380 MBB3-380 MBB1-380 MBB1-380 MBB1-380 MBB1-380 MBB3-380 MBB1-380 MBB3-380 EmBB-380 EmBB-380 EmBB-380 EmBB-220 EmBB-220 EmBB-220 EmBB-220 MBB1-220 MBB1-220 MBB1-220 MBB1-220 Power, kW 750 84.4 160 76.7 40 162 71 150 28.7 28.2 3.1 6.2 15 38.9 1.3 10 6.7 35.1 15 38.9 76.7 2.2 1 13.1 25.2 17.6 32 5 5 0720

Provis. Chamb. Ventilation 220

1 2 3 4

Fresh Water Pump (2) Sea Water Pump (1, 2) Exh. Boiler Pump 1 Exh. Boiler Pump 2

380 380 380 380

Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run

EmBB-380 EmBB-380 (1) MBB2-380 (2) Auto run Auto run

28.2 60 17 17

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N 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Designation TG Condenser Pump 1 TG Condenser Pump 2 Oil Circ. Pump Condenser Pump Sea Water Pump aux. FO Supply Pump (2) FO Circulating Pump (2) HFO Transfer Pump DO Transfer Pump HFO Separator LO Pump (2) LO Separator Start Air Compressor (2) Emergency Compressor Aux Blower BW Pump St. Burner (1,2) St. Burner Fan Desalinator (1, 2) Refrigerator Plant ME Automatic DG1, 2 Automatic ME Safety System Engine Telegraph Emergency Lighting

Voltage, V 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 380 24 24 24 24 24

Disconn. priority Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run 2 Auto run Auto run 2 2 2 Auto run 2 Auto run ESB Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run 2 Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run

MSB section Auto run Auto run Auto run Auto run MBB1-380 EmBB-380 EmBB-380 MBB3-380 MBB1-380 MBB2-380 EmBB-380 MBB3-380 EmBB-380 EmBB-380 EmBB-380 MBB1-380 MBB2-380 EmBB-380 (1) MBB3-380 (2) MBB2-380 MBB1-380 MBB2-380 BB-24 BB-24 BB-24 BB-24 BB-24

Power, kW 17 17 17 17 10 3.1 6.2 5.2 5.2 23 76.7 14 35.1 4 62.2 9.34 6 1 8.3 15.9 25 1 1 1 1 1

St. Feed Water Pump (1,2) 380

Circuit Breakers
Circuit breakers can be used for supplying and disconnecting power to/from the SBs and feeders of individual consumers. Parameters of circuit breakers for a vessel with a low-rpm diesel engine are specified in Table 2.
Table 2. Parameters of automatic circuit breakers for a vessel with a low-rpm diesel engine
Consumer name Diesel Generator 1 Diesel Generator 2 Turbo generator Shaft Generator Emergency Generator Shore Supply Bow Thruster Warp. Winch Tr. Ref. Containers ME LO Pump (1) Ranges Ship Ventilation MS Ventilation Air Condition Deck Circuit breaker rated current 1600 1600 2500 2500 250 400 1600 160 320 160 80 320 160 320

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulated System

Consumer name Air Compressor (1) ME FW Pump (1) ME Fuel Supply Pump (1) ME Fuel Circulating Pump (1) Steering gear pump (1) Fire Pump Culinary Water Switch Board Refrigeration plant Cargo Space Ventilation Steering Gear pump (2) Fire Pump (2) ME LO Pump (2) Navigational lighting Bridge light Marine Radio Anti-panic lighting Provision Chambers Ventilation Machinery Space Light Switchboard 6 Switchboard 7 Exh. Boiler Pump 1 Exh. Boiler Pump 2 TG Condenser Pump 1 TG Condenser Pump 2 Oil Circ. Pump Condenser Pump

Circuit breaker rated current 63 63 20 20 32 80 20 20 20 80 32 80 160 20 20 25 50 32 63 20 20 32 32 32 32 32 32

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Simulated System

Automatic Circuit Breakers


Diesel Generator, Shaft Generator and Turbo Generator and Automatic Circuit Breakers (Generator Circuit Breakers)
Purpose The automatic circuit breakers (generator circuit breakers GCB) are used for protection of generators. GCB Components A generator CB (GCB) consists of: Electric motor for the automatic winding of springs; Electric magnets for remote turn-on; Release for GCB remote turn-off; Switching springs, contacts (main, preliminary, arc suppressing), arc suppressing chambers, time relay, current release, zero uncouplers, maximum uncouplers; GCB switch on/off buttons; A level for the manual winding of springs; A switch of power supply to the GCB.

The automatic circuit breakers are actuated in two stages: winding of the springs and switching on. The winding of the springs is done manually by using a handle or by means of an electric motor (automatic winding), with the GCB turned off by pressing DISCONNECT button. In the initial state, the springs are in the wound up state. The GCB is turned on by pressing CONNECT button, but only after the GCB is connected to the power supply. When the GCB is actuated for protection, the springs are not wound automatically, and to turn on the circuit breaker again, it is necessary to wind the springs manually. The GCB has the following protections: Zero protection (U0 = 300 V = 0.75 Urated, is actuated after 5 s); Generator current overload protection (I = 1.21 Irated, is actuated after 60 s); Current overload in the short circuit zone (I = 3 Irated, is actuated after 0.4 s); Short circuit protection (I = 10 Irated, is actuated without a time delay); Reverse power protection (reverse current > 0.1 Irated, is actuated after 10 s).

GCB Controls GCB controls are arranged in a MSB section and include: GCB power switch; GCB turn-on CONNECT highlighted button; GCB turn-off DISCONNECT highlighted button; A handle for the manual winding of the power supply springs.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulated System

Emergency Generator and Shore Supply Circuit Breakers


Purpose The CB considered here is used for protection of the emergency generator and the shore supply. GCB Components A generator CB consists of: Thermal relay operating (indirectly via the minimum voltage trip) the uncoupling shaft of the switch; Fast-operating uncoupler; Mechanical retarder; Independent uncoupler; Switch-on springs and the electric motor for their winding; GCB switch on/off buttons; CB power switch.

CB is switched on automatically when the voltage on the generator terminals reaches the value of 0.85 Urated. The springs are wound up by the electric motor automatically, when CB is switched on. CB is switched off by the independent uncoupler, when voltage appears on the MSBs buses. The GCB has the following protection: Zero protection (line voltage is less than 300 V (0.75 Urated), actuated after 6 s); Generator current overload protection (I = 1.2 Irated, is actuated after 120 s); Short circuit protection (I = 10 Irated, is actuated after 0.19 s).

The SCB has the following protection: Zero protection (line voltage is less than 300 V (0.75 Urated), actuated after 6 s); Generator current overload protection (I = 1.21 Irated, is actuated after 60 s); Generator current overload protection (I = 3 Irated, is actuated after 0.38 s); Short circuit protection (I = 10 Irated, is actuated after 0.19 s); Protection in case of a phase break (actuated without time delay).

CB Controls CB controls are arranged in a MSB section and include: GCB power switch; CB turn-on CONNECT highlighted button; CB turn-off DISCONNECT highlighted button.

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Simulated System

Insulation Monitoring
Purpose
The insulation monitoring instruments are designed for checking the insulation of sections DG1, DG2, TG, ShG, EDG, synchronising section, 380V consumers connected to buses MBB 1, and 220 V bus consumers.

Components
Insulation monitoring is provided by two megohmmeters with switches. The first megohmmeter is designed for checking the insulation of 380 V AC consumers, DG1, and DG2, whilst the second one is used for checking the insulation of the TG, ShG, EDG and synchronising section. A separate megohmmeter for checking the insulation of 220 V AC consumers is installed on 220 V AC switchboard.

Switches
A megohmmeter can be switched over with the aid of its four-position selector switch provided with an OFF option too.

Monitored Parameters and Indicators


The subject of monitoring is the insulation resistance, which should be between 0.1 and 0.5 M.

Diesel Generator
Purpose
The diesel generator is designed for generating electrical power on the ship.

Components
For power generation, the ship electric power plant uses brushless three-phase synchronous generators with an implicit-pole rotor (400 V, 50 Hz, cos = 0.8). The synchronous generator has a three-phase current exciter with external poles, a rotating rectifier unit, electronic excitation and regulating device for the exciter, voltage limiter and stopover heating. The stopover heating is switched off automatically when the generators are connected to the buses. The generator power depends on the type and power of the main power plant. EPP has two DGs of 1000 kVA (n = 1000 rpm) each.

DG Control System
The DG control system located in the MSBs generator section, includes: Controller of the automatic voltage regulator (AVR), which allows varying the generator voltage between 370 V and 430 V; Buttons (more/less) for changing specified engine rpm, which allows changing them within 10 % of their rated value; GCB control buttons; the DEMAGNETIZATION button for damping the electromagnetic field (automatic field-damping device) protected against an accidental depressing.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulated System

DG Monitoring System
The DG monitoring system includes the following instruments: An ammeter with a phase switch; A voltmeter with line voltage switch; Frequency indicator; Active-power wattmeter; Reactive-power meter.

The monitoring system also includes the following indicator lamps: Diesel engine status indicator (STOP, RUN engine RPM of more than 80 % of its rated value); Indicator of voltage type (power supply type) on the MSB buses (standard: DG or ShG are operating; emergency: EDG is operating; and shore supply: MCB is powered from the shore cable).

DG Alarm System
The DG alarm system includes the following indicators: Indicator of voltage drop on the generator terminals (line voltage of less than 320 V (0.8 Urated) for 1 s (time delay); Generator overload (generator current of more than Irated for 1 s); High stator temperature (the stator hardware temperature being higher than 65 C for 30 s); Short circuit of the generator windings (generator current being more than 3 Irated), the generator has changed to the motor mode and is loading the EPP (the generators reverse power is more than 0.08 Prated for 1 s); The diesel engine is not warmed up (freshwater temperature after engine is lower than 35 C).

DG Protection System
The DG protection system switches the GCB off, if: The generator changes to the motor mode and loads the EPP (the generators reverse power in more than 0.08 Prated for 6 s); The line voltage is less than 320 V (0.8 Urated) for more than 3 s; The line voltage is higher than 440 V (1.1 Urated) for more than 3 s; The generator if overloaded (generator current is higher than 1.21 Irated for 40 s); Generator is short-circuited (generator current is more than 3 Irated for 0.2 s); The generator RPM is reduced (the electrical current frequency is less than 45 Hz without time delay.

DG is also protected by the GCB protection system. GCB cannot be turned on, when the shore supply switchboard (SSS) is energized from ashore.

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Simulated System

Turbogenerator
Purpose
The turbogenerator (TG) is designed for generating electrical power on the ship.

Components
For power generation, the ship electric power plant uses brushless three-phase synchronous generators with an implicit-pole rotor (400 V, 50 Hz, cos = 0.8). The synchronous generator has a three-phase current exciter with external poles, a rotating rectifier unit, an electronic excitation and regulating device for the exciter, and a voltage limiter. EPP has a 1375 kVA TG (n = 1000 rpm).

TG Controls
The TG control system located in the MSBs generator section includes: the controller of the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) for varying the generator voltage between 370 V and 430 V; the buttons for changing specified turbine rpm; GCB control buttons; the demagnetisation button for damping the electromagnetic field (automatic fielddamping device) protected against an accidental depressing.

TG Monitoring System
TG monitoring system includes the following instruments: an ammeter with a phase switch; a voltmeter with line voltage switch; a frequency indicator; an active-power wattmeter and a reactive-power meter. The monitoring system also includes the following indicator lamps: Turbine status indicator (STOP, RUN turbine RPM exceeding 80 % of the rated value); Indicator of voltage type (power supply type) on the MSB buses (standard: DG, ShG, or TG are operating; emergency: EDG is operating; and shore supply: MCB is powered from the shore cable); READY TO CONTROL indicator readiness for control (turbine RPM are equal to the nominal value, and the main maneuvering value can be operated); READY TO SYNCHRONIZATION indicator frequency is of the rated value 5%.

TG Alarm System
The TG alarm system includes the following indicators: Indicator of voltage drop on the generator terminals (line voltage of less than 320 V (0.8 Urated) for 1 s (time delay); Generator overload (generator current of more than Irated for 1 s); High stator temperature (the stator hardware temperature being higher than 65 C for 30 s); Short circuit of the generator windings (generator current being more than 3 Irated); The generator has changed to the motor mode and is loading the EPP (the generators reverse power is more than 0.08 Prated for 1 s).

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulated System

TG Protection System
The TG protection system switches the GCB off, if: The generator changes to the motor mode and loads the EPP (the generators reverse power in more than 0.08 Prated for 6 s); The line voltage is less than 320 V (0.8 Urated) for more than 3 s; The line voltage is higher than 440 V (1.1 Urated) for more than 3 s; The generator overload (generator current is higher than 1.21 Irated for 40 s); Generator short circuit (generator current of more than 3 Irate for 0.2 s); The generator RPM are reduced (the electrical current frequency is less than 45 Hz without time delay).

TG is protected by GCB too (see the section Automatic circuit breakers). GCB cannot be turned on, when the shore supply switchboard (SSS) is energized from ashore.

Common Failures
The most probable (common) generator failures are as follows: rise of the generator voltage in case of single-generator operation (AVR feedback break); GCB failure (break); AVR controller failure (break).

Shaft Generator
Purpose
The shaft generator (ShG) is designed for developing electric power from the main engine.

Components
For a ShG, the ship EPP uses a brushless three-phase synchronous generators with an implicit-pole rotor (400 V, 50 Hz, cos = 0.8, n = 1000 rpm). The synchronous generator has a three-phase current exciter with external poles, a rotating rectifier unit, electronic excitation and regulating device for the exciter, voltage limiter, and stopover heating. The stopover heating is switched off automatically, when the generators get closed to the buses. The ShG power depends on the type and power of the main power plant. EPP of a vessel with a low-rpm diesel engine has a 1375 kVA ShG (n = 1000 rpm).

ShG Control System


The ShG control system located on the ShG switchboard, includes: Controller of the automatic voltage regulator (AVR); GCB control buttons; The DEMAGNETISATION button for damping the electromagnetic field (automatic field-damping device) protected against an accidental depressing; ShG excitation switch on/off buttons.

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Simulated System

ShG Monitoring System


The ShG monitoring system includes the following measuring instruments: An ammeter with a phase switch; A voltmeter with line voltage switch; A frequency meter; Active-power wattmeter; Reactive-power meter.

The monitoring system also includes volume type (power supply type) indicating lamps on the MSB buses (standard, emergency, and shore supply).

ShG Generator Alarm System


The ShG generator alarm system includes the following indicators: Indicator of voltage drop on the generator terminals (line voltage of less than 320 V (0.8 Urated) for 1 s (time delay); Short circuit of the generator windings (generator current is more than 3 Irated); Generator overload (generator current of more than Irated for 1 s); High stator temperature (the stator hardware temperature being higher than 65 C for 30 s); The generator has changed to the motor mode and is loading the EPP (the generators reverse power is more than 0.08 Prated for 1 s).

ShG Generator Protection System


ShG protection system switches GCB in the following cases: The generator changes to the motor mode and loads the EPP (the generators reverse power in more than 0.08 Prated for 6 s); The line voltage is less than 320 V (0.8 Urated) for more than 3 s; The line voltage is higher than 440 V (1.1 Urated) for more than 3 s; The generator overload (generator current is higher than 1.21 Irated for 40 s); Generator short circuit (generator current of more than 3 Irated for 0.2 s); The generator RPM is reduced (the electrical current frequency is less than 45 Hz without time delay).

GCB cannot be turned on, when the shore supply switchboard (SSS) is energized from ashore.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulated System

Emergency Diesel Generator


Purpose
The emergency generator (EDG) is designed for generating electric power on the ship in an emergency (in case of basic source failure, i.e. DG1, DG2, and ShG or TG).

Components
For an EDG, the ship EPP uses a brushless three-phase synchronous generators with an implicit-pole rotor (400 V, 50 Hz, cos = 0.8, n = 1000 rpm). The synchronous generator has a three-phase current exciter with external poles, a rotating rectifier unit, electronic excitation and regulating device for the exciter, voltage limiter and stopover heating. The stopover heating is switched off automatically when the generators are connected to the buses. The EDG power depends on the type and power of the main power plant. EPP has a 121 kVA EG (n = 1000 rpm).

Control System
The EDG control system located on the emergency switchboard includes GCB control buttons.

Monitoring System
The EDG monitoring system includes the following measuring instruments: An ammeter with a phase switch; A voltmeter with line voltage switch; Frequency indicator; Active-power wattmeter.

Alarm System
The EDG generator alarm system includes the following indicators: Indicator of voltage drop on the starting accumulator battery (less than 21.5 V); Voltage drop on the generator terminals (line voltage of less than 320 V (0.8 Urated) for 1 s (time delay); Generator overload (generator current of more than Irated for 1 s); High stator temperature (the stator hardware temperature being higher than 65 C for 30 s); Short circuit of the generator windings (generator current is more than 3 Irated).

Protection System
There is no EDG protection system. The EDG protection is provided by the automatic switching off of the GCB. The EDG circuit breaker is also switched off by an independent release without time delay at an external signal when the voltage on the MSB grows to more than 340 V without time delay.

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Simulated System

Shore Supply Switchboard


Purpose
Shore power supply can be used for energizing the ship consumers during her stay at the pier.

Shore Power Supply Components


The shore power supply consists of the shore supply switchboard and electrical cables for the shore connection. The EPP has a shore supply switchboard for 400 A.

Controls
The shore power supply controls are arranged on the shore supply switchboard and include: Shore supply circuit-breaker CONNECT and DISCONNECT buttons with illumination; Shore supply circuit breaker power switch.

If the MSB is energized, shore supply cannot be connected.

Monitoring System
The shore supply monitoring system includes the following instruments and indicators: Shore supply voltmeter; Shore supply ammeter; RIGHT and WRONG indicator lamps; CONNECT and DISCONNECT status indicators (illuminated buttons) of the shore supply circuit breaker; Indicator of voltage on the MSB buses (Power ON).

Alarm System
The alarm system includes the following indicators: A phase wire break indicator; A short circuit indicator.

Protection System
The shore supply protection is provided by the switching off of the shore supply circuit breaker without time delay in the following cases: Incorrect phase connection or There is power on the MSB buses (voltage on the MSW buses is higher than 340 V).

The shore supply circuit breaker is also switched off in connection with its own protection.

Faults Introduced by the Instructor



112

Shore supply phase breaking; Shore supply wrong phase; Shore supply disable; Shore supply circuit breaker fault.

ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulated System

Main Switchboard (MSB)


Purpose
MSB is the central point of power distribution among the onboard power consumers.

Components
MSB consists of the DG1, DG2, ShG, TG generator sections, the synchronization section, and 220 V/380 V consumers.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


DG 1 (DG2) Section Insulation low; Circuit breaker fault; Voltage Control feedback breaking; Voltage Control Fault; Generator Short Circuit; Generator Stator High temperature; RPM Governor Control fault. Circuit breaker fault; Voltage Control feedback breaking; Voltage Control Fault; Generator Short Circuit; Generator Stator High temperature. Insulation low; Circuit breaker fault; Voltage Control feedback breaking; Voltage Control Fault; Generator Short Circuit; Generator Stator High temperature.

TG Section

ShG Section

380V Consumer Section Short circuit, overcurrent and low insulation is modelled for each of the consumers: Bow Thruster/Short Circuit; LO Pump 1/Short Circuit; Fire Pump 1/Short Circuit; Air Compressor 1/Short Circuit; FW Pump 1/Short Circuit; SG Pump 1/Short Circuit; FO Circulation Pump 1/Short Circuit; FO Supply Pump 1/Short Circuit;

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Simulated System


114

Transformer Ref. Containers/Short Circuit; Warp Winch/Short Circuit; Machinery Space Ventilation/Short Circuit; Ship Ventilation/Short Circuit; Air Condition/Short Circuit; Ranges (Galley)/Short Circuit; Cargo Space Ventilation/Short Circuit; Switch Board 5/Short Circuit; Ref. Plant/Short Circuit; Culinary water/Short Circuit; Bow Thruster/Overcurrent; LO Pump 1/Overcurrent; Fire Pump 1/Overcurrent; Air Compressor 1/Overcurrent; FW Pump 1/Overcurrent; SG Pump 1/Overcurrent; FO Circulation Pump 1/Overcurrent; FO Supply Pump 1/Overcurrent; Transformer Ref. Containers/Overcurrent; Warp Winch/Overcurrent; Machinery Space Ventilation/Overcurrent; Ship Ventilation/Overcurrent; Air Condition/Overcurrent; Ranges (Galley)/Overcurrent; Cargo Space Ventilation/Overcurrent; Switch Board 5/Overcurrent; Ref. Plant/Overcurrent; Culinary water/Overcurrent; LO Pump 1/Low Insulation; Fire Pump 1/Low Insulation; Air Compressor 1/Low Insulation; FW Pump 1/Low Insulation; SG Pump 1/Low Insulation; FO Circulation Pump 1/Low Insulation; FO Supply Pump 1/Low Insulation; Transformer Ref. Containers/Low Insulation; Warp Winch/Low Insulation; Machinery Space Ventilation/Low Insulation;

ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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Ship Ventilation/Low Insulation; Air Condition/Low Insulation; Ranges (Galley)/Low Insulation; Cargo Space Ventilation/Low Insulation; Switch Board 5/Low Insulation; Ref. Plant/Low Insulation; Culinary water/Low Insulation.

220V Consumer Section Short circuit, overcurrent and low insulation is modelled for each of the consumers: Machinery Space light/Short Circuit; Provision Chambers ventilation/Short Circuit; Switch Board 6/Short Circuit; Switch Board 7/Short Circuit; Machinery Space light/Overcurrent; Provision Chambers ventilation/Overcurrent; Switch Board 6/Overcurrent; Switch Board 7/Overcurrent; Machinery Space light/Low Insulation; Provision Chambers ventilation/Low Insulation; Switch Board 6/Low Insulation.

Synchronization Section Automatic Synchronizing fault.

Emergency Switchboard (ESB)


Purpose
ESB is designed for providing a certain part of onboard consumers with power from EDG.

ESB Components
ESB is composed of the EDG generator section, 24V/220B/380V consumer section, and the accumulator battery (AB) charging unit section.

AB Charging Unit Controls


Controls include: On/off switches for connection/disconnection of batteries (#1, #2, #3, #4) to/from the charging unit; On/off switches for the battery room fan; Knob for battery charging current adjustment.

AB Charging Unit Monitoring System


The AB charging unit monitoring system includes: Voltmeter with a switch for monitoring the battery capacity; Ammeter with a switch for checking the charging current value.

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AB Charging Unit Alarm System


The alarm system includes a short circuit current indicator.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Charging unit: Charger (baretter) fault. EDG Section Insulation low; Circuit breaker fault; Generator Short Circuit; Generator Stator High temperature.

380V Consumer Section Short circuit, overcurrent and low insulation is modelled for each of the consumers:
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LO Pump 2/Short Circuit; Aux. Blower/Short Circuit; Fire Pump 2/Short Circuit; SW Pump/Short Circuit; FW Pump 2/Short Circuit; SG Pump 2/Short Circuit; FO Circulating Pump 2/Short Circuit; Emergency Compressor/Short Circuit; FO Supply pump 2/Short Circuit; SP Burner/Short Circuit; LO Pump 2/Overcurrent; Aux. Blower/Overcurrent; Fire Pump 2/Overcurrent; SW Pump/Overcurrent; FW Pump 2/Overcurrent; SG Pump 2/Overcurrent; FO Circulating Pump 2/Overcurrent; Emergency Compressor/Overcurrent; FO Supply pump 2/Overcurrent; SP Burner/Overcurrent; LO Pump 2/Low Insulation; Aux. Blower/Low Insulation; Fire Pump 2/Low Insulation; SW Pump/Low Insulation; FW Pump 2/Low Insulation; SG Pump 2/Low Insulation;

ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

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FO Circulating Pump 2/Low Insulation; Emergency Compressor/Low Insulation; FO Supply pump 2/Low Insulation.

220V Consumer Section Short circuit, overcurrent and low insulation is modelled for each of the consumers: Nav. Lighting/Short Circuit; Marine radio/Short Circuit; Antipanic lighting/Short Circuit; Bridge light/Short Circuit; Nav. Lighting/Overcurrent; Marine radio/Overcurrent; Antipanic lighting/Overcurrent; Bridge light/Overcurrent; Nav. Lighting/Low Insulation; Marine radio/Low Insulation; Antipanic lighting/Low Insulation; Bridge light/Low Insulation.

24V Consumer Section Short circuit, overcurrent and low insulation is modelled for each of the consumers: ME Automation/Short Circuit; DG1, 2 Automation/Short Circuit; ME Safety System/Short Circuit; Engine Telegraph/Short Circuit; Emergency Lighting/Short Circuit; ME Automation/Overcurrent; DG1, 2 Automation/Overcurrent; ME Safety System/Overcurrent; Engine Telegraph/Overcurrent; Emergency Lighting/Overcurrent; ME Automation/Low Insulation; DG1, 2 Automation/Low Insulation; ME Safety System/Low Insulation; Engine Telegraph/Low Insulation; Emergency Lighting/Low Insulation.

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Auxiliary Diesel Engine


Purpose
The diesel engine is the generators drive motor and is designed for rotating the generator rotor. The generator is driven by a four-stroke non-reversible medium RPM turbo charged diesel engine operating on light or heavy diesel fuel. The number and power of these diesel engines are determined by the ship electrical power plant configuration/capacity.

Components
The diesel consists of the diesel engine per se and its auxiliary systems, which include: Diesel engine control system; Start air system; Lubrication oil system; Fuel oil system; Freshwater cooling system; Seawater cooling system.

The aforelisted systems are constituents of the corresponding united (i.e., included in the Main Engine) systems of the vessel. See the Technical description of the SEPS simulator module for detailed description of these systems. EPP of a ship with a low-rpm main engine has two auxiliary diesel engines of 883 kW (n = 1000 rpm) each.

Control System
The diesel control system consists of a automatic remote control remote automatic control (RAC) system, which includes start preparation subsystem, start and stop subsystems, an engine RPM governor; a diesel protection system and an alarm system. The RAC system allows the following operations to be performed: Warm up of a non-operating diesel engine; Preliminary, intermittent or constant lubrication of the non-operating diesel engine; Standard or emergency start/stop of the diesel engine.

The non-operating diesel is warmed up by opening the cut-off valves and connecting the auxiliary diesels freshwater cooling system to the ships freshwater system. The rate of the diesel warming up and the gained temperature value will depend on the freshwater temperature and pressure at the diesel inlet. The preliminary lubrication of a non-operating diesel engine is effected by means of permanent (RUN mode) or periodic (AUTO mode) switching on of the electric oil priming pump installed on the auxiliary diesel engine. The standard start of the diesel is effected if the oil pressure is not less than 2 Bar. When the oil pressure is less than 2 bar oil priming pump is switched on. With the oil pressure of not less than 2 Bar and freshwater and lubricating oil temperature of not less than 20 C, the start air is supplied. As the diesel gains 20 % of the rated RPM, fuel is fed and RPM grows to 80 % of its rated value (warming up idling revolutions). At this rate the cooling water and diesel lubricating oil are heated to 35 C. When this temperature is reached, the RPM is brought to the rated value, and the diesel is ready to accept 50 % of load. After another 2 minutes, the diesel is ready for 100 % load.

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In case of an emergency start, no check of oil pressure and freshwater temperature is performed at the start stage. In an emergency start, no oil priming or engine warm-up at the intermediate rate is effected either. After three successive start failures, the automatic start is locked. A start attempt is assumed to be a failure, if: The engine does not develop 20 % of its rate rpm during 15 s, when operating on start air; The engine stops after fuel is supplied; The engine does not develop 80 % of its rated rpm in 15 s after fuel is supplied.

A standard shutdown of the diesel engine cannot be effected, unless the GCB is ON. In case of a standard engine shutdown, the engine is brought down to 80 % of its rated RPM and is kept at these RPM for 2 minutes. The engine is then stopped by cutting off the fuel supply. In case of an emergency engine shutdown, switch off GCB and cut off the fuel supply.

Monitoring System
The diesel engine monitoring system includes the following instruments: Engine crankshaft rpm meter; Lub. oil pressure gauge; Pressure gauge for the start air line before engine; Pressure gauge for freshwater cooling before engine; Pressure gauge for the seawater cooling line; Temperature gauge for the freshwater temperature after engine.

Diesel Alarm System


The alarm system contains the following indicators: Freshwater temperature of more than 90 C after engine; Lubricating oil (SAE40) temperature of more than 75 C before the oil cooler; Lubricating oil pressure of less than 1.5 bar; Exhaust gas temperature of more than 465 C after the turbocharger turbine; Start air pressure of less than 8 bar; Engine start failure (three attempts failed); Low lubricating oil level in the service tank; Low fuel oil level in the service tank.

The latter signal arrives to the engine alarm system from the combined ship fuel system.

Diesel Engine Protection System


The diesel engine protection system includes the following sensors: Freshwater temperature of more than 90 C after engine; Oil pressure of more than 1.1 bar; Engine rpm is more than 110 % of its rated value.

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At the signal from these sensors, the protection system switches the GCB off and stops the engine by cutting off the fuel supply; in case of a stop caused by the excessive RPM, the air supply is also stopped. The protection system is turned on as the engine RPM grows to 60 % of its rated value. To reset the protection system after its actuation, press RESET button.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Fuel feed breaking; Fuel Level low; Exhaust valve jamming; RPM Governor jamming; Lub. Oil Pump is sucking-up the air; Oil Level low; Lub. Oil Cooler obstructed.

Turbogenerator Drive
Purpose
The turbogenerator drive (TG) is a steam turbine designed to rotate the generator rotor.

Components
The turbogenerator drive consists of a reduction gearbox and a steam turbine.

Control System
TG drive control system arranged on the central control room switchboard includes the main maneuvering valve control buttons.

Monitoring System
TG drive monitoring system includes the following instruments and indicators: the gearbox oil temperature gauge and pressure gauge, the generator R.P.M. meter; steam pressure indicator before the main maneuvering valve.

Alarm System
TG drive alarm system includes the following indicators: Low lube oil pressure indicator; High lube oil temperature indicator; Turbine overspeed indicator; Indicator of high level in the turbine condenser; Indicator of vacuum loss in the turbine condenser.

Common Failures
The most likely turbine failures are as follows:
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Increase of oil temperature in the gearbox (above 60 C) lube oil system failure; Drop of oil temperature in the gearbox (oil leakage) oil pressure less than 1.5 bar; Turbine overspeed; High level in the turbine condenser; Vacuum loss in the condenser.

ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulated System

Shaft Generator Drive


Purpose
The shaft generator (ShG) drive is designed for driving the ShG from the main engine.

Components
The ShG drive consists of a step-up gearbox, flexible coupling with a pneumatic drive and a ShG.

Control System
ShG drive control system arranged on the central control room switchboard includes the coupling switch on/off buttons.

ATTENTION!
Switch the clutch ON, when ME revolutions are equal to the vessels slow or deadslow speed.

Monitoring System
The ShG drive control system includes the following measuring instruments and indicators: Gearbox oil pressure gauge; Gearbox oil temperature gauge; ShG rotor RPM meter; Indicator of the coupling readiness for switching on (oil pressure in the gearbox is more than 2 bar; temperature is more than 30 C); Indicator of ShG readiness for synchronising ShG (RPM deviation is within 5 % of the rated RPM and the generator excitation is switched on).

Alarm System
ShG drive alarm system includes the following indicators: Coupling failure indicator (failure to switch the coupling on/off) Clutch Fault; Indicator of the low ShG rotor RPM (the ShG rotor RPM is less than 90 % of its rated value) Under Speed.

Protection System
The protection system includes the following sensors: of temperature (oil temperature in the gearbox is more than 60 C); of pressure (oil pressure is less than 1.5 bar).

At the signals received from these sensors, the protection system turns off the GCB and turns off (disengages) the coupling and disengages the gearbox from the ShG. The system is actuated, when the ShG rotor RPM grows to 60 % of its rated value. To reset the protection system after the actuation, press RESET button.

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System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Gear lub. Oil low Pressure low pressure of gearbox lube oil; Lub. Oil system fault a fault in the gearbox lubrication system, increase of lube oil temperature; Clutch control Air low pressure low pressure of clutch control air, clutch control failure.

Emergency Diesel Engine


Purpose
The emergency diesel engine is designed for driving the EG. A four-stroke nonreversible medium RPM turbocharged diesel engine operating on light fuel is used as the emergency diesel engine. The emergency engines power is determined by the capacity of the ship electrical power plant.

Components
The diesel engine of the emergency unit consists of the diesel engine per se and the engine systems, which include: Diesel engine control system; Lubrication system; Fuel oil system; Freshwater cooling system; Seawater cooling system.

All these systems are self-sustained. EPP of a ship with a low-rpm main engine has an emergency diesel engine of 92.7 kW (n = 1000 rpm).

Control System
The emergency diesel control system consists of the following: Remote automatic control (RAC) system; RPM governor; Engine protection system and Alarm system.

The engine of the emergency unit is installed in a heated room with a temperature of not less than 2530 C. No preliminary warming up or lubricating oil priming is required. The engine is started if voltage disappears on the MSB (voltage of less than 300 V 0.75 Urated for more than 3 s). An electric starter is used for starting the emergency generator engine. A fully charged accumulator battery provides 5 successive starts. The engine stops after the switching off of the GCB, which is switched off when the voltage appears on the FCB buses (voltage of more than 340 V). When being stopped, the engine is brought down to 80 % of its rated RPM and is maintained at this RPM for 1 minute. The engine is then stopped by cutting off the fuel supply. In case of three unsuccessful start attempts, the automatic start is blocked.

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A start attempt is assumed to be a failure, if: The engine does not develop 20 % of its rate crankshaft rpm in 15 s; The engine stops after fuel is supplied; The engine does not develop 80 % of its rated rpm in 15 s after the fuel is supplied.

Monitoring System
The diesel engine monitoring system includes the following instruments: R.P.M. meter; Lub. oil pressure gauge; Pressure gauge for freshwater cooling before engine; Pressure gauge for the seawater cooling line.

Alarm System
The alarm system contains the following maximum and minimum indicators: Readiness for the start (accumulator battery voltage of more than 21.5 V), voltage in the automatic system of less than 21 V; Lubricating oil pressure of less than 1.5 bar; Engine start failure (three attempts failed); Freshwater temperature of more than 90 C after engine; Low lubricating oil level; low full oil level in the service tank; Lubricating oil (SAE40) temperature of more than 75 C before the oil cooler; Exhaust gas temperature of more than 465 C after the turbocharger turbine.

Protection System
The protection system includes: Minimum oil pressure sensor (lubricating oil pressure of less than 0.8 bar) and The maximum rpm sensor (engine rpm at 110 % of its rated value).

At the signal from these sensors, the protection system switches the GCB off and stops the engine by cutting off the fuel supply; in case of a stop caused by the excessive RPM, the air supply is also stopped. The protection system is turned on as the engine RPM grows to 60 % of its rated value. To reset the protection system after its actuation, press RESET button.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Fuel feed breaking no fuel, failure to start the engine; Fuel Level low low fuel level in the tank; Exhaust valve jamming exhaust valve jam, increase of exhaust gas temperature; RPM Governor jamming RPM Governor jam, engine overspeed; Lub. Oil Pump is sucking-up the air oil pump output failure, low oil pressure; Oil Level low low oil level in the tank; Lub. Oil Cooler obstructed oil cooler dirty, lube oil temperature increase.

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SIMULATOR CONTROL PANELS


SEPS controls, indicators, and alarms are distributed on several simulator screen pages according to the systems they belong to; in addition, some pages contain the main current circuit and the summary information on alarm actuation for all systems. See Fig. 2 for a structural diagram of screen panels.
Simulator controls Panels for monitoring and control of machinery and systems Page leaf-over buttons PP control panel

Fig. 2. Screen panel structural diagram

See Fig. 35 for appearance of some panels.

Fig. 3. Main circuit diagram

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Fig. 4. Panel for DG1 and power plant control

Fig. 5. MSB. Load distribution and insulation monitoring panels

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SEPS Control Panel


The SEPS control panel (see Fig. 6) is designed for assigning a SEPS operation mode. The control panel includes: Control mode switch (CONTROL MODE); DG priority switch (PRIORITY); SEPS operation submode selection buttons, when in the automatic control mode (AUTO MODES EQUAL, OPTIMAL, CYCLIC, CONST FREQ.).

The power plant status switch (CONTROL MODE) is designed for switching between the manual and automatic control of SEPS. The CONTROL MODE switch has two positions: AUTO automatic mode of power plant control; MANUAL manual mode of power plant control.

The priority switch (PRIORITY) for diesel generators is designed for selecting the priority (first to start) diesel generator (DG1 or DG2), when SEPS is in the automatic mode. The PRIORITY switch has two positions: DG1 the higher-priority generator is diesel generator 1; DG2 the higher-priority generator is diesel generator 2.
Fig. 6. SEPS control panel

The SEPS automatic control mode selection buttons (AUTO MODES) are designed for selection of a generator load mode in the automatic mode (i.e., the buttons are active only in case SEPS is in the automatic mode).

The PP automatic operation system can be in one of the following modes: EQUAL equal power mode, i.e. the mode, when the generators are loaded uniformly; OPTIMAL the best DG load mode. In this mode, the higher-priority generator is loaded more than the other one; CYCLIC cyclic load mode. In this mode, the generators are loaded just like they are in the OPTIMAL mode, the generator priority, however, changes in accordance with the set period; CONST FREQ. constant frequency mode. In this mode, the load is divided between the DGs in equal parts with a more accurate stabilization of the current frequency within 49-50 Hz limits. In this mode, the RPM governor of the higherpriority DG ensures the frequency stabilization, whilst the RPM governor of the other DG ensures the load distribution.

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Auxiliary Diesel Generator Control Panel


The auxiliary diesel generator control panel is designed for: Monitoring driving diesel engine parameters; Preheating the diesel engine; Starting preliminary oil circulation in the engine; Starting the diesel engine (standard and emergency procedures); Stopping the diesel engine (standard and emergency procedures).

To perform these functions, the panel includes: Diesel engine controls; Diesel engine condition indicating meters; Alarm system; Protection (safety) system (PS).

See Fig. 7 for the auxiliary diesel engine control panel.

Fig. 7. Auxiliary diesel control panel

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Auxiliary Diesel Engine System Control Panel


The diesel engine system control panel: Oil priming control mode switch (PRELUBRICATION) OFF/AUTO/RUN modes;

Diesel engine warm up control buttons (PREHEATING) On-Off;

START and EMERGENCY START buttons, and STOP and EMERGENCY STOP buttons.

The oil priming control mode switch (PRELUBRICATION) is designed for establishing a mode of operation for the electric oil-priming pump, it has three positions: OFF, RUN, and AUTO. To establish a mode of operation for the oilpriming pump, set the switch to the required position using the mouse: OFF mode the oil priming pump doesnt run; RUN mode the oil priming pump starts and brings the oil pressure to 2.5 bar; AUTO mode the oil-priming pump runs intermittently (pumping oil for 5 min after each 20-minute break).

The diesel engine warm-up control buttons (PREHEATING) are designed for control of diesel engine preheating. The ON button provides for opening of the freshwater cut-off valve and connection of the diesel engine freshwater cooling system to the united (with the ME) system of freshwater cooling system. The OFF button is used for closing the cut-off valve. Diesel engine startup and shutdown is performed using four buttons. For a standard (regular) diesel engine startup, press the START button. In this case, if pressure in the lubrication system is below 2.0 bar, the electric oil-priming pump will be switched on prior to air supply. When the pressure reaches a specified value, the engine will be started. To start the engine in emergency, press the EMCY START button. In this case, the engine will be started without a check of initial pressure of oil, gaining its rated RPM in minimum time. The diesel engine is stopped using the STOP button, only if the generator circuit breaker (GCB) is off. In case of a standard engine stop, the diesel engine is brought down to 80 % of its rated RPM and is maintained at this RPM for 2 minutes. The engine is then stopped by cutting off the fuel supply. In case of an emergency engine stop, for which the EMCY STOP button is used, the GCB is switched off automatically and the fuel supply is cut off immediately.

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The EMCY START and EMCY STOP buttons have the first priority. If the engine is started by using first the START button, and then the EMCY START button, it will be started according to the Emergency Start program from the moment of pressing the EMCY START button. In this case, no return to the standard start program is possible. The STOP and EMCY STOP buttons have a similar way of operation.

Diesel Engine Protection System Panel


The diesel engine protection system (or SAFETY SYSTEM) is designed for protecting the engine against damage. The protection system becomes armed after engine crankshaft speed has reached a level of 60 % of the rated value. The protection system state is monitored by the ON indicator (the system is armed and ready) and the OFF indicator (the system is off or has been actuated). On actuation, the protection system performs an emergency engine shutdown procedure. This is accompanied by an acoustic signal, after which the system locks any attempt to start the engine again. The protection system can be unlocked after actuation, using the RESET button.

The protection system is actuated under the following conditions: Auxiliary diesel engine RPM is more than 110 % of its rated value (OVER SPEED indicator); The oil pressure in the last lubrication point is below 1.5 bar (LOW LO PRESS indicator); Freshwater temperature in the cooling system after engine is above 95 C (HIGH FW T indicator).

Diesel Engine Condition Indicating Meters


The diesel engine status indicating meters are used for monitoring the most important parameters of the running or stopped engine, among them being:

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R.P.M meter showing engine speed (revolutions per minutes); LO PRESSURE gauge showing oil pressure in the last lubrication point (bar); STARTING AIR PRESSURE gauge showing pressure in the start air line before engine (bar); FW PRESSURE gauge showing freshwater pressure before engine; SW PRESSURE gauge showing pressure in the seawater cooling line (bar); FW TEMPERATURE thermometer showing freshwater temperature after engine (C).

Diesel Engine Alarm System Indicator Panel


The alarm indicators signal to the user that some parameters have exceeded their operational range. The engine alarm system functions only during engine operation (except the start air minimum pressure indicator), actuating the following indicators:

SYNC. FAULT impossibility of synchronization in the automatic mode for more than 2 minutes (arriving from the automatic synchronization control system); LOW LO PRESS. lubricating oil pressure of less than 2 bar; LOW START AIR PRESS. start air pressure of less than 8 bar; HIGH LO T lubricating oil pressure of more than 75 C after engine and before the lubricating oil cooler; HIGH EXH. GAS T exhaust gas temperature of more than 465 C after the turbocharger turbine; LOW LO LEVEL low lubricating oil level in the service tank; LOW FO LEVEL low fuel oil level in the service tank (the signal arrives in the diesel engine alarm system from the ship propulsion plant simulation module); START FAULT diesel start failure (the diesel does not develop 20 % of its rate RPM in 15 s when operating on the start air; the diesel stops after the fuel is supplied; the diesel does not develop 80 % of its rate RPM in 15 s); HIGH FW T freshwater temperature of more than 90 C after engine.

When the monitored parameters exceed the working range, the respective indicators start flashing simultaneously with the sound alarm, reporting on alarm system signals that have arisen but not acknowledged yet. The sound alarm is silenced by acknowledgement, while the indicators either change for continuous light, if the alarm cause is still present (the parameter is still outside the operational range), or turn off, if the alarm cause has disappeared (the parameter has returned to its operational range).

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Shaft Generator Drive Control Panel


The shaft generator drive control panel (ShG), is designed for switching the clutch on/off and for monitoring the gearbox status (see Fig. 8). The control panel includes: The clutch switch on/off buttons; Indicators and meters for monitoring the clutch/gearbox status; Alarm indicators; System protection panel.

See Fig. 8 for ShG drive control panel.

Fig. 8. ShG drive control panel

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Control Panel
The ShG drive control panel includes: Clutch control buttons (CLUTCH ON, CLUTCH OFF); Indicator of the clutch readiness for switching on; Indicator of ShG readiness for synchronizing ShG.

The clutch control buttons are designed for switching the ShG clutch ON/OFF (switching the start air ON/OFF). The control is performed with the aid of two buttons: ON and OFF. The clutch is switched on by depressing the ON button. Pressing the OFF button uncouples the clutch, which disengages the gearbox from the shaft generator. Clutch engagement is possible after actuation of the READY TO CLUTCH TURN indicator (when oil pressure in the gearbox is above 2 bar, and the oil temperature is above 30 C). The READY TO SYNCH. indicator is lit, when the value of gearbox speed deviation is in the range of 5 % of the rated value and ShG excitation is on.

ATTENTION!
Switch the clutch ON at the ME revolutions corresponding to the vessels slow/deadslow speed.

ShG Gearbox Protection Control System Panel


The ShG gearbox protection control system is designed to protect the engine against damage during its operation. The protection system becomes armed, when the ShG rotor gains 60 % of the rated RPM. The protection system status is monitored by the ON indicator (the system is armed and ready to work) and the OFF indicator (the system has been turned off or actuated). On actuation, the protection system uncouples the clutch, which disengages the gearbox from the shaft generator. This is accompanied by an acoustic signal, after which the system locks any repeated attempt to couple the clutch. The protection system can be relocked after actuation by the RESET button.

The protection system trips under the following circumstances: Lubricating oil pressure of less than 2 bar in the gearbox (LOW LO PRESS. indicator); Lubricating oil temperature of more than 65C in the gearbox (HIGH LO T indicator).

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ShG Drive Status Indicating Meters


The shaft generator drive meters are designed for monitoring the basic parameter values; they include:

RPM meter showing the gearbox speed (revolutions per minute); LO PRESSURE gauge showing the lubricating oil pressure in the gearbox (bar); OIL TEMPERATURE gauge showing lube oil temperature in the gearbox (C).

Shaft Generator Drive Alarm Panel


The alarm indicators signal to the user that some parameters have exceeded their operational range. The alarm panel includes the following indicators: UNDER SPEED gearbox speed below 90 % of the nominal value; CLUTCH FAULT indicator of clutch failure to switch on/off.

When the monitored parameters exceed the working range, the respective indicators start flashing simultaneously with the sound alarm, reporting on alarm system signals that have arisen but not acknowledged yet. The sound alarm is silenced by acknowledgement, while the indicators either change for continuous light, if the alarm cause is still present (the parameter is still outside the operational range), or turn off, if the alarm cause has disappeared (the parameter has returned to its operational range).

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Turbogenerator Drive Control Panel


The turbogenerator (TG) drive control panel, see Fig. 9, is designed to check condition of the turbine and the gearbox. The control panel includes: Indicators and meters for monitoring the statuses of the turbine the gearbox; Alarm indicators; System protection system.

Fig. 9. TG drive control panel

Control Panel
TG drive control panel: Indicator of readiness for control; Indicator of TG readiness for synchronization.

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TG Gearbox Protection Control System Panel


Turbogenerator gearbox protection correctly is designed to protect the engine against damage during its operation. The panel has the SHUT DOWN indicator for indication of the turbine shutdown by the protection system.

TG Drive Status Indicating Meters


The turbogenerator drive meters are designed for monitoring the basic parameter values; they include:

GENERATOR R.P.M. meter showing the generator/gearbox speed (revolutions per minute); STEAM PRESSURE gauge showing the steam pressure before the maneuvering valve (bar); LO PRESSURE gauge showing oil pressure in the lubrication system (bar); Oil TEMPERATURE gauge showing lube oil temperature (C).

Turbogenerator Drive Alarm System


The alarm indicators signal to the user that some parameters have exceeded their operational range. The alarm panel includes the following indicators:

LOW LO PRESS. low temperature of lube oil; HIGH LO T high temperature of lube oil; OVERSPEED turbine overspeed; COND. VACUUM vacuum loss in the turbine condenser; HIGH COND. LEVEL high level in the condenser.

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When the monitored parameters exceed the working range, the respective indicators start flashing simultaneously with the sound alarm, reporting on alarm system signals that have arisen but not acknowledged yet. The sound alarm is silenced by acknowledgement, while the indicators either change for continuous light, if the alarm cause is still present (the parameter is still outside the operational range), or turn off, if the alarm cause has disappeared (the parameter has returned to its operational range).

Emergency Diesel Generator Engine Control Panel


The emergency diesel generator engine control panel is designed for controlling/monitoring engine operation. To perform these functions, the panel includes: Engine controls; Engine parameter indicating meters; Alarm panel; Protection (safety) system (PS) panel.

See Fig. 10 for the emergency diesel generator engine control panel.

Fig. 10. Emergency diesel generator engine control panel

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Control Panel
The emergency diesel generator engine control panel includes: Engine on/off buttons (START-STOP); Indicator of the emergency generator engine readiness for start (READY TO START).

The diesel generator engine readiness-for-start indicator is actuated, when the start battery value exceeds 21.5 V.

Diesel Engine Protection System Panel


The protection system is designed for guarding the diesel engine against damage during its operation.

The protection system becomes armed after engine speed has reached a level of 60 % of the rated value. The protection system state is monitored by the ON indicator (the system is armed and ready to work), and the OFF indicator (the system has been turned off or actuated). On actuation, the protection system provides a diesel engine emergency stop. This is accompanied by an acoustic signal, after which the system locks any repeated attempts to start the diesel engine. The protection system can be relocked after actuation by the RESET button. The protection system trips under the following conditions: Auxiliary diesel engine RPM have exceeded 110 % of the rated value (OVER SPEED indicator); The oil pressure in the last lubrication point is below 0.8 bar (LOW LO PRESS. indicator).

Diesel Engine Parameter Indicating Meters


The instruments are designed for monitoring the basic parameters of the running or stopped engine; they include:

R.P.M meter showing engine crankshaft speed (revolutions per minute); LO PRESSURE gauge showing oil pressure in the last lubrication point (bar); FW PRESSURE gauge showing freshwater pressure before engine; SW PRESSURE gauge showing pressure in the seawater cooling line (bar).

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Diesel Engine Alarm System Panel


The alarm indicators signal to the user that some parameters have exceeded their operational range. The diesel engine alarm system is active during diesel engine operation only (except the indicator of the start battery minimum voltage); it includes the following indicators:

24 V FAULT automation system voltage below 21 V; LOW LO PRESS. lubricating oil pressure of less than 2 bar; HIGH LO T lubrication oil temperature before the oil cooler of less than 75 C; HIGH EXH. GAS T exhaust gas temperature of more than 465 C after the turbocharger turbine; LOW LO LEVEL low lubricating oil level in the service tank; LOW FO LEVEL low fuel oil level in the service tank; START FAULT diesel engine start failure (three attempts failed). An attempt is regarded as a failure, if the engine doesnt gain 20 % of the RPM rated value after its starting by the electric starter for 15 s, or the engine stops after the fuel is supplied; or the engine does not develop 80 % of its rated RPM in 15 s; HIGH FW T freshwater temperature of more than 90 C after engine.

When the monitored parameters exceed the working range, the respective indicators start flashing simultaneously with the sound alarm, reporting on alarm system signals that have arisen but not acknowledged yet. The sound alarm is silenced by acknowledgement, while the indicators either change for continuous light, if the alarm cause is still present (the parameter is still outside the operational range), or turn off, if the alarm cause has disappeared (the parameter has returned to its operational range).

MSB Generator Section


The MSB generator section is designed for: Connecting the generator to the MSB buses; Electric current frequency regulation; Generator voltage control.

To perform these functions, the panel includes: Controls of the generator and the auxiliary generator; Emergency controls for the generator; Electric parameter indicating meters; Generator alarm panel; Generator protection system panel.

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See Fig. 11 for MSB generator section.

Fig. 11. MSB Generator section

Generator Circuit Breaker


The generator circuit breaker (GCB) is designed for connecting the generator to the SEPS buses and its protection. GCB controls include the GCB power supply switch (SUPPLY), illuminated GCB on/off buttons (CONNECT/DISCONNECT) and the GCB spring manual winding handle (HAND DRIVE). The GCB power supply switch (SUPPLY) can be in one of two positions: 0 no power supply to the generator circuit breaker; 1 power supply to the generator circuit breaker on.

The GCB CONNECT/DISCONNECT buttons are active only in case the power supply switch in position 1, otherwise the DISCONNECT button will illuminate. Turning the GCB power supply switch (SUPPLY) from position 1 to position 0 results in GCB disconnection (the DISCONNECT button will illuminate).

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GCB is disconnected automatically (i.e., the generator is disconnected from the buses) in the following cases: Line voltage on generator terminals is below 300 V for 5 s; Generator overload (generator current of more than 1.21 Irate for 60 s); Generator overload in the short circuit zone (generator current of more than 3 Irate for 0.4 s); Generator short circuit (generator current of more than 10 Irate, actuated without time delay); The generator has changed to the motor mode (the generator reverse current of more than 0.1 Irate for 10 s.

ATTENTION!
GCB cannot be turned on (locked) when MSB is energized from ashore. In case of SEPS operating in the automatic mode, the manual switching of GCB is locked, the generator connection to the buses being performed by the automatic system only (GCB being energized). GCB is actuated in two stages: winding of the springs and switching on. The winding of the springs is done either automatically using the integrated electric motor (automatic winding) after turning GCB off by the DISCONNECT button, or manually using the HAND DRIVE handle after actuation of the integrated GCB protection system. In the initial state, the GCB springs are not in the unwound state, which requires manual winding. The GCB can be turned on by pressing CONNECT button, but only after the GCB is connected to the power supply and the springs are wound.

Controls
The controls for the generator and the auxiliary diesel engine include: The automatic device (DEMAGNETIZATION) for damping the electromagnetic field as a component of emergency control;

RPM governor control for the driving engine (GOVERNOR CONTROL) the buttons more and less;

Controller of the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) the VOLTAGE knob.

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The automatic electromagnetic field damping device (DEMAGNETIZATION) is designed for urgent reduction of generator voltage by short-circuiting the excitation winding. The device switch is provided with a protecting cover (against unintentional depressing), which can be opened by a mouse left-hand button click (To lift glass). You can press the switch, and in this case, the excitation winding will be shortcircuited, which results in the fall of the magnetic excitation field. Governor control (GOVERNOR CONTROL) is designed for setting and changing the driving engine crankshaft speed (revolutions per minute), and, subsequently, the generator rotor speed. This control is also used by the system of active power distribution between the generators operating in parallel. The monitoring of speed change is performed using the frequency indicator (Hz) on the generator section. The engine speed can be changed (manual distribution of the active power) using the arrow buttons: 6 stepless reduction of engine RPM down to the minimum value (0.9 rate); 5 stepless increase of engine rpm up to the maximum value (1.1 rated).

ATTENTION!
Governor control using these buttons is locked in case the power plant operates in the automatic mode, of if the automatic synchronization mode is selected, while the power plant is in the manual mode. The automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is designed for voltage control of the working generator. Voltage is monitored using the voltmeter (V) on the MSB generator panel. The voltage controller knob mounted on the generator panel too allows the generator voltage to be changed from the minimum value (0.93 Urate) to the maximum one (1.07 Urate) and/or can be used for manual distribution of the reactive load.

ATTENTION!
AVR manual control is locked, if the power plant is in the automatic mode.

Instruments for Monitoring Generator Parameters


Generator parameter indicating meters are used for measuring the basic electric parameters of the generator. They are as follows: Voltmeter V showing the voltage between generator phases depending on the position of the phase switch, R/S/T;

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Ammeter A showing the current value for each generator phase depending on the position of the phase switch, R/S/T;

Frequency indicator Hz showing the generator current frequency;

Wattmeter kW showing the active power of the power consumers;

Reactive-power meter kVAr showing the reactive power of the power consumers.

Status Indicators for the Diesel Engine and Power Supply for SEPS Buses
The indicators are designed for monitoring the status of the auxiliary engine (generator drive) and the power on the SEPS buses. The check indicators (DIESEL) switch two indicators RUN and STOP. The RUN indicator illuminates, when the generator RPM reach 80 % of its rated value, otherwise the STOP indicator illuminates.

POWER indicator shows the MSB bus power supply source and includes three indicators NORMAL, EMCY and SHORE (just one of the tree illuminating at a time); NORMAL indicator shows that MSB buses are powered from the diesel generators or the shaft generator; EMCY indicator shows that only ESB buses are powered from EDG; SHORE indicator shows that power supply is from ashore (shore supply).

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Panel of Generator Alarm/Protection Indicators


The indicators signal to the user that some generator parameters have exceeded their operational range. The generator alarm/protection systems are armed, when the generator gains 90 % of the rated RPM with a 25s delay. The generator alarm panel includes the following indicators:

LOW VOLTAGE voltage on the diesel engine buses below 320 V (0.8 Urate) for 1 s; OVER CURRENT generator current of more than Irate for 1 s; SHORT CIRCUIT short circuit (generator current of more than 3 Irate for 0.1 s); HIGH STATOR T stator temperature of more than 65 C for 30 s; REVERSE POWER reverse power of more than 0.08 Prate for 1 s; DIESEL NOT WARM-UP diesel engine started, but freshwater after engine is below 35 C.

The generator protection system trips GCB, when the parameters exceed their set range. When the monitored parameters exceed the working range, the respective indicators start flashing simultaneously with the sound alarm, reporting on alarm system signals that have arisen but not acknowledged yet. The sound alarm is silenced by acknowledgement, while the indicators either change for continuous light, if the alarm cause is still present (the parameter is still outside the operational range), or turn off, if the alarm cause has disappeared (the parameter has returned to its operational range).

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MSB Turbogenerator Section


The MSB turbogenerator section is similar to the MSB generator section with the exception of the DIESEL NOT WARM-UP alarm.

MSB Shaft Generator Section


The MSB shaft generator section is designed for: ShG connection to the buses; Generator voltage control.

To perform these functions, the panel includes: Controls of the generator and its drive; Emergency controls for the generator; Electric parameter indicating meters; Generator alarm panel; Generator protection system panel.

See Fig. 12 for the MSB shaft generator section.

Fig. 12. MSB shaft generator section

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Generator Circuit Breaker


The generate circuit breaker (GCB) is designed for connecting the generator to the SEPS buses and its protection. GCB controls include the GCB power supply switch (SUPPLY), illuminated GCB on/off buttons (CONNECT/DISCONNECT) and the GCB spring manual winding handle (HAND DRIVE). The GCB power supply switch (SUPPLY) can be in one of two positions: 0 no power supply to the generator circuit breaker; 1 power supply to the generator circuit breaker on.

The GCB CONNECT/DISCONNECT buttons are active only in case the power supply switch in position 1, otherwise the DISCONNECT button will illuminate. Turning the GCB power supply switch (SUPPLY) from position 1 to position 0 results in GCB disconnection (the DISCONNECT button will illuminate).

GCB is disconnected automatically (i.e., the generator is disconnected from the buses) in the following cases: Line voltage on generator terminals is below 300 V for 5 s; Generator overload (generator current of more than 1.21 Irate for 60 s); Generator overload in the short circuit zone (generator current of more than 3 Irate for 0.4 s); Short circuit of the generator windings (generator current is more than 10 Irate, tripping without a time delay); The generator has changed to the motor mode (the generator reverse current of more than 0.1 Irate for 10 s.

ATTENTION!
GCB cannot be turned on (locked) when MSB is energized from ashore. In case of ship diesel power unit operating in the automatic mode, the manual switching of GCB is locked, the generator connection to the buses being performed by the automatic system only (GCB being energized). GCB is actuated in two stages: winding of the springs and switching on. The winding of the springs is done either automatically using the integrated electric motor (automatic winding) after turning GCB off by the DISCONNECT button, or manually using the HAND DRIVE handle after actuation of the integrated GCB protection system. In the initial state, the GCB springs are not in the unwound state, which requires manual winding.

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Shaft Generator Controls


Shaft generator controls: The automatic device (DEMAGNETIZATION) for damping the electromagnetic field as a component of emergency control;

Generator excitation ON-OFF buttons (GENERATOR EXCITATION);

Controller of the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) the VOLTAGE knob.

The automatic electromagnetic field damping device (DEMAGNETIZATION) is designed for urgent reduction of generator voltage by short-circuiting the excitation winding. The device switch is provided with a protecting cover (against unintentional depressing), which can be opened by a mouse left-hand button click (To lift glass). You can press the switch, and in this case, the excitation winding will be shortcircuited, which results in the fall of the magnetic excitation field. The excitation ON/OFF buttons (GENERATOR EXCITATION) are designed for supply/removal of power to/from the rotating ShG excitation winding. The automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is designed for voltage control of the working generator. Voltage is monitored using the voltmeter (V) on the MSB generator panel. The voltage controller knob mounted on the generator panel too, allows the generator voltage to be changed from the minimum value (0.93 Urate) to the maximum one (1.07 Urate) and/or can be used for manual distribution of the reactive load.

ATTENTION!
AVR manual control is locked if the power plant is in the automatic mode.

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Shaft Generator Indicating Meters


Shaft generator parameter indicating meters are used for measuring the basic electric parameters. They are as follows: Voltmeter V showing the voltage between generator phases depending on the position of the phase switch, R/S/T;

Ammeter A showing the current value for each generator phase depending on the position of the phase switch, R/S/T;

Frequency indicator Hz showing the generator current frequency;

Wattmeter kW showing the active power of the power consumers;

Reactive-power meter kVAr showing the reactive power of the power consumers.

MSB Voltage Indicators


The POWER indicator shows the MSB bus power supply source and includes three indicators NORMAL, EMCY and SHORE (just one of the tree illuminating at a time).

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The NORMAL indicator shows that MSB buses are powered from the diesel generators or the shaft generator. The EMCY indicator shows that only ESB buses are powered from EDG. The SHORE indicator shows that power supply is from ashore (shore supply).

Panel of Generator Alarm/Protection Indicators


The indicators signal to the user that some generator parameters have exceeded their operational range. The shaft generator alarm/protection systems is armed, when the shaft generator gains 90 % of the rated RPM with a 25s delay after ShG excitation is turned on.

The generator alarm system includes the following indicators: LOW VOLTAGE voltage on the diesel engine buses below 320 V (0.8 Urate) for 1 s; OVER CURRENT generator current of more than Irate for 1 s; SHORT CIRCUIT short circuit (generator current of more than 3 Irate during 0.1 s); HIGH STATOR T stator temperature of more than 65 C for 30 s; REVERSE POWER reverse power of more than 0.08 Prate during 1 s.

ShG protection system trips GCB when the parameters exceed their set range. When the monitored parameters exceed the working range, the respective indicators start flashing simultaneously with the sound alarm, reporting on alarm system signals that have arisen but not acknowledged yet. The sound alarm is silenced by acknowledgement, while the indicators either change for continuous light, if the alarm cause is still present (the parameter is still outside the operational range), or turn off, if the alarm cause has disappeared (the parameter has returned to its operational range).

Synchronization Section
The synchronization section is designed for: Selection of a generator to be synchronized; Checking phase differences at MSB and at the terminals of the generator to be connected; Switching generators to the parallel operation.

To perform these functions, the panel includes:


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Controls; Indicating meters for checking voltage and frequency at MSB and generator terminals; Synchronoscope.

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See Fig. 13 for the synchronization section.

Fig. 13. Synchronization section

Controls
Synchronization section controls include: Synchronization mode switch (MANUAL/AUTO);

Generator-to-be-synchronized selection buttons.

The synchronization mode switch is designed for setting synchronization system operational mode, having two positions: AUTO automatic synchronization mode; MANUAL manual synchronization mode.

The generator-to-be-synchronized selection buttons (OFF, DG1, DG2, SG, and TG) are designed for selection of a generator to be connected to the parallel operation. GCB of the selected generator (DG1, DG2, SG, or TG) should be energized. Then the switching of the automatic synchronization mode on (AUTO) will result in automatic synchronization of the selected generator with its connection to the buses. After this operation, the synchronization mode selector will automatically return to MANUAL position.

Indicating Meters
Instruments provide for checking the MSB voltage and frequency (right-hand instruments) on the connected generator too (left-hand instruments).

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Synchronoscope
The synchronization section includes a synchronoscope. The red-colour synchronoscope indicators are positioned in a circle; their operation is implemented on the running wave principle alternating illumination of the indicators is possible both clockwise and counterclockwise. If synchronization conditions are fulfilled (allowing the generator to be connected to the parallel operation), the upper indicator of the synchronoscope illuminates only (12 oclock). The indicators illuminate at the left side, or the light wave, consisting of illuminating in turn indicators, runs counterclockwise in case the synchronization conditions are not provided for, i.e., frequency of the synchronized generator is less than that on MSB (TOO SLOW). The indicators illuminate at the left side, or the light wave runs clockwise in case the synchronization conditions are not provided for, i.e., frequency of the synchronized generator is greater than that on MSB (TOO FAST).

Insulation Monitoring Panel


The insulation monitoring panel is designed for checking insulation of generators and the power network; it includes two megohmmeters () with 4-position switches. The left-hand megohmmeter checks insulation of the power network (380 V), MBB1 buses, and diesel generators 1 and 2, the right-hand megohmmeter is designed to check insulation of the synchronization section, shaft generator, and the emergency generator. See Fig. 14 for the insulation monitoring board.

Fig. 14. Insulation monitoring board

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Shore Supply Switchboard


The shore supply switchboard is designed for connection of the ship power plant to the shore power network. To perform these functions, the shore supply switchboard includes: Controls; Indicating meters; Indicators of shore supply phase sequence; Alarm system.

See Fig. 15 for the shore supply switchboard.

Fig. 15. Shore supply switchboard

Circuit Breaker
The circuit breaker (CIRCUIT BREAKER) is designed to connect shore power to the EPP buses and to protect EPP against wrong connection. In addition, the circuit breaker (CB) assures protection of the shore power network against overload and short circuit (SC). CIRCUIT BREAKER controls consist of the power switch (SUPPLY) and illuminated GCB on/off buttons (CONNECT, DISCONNECT). The power switch (SUPPLY) can be in one of two positions:

0 circuit breaker not energized; 1 circuit breaker energized.

CB on/off buttons (CONNECT and DISCONNECT) are active only in case the power supply switch is in position 1, otherwise the DISCONNECT illuminates. Turning the CB power supply switch (SUPPLY) from position 1 to position 0 results in CB disconnection (DISCONNECT button illuminates).

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The shore supply CB cannot be switched on, if MSB is energized (line voltage of more than 50 V), because of the interlock. The shore supply CB switches off automatically (i.e., shore supply is disconnected from MSB) in the following cases: Shore supply line voltage of less than 300 V for 5 s; Current overload (CB current of more than 1.21 Irate for 60 s); Short circuit (CB current of more than 3 Irate for 0.38 s); Short circuit (CB current of more than 10 Irate for 0.19 s); Phase break.

Indicating Meters
The shore supply indicating meters are designed for measuring the basic parameters of the shore supply, they are as follows: POWER ON indicator showing that MSB is energized from ashore;

Voltmeter V showing voltage between shore supply phases depending on R/S/T switch position;

Ammeter A showing current for each shore supply phase depending on R/S/T switch position.

Indicators of Shore Supply Phase Sequence


The indicators (PHASE INDICATORS) are designed to check the phase sequence during shore supply connection. The RIGHT indicator illuminates in case of proper phase connection, otherwise the WRONG indicator illuminates. When shore supply is unavailable, the voltage value being zero, neither RIGHT or WRONG indicator illuminates.

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Alarm Indicator Panel


The shore supply alarm indicators (ALARMS) are designed for to check SEPS operation under condition of shore supply. The PHASE BREAKING indicator denotes wrong phase sequence. The SHORT CIRCUIT indicator points at the fact that the shore supply CB has tripped from overloading or short circuiting (SC).

380V Consumer Switchboard


The 380V consumer switchboard (power mains) is designed for monitoring the power mains and power supply/removal to/from the consumers. To perform these functions, the 380V consumer switchboard includes: Controls; Indicating meters.

See Fig. 16 for the 380V consumer switchboard.

Fig. 16. 380V consumer switchboard

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Controls
The controls are represented by switches, which are used to supply power to consumers. The switches are grouped: critical/non-critical consumers, heavy-duty/lowduty consumers, for whom selective protection is implemented too. The switches are provided with in-built protection against overloading. When protection trips, the consumer is disconnected. Each switch features a red-colour indicator in its upper left corner, which confirms the fact of an in-built protection trip.

Indicating Meters
The indicating meters are used to check the mains voltage and current draw. The 380V consumer switchboard is provided with: Voltmeter V showing the line voltage on the switchboard;

Ammeter A (BOW THRUSTER) showing current drawn by the Bow Thruster;

Ammeter A (TR.REF.CONTAINERS) showing current drawn by the refrigerator container transformer;

Ammeter A (LO PUMP) showing current drawn by the lubrication oil circulating pump;

Ammeter A (WARP. WINCH) showing current drawn by the grounding gear;

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Ammeter A (AIR COND. DECK2) showing current drawn by the 2nd deck air conditioning system.

220V Consumer Switchboard


The 220V consumer switchboard (power mains) is designed for monitoring the mains and power supply/removal to/from the 220V consumers. To perform these functions, the 220V consumer switchboard is provided with: Controls; Indicating meters.

See Fig. 17 for the 220V consumer switchboard.

Fig. 17. 220V consumer switchboard

Controls
The controls are represented by switches, which are used to supply power to consumers. The switch design is similar to that for the 380V consumers.

Indicating Meters
The indicating meters are used to check the 220V mains voltage and the current draw. The 220V consumer switchboard is provided with: Voltmeter V showing the line voltage on the switchboard;

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Ammeter A showing the total current draw;

Megohmmeter showing insulation resistance in the 220V mains.

Emergency Switchboard (ESB). Emergency Generator Section


The section is used for: Connection of the emergency generator (EDG) to ESB buses; Monitoring EDG operation.

To perform these functions, the panel includes: EDG status indicating meters; EDG alarm/protection indicators.

See Fig. 18 for the EDG panel.

Fig. 18. ESB EDG section

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Generator Circuit Breaker


GCB (CIRCUIT BREAKER) is designed for closing the generator to the SEPS buses and for generator protection against breakage. GCB controls include the GCB power supply switch (SUPPLY) and highlighted GCB on/off buttons (CONNECT, DISCONNECT).

The GCB power supply switch (SUPPLY) can be in one of two positions: 0 generator circuit breaker energized; 1 generator circuit breaker not energized.

The GCB CONNECT/DISCONNECT buttons are active only in case the power supply switch is energized (position 1), otherwise the DISCONNECT button illuminates. Turning the GCB power supply switch (SUPPLY) from position 1 to position 0 results in automatic GCB disconnection (the DISCONNECT button will illuminate). GCB is disconnected automatically (i.e., EDG is disconnected from the buses) in the following cases: Line voltage on generator terminals is below 300 V for 6 s; Generator current overload (generator current of more than 1.21 Irate for 120 s); Generator short circuit (generator current of more than 10 Irate for 0.19 s).

The EDG automatic control system, if GCB is energized, connects EDG to ESB buses in case MSB voltage disappears and disconnects GCB, when MSB buses become energized. GCB is locked against switching on under condition of voltage presence on MSB buses.

Emergency Generator Indicating Meters


EDG indicating meters are designed for determination of the generator major parameters and include the following: Voltmeter V showing voltage between the generator phases depending on R/S/T switch position;

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Ammeter A showing the current value for each generator phase depending on the position of the R/S/T phase switch;

Frequency indicator Hz showing the generator current frequency.

Panel of Generator Alarm/Protection Indicators


The indicators of the generator alarm and protection systems (ALARMS) signal to the user that some generator parameters have exceeded their operational range or the protection system has tripped. The generator alarm/protection systems are armed, when the engine crankshaft gains 90 % of the rated RPM with a 25s delay, and becomes unarmed, when the emergency engine is stopped.

EDG alarm system includes the following indicators: LOW V AB voltage at the battery terminals less than 21 V; LOW V EG voltage on generator buses less than 320 V (0.8 Urate) for 1 s; OVER CURRENT generator current of more than Irate for 1 s; SHORT CIRCUIT short circuit (generator current of more than 3 Irate for 0.1 s); HIGH STATOR T stator temperature of more than 65 C for 30 s.

The protection system trips GCB, when the parameters exceed their set range. When the monitored parameters exceed the working range, the respective indicators start flashing simultaneously with the sound alarm, reporting on alarm system signals that have arisen but not acknowledged yet. The sound alarm is silenced by acknowledgement, while the indicators either change for continuous light, if the alarm cause is still present (the parameter is still outside the operational range), or turn off, if the alarm cause has disappeared (the parameter has returned to its operational range).

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ESB. 380V Consumer Section


The ESB 380V consumer section is energized from the emergency diesel generator, when voltage on MSB disappears. To perform these functions, the emergency 380V consumer switchboard includes: Controls; Indicating meters.

See Fig. 19 for the 380V consumer switchboard.

Fig. 19. Emergency 380V consumer switchboard

Controls
The controls are represented by switches, which are used to supply power to various consumers.

Indicating Meters
The indicating meters are used to check the mains voltage and current draw. The emergency 380V consumer switchboard houses: Voltmeter V showing the line voltage on the switchboard;

Ammeter A (STEER. GEAR) showing current drawn by pump N2 of the steering gear;

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Ammeter A (FIRE PUMP) showing current drawn by fire pump N2;

Ammeter A (EMCY COMPRESS.) showing current drawn by emergency air compressor;

Ammeter A showing current drawn by the remaining consumers;

Megohmmeter M showing section insulation resistance.

ESB. 220V Consumer Section


The ESB 220V consumer section is energized from the emergency diesel generator, when voltage on MSB disappears. To perform these functions, the 220V consumer switchboard includes: Controls; Indicating meters.

See Fig. 20 for the emergency 220V consumer switchboard.

Fig. 20. Emergency 220V consumer switchboard

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Controls
The controls are represented by switches which are used to supply power to various consumers.

Indicating Meters
The indicating meters are used to check the 220V mains voltage and the current draw. The 220V consumer switchboard is provided with: Voltmeter V showing the line voltage on the switchboard;

Ammeter A showing the total current draw;

Megohmmeter M showing section insulation resistance.

ESB. 24V Consumer Section


The 24V DC consumer ESB is designed for monitoring the network and power supply/removal to/from the consumers. To perform these functions, the 24V consumer switchboard includes: Controls; Indicating meters.

See Fig. 21 for 24V DC consumer switchboard.

Fig. 21. 24V DC consumer switchboard

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Controls
The controls are represented by switches, which are used to supply power to various consumers.

Indicating Meters
The indicating meters are used to check the 24V network voltage and current draw. The 24V consumer switchboard includes: Voltmeter V showing the line voltage on the switchboard;

Ammeter A showing the total current draw;

Megohmmeter M showing insulation resistance in the 24V network.

Accumulator Battery (AB) Charging Unit


The charging unit is designed for monitoring the battery charge level and for charging 24V DC batteries. To perform these functions, the charging unit panel includes: Controls; Indicating meters.

See Fig. 22 for the charging unit panel.

Fig. 22. Charging unit panel


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Controls
Switches for connection of a certain battery to the charging unit;

Ventilation ON-OFF buttons of the accumulator battery room;

Battery charging current adjustment knob.

Indicating Meters
The charging unit panel includes: Voltmeter V with a 1/2/3/4 switch showing line voltage of the corresponding battery;

Ammeter A with a 1/2/3/4 switch showing the charging current for the corresponding battery.

Alarm Indicator Panel


The charging unit alarm system is designed for monitoring the battery charging current. The OVER CURRENT indicator shows charging current rushes.

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Main Current Circuit


For the modern ship control and monitoring systems, the summary information on the power plant, i.e. its configuration, generator statuses, basic electrical parameters, etc., are displayed on the system monitor being referred to as the main current circuit. See Fig. 23 for appearance of the page with the main current as realized for the simulator.

Fig. 23. Main circuit diagram

The active (live) elements (buses, feeders, closed switches) in the circuit are highlighted in blue. Special waste windows are provided for indication of electrical parameters, i.e. voltage, current, frequency, and power. In addition to the informative component of the page, the simulator features a possibility to use the mouse to control some MSB/ESB switches, which are not presented on the simulator control panels.

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SEPS Operation Instructions

SEPS OPERATION INSTRUCTIONS


This section provides recommendations for SEPS preparation for operation, setting to work and operation.

SEPS Control
SEPS Manual Control Mode
Turn the CONTROL MODE switch to the MANUAL position; Control of generators and consumers on the switchboards 24V DC, 220V AC and 380V AC should be performed in the manual mode.

SEPS Control in the Automatic Mode


Turn the CONTROL MODE switch to the AUTO position; Apply power to the diesel generator GBCs (turn the CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPPLY switch to position 1); Select an automatic control mode for SEPS (EQUAL, CYCLIC, OPTIMAL, or CONST FREQ.); Control of consumers on the switchboards 24V DC, 220V AC and 380V AC should be performed in the manual mode.

Auxiliary Diesel Engine Control


Startup Preparation
Turn on the oil priming pump (set the PRELUBRICATION switch to RUN); TURN ON ENGINE preheating (open the cut-off valve in the freshwater system) (depress the PREHEATING ON button).

Standard Start
Depress the START button. At this moment, if pressure in the lubrication system is below 2.0 bar, the electric oil-priming pump will be switched on prior to air supply. When the pressure reaches the specified value, the diesel engine will be started. The engine is brought down to 80 % of its rated RPM and is maintained at this RPM for 35 s for heating the cooling water and lubrication oil. Then the RPM is brought to the rated value, and the engine is ready to accept 50 % of load. After another 2 minutes the engine is ready for 100 % load.

Emergency Start
Press the EMCY START button. In this case, the engine will be started without checking the initial oil pressure, and come to its rated RPM in minimum time.

Standard Shut Down


Remove the generator from MSB buses using the DISCONNECT button of the GCB; Depress the STOP button. In case of a standard stop, the engine is brought down to 80 % of its rated RPM and is maintained at this RPM for 1 minute. The engine is then stopped by cutting off the fuel supply.

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SEPS Operation Instructions

Emergency Stop
Press the EMCY STOP button, which will result in automatic disconnection of the generator circuit breaker and fuel supply cutting off. The EMCY START, EMCY STOP buttons are of higher priority. If the engine is started by using first the START button and then the EMCY START, it will be started according to the emergency start procedure from the moment of pressing the EMCY START button. In this case, no return to the standard start program is possible. The STOP and EMCY STOP button have a similar way of operation.

Shaft Generator Drive Control


Standard Coupling Engagement
The clutch can be switched on, if the READY TO CLUTCH TURN indicator illuminates (when oil pressure in the gearbox is above 2 bar; the temperature being above 30 C); Press the CLUTCH ON button before the gearbox speed doesnt exceed 400 RPM.

Emergency Coupling Engagement


Press the CLUTCH ON button.

Coupling Disengagement
Press the CLUTCH OFF button.

Diesel Generator
Closing to Dead MSB Buses
Start the engine; Check that generator frequency has reached 50 Hz (engine preheated and reached 100 % of its rate RPM) and generator voltage has reached 400 V; Supply power to GCB (CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPPLY in position 1); Arm GCB, if applicable (move the HAND DRIVE handle to the upper position); Press the CONNECT button.

Switching to the Parallel Operation (MSB Energized)


Start the diesel engine; Check that generator frequency has reached 50 Hz (engine preheated and reached 100 % of its rate RPM) and generator voltage has reached 400 V; Supply power to GCB (CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPPLY in position 1); Arm GCB, if applicable (move the HAND DRIVE handle to the upper position); Synchronize the generator to be connected to MSB buses manually or automatically.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

SEPS Operation Instructions

Manual synchronization: use the more/less buttons of the DG frequency regulation system (GOVERNOR CONTROL 2) to adjust the frequency of the generator to be closed to the MSB frequency. The frequency of the generator to be closed should slightly exceed the MSB frequency. Monitoring is performed using the frequency meters on the synchronization section; use the more/less buttons of the DG frequency regulation system (GOVERNOR CONTROL) to reduce the phase difference (phase displacement) between the generator voltage and the MSB voltage. Monitoring is performed using the synchronoscope; at the moment of the zero phase difference (the (12 oclock indicator illuminates at the synchronoscope) or a minimum phase difference, press the CONNECT GCB button for the generator to be synchronized. Automatic synchronization: press the selection button for the generator to be synchronized at the synchronization section (DG1, DG2); move the synchronization mode switch to the AUTO position.

ATTENTION!
The moment of moving the synchronization mode switch to the AUTO position is the synchronization process starting moment. On completion of the synchronization process, the synchronized generator will be closed to the MSB buses. Then the synchronization mode selection switch will automatically return from the AUTO position to the MANUAL position.

Active Power Distribution in Parallel Operation


Use the more/less buttons of the DG frequency regulation system (GOVERNOR CONTROL) to change the generator active power. The active load increases with frequency. Monitoring of the active load is performed using the wattmeter on the MSB generator section.

Reactive Power Distribution in Parallel Operation


Adjust generator voltage using the handle of the automatic voltage regulator controller (VOLTAGE). The reactive load increases with voltage. Monitoring of the reactive load is performed using the reactive-power meter on the MSB generator section.

Taking Generator out of Parallel Operation


Use the more/less buttons of the DG frequency regulation system (GOVERNOR CONTROL) to decrease generator load down of 50 kW to 100 kW. The active load decreases with frequency. Monitoring of the active load is performed using the wattmeter on the MSB generator section; Press the GCB DISCONNECT button.

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SEPS Operation Instructions

Turbogenerator
Closing to Dead MSB Buses
Start the turbine; Check that generator frequency has reached 50 Hz and generator voltage has reached 400V; Supply power to GCB (CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPPLY in position 1); Arm GCB, if applicable (move the HAND DRIVE handle to the upper position); Press the CONNECT button.

Setting to the Parallel Operation (MSB Energized)


Start the turbine; Check that generator frequency has reached 50 Hz and generator voltage has reached 400 V; Supply power to GCB (CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPPLY in position 1); Arm GCB, if applicable (move the HAND DRIVE handle to the upper position); Synchronize the generator to be connected to MSB buses manually or automatically. Manual synchronization: use the more/less buttons of the TG frequency regulation system (GOVERNOR CONTROL) match the frequency of the generator to be connected to the frequency at MSB. The frequency of the generator to be closed should slightly exceed the MSB frequency. Monitoring is performed using the frequency meters on the synchronization section; use the more/less buttons of the TG frequency regulation system (GOVERNOR CONTROL) to reduce the phase difference (phase displacement) between the generator voltage and the MSB voltage. Monitoring is performed using the synchronoscope; at the moment of the zero phase difference (the (12 oclock indicator illuminates at the synchronoscope) or a minimum phase difference, press the CONNECT GCB button for the generator to be synchronized. Automatic synchronization: press the selection button for the generator to be synchronized at the synchronization section (TG); move the synchronization mode switch to the AUTO position.

ATTENTION!
The moment of moving the synchronization mode switch to the AUTO position is the synchronization process starting moment. On completion of the synchronization process, the synchronized generator will be closed to the MSB buses. Then the synchronization mode selection switch will automatically return from the AUTO position to the MANUAL position:
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Use the buttons for changing specified frequency values to reduce the DG/DGs load down of 50 kW to 100 kW; Switch off the diesel generator GCB(s).

ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

SEPS Operation Instructions

Active Power Distribution in Parallel Operation


Use the more/less buttons of the TG frequency regulation system (GOVERNOR CONTROL) to change the generator active power. The active load increases with frequency. Monitoring of the active load is performed using the wattmeter on the MSB generator section.

Reactive Power Distribution in Parallel Operation


Adjust generator voltage using the handle of the automatic voltage regulator controller (VOLTAGE). The reactive load increases with voltage. Monitoring of the reactive load is performed using the reactive-power meter on the MSB generator section.

Taking Generator out of Parallel Operation


Use the More/Less buttons of the TG frequency regulation system (GOVERNOR CONTROL) to decrease generator load down of 50 kW to 100 kW. The active load decreases with frequency. Monitoring of the active load is performed using the wattmeter on the MSB generator section; Press the GCB DISCONNECT button.

Shaft Generator Control


Closing to Dead MSB Buses
Switch on the ShG drive clutch; When ShG speed frequency reaches 47.5 Hz to 50 Hz, press the GENERATOR EXCITATION ON button, i.e. supply power to the generator excitation winding; Check that generator voltage has reached 400 V; Energize GCB (CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPPLY); Wind the GCB springs (HAND DRIVE), if necessary; Press the CONNECT button.

Setting to the Parallel Operation (MSB Energized)


Switch on the ShG drive clutch; When ShG speed frequency reaches 47.5 Hz to 50 Hz, supply power to the generator excitation winding (press the GENERATOR EXCITATION ON button); Check that generator voltage has reached 400V; Energize GCB (CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPPLY); Wind GCB, if necessary (HAND DRIVE); Synchronize the shaft generator with the MSB buses (manually or automatically). Manual synchronization: use the more/less buttons of the frequency regulation system of one or both diesel generators (GOVERNOR CONTROL) to adjust MSB bus voltage frequency to the shaft generator voltage. Voltage frequency of the ShG to be closed should slightly exceed the MSB voltage frequency. Monitoring is performed using the frequency meters on the synchronization section; use the more/less buttons of the DG/DGs frequency regulation system (GOVERNOR CONTROL) to reduce the phase difference (phase displacement) between the shaft generator voltage and the MSB voltage; at the moment of the zero phase difference (the 12 oclock indicator illuminates at the synchronoscope) or a minimum phase difference, press the CONNECT GCB button for the shaft generator.

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SEPS Operation Instructions

Automatic synchronization: press the selection button for the generator\shaft generator to be synchronized at the synchronization section; move the synchronization mode switch to the AUTO position.

ATTENTION!
The moment of moving the synchronization mode switch to the AUTO position is the synchronization process starting moment. On completion of the synchronization process, the synchronized generator will be closed to the MSB buses. Then the synchronization mode selection switch will automatically return from the AUTO position to the MANUAL position: Use the buttons for changing specified frequency values to reduce the DG/DGs load down of 50 kW to 100 kW; Switch off the diesel generator GCB(s).

Taking out of Operation


Set the diesel generator(s) to the parallel operation with ShG; Use the buttons for changing diesel generator(s) frequency to increase its/their load for the purpose of reducing the shaft generator load down of 50 kW to 100 kW; Press the DISCONNECT button of the shaft generator circuit breaker.

Emergency Diesel Generator Control


Automatic Mode of Operation
Automatic Start and Closing to ESB Buses EDG is started under condition of MSB voltage disappearance for a duration of more than 3 s; Closing to the buses is carried out automatically, when voltage is supplied to the EDG circuit breaker. GCB is disconnected from the buses automatically, when voltage is supplied to the MSB buses; The engine stops after the generator circuit breaker is switched off. When being stopped, the engine is brought down to 80 % of its rated RPM and is maintained at this RPM for 1 minute. Then the engine is stopped.

Automatic Disconnection from ESB Buses and Stopping EDG

Manual Mode of Operation


Diesel Engine Start Press the START button at the emergency diesel engine control panel. The engine can be started, if the EDGs READY TO START indicator illuminates. Closing to ESB Buses Supply power to the EDG circuit breaker (move the CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPPLY switch to position 1); Switch on the EDG circuit breaker i.e., press the CONNECT button.

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SEPS Operation Instructions

Disconnection from ESB Buses Turn off the EDG circuit breaker (press the DISCONNECT button); Remove power supply from the EDG circuit breaker (CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPPLY).

Stopping the Diesel Engine Press the STOP button at the emergency diesel engine control panel. This will bring the diesel engine down to 80 % of its rated RPM and maintain it at this RPM for 1 minute. Then the engine is stopped.

Control of MSB Shore Power Supply


Closing Shore Power Supply to MSB
Check the voltage value of the shore power supply using the voltmeter (rated value is 380 V) on the SHORE SUPPLY section; Check phase sequence. The RIGHT indicator should illuminate. If the WRONG indicator illuminates, change phase sequence (apply to the simulator Instructor); Supply power to the shore supply circuit breaker (CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPPLY); Connection to the shore supply is possible only in case of complete ship de-energizing. Switch off generator circuit breakers on the generator section for all generators closed to MSB; Switch on the circuit breaker on the shore supply switchboard (press the CONNECT button).

Disconnection of Shore Supply from MSB


Press the DISCONNECT button on the shore supply switchboard; Remove power from the shore supply circuit breaker (CIRCUIT BREAKER SUPPLY).

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CHAPTER 3
Auxiliary Machinery and Systems
This chapter contains the description of the simulator module for training the watch personnel in skill of proper operating the ship auxiliary machinery and systems.

Copyright Transas Ltd., June 2005

This chapter contains: Introduction ............................................................................................................179 Simulator Module Systems ...................................................................................180 Steam Plant System (SP Page) .......................................................................180 Purpose of the System...........................................................................180 System Components..............................................................................180 Control Panel .........................................................................................182 Alarm Signals .........................................................................................184 Safety System ........................................................................................184 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor ...........................................185 Boiler Fuel System (BFS Page) .......................................................................186 Purpose..................................................................................................186 System Components..............................................................................187 Control Panel .........................................................................................188 Alarms ....................................................................................................190 Safety System ........................................................................................191 System Faults Entered by the Instructor................................................191 System Operation ..................................................................................191 Turbogenerator Drive (TG Page) .....................................................................192 Purpose of the System...........................................................................192 System Components..............................................................................192 Control Panel .........................................................................................193 Alarm Signals .........................................................................................196 Safety System ........................................................................................196 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor ...........................................196 System of Steam Turbine Driven Cargo Pumps ..............................................197 Purpose..................................................................................................197 System Components..............................................................................197 Control Panel .........................................................................................198 Alarms ....................................................................................................199 Safety System ........................................................................................200 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor ...........................................200 Ballast System (Page BS)................................................................................201 Purpose..................................................................................................201 System Components..............................................................................201 Control Panel .........................................................................................202 Alarm Signals .........................................................................................203 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor ...........................................203 Bilge Water System (BW Page) .......................................................................204 Purpose..................................................................................................204 System Components..............................................................................204 Control Panel .........................................................................................206 Alarms ....................................................................................................207 Safety System ........................................................................................207 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor ...........................................207 Steering Gear (Page SG).................................................................................209 Purpose..................................................................................................209 System Components..............................................................................209 Control Panel .........................................................................................211 Alarm signals..........................................................................................212 Protection System..................................................................................213 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor ...........................................213

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Water Desalination Plant (WD Page) .............................................................. 214 Purpose ................................................................................................. 214 System Components ............................................................................. 214 Control Panel......................................................................................... 215 Alarm Signals ........................................................................................ 218 Safety System ....................................................................................... 218 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................... 218 Procedure to Put the Plant into Operation ............................................ 218 Sewage Treatment and Storage System (Page STS)..................................... 219 Purpose ................................................................................................. 219 System Components ............................................................................. 219 Control Panel......................................................................................... 220 Alarm Signals ........................................................................................ 223 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................... 223 System Operation.................................................................................. 224 Incinerator (Page INC)..................................................................................... 225 Purpose ................................................................................................. 225 System Components ............................................................................. 225 Control Panel......................................................................................... 227 Alarm Signals ........................................................................................ 231 Protection System ................................................................................. 231 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................... 231 System Operation.................................................................................. 232 Inert Gas System (IGS Page).......................................................................... 234 Purpose ................................................................................................. 234 System Components ............................................................................. 234 Control Panel......................................................................................... 237 System Operation.................................................................................. 239 Topping Up IG Generator Operation..................................................... 241 Alarms ................................................................................................... 242 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................... 243 Central Fire AlarIm Station (FA Page)............................................................. 244 Purpose ................................................................................................. 244 System Components ............................................................................. 244 Control Panel......................................................................................... 245 Alarm Signals ........................................................................................ 248 Protection System ................................................................................. 249 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................... 249 CO2 Station (CO2 Page) .................................................................................. 250 Purpose of the System .......................................................................... 250 System Components ............................................................................. 250 Control Panel......................................................................................... 251 Alarm Signals ........................................................................................ 252 Safety System ....................................................................................... 252 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................... 252 Fire Main and Foam System (FM Page) ......................................................... 253 Purpose of the System .......................................................................... 253 System Components ............................................................................. 253 Control Panel......................................................................................... 255 Alarm Signals ........................................................................................ 257 Safety System ....................................................................................... 257 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor........................................... 257
176 ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A.

Provision Cooling System (PC Page) ..............................................................258 Purpose..................................................................................................258 System Components..............................................................................258 Control Panel .........................................................................................260 Alarm Signals .........................................................................................264 Safety System ........................................................................................265 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor ...........................................265 Directions for the Plant Operation and Maintenance.............................266 Air Conditioning System (AC Page) .................................................................272 Purpose of the System...........................................................................272 System Components..............................................................................272 Control Panel .........................................................................................276 Alarm Signals .........................................................................................282 Safety System ........................................................................................282 System Faults Introduced by the Instructor ...........................................282 Directions on the Plant Operation and Maintenance .............................283

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Introduction

INTRODUCTION
The simulator module is designed for the training of watch keeping personnel in the correct operation of the ships auxiliary machinery and systems including: Preparation and putting into operation of machinery and systems; Monitoring of their operation by the measured parameters with the assistance of the alarm system; Troubleshooting procedures.

In addition to the training of practical skills, the simulator allows familiarisation with fundamentals of the structure, functioning and interaction of the elements and subsystems. The set of the simulated systems complies with the currently accepted ship standard. Parameters and performance characteristics of the modelled machinery and systems correspond to the actual ones, as the simulator models all the principal processes (thermodynamic, mechanic, gas and hydrodynamic, electrical) in their interrelation. The auxiliary machinery and systems are modelled for an LCC tanker.

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Simulator Module Systems

SIMULATOR MODULE SYSTEMS


Steam Plant System (SP Page)
Purpose of the System
The Steam Plant System is intended for the production of steam using in the turbogenerator turbine, cargo pumps turbines, and in the ship technical and domestic heaters as a heating agent. The system can generate wet and superheated steam. Wet steam consumers are technical and domestic heaters, the superheated steam is used for driving the turbogenerator and cargo pump turbines. The auxiliary boiler exhaust gases are also used in the Inert Gas System.

System Components
The system layout implemented in the simulator, is shown on the mnemonic diagram in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1

The following components are included in the system and modelled in the simulator:
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System of pipelines as a hydro- and gas-dynamic object; Steam generator (steam-tube boiler) as a hydro- and gas-dynamic object; Heat recovery steam boiler as a hydro- and gas-dynamic object; Condensate catch tank; Electrically driven feed pumps 1 and 2 of auxiliary boiler; Circulating pumps 1 and 2 of heat recovery boiler; Condenser; Valve for the control of the cooling water flow through the condenser;

ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

Valves main steam valve and valves for the delivery of steam to the consumers; Condensate collect tank make-up valve.

The auxiliary boiler (in the left-hand part of the mnemonic diagram) is a vertical double-collector boiler with single-pass motion of gases, fitted out with a convector superheater. It has operating pressure of 718 bars in the steam drum, and the steam generation capacity of up to 16 tons per hour. The auxiliary boiler is a boiler with natural circulation and operates on the liquid fuel. The furnace includes two liquid fuel burners and a fan. The furnace device operates in two modes: manual and automatic control mode (by steam pressure in the boiler). The auxiliary boiler is fitted out with special valves (safety relief valve actuated at steam pressure of 19.5 bars), air valve for removing the air as the boiler is filled with water, sludge removal valve used in the boiler venting. The auxiliary boiler feed pumps supply water from the condensate catch tank to the boiler drum through the non-return supply valve. Feed pumps provide the capacity of 20 cubic metres per hour with an overpressure of 20 bars. Pumps are controlled in two modes: in the manual mode and in the automatic control mode by the water level in the boiler drum. The heat recovery boiler is intended for the increase of the pant effectiveness and utilising of main engine exhaust gas hears and generates both wet and superheated steam. It has an operating pressure of 718 bars in the drum and a capacity of 6 tons per hour with the uncontrolled gas flow (gas temperature drop of 250175 ). The heat recovery boiler is a coil type boiler, implemented according to the multiple forced water circulation principle with the inlet pressure of 20 bars. The boiler is fitted out with a superheater (ensuring superheating of up to 225 ) located in the bottom part of the boiler. Two circulating pumps of the heat recovery boiler are intended for creating forced circulation through the boiler coil where steam and water mixture is obtained. The capacity of each of the pumps operating via the non-return valve is about 40 m3/h, with a thrust of 1-2 bars. Pumps are controlled in two modes: in the manual mode and automatic control mode by the water level in the auxiliary boiler drum. The condensate catch tank (a hot well) is fitted out with water make-up valve from an external source. The condenser ensures reception of return (from the consumers) steam and water mixture, its condensation and return to the condensate catch tank. The condenser cooling is with sea water. Consumers of the wet steam are domestic heaters and heat exchange units of the boiler room. To obtain high steam parameters, wet steam is directed to the steam heaters of the auxiliary and heat recovery boilers wherefrom the already superheated steam is fed to the turbogenerator turbine and to the steam turbine driven cargo pumps via non-return valves.

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Simulator Module Systems

Control Panel
The right-hand part of the screen page contains the system control panel.

The control panel contains the following groups: AUX. BOILER STEAM PRESSURE CONTROL group for the control of the auxiliary boiler steam pressure; AUX. BOILER group for the control of auxiliary boiler feed pumps and boiler valves; HEAT-RECOVERY BOILER group for the control of the steam pressure and circulation pumps of the heat recovery boiler; MAIN CONDENSER main condenser control group; CONSUMERS group for the control of valves distributing steam among consumers.

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Simulator Module Systems

Auxiliary Boiler Steam Pressure Control Group The group includes: MANUAL/AUTO operating mode switch; SET POINT steam pressure control setter; boiler BURNER 1 and BURNER 2 start/stop buttons; boiler FAN start/stop button; RESET button for re-activating the boiler safety system after its triggering on.

The BURNER 1, BURNER 2, and FAN control buttons function exclusively in the MANUAL control mode. In the AUTO mode, steam pressure at the boiler outlet is set by the rotating SET POINT knob. The setting can be varied within the 6 to 18 bars range. The pressure gauge shows steam pressure in the boiler. Auxiliary Boiler Feed Pumps Control Group Feed water is supplied to the boiler by using feed water PUMP 1 and PUMP 2. The control mode for each of the pumps is selected by using the MANUAL/AUTO switch. The PUMP 1, PUMP 2 start/stop buttons operate exclusively in the MANUAL control. Pressure on the discharge side of the boiler feed pumps is shown on the pressure gauge. The following buttons serve for the remote control of a number of boiler valves: MAIN STEAM VALVE button serves for the control of the boiler steam outlet valve; SUPER HEATER VALVE button serves for the control of the valve supplying steam to the steam superheater; DRUM BLOW and DEAERAT. VALVE buttons serve for the control of the boiler drum blow and boiler deaeration valves.

Heat-Recovery Boiler Control Group Water is fed to the boiler with the aid of circulation PUMP 1 and PUMP 2. The control mode for each of the pumps is selected by using the MANUAL/AUTO switch. The PUMP 1, PUMP 2 start/stop buttons operate exclusively in the MANUAL control. Pressure on the discharge side of the circulation pumps is shown on the CIRC. PUMPS pressure gauge. Steam pressure at the boiler outlet is controlled by the pressure governor and is set by using the rotating SET POINT knob. The setting can be varied within the 6 to 18 bars range. Control of the superheater valve is exercised by using the SUPER HEATER VALVE button. Temperature of the ME exhaust gases at the boiler inlet is shown on the EXH. GAS INLET temperature gauge.

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Simulator Module Systems

Control of Steam Consumer Valves The group contains buttons for the remote control of valves supplying steam to the consumers: DECK supply of steam on the deck; CABINS supply of steam to the cabins; SEPARATOR supply of steam to the separators; FO TANK supply of steam to the fuel tanks; FO HEATING supply of steam for heating of FO lines; TG supply of steam to the turbogenerator (turbine) drive.

Main Condenser Control Group The cooling water flow through the condenser is controlled with the Condenser Flow valve. The valve is controlled by using the CONDENSER FLOW setter. Increasing the setter value from 0 to 100 corresponds to the opening of the valve and increase of the water flow through the condenser. The current status of the valve connected with the setter, is shown on the valve indicator on the mnemonic diagram. The VACUUM gauge shows vacuum in the condenser. Temperature within the condenser is shown on the CONDENSER temperature gauge. The VAPOUR scale is intended for showing the steam supply from the condenser to the condensate tank due to the insufficient steam cooling within the condenser (insufficient cooling water flow through the condenser). To open the valve supplying steam and water mixture to the condenser after the consumers, use the TO CONDENSER button. The condensate tank is replenished by using the TANK MAKE UP button.

Alarm Signals
DRUM LEVEL high/low water level in the boiler drum; CONDENSER TANK LEVEL high/low water level in the condensate catch tank; STEAM PRESSURE high/low steam pressure; STEAM PRESS. SAFETY VALVE high/low water level in the boiler; FLAME OUT flame out on the furnace burner; LOW COND. TANK T low temperature in the condenser; SHUT DOWN boiler stopped by the safety system.

Safety System
At a high steam pressure in the boiler ( 19.5 bars), a safety valve opens up and an alarm is triggered off. If no steps are taken to reduce the pressure in the boiler, notwithstanding the fact the safety valve is open the steam pressure may continue growing which may result in the steam system failure; In case of low water level in the boiler or the flame blow-out, the safety system is actuated (Shut down) turning off the burners.

To unlock the safety system after the actuation, use SAFETY RESET button (when turned on, the button indicator lights up).

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Flame Out; Feed Pump 1 Automatics Fault; Feed Pump 2 Automatics Fault; Feed Pump 1 Break; Feed Pump 2 Break; Burner Automatics Fault; Burner Fan Fault; Burner Heater 1 Fault burner fouling; Burner Heater 2 Fault burner fouling; Aux. Boiler Evaporator Tube Bank Damage crack in the auxiliary boilers evaporator tube bundle; Aux. Boiler Superheater Tube Bank Damage crack in the auxiliary boiler steam superheater oil; Circ. Pump 1 Automatics Fault; Circ. Pump 2 Automatics Fault; Circ. Pump 1 Break; Circ. Pump 2 Break; H.-R. Boiler Evaporator Tube Bank Damage crack in a tube in the evaporator bundle of the heat recovery boiler; H.-R. Boiler Superheater Tube Bank Damage crack in the steam superheater coil of the heat recovery boiler.

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Simulator Module Systems

Boiler Fuel System (BFS Page)


Purpose
The system is designed for supplying fuel to the boiler burners (see Steam Plant system). The system allows the burners to use heavy fuel oil or diesel oil for operation. The fuel circulation in the system is provided with two electrically driven pumps operating in Standby: one in operation, the other in standby. The fuel is fed to the burners: under certain pressure; of certain temperature which ensures the fuel viscosity of 1015 cSt required for the adequate fuel atomising by the burners; through the filter which guarantees separation of solid particles of more than 50 microns to prevent the burner clogging.

In addition to the fuel preparation and supply to the burners, the system insures continuous fuel circulation. This allows the system readiness for operation on the heavy fuel oil to be maintained, regardless of the boiler operating mode. To reduce the heavy fuel oil viscosity, it is subjected to heating: Preliminary in the heavy fuel oil service tanks and pipelines (satellite steam lines); Final in the fuel oil heater.

The fuel oil heating temperature may be as high as 140 . To avoid the fuel boiling up (vapour and foam formation), the system maintains an operating pressure of up to 8 bars.

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ENGINE ROOM SIMULATOR ERS 5000. Vessel Model Tanker LCC (VERSION 7.2.1100). Trainee Manual ERS5-M-052A

Simulator Module Systems

System Components
The layout implemented in the simulator, is presented in the system mnemonic diagram shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2

Included in the system and imitated in the simulator are the following components: Systems of pipelines with valves as a hydrodynamic object; Tanks, heat exchangers, and pipelines as a thermodynamic object; Heavy and diesel fuel oil service tanks which are refilled by using Make Up valves. The heavy fuel oil tank is heated by the steam to reduce the viscosity for the fuel to be pumped. Installed on the heavy and diesel oil filling pipelines are cut-off fastclosing valves (as, e.g., parts of the fire control system). Heavy and diesel oil filling pipes are connected to the inlet of fuel pumps via a three-way (2/1) plug valve, allowing the use of both fuel types without stopping the system; Fuel oil filters at the fuel pump inlet, the so called cold filters; Fuel pumps 1 and 2 (one of them a backup) ensure the continuous pumping of fuel thorough the filters and fuel heater, allowing the system to be maintained in constant stand-by. These are electrically driven gear-type pumps; Fuel oil heater heats up the fuel to the required temperature (viscosity). This is a steam shell-and-tube heat exchanger. The fuel oil temperature at the heater outlet is controlled by the steam feeding valve. This is done either manually or by using Temperature Control governor; Fuel oil heater bypassing pipeline used in operation on the diesel oil; Duplicate fuel oil filter (HOT FILTER) at the fuel oil heater outlet for ridding the oil of particles larger than 50 microns. The pressure drop across the clean filter

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is not more than 0.3 bars. With a drop of more than 0.5 bars, it is necessary to switch to the clean section and clean the fouled filter section; Automatic pressure control which ensures constant fuel pressure at the burner unit inlet. The control is fitted out with the pressure setter; The heated-up and filtered fuel oil is fed to the boiler burners (modelled in Steam Plant system). The return fuel oil tank with the automatic de-aeration valve closes up the fuel system. The tank is located higher than the heavy fuel oil service tank, the middle of the tank at the level of the service tank top.

Control Panel
The control panel is divided into three groups: Fuel pumps, filters, and valves control group; Fuel oil heater control group (including the fuel oil temperature automatic controller); Fuel oil tanks and pipelines handling group.

FO Pumps, Filters, and Valves Control Group

The group includes: FO pumps AUTO/MANUAL operation mode switch; FO PUMP 1start button; FO PUMP 2start button; INLET pressure gauge which shows pressure at the inlet to the FO cold filters; COLD FILTER 1 DROP pressure gauge showing the pressure drop across cold filter 1; COLD FILTER 2 DROP pressure gauge showing the pressure drop across cold filter 2; OUTLET pressure gauge which shows pressure at the outlet from the FO cold filters; HOT FILTER DROP pressure gauge showing pressure drop across the duplicate hot filter; HOT FILTER 1/2 FO hot filter sections switch;

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BURNERS INLET pressure gauge showing FO pressure at the inlet to the FO burners unit; SET POINT setter of pressure at the inlet to the FO burners unit; BURNER 1 ON button for opening cut-off valve before burner 1; BURNER 2 ON button for opening cut-off valve before burner 2.

TEMPERATURE CONTROL FO Preheater Control Group

MANUAL/AUTO FO temperature control group; HEATING setter which can be used for the manual control (Manual mode) of the valve feeding steam to the FO preheater. The 100 position corresponds to the maximum stem supply to the FO preheater. The current HEATING setter position is shown on the mnemonic diagram on the FO preheater digital display; The SET POINT setter serves for setting the FO temperature after the FO preheater (Auto mode); The PREHEATER ON and PREHEATER BYPASS buttons are used for the remote control of the valve for the supply of FO to the FO preheater and of the Bypass valve; The STEAM button is used for the remote control of the valve for feeding steam to the FO preheater; PREHEATER INLET and PREHEATER OUTLET temperature gauges showing temperature at the FO preheater inlet and outlet.

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FO Tanks and Pipelines Handling Group

3-position switch which controls remotely the three-way HFO/OFF/DO stopcock; The HEATING setter which serves for the manual control of the steam supply for heating FO in the heavy fuel oil tank; The TRACING button turns on the steam heating of HFO pipelines; HFO TANK pressure gauge which shows temperature in the HFO tank; HFO MAKE UP button for the control of the HFO tank makeup valve and DO MAKE UP button for the control of the DO tank makeup valve.

In addition, the mnemonic diagram shows: Level in the heavy fuel oil tank; Level in the diesel oil tank; Operation of heavy fuel oil tank heater; On/off status of fuel pumps; Status of valves; Boiler burner operation.

Alarms
HFO TANK LOW/HIGH LEVEL; DO TANK LOW/HIGH LEVEL; COLD FILTER 1 HIGH PRESSURE DROP cold filter 1 fouled, large pressure drop across the filter; COLD FILTER 2 HIGH PRESSURE DROP cold filter 2 fouled, large pressure drop across the filter; HOT FILTER HIGH PRESSURE DROP hot filter fouled (currently active section), large pressure drop across it; PUMP OUTLET LOW PRESSURE low pressure after the fuel pumps; BURNER INPUT LOW PRESSURE low pressure before burners; FUEL LOW/HIGH TEMPERATURE.

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Safety System
Not modelled separately for the fuel system. It is available in the Steam Plant system. As the Steam Plant safety system is actuated, in the fuel system valves feeding fuel to the burners are closed, fuel pumps stop switching to MANUAL mode in the process. After the safety system actuation, and after the elimination go what caused this actuation, it is necessary to its causes have been eliminated, it is necessary to: clock the safety system by using RESET button (see Steam Plant system).

System Faults Entered by the Instructor


Fuel Pump 1 Failure; Fuel Pump 2 Failure; Cold Filter 1 Fouling; Cold Filter 2 Fouling; Hot Filter 1 Fouling; Hot Filter 2 Fouling; Temperature Governor Failure.

System Operation
1. Check if there are alarm signals in the system. Acknowledge active alarms and sort out the situation: determine what caused the alarm to trigger off. Check if the boiler system safety system is activated (RESET button) (see Steam Plant system). 2. Check if there is fuel in heavy and diesel fuel oil tanks. Replenish the fuel store as required by opening HFO Make Up or DO Make Up valve and checking the tank refilling by the level indicators. Tank overflow is not permitted. 3. Check the heavy fuel oil temperature in the tank (HFO TANK pressure gauge). If the temperature is low, turn on the heating of fuel in the tank (HFO HEATING button). Do not allow the FUEL LOW/HIGH TEMPERATURE alarm to be generated. 4. Select the type of fuel to be used by using HFO/OFF/DO switch. 5. With the use of the heavy fuel oil, turn on the heating or pipelines: TRACING button. 6. With the use of heavy fuel oil, supply steam to the fuel oil heater by pressing PREHEATER ON button. Select the steam heater operating mode: MANUAL or AUTO. In MANUAL mode, control the steam supply to the fuel oil heater by using HEATING controller. In AUTO mode, set the required fuel oil temperature by using SET POINT rotating knob. 7. If diesel oil is used, turn on the fuel oil heater bypassing by using PREHEATER BYPASS button. 8. Select the hot filter section by using FILTER 1/2 switch. 9. Select MANUAL fuel pump operation mode by using MANUAL-AUTO switch. Start the required pump by using PUMP 1 or PUMP 2 button. The fuel will start circulating in the system. 10. Control the pressure at the burner unit inlet by using PRESSURE SET POINT controller. Check the parameters by using the available pressure and temperature gauges. 11. To enable of operation of burners in Steam Plant system and operation of the boiler, open the supply of fuel oil to the boiler burners by using BURNER 1 ON or BURNER 2 ON button.

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Turbogenerator Drive (TG Page)


Purpose of the System
Turbogenerator drive system is intended for enabling rotation of the electrical generator by the power of the superheated steam generated by the boiler.

System Components
The system layout implemented in the simulator, is shown on the mnemonic diagram in Fig. 3:

Fig. 3

The following components are included in the system and modelled in the simulator: System of pipelines as a hydro- and gas-dynamic object; Steam turbine; Turbine condenser; Condenser electrically driven turbine pumps 1 and 2; Sea water pump; Pre-start oil circulation pump; Oil water cooler.

The turbogenerator is implemented as a single unit which includes a turbodrive, condenser, and generator. The turbodrive consists of an active low-power turbine and reduction gear. Before the start, the turbine is turned manually. The turbodrive ensures normal generator operation (1500 rpm) with a steam pressure of 616 bars at the turbine inlet, steam temperature of 200225 and 0.8 bar vacuum at the outlet.
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The condenser is a shell-and-tube heat exchanger ensuring full condensation of steam with the cooling sea water flow of 1300 m3/h (the cooling sea water temperature is 434 ). Vacuum in the condenser is maintained by the vacuum plant. Two condenser pumps (1 and 2) are intended for removing water from the condenser and pumping it over to the condensate catch tank of the boiler plant. The sea water pump pumps it though the condenser and the lubricating oil system. The unit has autonomous lubricating system with a priming pump.

Control Panel
The system control panel is in the right-hand part of the screen page. The panel contains the following groups: TURBINE SPEED CONTROL turbine rpm control group; LABYRINTH PACKING SYSTEM group for the control of steam supply to the turbine labyrinth packing; TURBINE LO SYSTEM group for the control of the turbine and reduction gear lubrication system; TURBINE CONDENSER group for the control of the turbine condenser; SAFETY SYSTEM turbodrive safety system group; SW COOLING PUMP group for the control of the cooling sea water pump.

Control of Turbine RPM The group is in the top part of the control panel:

The group contains: Analog and digital TURBINE INLET pressure gauge for the readout of steam pressure at the turbine inlet; Analog and digital TURBINE INLET temperature gauge for the readout of steam temperature; Analog and digital turbine rotor rpm gauge (before the reduction gear);

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Supply of steam to the turbine inlet is controlled by the steam (manoeuvring) valve. The valve can be controlled in the manual and automatic modes. In the automatic control mode, the valve maintains permanent turbine rpm at 6000, which is required for the electrical generator operation. In the manual mode, the valve is controlled by MAIN STEAM VALVE setter. The growth of the setter value from 0 to 100 corresponds to the opening of the valve and increase of the steam supply from zero to the maximum value. The current status of the valve connected with the setter is shown on the valves digital display on the mnemonic diagram; Main steam (manoeuvring) valve control mode switch which has two positions: AUTO and MANUAL.

The turbine is started in the manual mode by using the manoeuvring valve. To do this, set the turbine control mode switch to MANUAL position, then set MAIN STEAM VALVE controller to the position corresponding to appr. 20%. After the turbine rotor has been spinned up and has achieved the rpm of about 2000, set the control mode switch to AUTO position. After this, control of the turbine rpm will be performed automatically: the turbine will gather speed of about 6000 rpm, and these revolutions will be maintained automatically regardless of the change of the electrical generator load. Turbine Labyrinth Packing System

Steam supply to the labyrinth packing is controlled by using the STEAM VALVE button. Steam pressure supplied to the labyrinth packing, is shown on the pressure gauge. Lubricating System

The electrically driven lube oil priming pump is started by pressing the PRIMING button. The LO pressure in the turbine and reduction gear lubricating system is shown on the pressure gauge. Oil temperature is adjusted by controlling the water flow through the oil cooler by using the COOLER FLOW setter. Increasing the setter value from 0 to 100 corresponds to the opening of the valve and increase of the water supply. The current status of the valve connected with the setter, is shown on the valve digital display on the mnemonic diagram. The oil temperature is shown on the temperature gauge.

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Turbine Condenser Control Group

Cooling Sea Water Pump Control Unit

The electrically driven sea water pump is actuated by pressing the SW PUMP button. Pressure on the pump discharge side is shown on the DISCHARGE pressure gauge. Safety System Group The group is in the left-hand part of the control panel:

The group contains: Indicators of the turbine safety system: OVERSPEED turbine stop as the maximum permissible rpm is exceeded, LOW LO PRESS. turbine stop in case of pressure drop in the lubrication system, HIGH COND. LEVEL turbine stop in case of high condensate level in the turbine condenser; RESET button; a press on this button reactivates the safety system after its actuation.

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Alarm Signals
LOW LO PRESSURE low lubricating oil pressure; HIGH LO T high lubricating oil temperature; TURBINE OVERSPEED maximum permissible turbine rotor rpm exceeded; HIGH COND. LEVEL high condensate level in the turbine condenser; CONDENSER VACUUM FAIL. loss of vacuum in the condenser.

Safety System
Main manoeuvring valve closed (turbine stopped) as the rotor rpm grows to 7500; Main manoeuvring valve closed (turbine stopped) in case of high condensate level in the condenser; Main manoeuvring valve closed (turbine stopped) in case of pressure drop in the lubricating oil system down to 0.5 bar.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Turbine Automatic Fault breakdown of the automatics foe maintaining constant turbine rotor rpm; Vacuum Fault loss of condenser vacuum (faulty vacuum equipment); LO Leakage leakage of oil from the lubricating system; Condenser Pump 1 Automatic Fault breakdown of automatics in condensate pump 1 (automatics for maintaining the level in the condenser); Condenser Pump 2 Automatic Fault breakdown of automatics in condensate pump 2 (automatics for maintaining the level in the condenser); Condenser Pump 1 Break breakdown of condensate pump 1; Condenser Pump 2 Break breakdown of condensate pump 2; LO Priming Pump Break breakdown of lubricating oil priming pump; Turbine Condenser Fouling fouling of the turbine condenser on the sea water side; LO Cooler Fouling fouling of the lubricating oil cooler on the sea water side; SW Pump Breakdown breakdown of the cooling sea water pump.

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System of Steam Turbine Driven Cargo Pumps


Purpose
The system is intended for the control of the cargo pump steam turbo drives. Steam is supplied to the pumps from the boiler plant in much the same way as to the turbogenerator. The steam production and flow balance is modelled so that the operation of cargo pumps is only possible when the ship is in port, and the turbogenerator does not operate.

System Components
For the layout of the system implemented in the simulator, see the system mnemonic diagram shown in Fig. 4

Fig. 4

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Control Panel
The right-hand part of the screen page contains the system control panel:

The control panel contains the following groups: TURBINE turbine rpm control group; TURBINE LO SYSTEM turbine and reduction gear lube system control group; CARGO PUMP group showing pressure after the cargo transfer pump; TURBINE SHUT DOWN turbine safety system group.

Turbine RPM Control Group Steam parameters (pressure and temperature) before the turbine are shown on the STEAM INLET pressure gauge and on the STEAM temperature gauge. Steam is supplied to the turbine by opening the inlet valve (a press on the INLET VALVE button) The condensate is drained from the chest before the turbine start by opening the drain valve (a press on the CHEST DRAIN button).

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The manoeuvring valve is controlled by the turbine rpm controller. The required turbine rpm is specified by the SET POINT, RPM1000 setter. The current turbine RPM is shown on the RPM digital display. The turbine vibration level during the operation is shown in VIBRATION digital indicator. Lube System Control Group The store of LO for the turboset lubrication is kept in the LO Sump Tank. The lube oil level in the tank is monitored. The tank is replenished by opening the Make Up valve (a press on the MAKE UP button). Before starting the turboset, turn on the electrically driven prestart oil priming pump by pressing the PRIMING PUMP button. After the turboset start, the LO pump driven mechanically by the turboset is started automatically. Oil pressure on the pumps discharge side is shown on the DISCHARGE pressure gauge, oil pressure at the turboset inlet is shown on the LO INPUT pressure gauge. The two-position FILTER switch allows selection of filter F1 or F2. Pressure drop across the filter (characterises the filter fouling degree) is shown on the PRESSURE DROP gauge. To select operation mode of the LO temperature control, use the MANUAL/AUTO switch. In the automatic operation mode, oil temperature is set with the SET POINT, deg C knob. In the manual operation mode, the opening degree of the cooling sea water supply valve is controlled with the VALVE POSITION setter. Oil temperature at the turboset inlet is shown on the LO INPUT temperature gauge. Oil is drained by gravity to the LO Sump Tank. Group Showing Pressure after Cargo Transfer Pump The DISCHARGE pressure gauge is intended for showing the cargo pump discharge pressure. Safety System Group Indicators arranged in the group enable identification of the reason why the unit was shut down by the safety system: Over Speed permissible turbine rpm exceeded (> 8100 rpm); High vibration condensate not drained before the system start (hydraulic shock), or the turbine was not properly heated at 800 rpm; Low LO Pressure problems with the supply of lube oil to the unit, e.g., the LO Priming pump was not run before the start. High LO Temperature occurs if: There is no SW supply for the LO Cooler cooling; The LO Cooler Dirty fault was entered by the instructor; High back pressure high back pressure at the steam outlet from the turbine.

Alarms
TURBINE 1 SHUTDOWN actuation of turbine 1 safety system; TURBINE 2 SHUTDOWN actuation of turbine 2 safety system; TURBINE 1 LO PRESSURE LOW low pressure of turbine 1 LO; TURBINE 2 LO PRESSURE LOW low pressure of turbine 2 LO; TURBINE 1 LO TEMPERATURE HIGH high temperature of turbine 1 LO;

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TURBINE 2 LO TEMPERATURE HIGH high temperature of turbine 2 LO; LO SUMP TANK 1 LEVEL LOW low oil level in sump tank 1; LO SUMP TANK 2 LEVEL LOW low level in sump tank 2; TURBINE 1 LO FILTER P DROP oil pressure drop across the filter of turbine 1 exceeds the permitted value; TURBINE 1 LO FILTER P DROP oil pressure drop across the filter of turbine 2 exceeds the permitted value.

Safety System
The turboset shutdown is provided. See paragraph Safety System Group.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Speed governor 1 failure; Speed governor 2 failure; LO filter 1 dirty (turbine 1); LO filter 1 dirty (turbine 2); LO filter 2 dirty (turbine 1); LO filter 2 dirty (turbine 2); LO cooler 1 fouling (LO side); LO cooler 2 fouling (LO side); LO cooler 1 fouling (SW side); LO cooler 2 fouling (SW side); LO temperature controller 1 fault; LO temperature controller 2 fault; LO driven pump 1 failure; LO driven pump 2 failure; LO leakage (turbine 1); LO leakage (turbine 2).

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Ballast System (Page BS)


Purpose
The ballast system is designed for taking and removal of isolated ballast (seawater) for the purpose of necessary ship stability (list/trim control, draft change).

System Components
The ballast pumps are located in the dedicated pump section next to the engine room. The pipelines are laid according to the line principle, the pipes running via a special tunnel in the lower part of the hull, their connection to the ballast tanks executed at the lower points of the tanks. The ballast tanks are placed uniformly along the vessel length and symmetrically at the vessel width along the both sides. The system scheme realized in the simulator, can be seen in Fig. 5:

Fig. 5

The system has the following components reproduced in the simulator: Sea chests BV3 (port side side sea chest, below the water-line) and BV13 (starboard lower chest at the ship bottom) for sea water intake. The sea chests are provided with filters; Discharging valves (non-return) BV6 and BV16 for discharging water overboard are located above the water line; Pipeline system with fittings as a hydrodynamic object; Ballast pumps Pump 1 and Ballast Pump 2 electrically driven centrifugal pumps; Side (port side and starboard) ballast tanks Water Ballast Tank (WBT) 15; Afterpeak and forepeak tanks;

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Stop valves remote-operated valves Open/Close with status indication; Regulating valves (rotary gates) remote-operated valves with opening rate indication of 0 to 100 %.

The system mimic shows liquid levels in tanks (%), water flow rates (m3/h) for each tank, stop valve opening indicators and regulating valve opening rate indicators. Using various combinations of stop/regulating valve statuses, the system allows for transfer of current volumes of water between tanks at different flow rates. The movable masses create vertical forces, longitudinal and transverse moments affecting the ship hull trim and draft. The following values are calculated in the process of the mathematical model operation: Water volumes in each tank and corresponding masses; Total and net water masses in tanks; Vertical forces from the masses; Total moments of masses along the X axis and the Y axis of the ship.

The mentioned data are processed and used for calculation of the vessel list, draft (fore, aft), and trim.

Control Panel
The buildings and structures system control panel includes the following modules: Ballast Pumps 1, 2 Control Modules

The module includes: Pump POWER indicator; Pump start button START; Pump shutdown button STOP; SELF PRIMING on button; Pump suction pressure indicator SUCTION; Pump discharge pressure indicator DISCHARGE.

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Stop Valves Control Module

The module includes: buttons for the remote control (opening-closing) of valves arranged in the system along the portside; buttons for the remote control (opening-closing) of valves arranged in the system along the starboard; buttons for the remote control (opening-closing) of valves enabling connection of portside and starboard pipelines.

Operating the aforementioned valves, one can achieve a required configuration of the system pipelines in order to provide necessary intakes, overflows and discharges in the system. Regulating Valves Control Module

By changing smoothly the degree of the regulating valves opening, you can obtain the required ballast tank filling/draining rate and, consequently, the rate of changing the draft, list-trim values.

Alarm Signals
For each of the ballast tanks, the BALLAST TANK LEVEL HIGH alarm is foreseen.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Ballast Pump 1 Break ballast pump 1 emergency shutdown; Ballast Pump 2 Break ballast pump 2 emergency shutdown; Ballast High Chest PS Fouling obstruction in the ballast system sea chest at the port side; Ballast High Chest SB Fouling obstruction in the ballast system sea chest at the starboard.

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Bilge Water System (BW Page)


Purpose
The system is designed to collect, treat and remove oil-bilge water. The system is in full compliance with requirements of MARPOL and SOLAS.

System Components
The system scheme realized in the simulator, can be seen in Fig. 6 as its mimic diagram.

Fig. 6

The system includes: Bilge wells: bilge well AFT; bilge well Middle; bilge well FWD-PS; bilge well FWD-SB; sunken well (a deeper one) under the ME.
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Bilge hold tank; Separator bilge oil tank; Reciprocating bilge pump; Bilge separator service pump; Transfer pump; ER Bilge pump; System of pipes with filters and shut-off valves.

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Bilge water is collected in wells. Wells are fitted out with the top level sensors (High level alarm). Connected to each well are suction pipelines fitted out with mud boxes. The bilge well contents are pumped out to the bilge hold tank with the aid of the reciprocating bilge pump. The tank is fitted out with the content heater; the temperature and level of contents within the tank are monitored. Pipelines from each well to the bilge pump are fitted out with air piston valves which close down automatically if the well is empty and there is no fluid in the pump suction line. Installed in series with air piston valves are manually controlled valves which allow excluding certain wells manually from the contents pumping out. By default, these valves are in the Open position. The reciprocating bilge pump can operate in the manual and automatic modes (Manual/Auto). The pump suction and discharge pressure is monitored. If the Auto mode is selected, the pump is started automatically when the bilge well high level signal is received from any of the wells. The pump is stopped in the Auto mode after the well has been emptied. To start/stop the pump in the Manual mode, use the PUMP button. In an emergency, in case of the ER flooding (there is a high level alarm signal from the sunken well), water can be pumped out from the ER overboard. The emergency pumping out is performed by using high capacity bilge pump controlled manually (start/stop by using the PUMP button). The pump suction and discharge pressure is monitored. The selection of wells for pumping out with the Bilge Pump is made by opening appropriate valves on the pump suction line. If the Bilge Pump is malfunctioning, or its capacity is not sufficient, it is possible to connect the bilge water system pipeline to the suction line of the Main Cooling Sea Water pump (see the Sea Water Cooling system in the Propulsion Pane module). The bilge hold tank contents separation and draining of purified waters overboard are performed by the bilge separator. The separator operates in the automatic mode, to start or stop press the RUN button. The supply to the separator is made by the bilge separator service pump. The pump suction and discharge pressure is monitored. The separator automatics determine the petroleum product content in the water (the settings of 515 ppm is made with the aid of the Oil content set point potentiometer) and control the three-way valve for the separator draining. If the oil content at the separator outlet does not exceed the set value, draining overboard is possible. If the oil content at the separator outlet exceeds the set value, the draining is made back to the Bilge hold tank. The separation residue is drained to the bilge oil tank. The tank is fitted out with the content heater, and the level in the tank is monitored. The pumping out of the separator bilge oil tank and bilge hold tank contents on shore is performed by the transfer pump. The selection of a tank for pumping out is made with the aid of a three-way valve controlled with the Suction from Bilge hold tank/Bilge oil tank switch. The pump can be controlled in the manual mode (started/stopped with the PUMP button). The pump suction and discharge pressure is monitored. The pump is stopped as the low level is reached in the tank which the contents are pumped out from.

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Control Panel
The right-hand part of the screen page houses the system control panel:

The control panel contains the following groups: RECIPROCATING PUMP reciprocating pump control group; BILGE PUMP ER bilge pumps control; HEATING BILGE TANKS group for the control of the bilge hold tank and separator bilge oil tank heating; BILGE SEPARATOR separator control group; TRANSFER PUMP group for the control of the pump transferring the system tank contents to the shore.

Reciprocating Pump Control Group The control mode is selected with the aid of the MANUAL/AUTO switch. To start/stop the pump manually, press the PUMP button. The necessary well is disconnected from the bilge pump by closing the appropriate remotely controlled valve, by pressing the respective button (AFT, MID, FWD PS, FWD SB). By default, each of these valves is opened. The pump suction and discharge pressure is monitored.

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ER Bilge Pump Control Group The pump control mode is manual only. To start/stop the pump manually, press the PUMP button. The necessary well is disconnected from the bilge pump by closing the appropriate remotely controlled valve, by pressing the respective button (AFT, MID, FWD PS, FWD SB, SUNKEN). By default, each of these valves is closed. The pump suction and discharge pressure is monitored. Bilge Tanks Heating Control Group The contents of the bilge hold tank and separator bilge oil tank are heated with steam. The steam is supplied to the heaters by opening the remotely controlled valves. To do this, use the Hold Tank and Oil Tank buttons. The tank contents temperature is monitored with the aid of the Hold Tank and Oil Tank temperature gauges. Transfer Pump Control Group The pump control mode is manual only. To start/stop the pump, press the PUMP button. The pumping out direction (from each tank) is determined by the position of the three-way valve which is controlled remotely by using the SUCTION FROM BILGE TK switch which has two positions: HOLD and OIL. The pump suction and discharge pressure is monitored Bilge Separator Control Group The separator is started by pressing the RUN button. The Bilge separator service pump suction and discharge pressure is monitored. The petroleum products content in the water (515 ppm) is set with the aid of the OIL CONTENT SET POINT potentiometer. Oil content in the water after the separator is read off from the OIL CONTENT indicator.

Alarms
BILGE WELL AFT LEVEL HIGH high level in the aft well; BILGE WELL MID LEVEL HIGH high level in the middle well; BILGE WELL FWD PS LEVEL HIGH high level in the fore portside well; BILGE WELL FWD SB LEVEL HIGH high level in the fore starboard well; SUNKEN WELL LEVEL HIGH high level in the sunken well (under the ME); HOLD TANK LEVEL HIGH high level in the bilge water hold tank; BILGE OIL TANK LEVEL HIGH high level in the bilge oil tank; HIGH OIL CONTENT highest possible oil content after the separator.

Safety System
The draining of water overboard is stopped automatically when the set oil content in the water is exceeded.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Bilge Pump Failure (Break); Reciprocating Pump Failure (Break); Reciprocating Pump Auto Failure; Transfer Pump Failure (Break); Service Pump Failure (Break); Filter of Transfer Pump Fouling fouling of filter on the transfer pump suction line;

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Filter of Reciprocating Pump Fouling fouling of filter on the reciprocating pump suction line; Filter of Bilge Pump Fouling fouling of filter on the ER bilge pump suction line; Flooding ER flooding, water in the sunken well; Fast Flooding fast ER flooding; Separator Ineffective the separator capacity is not sufficient for the bilge water purification, very high oil content in the bolge waters; Bilge Air Piston Break Well Aft valve break in the aft well, the valve would not close automaically when the well is emptied; Bilge Air Piston Break Well Middle valve break in the middle well, the valve would not close automaically when the well is emptied; Bilge Air Piston Break Well FWD SB valve break in the forwardstaboard well, the valve would not close automaically when the well is emptied; Bilge Air Piston Break Well FWD PS valve break in the forward portside well, the valve would not close automaically when the well is emptied.

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Steering Gear (Page SG)


Purpose
The system is designed to provide rudder displacement bet -35 to +35 in accordance with ship maneuvering needs. The steering gear (SG) design complies with the SOLAS requirements for tankers it is of the two-circuit type, i.e. having two individual hydraulic drives able to operate together or autonomously. Control of the steering machine is controlled remotely from the bridge or from the local control station in the SG room.

System Components
The system scheme realized in the simulator, can be seen in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7

The system has the following components reproduced in the simulator: Electrohydraulic unit 1 (Janney Pump 1) with the control valve chest (By-Pass Valve, Safety Valves) and isolation valves (Isolation Valves 1, 2); Electrohydraulic unit hydraulic oil tank 1 (Oil Tank 1); Electrohydraulic unit 2 (Janney Pump 2) with the control valve chest (By-Pass Valve, Safety Valves) and isolation valves (Isolation Valves 1, 2); Electrohydraulic unit hydraulic oil tank 2 (Oil Tank 2); Steering gear 1 plungers and hydraulic cylinders 1 and 2; Steering gear 2 plungers and hydraulic cylinders 3 and 4; Hydraulic oil storage tank (Oil Storage Tank); Hydraulic pipelines as hydrodynamic objects; System of local manual control and remote automatic control.

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SG circuit operation principle the electrohydraulic unit (Janney Pump) raises hydraulic oil pressure and directs it to the steering gear through the hydraulic pipelines. The steering gear has a plunger and two hydraulic cylinders. One hydraulic cylinder receives oil, the other one removes it. This provides plunger longitudinal motion, which is converted with the aid of the SG gear to the rotational motion of the rudder stock. A change of oil direction feeding to/removing from the cylinders brings about a change of rudder rotation direction. The electrohydraulic unit has two outlets, being connected simultaneously to two pipelines. The control system makes it possible to interchange pipeline purposes one of them becomes the feeding one, and the other a removing one, and vice versa. Availability of two SG circuits and respectively four hydraulic cylinders doubles the drive capacity and its reliability. The both SG circuits (pipelines) and combined with the aid of two couples of automatic isolation valves, i.e., Isolation valves 1, 2 and Isolation valves 3, 4. In the normal operation mode (SG circuits are connected, the isolation valves being open), the following variants of SG operation are possible: Only Janney Pump 1 operates rising pressure, which is directed to all cylinders 1, 2, 3, and 4. Only Janney Pump 2 operates rising pressure which is directed to all cylinders 1, 2, 3, and 4. The both Janney Pumps, 1 and 2, operate rising pressure which is directed to all cylinders 1, 2, 3, and 4. Pressure in the system is increased with subsequent increase of rudder displacement rate.

If hydraulic oil leakage is detected in a circuit (determined by drop of level in the corresponding hydraulic oil tank), then the isolation valves close, cutting of the faulty circuit. The level is monitored in all hydraulic oil tanks, if necessary oil can be drains from the tanks using the Drain valves or added to the tanks using the MakeUp valves. Hydraulic oil temperature in the hydraulic oil tanks is monitored. The SG can be controlled either remotely from the bridge (Remote) or locally from the local SG station (Local). The control mode is selected on the SG local panel using the Local/Remote selector switch. The SG system sends to the bridge a feedback signal, i.e. the actual value of the rudder angle. The control can be follow-up and non-follow-up. The follow-up control is the remote automatic control from the bridge. The command of turning the rudder is generated either by the autopilot or by the helmSGan. The follow-up mode compares the values of helm turn command and the feedback signal. The automatic device generates the helm angle command basing of the difference between the command value and the feedback signal value. Then non-follow-up control is performed remotely as manual control from the bridge or as local manual control from the SG local station. In this mode, the command to turn the helm is determined by the watch office basing on the rudder angle indicator reading. The remote manual control from the bridge is reserved as an emergency mode.

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When ERS 4000 is in the autonomous mode, the helm turn commands are simulated by the instructor, who specifies them in the degrees of the helm turn, while during combined operation of the simulators ERS 4000 and NTPro 4000, commands (tasks) are coming from the NTPro 4000 simulator. The SG allows operation with one hydraulic circuit (unit) only, if the vessel speed is up to 7 knots. If this value is surpassed, the rudder force and respectively the resistance to SG plunger motion increases to a level, when the Janney Pump motor get overloaded, and then it is necessary to operate two SG units.

Control Panel
The control panel simulated the local SG station, it includes three modules: system control module; pump unit 1 control module; pump unit 2 control module.

System Control Module

The panel includes: CONTROL POWER power on indicator for the control system; LOCAL/REMOTE operation mode selector switch; indicator LOCAL display confirming selection of the control mode from the local SG station; Rudder Angle double rudder angle indicator; pressure indicator for hydraulic circuit 1; pressure indicator for hydraulic circuit 2; control buttons for drain valve (DRAIN) and replenishment of the hydraulic oil (MAKE UP) hold tank.

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Content Modules for Pump Units 1 and 2

The panel includes: POWER power on indicator for the unit; PUMP CONTROL pump control module: the START button, the STOP button, and the RUN display indicator; spring-loaded SG RUDDER CONTROL handle. Its motion to portside or starboard results in helm motion to the specified side. The rudder turn is monitored using the Rudder Angle indicator, and when the handle is released, it automatically goes to the OFF position, the rudder stopping in the required position; OIL TANK temperature gage for the hydraulic oil in the pump unit tank; DRAIN control button for the drain valve of the pump unit tank; MAKE UP control button for replenishment of the pump unit hydraulic oil tank.

Alarm Signals
POWER 1 FAILURE no power at unit 1; POWER 2 FAILURE no power at unit 2; CONTROL POWER FAILURE no power at the control system; REMOTE CONTROL FAILURE a fault in the control system; OIL TANK 1 LEVEL LOW low level of hydraulic oil in the tank for unit 1, tank replenishment required; OIL TANK 1 LEVEL LOW LOW very low level of hydraulic oil in the tank for unit 1 resulting in actuation of the protection system and closing of the isolation valves of the circuit; OIL TANK 2 LEVEL LOW low level of hydraulic oil in the tank for unit 2, tank replenishment required; OIL TANK 2 LEVEL LOW LOW very low level of hydraulic oil in the tank for unit 1 resulting in actuation of the protection system and closing of the isolation valves of circuit 2; OIL TANK 1 OVERFLOW overflow of the circuit 1 tank; OIL TANK 2 OVERFLOW overflow of the circuit 2 tank; EL. MOTOR 1 OVERLOAD overload of the unit 1 motor 1 (vessel speed over 7 knots, SG has in operation only unit 1);

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EL. MOTOR 2 OVERLOAD overload of the unit 2 motor (vessel speed over 7 knots, SG has in operation only unit 2); PUMP 1 TRIP emergency shutdown of unit 1; PUMP 2 TRIP emergency shutdown of unit 2.

Protection System
A leakage from the hydraulic circuit results in actuation of isolation valves and shutdown of the faulty circuit.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Remote Control Failure a fault in the control system; SG Pump 1 Trip emergency shutdown of unit 1; SG Pump 2 Trip emergency shutdown of unit 2; SG Pump 1 Power Failure failure of power for unit 1; SG Pump 2 Power Failure failure of power for unit 2; SG Pump 1 Wear tear and wear of unit 1 pump, reduction of discharge pressure; SG Pump 2 Wear tear and wear of unit 2, reduction of discharge pressure; SG Tank 1 Leakage leakage in hydraulic circuit 1; SG Tank 2 Leakage leakage in hydraulic circuit 2; Ship Speed over 7 knots vessel speed over 7 knots (used for simulator module autonomous mode).

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Water Desalination Plant (WD Page)


Purpose
The Water Desalination Plant is designed for producing fresh water for the technical and domestic needs from the sea water by the vacuum vaporization followed by the condensation.

System Components
The distiller includes heat exchangers which perform functions of an evaporator (in its bottom part on the mnemonic diagram) and a condenser (in its top part on the mnemonic diagram). Due to the high vacuum (8590%), the brine in the evaporator boils at the temperature of 52 5 . The vapour rises and passes through the demister where it rids itself of the water admixture, and is fed to the condenser where it is cooled with the sea water. In the condenser, the vapour is condensed and pumped out into the distillate tank. The plant capacity is from 0.5 to 10 m3 per day. The water level in the evaporator is maintained at a constant level by the overflow. Part of the feed water turns to the distilled water, whilst the remaining brine is constantly pumped out of the evaporator by the ejector. As a rule, the plant operates in the automatic mode. The system layout implemented in the simulator, is shown on the mnemonic diagram in Fig. 8.

Fig. 8

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Control Panel
The control panel contains the following units: SEA WATER PUMP control of sea water supply; EJECTOR CONTROL ejector control unit; CONDENSER condenser control unit; FEED WATER control of feed water supply; HEATING WATER control of the brine heating in the evaporator; DISTILLED WATER PUMP control of the distilled water pump; SALINITY CONTROL control of the distillate salinity degree.

Control of Seawater Supply To start the system operating, you should first switch on the sea water pump which is shown to the left and below the distiller. The sea water pump performs the following three functions: Supplies the feed water to the evaporator; Supplies water for the condenser cooling; Supplies the driving water for the combined air and brine ejector.

To switch the sea water pump on/off, use START/STOP button. When the pump is switched on, the button indicator is lighted, and the pump on indicator is lighted on the mnemonic diagram. Installed over the button is the analog and digital pressure gauge showing the pumps charging pressure. The sea water flow is controlled by using valves for supplying it into the ejector, condenser, and feed water valve. Changes in these valves condition have a considerable effect on each other. After sea water pump is turned on, open the ejectors cut-off valve. Ejector Control The ejector shown in the top left corner of the mnemonic diagram, maintains the required vacuum in the distiller as well as the constant feed water level in the evaporator. To control the cut-off valve of the ejector driving water, use EJECTOR button. Over the button there is an analog and digital gauge providing the distiller pressure (vacuum) readout. Condenser Operation The condenser operation is determined by the cooling water flow and temperature as well as the boiling conditions in the evaporator. The condenser and water level indicator are shown in the top part of the distiller on the mnemonic diagram. The cooling water flow through the condenser is controlled by using cooling water supply VALVE controller. Increasing of the controller parameter from 0 to 100 corresponds to the degree of the valve openness and growth of the water flow through the condenser. The valve current status (the degree of its openness in %) is shown on the valves digital display on the mnemonic diagram (to the left of and above the distiller).

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The distillate produced in the condenser, is pumped out by the distillate pump (see below). The sea water temperature at the inlet to and outlet from the condenser is checked by using the digital and graphic INLET and OUTLET temperature gauges set to the left of VALVE controller. With the growing flow and reducing sea water temperature, the condensation conditions improve, but as the feed water enters the evaporator after the condenser, the feed water temperature drops down, so does the ejector capacity. The adjustment is made manually by using the condenser valve. Control of Feed Water Supply The supply of the feed water into the evaporator is possible with the sea water pump turned on, condenser cooling water and feed water valves opened. The evaporator and brine level indicator are shown in the bottom part of the distiller on the mnemonic diagram. The feed water flow through the evaporator is controlled by using VALVE feed water supply controller in FEED WATER group. Increasing of the controller parameter from 0 to 100 corresponds to the degree of the valve openness and growth of the water flow through the condenser up to the maximum value. The controllers current position is shown on the valves digital display on the mnemonic diagram (to the left of the distiller). The supply of feed water into the evaporator is monitored by using the flow meter. The amount of the supplied feed water should normally be approximately twice the plant capacity in order to provide the constant brine level and salinity in the evaporator. To the left of the VALVE controller, there is an analog and digital pressure gauge providing the readout of the feed water pressure before the valve. Control of Brine Heating in Evaporator Main engine cylinders cooling fresh water is used for heating the brine in the evaporator. As a rule, its temperature varies from 65 to 85. The flow is controlled manually by using the heating water valve depending on its temperature and the required plant capacity. The heating water valve is controlled via VALVE controller (increasing of the controller parameters from 0 to 199 corresponds to the degree of the valve openness), whilst the heating water temperature is checked by using INLET and OUTLET graphical and digital indicators. The valves current status is shown on the valves digital display on the mnemonic diagram (to the right of the distiller). Control of the Distillate Pump Control is exercised from DISTILLED WATER PUMP group. The distillate produced in the condenser is collected in the condensate collector. The distillate pump pumps out the produced fresh water into the distillate tank (in the right bottom corner of the mnemonic diagram). In the process, the water salinity is checked, and in case of the high salt content in the distillate, it is sent back to the evaporator through the solenoid valve. If the pump is turned off, the distillate flows back into the evaporator when the collector is overfilled.

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The distillate pump (to the right of the distiller on the mnemonic diagram) can operate both in the manual and automatic mode. In the top right corner of the Control Panel, there is START-STOP distillate pump button, as well as the AUTO/MANUAL pump control switch. The START-STOP button does not function unless the pump control mode switch is set to MANUAL. In the automatic mode (AUTO) the pump is switched on when the distillate level in the condenser is at 95% of the maximum value, and is switched off when the level is at 5%. The pump charging pressure is checked by the analog and digital pressure gauge which is also installed here. Control of the Distillate Salinity Degree Monitoring and control of the distillate salinity is from SALINITY CONTROL group. The distillate salinity depends on the boiling conditions, specifically: Brine salinity in the evaporator (to reduce its salinity, an adequate inflow of the feed water is required to be provided); Difference between heating water temperature and temperature of brine boiling point; Boiling intensity.

Depending on the salinity, the distillate is fed either back to the evaporator or to the distillate tank. Distillate feed direction is determined by the solenoid. This valve is controlled either automatically or manually by the operator. The SALINITY CONTROL group includes: AUTO/MANUAL solenoid valve control switch; Digital salinity indicator () for checking the distillate salinity; Admissible distillate salinity SET POINT knob for the control of the solenoid valve in the automatic mode. The controller is graduated from 0 to 50 PPM (02.5 PPM boiler feed water salinity and up to 50 PPM drinking and domestic water salinity); TANK/EVAP. solenoid valve switch used in case of manual control.

With the actual value of the distillate salinity coincident with the value set by the SET POINT controller, the solenoid valve automatically (Auto mode) directs its supply to the distillate tank. In the manual mode (MANUAL), use TANK/EVAP. switch for the manual control of the solenoid valve, checking the distillate salinity by the readout of the digital display in the process. Therefore, SET POINT controller is available in the Auto mode only, whilst TANK/EVAP. switch is available in Manual mode only. The direction in which the distillate is fed: to the distillate tank or to the evaporator, is shown on the mnemonic diagram with an arrow in the picture of the three-way valve. During the work, it is necessary to keep an eye on the plant operation parameters. If the plant operation rules are not observed, there may be excessive brine salinization. For the complete removal of brine from the evaporator, use the drain valve (under the distiller on the mnemonic diagram) controlled by using DRAIN button.

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Alarm Signals
VACUUM FAILED no vacuum in the distiller; CONDENSER LEVEL high/low level in the condenser; BRINE LEVEL high/low brine level in the evaporator; HIGH SALINITY high distillate salinity.

Safety System
Not modelled.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Vacuum Failed no vacuum in distiller; Evaporator Fouled; Condenser Fouled.

Procedure to Put the Plant into Operation


1. Switch on Sea Water pump. 2. Open the ejectors cut-off valve. 3. Open the condenser cooling water supply valve which controls the cooling water flow. 4. Open the feed water supply valve as appropriate for the required plant capacity. 5. Open the evaporator heating water valve as appropriate for the heating water temperature and desired plant capacity. 6. Set the solenoid valve control switch in Salinity Control group to the Auto mode. 7. Set SET POINT distillate salinity control to the required position (at 2.5 PPM for obtaining the boiler feed water, at 200 PPM for the drinking and domestic water). 8. Set the distillate pump control switch to the Auto mode. 9. Check the plant operation parameters maintaining their values within the rated value range.

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Sewage Treatment and Storage System (Page STS)


Purpose
The system is designed for collection and treatment of sewage water in accordance with requirements of MARPOL.

System Components
The system scheme realized in the simulator, can be seen in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9

The system has the following components reproduced in the simulator: Sewage pipelines with stop valves; Sewage treatment plant; Discharge pumps 1 and 2 of the sewage treatment plant; Air compressors 1 and 2 of the sewage treatment plant; Sewage hold tank; Sewage transfer pump.

Sewage water of different origin is gathered in collector. The ship has a multibranch network of collectors and a number of valves for discharging collectors overboard. The simulator has just one valve Overboard storm valve for discharging overboard, which is located below the water line. The dedicated Sewage hold tank allows sewage be collected and stored for subsequent transfer to shore storages or to the water treatment plant again, or to discharge it overboard.

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The sewage treatment plant is a container divided into three inner spaces Aeration tank, Clarification tank, and Chlorination tank. Sewage water enters the aeration tank, where it is subjected to action of the aerobic bacteria, which life activity is supported by the atmospheric oxygen. The atmospheric oxygen enters the tank due to blowing the tank with compressed air. The compressed air is generated by air compressors. Then the water comes to the clarification tank, where the solids (sludge) formed as a result of bacteria action precipitate. They accumulated there for about 2 to 3 months, and then are discharged overboard with the aid of the sewage treatment plant discharge pumps (only in areas permitted). The clarification tank and the aeration tank are connected with transparent scum return branches and sludge return branches to provide for circulation of the contents between the aeration tank and the clarification tank in the process of system operation. These branches are used to feed compressed air from the plant compressors. The water cleared of the solids is directed to the Chlorination tank for killing bacteria by chlorine treatment. Chlorine is introduced into special cartridges in a form of pills (Chlorinator). With consumption the pills are added. According to the type and pollution level, the sewage is divided into a number of groups. Group 1 sewage water WB, Drains, and Disposer are discharged directly overboard. Group 2 the Galley sewage is directed to the Sewage hold tank, but there is an option of discharging overboard. Control is performed using the three-position valve Galley Close/Sea/Tank. Group 3 the sewage waters WC, Lav. Scupper and Soil are directed either to the water treatment plant or to the sewage hold tank. There is an option of discharging overboard. Control is performed using the three-position valve Soil Close/Sea/Plant the two-position valve Treatment Tank. Group 4 the Hospital sewage is directed to the water treatment plant. There is an option of discharging overboard. Control is performed using the three-position valve Hospital Close/Sea/Plant.

Control Panel
The control panel contains the following modules: Discharge Pump Control Module

The pumps can operate in two control modes, i.e. Manual mode and Auto mode with the Stand-By function.

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In the manual mode, the pumps are started/stopped using the buttons Pump 1 and Pump 2. The pump inlets and outlets feature valves controlled using the buttons SUCTION and DISCHARGE. Pump inlet/outlet pressure is monitored using the pressure gages SUCTION and DISCHARGE. Valve Control Module

The module is used to control the sewage treatment plant valves. The valves are closed/opened by pressing the corresponding buttons on the module. The Sea Water valve is used to direct seawater to the sewage treatment plant. The Aeration Tank valve is used to direct seawater to the aeration tank and to discharge its contents therefrom. The pumping-in of seawater and the pumping-out of the contents from the clarification tank are performed through the Clarification tank valve, while the pumping-in of seawater and the pumping-out of the contents from the chlorination tank is done using the Chlorination tank valve. Air Compressors Control Module

Compressed air for the sewage treatment plant is provided by a couple (Stand-By) compressors, i.e. Air Compressor 1 and Air Compressor 2. The compressors operate in two control modes, i.e. Manual mode and Auto mode with the Stand-By function. Compressor start/shutdown in the manual mode is performed using the buttons Compressor 1 and Compressor 2. Pressure at the outlet of the operating compressor is adjusted using the PRESSURE CONTROL valve, being monitored by the DISCHARGE pressure gauge. Entry of compressed air to the aeration tank is regulated using the Aerating valve (AERATING slide). Compressed air introduced to the scum return branch is regulated with the aid of the Scum return valve (SCUM RETURN slide). Compressed air is introduced to the sludge return branch by opening the Sludge return valve (SLUDGE RETURN button).

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Plant Discharge Valve Control Module

Discharge of sewage overboard is done through the Overboard Valve. The Hospital three-position valve for discharging hospital sewage has three positions: The valve is closed, the valve control selector switch is in the CLOSE position; The valve control selector switch is in the PLANT position, sewage entering the sewage treatment plant; The valve control selector switch is in the SEA position, sewage goes overboard.

The Galley three-position valve for discharging galley waters: The valve is closed, the valve control selector switch is in the CLOSE position; The valve control selector switch is in the TANK position, sewage going to the sewage hold tank; The valve control selector switch is in the SEA position, sewage goes overboard.

Discharge of polluted Soil waters is control by combination of the three-position valve and two-position valve. The three-position valve Soil has three positions: The valve is closed, the valve control switch is in the CLOSE position; The valve control selector switch is in the PLANT position, sewage entering the sewage treatment plant; The valve control selector switch is in the SEA position, sewage goes overboard.

The two-position valve Soil has two positions: The valve control selector switch is in the PLANT position, sewage entering the sewage treatment plant; The valve control selector switch is in the TANK position, sewage going to the sewage hold tank.

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Transfer Pump Control Module

The pump provides removal of the tank contents: ashore; to the treatment plant; to sea (overboard).

The direction the tank contents are to be pumped out is selected using two valves. The first, three-way valve has three positions CLOSE, SHORE (for taking the tank contents ashore), and DISCHARGE for taking the tank contents to the second valve. The second valve can be used to transfer the tank contents either to the treatment plant (PLANT position) or overboard (SEA position). Prior to starting the pump, open the valves in the pump suction/discharge lines (SUCTION and DISCHARGE buttons). The pump can be started/stopped using the RUN button, the pressure upstream/downstream the pump being monitored with the aid of the SUCTION and DISCHARGE pressure gauges.

Alarm Signals
SEWAGE HOLD TANK LEVEL HIGH the liquid level in the tank too high; CHLORINATION TANK LEVEL HIGH the liquid level in the chlorination tank too high.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Air Compressor 1 Trip emergency stop of the compressed air compressor 1; Air Compressor 2 Trip emergency stop of the compressed air compressor 2; Discharge Pump 1 Trip emergency stop of the discharge pump 1; Discharge Pump 2 Trip emergency stop of the discharge pump 2; Discharge Pump Auto Start Failure failure of the discharge pump automatic system, fail of automatic pump start; Discharge Pump Auto Stop Failure failure of the discharge pump automatic system, fail of automatic pump start; Sewage Hold Tank High Level task overflow; Sewage Hold Tank Level Sensor Failure failure of the level sensor in the tank; Chlorination Tank Level Sensor Failure failure of the level sensor in the tank.

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System Operation
Initial Sewage Treatment Plant Startup 1. The Aeration and Clarification tanks are not filled up. Sewage feed to the plant is cut. 2. The Discharge pumps 1 and 2 are the stand-by ones, able to operate in the modes MANUAL and AUTO. The pumps are in the stationary status, and the operation mode selector for discharge pumps 1 and 2 is set to the Manual position. 3. Fully open the air valves Pressure control valve, Aeration valve and Scum return valve, open the Sludge return valve (no adjustment needed, being adjusted by the manufacturer). The compressors are stand-by units, able to operate in the modes Manual and Auto. Set the compressor operation mode switching to the Manual position and start up one of the compressors. Make sure that air pressure is in the range of 0.15 to 0.5 bar. Turn over the compressor operation mode switch to the AUTO position. 4. The Clarification and Chlorination tank valves are closed. 5. Open the Aeration tank valve. 6. Open the Sea water valve and fill the plant with seawater until its level increase in the Chlorination tank (see the Chlorination tank level indicator) or inspect to make sure that there is flow through the Scum return and Sludge return vinyl tubes (the flow is simulated as arrows on the mimic). 7. Close the Aeration tank valve and the Sea water valve. 8. Ensure there are chlorine pills in the Chlorinator (not simulated). 9. Direct Soil and Hospital group discharges to the plant. 10. Open the Chlorination tank valve and the Overboard valve. 11. Turn the operation mode switch for Discharge pumps 1 and 2 to the AUTO position. Depending on the liquid level in the Chlorination tank, the discharge pump will start up and shutdown, automatically removing liquid from the Chlorination tank overboard. Sewage Hold Tank Operation A maximum rise of level in the tank activates the SEWAGE HOLD TANK LEVEL HIGH alarm signal. The tank is supplied with seawater to make spray, and compressed air; it is shown on the mimic, but no realized in the simulator. The tank can be emptied out using the Transfer pump. Before starting the pump, make sure the valves at the pump suction/discharge sides are in the open position. The pump operates in the manual mode only, the RUN button being used to start/stop it. Pressure at the both sides of the pump is monitored using the pressure gauges SUCTION and DISCHARGE. The tank contents can be pumped out ashore (the first valve in the SHORE position), or to the sewage treatment plant (the first valve in the DISCHARGE position, the second one in the PLANT position), or overboard (the first valve in the Discharge position, the second one in the TO SEA position). Selection of the ship side from which transfer ashore is to be performed is not foreseen in this simulator. When working in the system, one should check the Overboard valve status, i.e. make sure it is open, when pumping out from the tank or when discharging sewage water overboard.
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Incinerator (Page INC)


Purpose
The plant is designed for disposal of the oil product and solids by burning. The system is designed in accordance with MARPOL requirements. The incinerator is to be operated from the local control station.

System Components
See Fig. 10 for the system screen.

Fig. 10

The system includes: incinerator proper with integrated fuel pumps, burners and automatic control devices; tank for settling oil product sediments - Waste Oil settling tank; diesel Oil tank; pipelines with necessary fittings as a hydrodynamic object.

The Waste Oil settling tank includes: WO suction valve for feeding sediments to the incinerator; drain valve; heating valve to introduce tank heating steam; tank contents temperature indicator; tank level indicator.

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Oil product sludge come to the tank from the Fuel Oil Transfer system (FOT) through the Sludge discharge pump. The Diesel Oil tank includes: DO Suction valve to supply fuel to the incinerator; drain valve; Make Up Valve; tank level indicator.

The diesel fuel from the Fuel Oil Transfer system (FOT) gravitates to the diesel fuel tank. Diesel oil is supplied to the Incinerator by the integrated DO pump (manual control). Supply of oil product sludge to the Incinerator is provided by the integrated WO pump (manual control). A pressure reducing valve and a Return valve are installed at the outlet of the WO pump. The Return valve makes it possible to direct part of fuel back to the Waste Oil settling tank or back to the WO pump inlet. To provide for combustion process, the Incinerator furnace has two burners: electrical ignition burner using diesel oil only; main burner (Rotary cup type) using both the diesel oil and the oil product sludge. Diesel oil is supplied through the non-return DO supply valve.

The Main burner is provided with an integrated Primary air fan. Fuel is atomized by the compressed atomizing air supplied to the burner from the ship's compressed air system. To charge solid wastes, the incinerator is provided with a door equipped with an open-status sensor. When open, the charging door disables the starting of the nonoperating incinerator. Combustion air is supplied to the furnace through a manually operated air damper. The exhaust gas fan ensures air draught in the furnace and discharge of exhaust gases. Exhaust gas temperature is monitored using the Exhaust Gas indicator. Exhaust gas temperature can be reduced by injection of atmospheric air to the smoke chamber. It is done by opening the dilution damper (manual control of its position). Working range of the exhaust gas temperature is 310 to 320 C. Combustion process (flame availability) in the furnace can be checked using the Flame eye. Temperature in the furnace can be monitored using the Furnace temperature indicator (working temperature range is 1000 to 1100 C). The incinerator is equipped with the local automatic system and overheat protection. The operational principle is based on the monitoring of the exhaust gas temperature and the furnace temperature: Monitoring the exhaust gas temperature: If the exhaust gas temperature increases up to 320 C, oil supply to the burner nozzles will be cut automatically. After temperature reduction down to 310 C, it will be resumed; If the exhaust gas temperature increases up 350 C, the dilution damper will open completely and automatically for the purpose of cooling down the exhaust gases and protecting the flue and the exhaust gas fan against overheating.

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Monitoring the furnace temperature: If the furnace temperature reaches 1100 C, oil supply to the burner nozzles will be cut automatically. When temperature drops down again to 1050 C, oil supply will be resumed; If the furnace temperature reaches 1200 C, oil supply to the burner nozzles will be cut automatically, and the WO/DO fuel pumps will be shutdown; While furnace temperature is above 220 C, the charging door opening is disabled. When temperature in the furnace drops below 220 C, the Chargeable indicator illuminates indicating that the door can be opened for charging solid wastes to the Incinerator; After Incinerator is shutdown, and temperature in the furnace drops below 60 C, the exhaust gas fan will stop automatically.

Control Panel
The control panel contains the following modules: Atomizing Air Control Module

The compressed air pressure is checked using the ATOMIZING AIR pressure gauge. Compressed air is supplied by pressing the button ON. WO/DO Tank Control Modules

A tank for settling oil product sediments Waste Oil settling Tank (WO Tank): The contents of the WO Tank are heated by introducing heating steam using the Heat button, while the contents temperature is checked using a temperature gage. Discharge of waist oil from the tank is possible by opening the Drain valve using the button of the same name.

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Feeding the tank contents to the fuel pump inlet is possible after opening the WO Suction valve by pressing the button of the same name. Tank replenishment is performed from the Fuel Oil Transfer system (FOT) using the Sludge; the tank level is checked against the indicator on the mimic. Diesel Oil tank: Tank replenishment is performed after opening the Make Up valve by pressing the button of the same name. Discharge of waist oil from the tank is possible by opening the Drain valve using the button of the same name. Feeding the tank contents to the fuel pump inlet is possible after opening the DO Suction valve by pressing the button of the same name. DO Pump Control Module

The pump can be started by pressing the ON button. Discharge pressure is monitored against a pressure gauge. WO Pump Control Module

Liquid temperature at the WO Pump inlet is checked against the WASTE INLET temperature gage. The pump can be started by pressing the ON button. Discharge pressure is monitored against a pressure gauge. The return valve is controlled using the two-position Return selector switch liquid surplus after the pump pressure reducing valve is directed either back to the Waste Oil settling tank (selector switch position TANK) or back to the WO pump (position SUCTION).

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Incinerator Control Module The Ignition burner is started (oil supply to the nozzle, switching on of the electrical ignition) using the ON/OFF selector switch. Turning the switch ON switches on the to the RUN indicator. The Main burner is started (oil supply to the nozzle, switching on of the integrated fan) using the ON/OFF selector switch. Turning the switch ON switches on the to the RUN indicator. The valve supplying diesel fuel to the main burner is opened with a press on the "DO to MB" button. Incinerator start/shutdown is performed using the START/Stop selector switch. Setting the switch to the START position will automatically start the Exhaust Gas Fan and activate the protection system. The RUN display indicator turns on with the Incinerator start.

Temperature/Air Damper Control Module

Temperature in the furnace is checked against the FURNACE digital temperature gage, while the exhaust gas temperature is checked against the EXH GAS digital temperature gage. The AIR DAMPER is opened/closed using the arrows more/less. Damper position is shown by the degraded indicator. The Dilution air Damper is opened/closed using the arrows more/less. Damper position is shown by the degraded indicator.

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Alarm Panel Module

The Incinerator emergency shutdown status (Incinerator Trip) is indicated with the aid of the SHUT DOWN display indicator. After tripping and fault elimination, the protection system is armed by a press on the RESET button. The Incinerator local control station panel includes a module of group alarm with alarm indicators (alarm light and alarm designation). An alarm is acknowledged by a press on the ACKN button. Incinerator Door/Solids Charge Control

The opening/closing of the Incinerator door is simulated by turning the module handle to the OPEN/CLOSE position. If the door is open, the Door display indicator is on. The CHARGEABLE display indicator informs the user the furnace temperature is below 220 C, which means a possibility to safely charge the solid waste for incineration. Loading of solid waste to the incinerator is simulated by a press on the Charge button. A click on it results in appearance of the Loading Panel window:

The weight of the loaded solid waste is specified using the LOAD MASS selector.

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Using the BURNABLE selector, you can specify a percentage of combustible materials in the solid waste to be loaded. The value of remaining solid waste in the furnace (not burnt) is shown in the RESIDUE field. Confirm loading by a click on the LOAD button. Cancel loading by a click on the crossed button.

Alarm Signals
Alarm signals on the local station panel: FAN FAILURE failure of the exhaust gas fan due to overheating; BURNER FAILURE failure of the main burner; MISFIRE flame-out, fire extinction in the furnace; FURNACE OVERHEAT furnace overheating (over 1200 C); FURNACE TEMPERATURE LOW low temperature in the furnace (below 800 C); EXHAUST GAS TEMPERATURE HIGH high temperature of exhaust gases (over 350 C); WO TEMPERATURE LOW low temperature in the oil product sludge settling tank (below 80 C); WO TANK LEVEL LOW low level in the oil product sludge settling tank; WO TANK LEVEL HIGH high level in the oil product sludge settling tank; DO TANK LEVEL LOW low level in the diesel oil tank; DO TANK LEVEL HIGH high level in the diesel oil tank.

A consolidate alarm signal in indicated on the alarm simulator module: INCINERATOR FAILURE failure of the incinerator.

Protection System
The unit protection system is a component of the local control system. Its operational logic is based on the monitoring of the furnace temperature, exhaust gas temperature, and the flame availability in the furnace. Depending on the situation (see above), the protection system cuts oil supply to the burner nozzles and shuts down the fuel pumps.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Exhaust Fan failure failure of the exhaust gas fan, no intensive removal of exhaust gases, rise of temperature in the furnace and rise of exhaust gas temperature; Main burner failure failure of the main burner, furnace flame-out; Ignition burner failure failure of the ignition burner, furnace flame-out; Furnace temperature controller failure fail of the furnace temperature regulator, rise of furnace temperature; Exhaust gas temperature controller failure failure of the exhaust gas temperature regulator, rise of gas temperature;

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DO pump failure failure of the diesel oil pump, no fuel supply; flame-out, when operating on the diesel fuel; WO pump failure failure of the oil product waste pump, no fuel supply; flameout, when operating on the oil product waste.

System Operation
Startup Preparation 1. Make sure the WO Settling tanks and the diesel oil tank are filled, there is no alarm signal related to a low level of the tanks requiring replenishment of the tank contents. 2. Heat up the WO Sett. Tank contents up to 90 C by opening the heating valve and introducing tank heating steam. 3. Discharge water (bottoms) from the WO Sett. Tank by opening the Drain valve. 4. Make sure that compressed air is available (Atomizing Air panel) and introduce compressed air to the unit using the ON button. 5. If there are solid waste to be incinerated, open the furnace door, load the solid waste (CHARGE button), close the door, and make sure the DOOR OPEN display is OFF. Unit Startup and Heating-Up 1. Supply diesel oil to the main burner the DO SUCTION valve is open, the DO SUPPLY valve is open, the WO SUCTION valve is closed. 2. On the WO Pump module, set the RETURN selector switch to the SUCTION position. 3. Set the INCINERATOR switch to the position START, it will start up the Exhaust gas fan automatically. 4. Partially open the Air damper (approx. 15 %). 5. Start up the DO and WO fuel pumps. 6. Set the IGNITION BURNER selector switch to the position ON, which will result in activation of the ignition burner pilot light. 7. The combustion process will be started in the furnace, which can be determined by appearance of fire in the Flame eye. Wait approx. 3 min to get the furnace heated up. 8. Partially open the Air damper (approx. 35 %). 9. Set the MAIN BURNER selector switch to the ON position, which results in activation of the main diesel oil burner. 10. Set the IGNITION BURNER selector switch to the OFF position, which will shutdown the burner. The unit starts to be heated up by operation of the main diesel oil burner. The furnace is to be heated up to 800 C. Monitor the furnace temperature and the exhaust gas temperature handling the Air Damper and the Dilution Damper.

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Incineration of Oil Product Waste 1. The unit is started and heated up. 2. Set the Return selector switch in the WO Pump module to the TANK position. 3. Close the DO supply valve, open the WO suction valve. The main burner starts to operate on the oil product waste. 4. Control the process handling the Air Damper and the Dilution Damper. Pipeline Purging (between the WO Sett. Tank and the Main Burner) 1. After prolonged operation of the installation, the pipeline superheated be cleaned, when within installation is not operated. 2. Supply diesel oil to the main burner the DO suction valve is open, the DO supply valve is open. 3. Set the RETURN selector switch in the WO Pump control module to the TANK position. 4. Start up the WO fuel pump. The diesel oil will start circulating through the WO pump discharging into the WO Sett. Tank. Be careful! It is easy to pump over all diesel oil to the WO Sett. Tank, so make sure the operation is quite short. Incineration of Solid Waste 1. It is possible to open the Incinerator door and load some solid waste, if the CHARGEABLE indicator is on, denoting temperature in the furnace below 220 C. 2. Load the solid waste to the furnace. 3. Start up the Ignition Burner for ignition of the solid waste. When the furnace temperature reaches approx. 300 C, the Ignition Burner may be switched on. Unit Shutdown, Cooling 1. Set the working burner to the OFF position. 2. Close the WO suction valve and the DO suction valve and turn off the fuel pumps. Cut the Atomizing Air supply. 3. Set the INCINERATOR switch to the STOP position. 4. The fire in the furnace will diesel away, the furnace temperature and the exhaust gas temperature dropping gradually. 5. The Exhaust gas fan will continue operating until the moment, when furnace temperature lowers down to 60 C, and then shuts down.

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Inert Gas System (IGS Page)


Purpose
The system is intended for the production and supply of inert gases (i.e., gases formed in the process of the course of the hydrocarbon fuel burning but with low oxygen content) to the tanker cargo tanks. Gas with a pressure higher than the atmospheric pressure replaces the fluid fire risk cargo during its pumping out from tanks and created an atmosphere in the tanks which prevents a fire or an explosion. The system is designed so as to ensure the 900 mm-of-water-column overpressure in the tanks with the oxygen content of less than 5 %.

System Components
The layout of the system implemented in the simulator, is shown in the mnemonic diagram in Fig. 11:

Fig. 11

The modelled system is a conventional system which uses boiler plant exhaust gases or gases from a separate additional inert gas generator if the steam boiler does not operate. The capacity of the modelled system is about 10500 m3/h with the steam boiler operating, whereas the capacity of the additional inert gas generator is about 500 m3/h. The steam boiler exhaust gases are supplied to the system, cooled and purified in it and are then fed through the water seal to the cargo system tanks with the aid of centrifugal blowers.

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The gases from the steam boiler have the following volumetric composition: carbon dioxide 2 approx. 13 %; oxygen approx. 5 %; sulphur dioxide approx. 3000 ppm; nitrogen to the balance.

The inert gases supplied to the cargo system tanks have the following volumetric composition: carbon dioxide 2 approx. 13 %; oxygen approx. 5 %; sulphur dioxide less than 100 ppm; nitrogen to the balance.

The boiler exhaust gases are cooled in the system so that the inert gas temperature at the cargo system inlet does not exceed the sea water temperature by more than 5 C (max. 32 + 5 = 37 C). Which means that the system does not change the chemical composition of gases but lowers the sulphur dioxide content and gas temperature. The oxygen content is maintained by the control of the burning process in the steam boiler especially during its low-load operation. The boiler exhaust gases are supplied to the system from the boiler uptake via the controllable Flue Gas Isolating Valve. For the periodic valve clearing from soot, compressed air is fed to it through the Clean Valve. When the system is not operating, supplied to its inlet is the Sealing Air from the boiler plant through the Sealing Air Valve to prevent the leakage of exhaust gases to the non-operating system. This valve operates in the automatic mode in the antiphase to the Flue Gas Isolating Valve (if one is open, the other is closed, and the other way round). The boiler exhaust gases are supplied to the scrubber through the central Venturi pipe. The column type scrubber is fitted out with water sprays and wet filters. In passing through the scrubber, the gas is cleared of solid soot particles, sulphur and sulphur dioxide, and is cooled. Sea water is fed to the scrubber from the Scrubber SW Pump. In an emergency, sea water can be fed to the scrubber from the fire extinguishing system through the manually controlled Aux. SW Valve. In this case, there should be pressure in the fire extinguishing system. Sea water after the scrubber is drained overboard. The purified and cooled inert gas from the scrubber leaves through the manually controlled Scrubber Gas Outlet Valve SW Valve. Gas flow in the system is provided by the centrifugal Blower 1 and Blower 2. The capacity of each blower fully supports the standard system operation (i.e., one blow is operating, the other is a backup). Blowers are controlled automatically, after the blower has been selected, the Blower Suction Valve will be automatically opened at the selected blower inlet. The Flow Control Valve at the blower outlet adjusts the gas flow in the system and is controlled by the Capacity Controller. The blower selection cannot be cancelled until after the Inert Gas System restart.

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After the blower, gas is fed to the cargo system through the Main IG Control Valve, through the Deck Water Seal, and then to the Main Deck Line (portside) and to the Secondary Deck Valve (starboard). Both lines are fitted out with P/V Breakers. Pressure in the system is adjusted by the pressure controller with the aid of the Main IG Control Valve and Venting Valve. If it is necessary to reduce the inert gas pressure, the Venting Valve is partly opened, and part of gas to vent into the atmosphere. Water seal operation is ensured by two sea water pumps: Deck Water Seal SW Pump 1 and Deck Water Seal SW Pump 2. Pumps operate in the Stand-By mode, they can be controlled in the manual and automatic mode. The Standby pump is turned on when the pressure drops to below 2 bars. Water from the seal is discharged overboard. Blowers stop automatically after the Inert Gas System is stopped. After the operating blower has stopped, it is automatically washed with fresh water: the Washing Valve is opened automatically, and water is fed to the blower for its washing; after the end of washing (1020 s), the Washing Valve closes down automatically. The Inert Gas System also allows the cargo tank ventilation. In this case, the air from the atmosphere is fed to the blower inlet instead of inert gases. Air is supplied by using the Atmosphere Intake Cover. Top- Up Generator (TUG) The generator is an auxiliary standby source of inert gases. The modelled device capacity is about 500 m3/h. The device operation is based on the diesel fuel burning process in the generator combustion chamber, subsequent purification and cooling of the combustion products in the scrubber. Diesel oil is fed to the generator burner by the DO Pump. Air required for the fuel burning is fed by the TUG Blower. The ratio of the FO supply with the pump and air supply with the blow is set so as to ensure the oxygen content of less the 5 % in the exhaust gas. Sea water for washing and for the inert gas cooling is supplied to the generator from the TUG SW Pump. In an emergency, sea water can be fed to the generator from the fire system through the manually controlled Aux. SW Valve. The Tug Flow Control Valve at the generator outlet adjusts gas flow in the system and is controlled by the Capacity Controller. At the outlet of the inert gas Blower 1 or Blower 2, or at the outlet from the top-up generator TUG, oxygen content in the gases is checked. The oxygen percentage in the inert gas fed to the cargo system should not exceed 5 %.

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Control Panel
The control panel contains the following main plant controls:

INERT GAS inert gas parameters control group; BLOWERS blowers control group; DECK WATER SEAL water seal control group; FLUE GAS DELIVERY group for the control of the inert gas delivery to the system; GAS FREEING cargo tank venting control group; SAFETY SYSTEM safety system and alarms group.

Inert Gas Parameters Control Group Oxygen percentage in the inert gas is determined with the aid of the OXYGEN CONTENT (025 %) analyser gauge. The inert gas temperature is determined by using the INERT GAS temperature gauge. The inert gas pressure in the lines is determined from the MAIN LINE, SECONDARY LINE pressure gauges. The inert gas pressure in the automatic mode is set by the PRESSURE SET POINT (bar) potentiometer. The CAPACITY SET POINT (%) potentiometer sets the flow of gas supplied to the system. SCRUB SW PUMP button is intended for starting/stopping the sea water pump; SCRUB SW VALVE button is intended for opening/closing the valve feeding sea water to the Scrubber; AUX SW SUPPLY Valve button is used for opening/closing the valve feeding sea water from the auxiliary sources in case of emergency;

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MAIN DECK and SECOND DECK buttons are intended for opening/closing valves supplying gas to the main and secondary inert gas lines respectively; PUSH TO CLEAN button is intended for running the program of cleaning the Flue Gas Isolating Valve with compressed air. SAFETY RESET IG button reactivates the plant safety system after it has been triggered off.

Water Seal Control Group The DECK WATER SEAL SW Pumps group contains the MANUAL/AUTO pumps control switch and buttons for turning on/off SW pumps 1 and 2 in the manual mode. Blowers Control Group The inert gas BLOWERS control group contains BLOWER 1 SELECT and BLOWER 2 SELECT buttons. When selected, the blower is started and stopped automatically. Flue Gas Delivery Control Group A press on the START FLUE GAS button starts supply of inert gas to the scrubber. A press on the IG STOP button stops the gas delivery procedure in the manual mode. A press on the SCRUB OUTLET buttons opens the scrubber outlet valve. The FLUE GAS READY indicator signifies that the system is ready for the inert gas delivery. Cargo Tank Gas Freeing Control Group A press on the ATM INTAKE COVER button imitates the manual opening of the atmosphere intake cover. The AIR VENT READY indicator shows the systems readiness for venting. THE VENT. START button runs the cargo tanks venting program. The VENT STOP buttons stops the venting program. Top-Up Generator Control Panel The control panel contains:

TUG OUTLET pressure gauge shows the inert gas pressure at the generator outlet; FLAME ON indicator shows that there is flame in the combustion chamber; TUG AUTO START button starts the generator in the automatic control mode; TUG STOP button is used for stopping the generator manually; TUG MANUAL CONTROL group which in its turn contains: TUG MANUAL control mode selection button; TUG SW PUMP start button;

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TUG SW VALVE button for opening/closing the valve for supplying sea water to the generator; TUG BLOWER button for starting the generator venting procedure in the manual mode; AUX. SW SUPPLY button for opening/closing the valve supplying sea water from an auxiliary source; TUG DO PUMP start/stop button; burner GLOW ON mode on/off button; burner IGNITION ON on/off button; BURNER ON on/off button. The SAFETY RESET TUG button reactivates the generator safety system after it has been triggered off. The SAFETY RESET button re-activates the safety system after it was triggered off. The EMCY STOP button is intended for the generator emergency shutdown.

System Operation
Running the System 1. Sea water should be supplied to the Deck Water Seal in the Manual control mode run SW Pump 1 or SW Pump 2, put the pump control mode switch to the AUTO position. The non-operating pump will be in the Stand-By mode. 2. Sea water is fed to the scrubber by the Scrubber SW Pump. If this is impossible, open the Aux. SW Supply Valve by pressing the button with the same name and provide water supply to the scrubber from the fire systems auxiliary line. Sea water from the fire system cannot be used unless there is pressure in the fire main (Fire Pumps are running). 3. Open the valve for letting out gas from the scrubber by pressing the Scrubber Outlet button. 4. Run the program for clearing the button of the soot: the Push to CLEAN button. If the aforementioned valves are open, the FLUE GAS READY tableau indicator will light up. 5. Select one of the gas blowers: press the BLOWER 1 SELECT or BLOWER 2 SELECT button. As this is done, the Suction and Discharge valves of the selected blower will open. 6. Run the program for supplying gas to the cargo system: press the START FLUE GAS button. The isolating valve supplying gas to the scrubber will be automatically cleaned: the Clean Air Supply valve will open up, the cleaning procedure will take up about 1 minute, the Clean Air Supply Valve will then be automatically closed and the PUSH TO CLEAN button will go out. In accordance with the automatics program, the pump supplying sea water to the scrubber will be started and 10 seconds later the Scrubber SW Valve will open up, after another 17 s the selected blower will be run and the Blower Flow Control valve at the blower outlet will open up. The Sealing Air Valve will be automatically closed, and the Flue Gas Isolating Valve will automatically open up. For an interval of 50 seconds, the Venting Valve opens up and the system is vented into the atmosphere. After the end of the venting mode, the system will open the Main IG Control Valve and will be ready for supplying gases to the cargo system their oxygen content is less than 5 %, which is determined with the aid of the Oxygen Content analyser indicator.

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7. Open manually the valve for supplying inert gases to the main line (DECK MAIN LINE button) or to the secondary line (DECK SECONDARY button). 8. Check the inert gas pressure and temperature. 9. Set the inert gas pressure (PRESSURE SET POINT potentiometer) and the inert gas supply (CAPACITY SET POINT potentiometer) Blower Flow Control Valve, Main IG Control Valve and Venting Valve are controlled automatically in order to maintain the set inert gas pressure and supply. Stopping System 1. Stop the supply of inert gases to the cargo system by closing the gas supply valves (DECK MAIN, DECK SECONDARY buttons). The system will automatically close the Main IG Control Valve, and will switch to the venting mode by opening the Venting Valve. 2. Give command to stop the system by the automatics press the IG STOP button: The blower is stopped, the Washing valve open up automatically and at the time when the blower rpm is dropping, the blower will be washed to clear it of soot; Blower 1(2) Suction valve closes automatically; Flue Gas Isolating Valve is closed automatically, and the Sealing Air valve opens up. 3. Close the valve letting out gas from the scrubber by releasing the SCRUBBER OUTLET VALVE button. 4. The Scrubber SW Pump continues its operation, the Scrubber SW Valve is open, the water is supplied to the scrubber for the plant cooling period (modelling of 1 min), the pump is then automatically stopped and the Scrubber SW Valve is closed. Mode of Removing Inert Gases from Cargo System 1. Check that the Scrubber Gas Outlet Valve is closed. 2. Open manually the Atmosphere Intake Cover; this is imitated by pressing the ATM. INTAKE COVER button. 3. Select one of the blowers by pressing the BLOWER 1 (2) SELECT button. As this is done, the Suction valve of the selected blower will open up. The AIR VENTING READY tableau indicator will light up. 4. Run the venting program by pressing the START AIR VENTING button. When this mode is selected, the opening of the valve supplying gas to the scrubber is (Flue Gas Isolating Valve) is locked. 5. In the venting mode, the selected Blower is started automatically, the valve at the blower outlet (the Blower Flow Control valve) opens up, so does the Main IG Control Valve. 6. Open manually the valve supplying inert gases to the main line (DECK MAIN button) or to the secondary line (DECK SECONDARY button): air from the atmosphere is fed to the cargo system and forces out the inert gases. Inert gases are removed through the Main Venting Valve and Secondary Venting Valve: these in the Air system ventilation mode open automatically and synchronously with the corresponding Main IG Line Valve and Secondary IG Line Valve. 7. To turn the mode off, press the VENTING STOP button. After the button has been pressed, the valves previously opened by the automatics, close down, the Blower is stopped. Close manually the Atmosphere Intake Cover.
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System Emergency Shutdown A press on the EMCY STOP button performs the emergency shutdown of all the devices, and all the valves which have remote control, automatic or manual, are closed except for the pumps delivering water to the Deck Water Seal.

Topping Up IG Generator Operation


The Topping Up IG generator is an auxiliary source of gases and is used when the main inert gas system is not operating (when the main inert gas is operating, the generator start is locked by the automatics). Running Generator in Manual Control Mode 1. The generator is supplied with the sea water by the TUG SW Pump. If this is not possible, open the Aux. SW Valve by pressing the button with the same way and supply water to the TUG from the fire system. Sea water from the fire system cannot be used unless there is pressure in the fire main (Fire Pumps are running). 2. Select the manual generator operation control mode by pressing the TUG Manual Control button. 3. Open the valve supplying sea water for the generator cooling by pressing the TUG SW valve button. 4. Start the generator blower by pressing the TUG Blower button. 5. The TUG Flow Control Valve and Venting Valve are opened automatically. 6. The generator combustion chamber is vented for 45 s, whereupon the diesel oil pump is started by pressing the TUG FO PUMP button, and the burn Glowing On mode is turned on by pressing the GLOWING ON button. 7. After 30 s of glowing, the ignition in the burner is turned on by pressing the IGNITION ON button. 8. 5 s after this, fuel oil is fed to the burner by pressing the BURNER ON button. 9. 5 s after the start and the burning process stabilisation in the combustion chamber, the FLAME ON tableau indicator lights up, whereupon you can turn off the burner glowing and ignition by releasing the GLOWING ON and IGNITION ON buttons. 10. The air supply to the generator is controlled automatically, the oxygen content in the inert gases after the generator maintained below 5 %. 11. Monitor the inert gas pressure at the generator outlet by using the TUG OUTLET PRESSURE gauge. 12. After the generator start, the automatics leaves the Venting Valve open for 50 s for venting the system into the atmosphere. After the venting time, the Venting Valve is automatically closed, and the Main IG Control Valve opens up, the system is ready for supplying inert gases to the cargo system (if their oxygen content is below 5 %, which is determined with the aid of the OXYGEN CONTENT analyser indicator).

13. Open manually the valve for supplying inert gases to the main line (DECK MAIN button) or to the secondary line (DECK SECONDARY button). 14. Check the inert gas pressure and temperature. 15. Adjust the inert gas pressure (PRESSURE SET POINT potentiometer) and the inert gas supply (CAPACITY SET POINT potentiometer, 0100 %) the TUG Flow Control Valve, Main IG Control Valve and Venting Valve are controlled automatically in order to maintain the set inert gas pressure and supply.

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Stopping generator in Manual Control Mode To stop the generator, press the TUG Stop button: the FO pump is stopped, the Main IG Control Valve closes and the Venting Valve opens up; the generator is switched to the venting mode. The SW pump and the generator blower continue their operation for the generator cooling. Some time later, the Venting Valve and TUG Flow Control Valve are closed. It is then necessary to stop the TUG SW pump and the TUG Blower. Starting Generator in Automatic Control Mode 1. The generator is supplied with the sea water by the TUG SW Pump or, in an emergency, from the fire system. 2. The generator is started in the automatic mode by pressing the TUG AUTO START button. 3. The TUG SW pump is run automatically, the valve supplying water to the generator opens up. 4. 17 s later the blower is run and the TUG Flow Control Valve and Venting Valve open up. 5. In 50 s, the FO pump is run and the burner ignition is turned on. After the burner activation and appearance of the Flame On signal, the Venting Valve remains opened for 50 s for the system venting. 6. After the end of the venting mode, the automatics will close the Venting Valve and open the Main IG Control Valve the system will be ready for supplying inert gases to the cargo tanks with the aid of the Main IG Line Valve and Secondary IG Line Valve (if the oxygen content in the gases is below 5 %, which is determined by using the Oxygen Content analyser indicator). Stopping Generator Automatically The generator is stopped automatically if the inert gas pressure in the system exceeds the setting value (PRESSURE SET POINT setter). Generator Emergency shutdown A press on the EMCY Stop button performs the emergency shutdown of all the devices (pumps, blowers), and all the valves which have remote control, automatic or manual, are closed.

Alarms
CONTROL POWER FAILURE control system fault; SCRUB SW LEVEL H H maximum permitted sea water level in the Scrubber; TUG FLAME OUT; TUG SW LEVEL H H maximum permitted sea water level in the generator; BLOWER FAILURE; COMBUS. AIR P H/L high/low combustion pressure, flame out; DO P LOW low Do pressure; IGS SHUT DOWN emergency shutdown of the main inert gas system; TUG SHUT DOWN emergence shutdown of the inert gas generator; IG SCRUB T HIGH high inert gas temperature; SCRUBBER SW P LOW low sea water pressure;

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IG PRESSURE HIGH; TUG SW PRESSURE LOW; DECK SEAL SW P LOW; DECK SEAL LEVEL H/L limit level of the water seal; BLOWER 1 FAILURE; BLOWER 2 FAILURE; MAIN DECK IG P HIGH high inert gas pressure in the main line; MAIN DECK IG P LOW low inert gas pressure in the main line; SECOND DECK IG P HIGH high inert gas pressure in the secondary line; SECOND DECK IG P LOW low inert gas pressure in the secondary line; OXYGEN CONTENT H/L limit high/low oxygen contend in the inert gases; IG BLOWERS T HIGH high blower temperature.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Control Power Failure control system supply fault; Scrubber Drain Failure faulty (fouled) drain system from the scrubber; IG blower 1 failure; IG blower 2 failure; Low Scrubber SW Supply Pressure; High IG Temperature In Scrubber; TUG Drain Failure faulty (fouled) drain system from the generator; TUG Blower Failure; High Combustion Air Pressure; Low Combustion Air Pressure; Low DO Pressure; Low TUG SW Supply Pressure low sea water temperature at the generator inlet; Low Deck Water Seal SW Pressure low sea water pressure at the water seal inlet; High Deck Water Seal SW Level; Low Deck Water Seal SW Level; High IG Pressure; Low Deck Main IG Pressure; High Deck Main IG Pressure; Low Deck Secondary IG; High Deck Secondary IG Pressure; High Oxygen Content in the inert gas; Low Oxygen Content in the inert gas.

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Central Fire AlarIm Station (FA Page)


Purpose
The Central Fire Alarm Station (CFAS) is designed for the permanent monitoring of fire safety on the ship, remote control of the fire extinguishing system, fire resisting doors, ventilation, and cut-off valves of fuel pipelines.

System Components
The system screen is shown in Fig. 12.

Fig. 12

The system includes: ship fire alarm module; remote control module for carbon dioxide extinguishing system in the engine room; remote control module for fire pumps 1 and 2; module indicating statuses of the following mechanisms: closing the fire doors; turning off the fans; closing the cut valves of the fuel/oil systems; shutting down the fuel/oil pumps; closing the fan fire dampers. A button is provided for producing a General Alarm on the ship. The fire alarm system is arranged as a radial one. Each of the system radii provides for monitoring of one or another ship room.
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Control Panel
The Ship Fire Alarm Module The module occupies a major part of the page and consists of the following three panels: main control panel; fire alarm group panel; window showing detector layout in the protected rooms.

Main Control Panel The fire alarm system gets armed with connection to power using the POWER button. Power availability and its source are indicated by the indicator lights MAIN SUPPLY (from MSB) and EMCY SUPPLY (from ESB), located under the button.

The central part of the module features to display indicators FIRE and FAULT. A lit FIRE indicator means a tripped fire detector in a protected room. A lit FAULT indicator means a fault in the system, for example, a faulty detector in the ray, a short circuit or a break in the electrical circuit. Operation of visual indicator is accompanied by an audible alarm signal. A fire alarm signal is acknowledged by a click on the ACKN button. The indicator lights in the right-hand part of the module indicate the following faults: SECTION OFF disconnection of a radius; SECTION FAULT a fault in a radius; MAIN SUPPLY FAULT absence of system main power; EMCY SUPPLY FAULT absence of system emergency power.

Fire Alarm Group Panel The panel contains numbered switches of the fire alarm groups (116), indicator lights (FIRE) indicating the tripping of detectors in the radii, indicator lights (FAULT) indicating faults in the radii, and buttons for testing the indicator lights.

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On actuation of a detector in the protected room, a signal from this detector is directed to the panel, where the FIRE indicator illuminates on the corresponding radius. At the same time, the FIRE indicator lights up on the main alarm panel accompanied by an audible signal. In a similar manner, a detector fault, a short circuit or a break in the circuit radius results in activation of the FAULT indicator. Window Showing the Layout of Detectors in the Protected Rooms The window is located below the fire alarm group panel.

If a radius warning lamp has activated on the fire alarm group panel, select it using your mouse the window will show the layout of the protected room with indication of positions of the fire detectors belonging to the respective radius. Detector legend (detector indicators): smoke detector (optical); watertight smoke detector (optical); manual alarm; watertight manual alarm; temperature detector; watertight temperature detector; smoke detector (ionization probe); watertight smoke detector (ion probe).

The detector indicators might be in one of three states: gray-color indicator no power; green-color indicator no power, detector has not tripped; red-color indicator the detector has tripped, fire danger situation exists.

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Remote Control Module for Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing System in the Engine Room The simulator has the facility of remove activation of the dioxide extinguishing system (refer to a separate chapter in this description dedicated to the system). The controls for the function are integrated in the CO2 TO ENGINE ROOM module.

The system is started with a click on the START button. The click results in activation of the launching CO2 cylinder designed for delayed disruption of the main system cylinders. Pressure at the main CO2 cylinders is monitored against the pressure gauge. When the gas from the main cylinders enters the pipeline, the pressure gauge shows pressure increase, and the warning activates i.e. the READY red-color indicator lights up. Then the main valve opens to remotely introduce gas to the protected rooms. It can be opened/closed using the MAIN VALVE button. The buttons START and MAIN VALVE are protected against inadvertent press with transparent safety cups. To get an access, click on the to lift glass wording. Module for Remote Starting the Fire Pumps in the Engine Room The simulator has the facility of remote activation of the fire pumps (refer to a separate chapter in this description dedicated to the main fire water system). The controls for the function are integrated in the FIRE PUMPS module:

The indicators POWER 1 and POWER 2 show availability of power for fire pumps 1 and 2. The fire pumps are started using the buttons PUMP 1 and PUMP 2. Pressure downstream of the pumps can be checked against the pressure gauge.

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Device Status Indication Module

Closing the FIRE DOORS when the fire doors close due to appearance of the FIRE signal, the CLOSE indicator lights up; Shutting down the FANS when the fans stop due to appearance of the FIRE signal, the STOP indicator lights up. This action will shutdown the following fans: all the pressure and exhaust air fans of the ER; conditioning system fan; all the pressure and exhaust air fans of service and accommodation spaces.

Closing of the shut off valves of the fuel/oil tanks when the CUT OFF VALVES close due to appearance of the FIRE signal, the CLOSE indicator will light up on the fire alarm panel; Turning off FO and LO system pumps: FO & LO PUMPS; in the case of the automatic turning off of the FO and LO system pumps, if FIRE signal appears on the fire alarm panel, the STOP indicator lights up. As this occurs, the following pumps are stopped: FO transfer pump; DO transfer pump; FO burner supply pump 1; FO burner supply pump 2; LO transfer pump; Purifiers feed pumps.

Closing of the FIRE DAMPERS when the fire dampers close in the air ducts of the forcing and exhausting fans of the engine room, the CLOSE indicator will light up.

Panel of General/Fire Alarm The general /fire alarm is activated on the bridge. The simulator has the facility of turning on the alarm using the red-color GENERAL ALARM button.

Alarm Signals
FIRE ALARM alarm signal indicating fire in one or more rooms (tripping of a detector); GENERAL ALARM general ship alarm signal.

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Protection System
Not simulated.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Fire near Fuel tanks; Fire near Diesel generator; Fire in Separator; Fire in Pump room; Main Power Failure; Battery failure.

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CO2 Station (CO2 Page)


Purpose of the System
The CO2 station is designed for the extinguishing of heavy fires in the ship Engine Room, boiler rooms, cargo spaces, etc. The system start is controlled from the CO2 Station (O2 Station screen page, CO2 button) and from the Central Fire Alarm Station (Fire Alarm Station screen page, FA button).

System Components
The system mnemonic diagram is shown in Fig. 13.

Fig. 13

The following components are included in the system and modelled in the simulator: Set of main 2 cylinders; Pilot 2 cylinder; Servocylinder; Main valve; Pipeline with non-return valves; Remote control and alarm system.

The set of main CO2 cylinders is shown in the central part of the mnemonic diagram. The set may consist of several groups of cylinders. Valves of the main cylinders are opened both, manually and remotely. At the cylinders outlet non-return valves are installed for feeding CO2 further through the pipeline into the protected rooms.

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The remote opening of the main cylinder valves is effected by the pilot CO2 cylinder shown in the top part of the mnemonic diagram. At the outlet of the pilot cylinder, a non-return valve is also installed. In case of a manual start, valves of main CO2 cylinders are opened by the cylinder opening link lever (over the main CO2 cylinders on the mnemonic diagram). After the opening of the pilot cylinder, gas passes to the servocylinder through the non-return valve installed at the outlet. The servocylinder is designed for ensuring the time delay of the opening of the main cylinder valves. After the system start by the opening of the main 2 cylinders, the gas is supplied through the non-return valve to the pipeline. To supply 2 to the protected rooms now, open the main valve.

Control Panel
The function of controlling the opening of the pilot CO2 cylinder is performed by START button installed on the panel to the right of the mnemonic diagram. There is an identical button on the Central Fire Alarm Station. At the system start (opening of the pilot cylinder), the button indicator is lighted. The digital display under START button starts the time count-down (about 2 minutes) until the main CO2 cylinders are opened. Simultaneously, an acoustic and visual fire alarm: FIRE ALARM! EVACUATE AREA IMMEDIATELY! is generated, signalling that it is necessary to leave the room because of fire, whilst the red READY button is lighted on the control panel.

Like on the Central Fire Alarm Station, pressure at the outlet of the main CO2 cylinders is monitored by using the digital and analog pressure gauge (bar) installed on the control panel to the right of the mnemonic diagram. After the system start by the opening of the main 2 cylinders, the gas is supplied through the non-return valve to the pipeline, pressure on the pressure gauge starts growing and a red READY indicator lights up under it. The main valve is opened/closed by using MAIN VALVE button in the top right corner of the 2 Station. With the valve open, the button indicator is lighted. The remote control of the main valve is exercised by a similar button of CO2 TO ENGINE ROOM unit on the Central Fire Alarm Station. As the main valve is opened, DO NOT ENTER! CO2 DISCHARGED alarm is generated, and the red GAS button lights up on the control panel. The supply of gas into the rooms is shown on the mnemonic diagram.

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In 2 system, an accidental release of the main 2 cylinders is possible. In this case, the pressure gauge shows the rising pressure before the main valve, and an alert is generated both, on the Central Fire Alarm Station and on the 2 Station itself (red READY indicator lights up).

On the pipeline from the main cylinders to the main valve, a safety valve with burst diaphragm is installed to ensure the discharge of gas if there is an excess of the set pressure (> 120 bars). This situation may occur in case of, e.g., fire on 2 Station. Then when the safety release valve is actuated, the outgoing gas extinguishes fire on the 2 station. Any alarm signal noted by the user is acknowledged by pressing ACKN button in the bottom part of the control panel.

Alarm Signals
2 START CO2 station has been started, gas supply time countdown has begun; 2 DISCHARGE gas has been fed to the system, pipeline under the pressure; 2 in MANIFOLDS gas has been fed to the protected rooms.

Safety System
Not modelled.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Fire in 2 room; 2 cylinder accidental release.

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Fire Main and Foam System (FM Page)


Purpose of the System
The Fire Main System is designed for extinguishing fire in all the rooms on the ship. Along with the Fire Main System, the Foam System is used for extinguishing fire in the Engine Room, pump room, boiler compartment, and other rooms and on decks. High-expansion foam (1:1000) is used for fire fighting in the Engine Room and pump room. The main equipment and controls of the Foam System are arranged in the Foam System Station. In the simulator, the start of the Fire Main and Foam System is controlled from Fire Main and Foam System screen page (FM button).

System Components
The system mnemonic diagram is shown in Fig. 14.

Fig. 14

The following components are included in the system and modelled in the simulator: System of pipelines as a hydrodynamic object; Electrically driven Fire pumps 1 and 2; Emergency Fire pump driven autonomously by the internal combustion engine; Sea chests; Foam preparation and supply system.

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Fire pumps 1 and 2 with the total capacity of about 140 m3/h are located below the waterline beyond the protected rooms. Installed on the pumps delivery pipes are safety relief valves and nonreturn cut-off valves, whilst cut-off valves are installed on the suction lines (to the right of the pumps on the mnemonic diagram). At the exit from the Engine Room, there is an isolating valve which cuts off the Engine Room during the fire. If there is fire in the Engine Room and the isolation valve is closed, the fire main is fed from the emergency fire pump. The emergency fire pump included in the Fire Main System is shown in the left-hand part of the mnemonic diagram. The capacity of the emergency pump is about 50 m3/h, it has a diesel drive, self priming system and takes water from a separate sea chest (in the left bottom corner of the mnemonic diagram). The pump is situated in a separate compartment not higher than 6 meters from the light draft waterline. To start the emergency pump operating, it is necessary to open the cut-off valves on the suction and charging lines, start the pump and turn on the pumps self-priming system. The selfpriming system will not be turned on until the emergency fire pump is started. The Fire Main ensures the delivery of water from the pumps to the place of fire. It spreads over the entire ship area so that each possible ignition site is covered with at least two water jets (distance between the fire hydrants is in the order of 20 30 metres). The main is fitted out with the international shore connection. One of the fire hydrants is located directly on the pumps charging line immediately after the non-return valves. Where the fire main exits onto the open decks, it has cut-off valves and water drain. Along with the Fire Main System, the Foam System is used for extinguishing fire in the Engine Room, pump room, boiler compartment and other rooms and on decks. There are fixed foam generators in the protected rooms, whilst on decks there are deck foam monitors and portable foam generators. The following equipment is arranged in the room of the Foam Station: Foam compound tank fitted out with the air and filling valve. The drain is though the valve in the bottom part of the tank. The level in the foam compound tank (in per cent) is monitored by the scale and digital display installed on its casing; Pump delivers the foam compound from the tank to the proportioner by the pump (to the right and below the tank on the mnemonic diagram) on whose suction line a cut-off valve and a filter are installed; Proportioner. From the operating pump the foam compound is then delivered to the proportioner. From the other side water is fed to the proportioner through the line from the fire pumps through the open valve; The foam compound and water proportioner is fitted out with a control metering valve as well as the automatic diaphragm valve and by-pass valve.

For the control of the foam delivery in the ship compartments where fire originated, cut-off valves are installed at the outlet from the foam station.

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Control Panel
The control panel is located on the screen to the right of the mnemonic diagram and contains several control groups: Fire Pumps Group The group is in the top part of the control panel. FIRE PUMPS group combines fire pump operation monitoring and control units.

Main fire pumps 1 and 2 in the Engine Room are switched on/off by using PUMP 1 and PUMP 2 buttons respectively. When the pump is switched on, the button indicator is lighted, and the pump indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram. The pumps charging pressure is monitored by the analog and digital pressure gauge (bar) above the buttons. The availability of power supply in the fire pumps is shown by the lighting of the appropriate POWER lamp indicator next to the button. Similar controls and indicators are installed at the Fire Alarm Station where the remote control of the fire pumps in the ship Engine Room is exercised. The isolating valve which cuts off the Engine Room during the fire is opened/closed by using ISOL. VALVE button. The lighted button and valve indicators on the mnemonic diagram correspond to the isolation valves open state.

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Emergency Fire Pump Group All the emergency fire pump controls are combined in the EMERGENCY FIRE PUMP group.

To start/stop the emergency fire pump, use START/STOP button. When the pump is turned on, the indicator lights up on the control panel, and the pump indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram. To open/close cut-off valves on the suction and charging lines, use SUCTION and DELIVERY buttons. PRIMING button turns on/off the emergency pumps self-priming system. The self-priming system will not be turned on until the emergency fire pump is started. The emergency fire pumps suction and charging pressure is monitored by two analog and digital pressure gauges of the EMERGENCY FIRE PUMP unit. Valves Group The group serves for the control of a number of system valves. There is an isolating valve at the exit from the Engine Room controlled remotely by using ISOL. VALVE button. To supply water from the fire pumps to the ship compartments, open the valve by using WATER MIST button. Foam System Group The OPEN button for the control of the tank valves and the foam compound pump START button are included in the FOAM SYSTEM group on the control panel. Before starting the foam compound supply pump, it is necessary to open the tank air valve (above the tank) and the pump suction valve by using OPEN button. The pump itself is started/stopped by pressing START button.

The delivery of the foam compound from the tank to the proportioner is monitored by the pumps charging pressure read from the analog and digital pressure gauge.

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Foam Line Group For the control of the foam delivery in the ship compartments where fire originated, cut-off valves are installed at the outlet from the foam station.

hese valves are opened/closed remotely by using the buttons included in the FOAM LINE group: DECK to deliver foam onto the deck; SEPARAT ROOM to deliver foam to the separator room in the Engine Room; PUMP ROOM to deliver foam to the pump room; BOILER ROOM to deliver foam to the boiler compartment.

When the valves are open, their respective button indicators on the control panel and valve indicators on the mnemonic diagram are lighted.

Alarm Signals
No modelled.

Safety System
Not modelled.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Fire Pump 1 Breakdown failure of fire pump 1; Fire Pump 2 Breakdown failure of fire pump 2.

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Provision Cooling System (PC Page)


Purpose
The automatic Provision Cooling System is intended for creating and maintaining the set temperature conditions for the storage of food in two groups of provision stores.

System Components
The system mnemonic diagram is shown in Fig. 15.

Fig. 15

The following components are included in the system and modelled in the simulator: provision stores as a thermodynamic object; refrigeration plants 1 and 2; gas a liquid lines with valves as hydro- and gas dynamic objects; cooling seawater pump.

The provision stores are divided into groups proceeding from the level of temperature maintained in them. The first group includes three provision storerooms for the storage of frozen foods: Butter storage of butter at a temperature of -2 ; Meat storage of meat at a temperature of -15 ; Fish storage of fish at a temperature of -15 .

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The other group includes three provision storerooms for the storage of chilled food: Fruit storage of fruit at a temperature of +2 ; Vegetables storage of vegetables at a temperature of +2 ; Dry prov. storage of dry provisions at a temperature of +8 .

Each of the refrigeration plants operates for its group of consumers. However, the refrigeration performance of each refrigerator is sufficient for the supply of both storeroom groups if required. This capability is ensured by the availability of connecting lines with cut-off valves. Freon R134a has been selected for the main liquid refrigerant, there is a capability to switch to R401b. The sea water pump which is in the right bottom corner of the mnemonic diagram, supplies water for the cooling of condensers 1 and 2.

Condensers 1 and 2 are located in the bottom part of the mnemonic diagram. Shown here is the liquid refrigerant level in the condenser collector. The sea water flow for the condenser cooling is controlled by using the condensing pressure governor (water control valves) installed on the water supply lines to condensers 1 and 2.

Compressor 1 maintains the required temperature conditions in the frozen food stores (Butter, Meat, Fish), compressor 2 maintains the required temperature in the chilled product storerooms (Fruit, Vegetables, Dry prov.).

When the compressors are operating, indicators of the compressor operation light up on the mnemonic diagram. Also shown here is oil level in the compressor case and the degree of openness of the compressor suction valve. Automatic adjustment of the compressor refrigeration performance is provided in two ways: compressor Start/Stop and bypassing. Adjustment by bypassing is performed by using the performance suction pressure governor control. On the mnemonic diagram, the regulator is set on the compressor bypass line. The current position (extent of openness) is shown on the digital indicator of the performance regulator on the mnemonic diagram. The sight glass located on the liquid line on the mnemonic diagram, shows the state of the liquid refrigerant and moisture content.

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The air temperature in the storerooms is maintained with the air coolers. The thermo switch monitors the temperature in the pertinent provision storeroom and controls operation of the solenoid valves in the refrigeration chamber, as well as the operation of the air cooler valve. As the solenoid valve is opened, its OPEN indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram (above the air cooler). Operation of the air cooler fan is reflected on the mnemonic diagram.

Liquid refrigerant is supplied to the air cooler by the thermostatic expansion valve (above the air cooler on the mnemonic diagram). The current status degree of openness) is shown on the digital indicator of the thermostatic expansion valve on the mnemonic diagram.

Control Panel
The control panel located in the right-hand part of the screen page contains the following groups: control of seawater supply; control of pipeline cut-off valves; control of compressors; control of provision storerooms.

SW PUMP Group Control Of Seawater Supply

The sea water pump is turned on/off by using ON-OFF button. When the pump is on, the button indicator is backlighted, and the pump ON indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram. Set above the buttons on the control panel is the digital pressure gauge which shows the pumps charging pressure. To the right of the pressure gauge on the control panel, there are three temperature gauges showing sea water temperature at the system inlet INLET and temperature of the water after condensers 1 and 2 OUTLET 1 and OUTLET 2 respectively. Group for the Control of Pipeline Cut-off Valves The POWER indicator shows that the system is powered. The SHUT OFF VALVES button serves for the control of cut-off valves on the vapour and liquid connection lines on the mnemonic diagram. A press on the button opens the valves, thus ensuring the interchange ability of the compressors. When the valves are opened, the valve open indicators light up on the mnemonic diagram and the button on the control panel is backlighted.

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Compressor Control Group

There are two tabs in the group: COMPRESSOR 1 and COMPRESSOR 2 which are used for selecting the parameter monitoring instruments and controls of the required compressor: Installed on the control panel are amperemeter (shows electrical current), SUCTION vacuum gauge (shows suction pressure), and two pressure gauges (DISCHARGE shows charging pressure, OIL pressure gauge shows pressure in the compressor lubricating system). With a high charging pressure in the compressor, an alarm is generated: appropriate lamps start flickering in the bottom part of the screen. The alarm is also generated in case of lows pressure in the compressor lubricating system. In the centre of the control panel, there are three temperature gauges for determining the liquid refrigerant temperature on the suction line SUCTION, on the charging line DISCHARGE, and in the condenser CONDENSER. With a high compressor discharge temperature, an alarm is generated, and appropriate lamp starts flickering in the bottom part of the screen. In the left-hand part of the control panel, AUTO/MANUAL compressor operating mode switch is located. As the switch is set to AUTO position, control of the compressor motor operation and solenoid valves is exercised automatically. Adjustment of water control valves for maintaining the set condensing pressure value (0.6-0.7 MPa) is made on the control panel. In the left-hand part of the control panel, there is PRESSURE SET COND. condensation pressure controller. The current condition of the condensation pressure control (degree of openness) is shown on the controller digital indicator on the mnemonic diagram. If the switch is set to MANUAL position, to turn the compressor on, it is first necessary to open the master solenoid by pressing MASTER SOLENOID button on the control panel.

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The button indicator is backlighted, and the valve open status indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram. Then the compressor is turned on by using ON button on the control panel. OFF button serves for turning the compressor off.

The suction valve of the compressor is opened via SUCTION VALVE setter in the right-hand part of the control panel. Adjustment of the compressor refrigeration performance is provided in two ways: compressor star/stop and bypassing. The compressor is started in stopped automatically by the lows pressure switch. The switch is adjusted by using PRESSURE analog setter. On OFF scale, set the suction pressure value whereupon the compressor cylinders will turn off. On ON scale, set the pressure value whereupon the compressor will turn on. System valve control buttons are in the bottom part of the group. The lighted button indicator corresponds to the valves open status. As a valve is opened, the valve open indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram. Button for the control of the shut-off valves on the liquid refrigerant drain from the condenser; Button for the control of the valve for the system replenishment with liquid refrigerant; Button for the control of the moisture eliminator shut-off valve;

Button for the control of the moisture eliminator bypass valve (used when the moisture eliminator is replaced); Button for the control of the valve for the supply of oil into the compressor; Button for the control of the valve used in the procedure of releasing air from the system.

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Control of Provision Storerooms Group

In the top part of the group, there are tabs for switching monitoring tools and controls of different provision storerooms:

Set to the left on the control panel is a thermometer showing the current temperature in the provision storeroom. With a high temperature in the cooled space (3 higher than the set value) an alarm is generated a lamp starts flickering in the bottom part of the screen indicating the pertinent provision storeroom, e.g. that for the storage of butter: High T Butter. To the right of the temperature gauge on the control panel, there is a digital controller of the thermoswitch monitoring the temperature in the pertinent provision storeroom and controlling operation of the solenoid valves in the refrigeration chamber as well as the operation of the air cooler valve. As the solenoid valve is opened, its open indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram (above the air cooler). In the centre of the control unit, there is a pressure gauge showing the pressure and boiling point in the pertinent air cooler. To the right of the pressure gauge on the control panel for butter (Butter) and dry provisions (Dry prov.) storerooms, there is a setter of PRESS. evaporation pressure control. The controls current state is shown on the digital indicator on the mnemonic diagram (below the air cooler of the pertinent storeroom). Arranged in the bottom part of the control panel are buttons: Storeroom loading/unloading control button. It is first necessary to open the storeroom door by using DOOR button (see below). Then press LOADING button to open the following dialogue window on the screen:

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The window heading indicates which storeroom will be loaded/unloaded. The central part of the dialogue window displays an open storeroom door and the amount of goods in kg which is currently stored there. Enter the amount of products to be unloaded in MASS box in the left-hand part of the dialogue window (UNLOAD) and press APPLY button. To load the storeroom, enter the required amount of goods in MASS box in the lefthand part of the dialogue window (LOAD), enter temperature in T box and press APPLY. The procedure for loading provisions in the chamber can be performed from the instructor workplace as well. In Data Monitor window, enter the amount of goods in kg in the selected chamber. If there were no goods in the chamber at the loading time, the provisions which are being loaded will be stored in the chamber with the temperature equal to the refrigeration chamber temperature. If there were some goods in the chamber at the loading moment, the provisions which are being loaded will have a temperature of the provisions already stored in the chamber. Door control button. It is used for the loading and unloading of goods into/from the storeroom. When the door is opened, the button is lighted, and an open door is shown on the mnemonic diagram (in the bottom part of the storeroom). The door will not close as long as the light in the storeroom is on. Storeroom lighting button. The lighted button corresponds to ON status. The light cannot be turned on unless the storeroom door is open. In the right bottom corner of the control panel, there is DEFROSTER unit which includes AUTO/MANUAL switch for the control of the refrigeration equipment defrosting system.

In the right bottom corner of the control panel, there is DEFROSTER unit which includes AUTO/MANUAL switch for the control of the refrigeration equipment defrosting system.

Button for the control of the evaporator defrosting process when the switch is in MANUAL position. During the defrosting, the button is backlighted, and a red coloured indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram (next to the air cooler).

Alarm Signals
HIGH T BUTTER temperature setting in the storeroom exceeded (by 3); HIGH T MEAT temperature setting in the storeroom exceeded (by 3); HIGH T FISH temperature setting in the storeroom exceeded (by 3);

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HIGH T FRUIT temperature setting in the storeroom exceeded (by 3); HIGH T VEGETABLES temperature setting in the storeroom exceeded (by 3); HIGH T DRY PROVIS. temperature setting in the storeroom exceeded (by 3); HIGH PRESS. COMPR. 1 OUT high pressure at the outlet of Compressor 1; HIGH T. COMPR. 1 OUT high temperature at the outlet of Compressor 1; LOW PRESS. COMPR. 1 OIL low oil pressure in Compressor 1; LOW LEVEL. COMPR. 1 OIL low oil level in Compressor 1; SOLENOID 1 CLOSED solenoid valve in Compressor 1 closed; COMPRESSOR 1 SHUT DOWN Compressor 1 stopped automatically; HIGH PRESS. COMPR. 2 OUT high pressure at the outlet of Compressor 2; HIGH T. COMPR. 2 OUT high temperature at the outlet of Compressor 2; LOW PRESS. COMPR. 2 OIL low oil pressure in Compressor 2; LOW LEVEL. COMPR. 2 OIL low oil level in Compressor 2; SOLENOID 2 CLOSED solenoid valve in Compressor 2 closed; COMPRESSOR 2 SHUT DOWN Compressor 2 stopped automatically; LOW PRESS. COOL WATER low pressure of cooling sea water; MAN IN COLD STORE.

Safety System
No available as an individually implemented subsystem, provided by the system automatics.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Ref. Power fault system power supply fault; SW Reg. Valve 1 Fault faulty sea water valve 1; SW Reg. Valve 2 Fault faulty sea water valve 2; Air in System 1; Air in System 2; Excessive moisture Filter 1; Excessive moisture Filter 2; Condenser 1 Fouling; Condenser 2 Fouling; Compressor 1 breakdown; Compressor 2 breakdown; Refrigerant leakage from System 1; Refrigerant leakage from System 2; Oil leakage from Compressor 1; Oil leakage from Compressor 2; Term. Exp. Valve Fouling (Fish) fouling of temperature valve in the storeroom;

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Term. Exp. Valve Fouling (Meat) fouling of temperature valve in the storeroom; Term. Exp. Valve Fouling (Butter) fouling of temperature valve in the storeroom; Term. Exp. Valve Fouling (Fruit) fouling of temperature valve in the storeroom; Term. Exp. Valve Fouling (Vegetables) fouling of temperature valve in the storeroom; Term. Exp. Valve Fouling (Dry Prov.) fouling of temperature valve in the storeroom; Snow Coat (Fish) growth of snow coat in the storeroom; Snow Coat (Meat) growth of snow coat in the storeroom; Snow Coat (Butter) growth of snow coat in the storeroom; Snow Coat (Fruit) growth of snow coat in the storeroom; Snow Coat (Vegetables) growth of snow coat in the storeroom; Snow Coat (Dry Prov.) growth of snow coat in the storeroom; Thermostat Fault (Fish); Thermostat Fault (Meat).

Directions for the Plant Operation and Maintenance


Procedure for Starting the Plant in Manual Mode 1. Turn on the sea water pump. Monitor its operation by the pressure gauge.

2. Set the compressor operating mode switch to MANUAL position.

3. Open the shut-off valves on the liquid refrigerant circulation lines.

4. If the refrigeration plant is expected to operate for its own group of storerooms only, shut-off valves on the connecting steam and liquid pipelines are closed. If one of the refrigeration plants operates for both groups of consumers (the second plant is not turned on), the shut-off valves should be closed.

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5. Adjust the low pressure switch. On OFF scale, set the pressure value whereby the compressor is turned off. By the moment of the compressor stop, the temperature in all the cooled storerooms should achieve the set value.

On ON scale, set the pressure value whereby the compressor is turned on. By this moment, temperature in at least one room has grown to more than the set value. 6. Adjust thermoswitches for each storeroom.

7. For Butter and Dry. Prov. storerooms. Adjust the evaporation pressure control.

8. Open the master solenoid valve.

9. Start the compressor.

10. Set the operating mode switch of the equipment defrosting system to AUTO position. 11. Set the time interval (in hours) at which the defrosting of refrigeration equipment will be performed in each cooling space.

12. Set the defrosting system control switch to AUTO position.

13.

Monitor the plant operation parameters maintaining their values within the standard range. You will be advised about all the faults by the alarm system. As a monitored parameter reaches the maximum permissible value, the safety system is actuated: an appropriate alarm is turned on in the bottom part of the screen.

14. Load (unload) as necessary the set mass of goods (products) into/from the storerooms.

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Defrosting of Refrigeration Equipment in Manual Mode This is used in case of excessive growth of hoar frost on the surface of refrigerating units: 1. If the thickness of the hoar frost layer is 5 mm or more, and the equipment defrosting process has not been started automatically, then it is necessary to: Set the defrosting system control switch to MANUAL position.

2. Press ON button under the switch.

Replenishment of Liquid Refrigerant This is performed if the refrigerating plant operating mode indicates the insufficiency of liquid refrigerant in the system (low level of liquid refrigerant in the condenser receiver part, gas bubbles in the sight glass, low suction pressure, extensive overheating on the suction line, and high charging temperature): 1. Set the compressor operating mode switch to MANUAL position.

2. Close the shut-off valve on the liquid line after the condenser.

3. Open the make-up valve.

4. Monitor the liquid refrigerant level by using the sight glass on the receiver part of the condenser. 5. After the end of the process, close the make-up valve (the liquid refrigerant level on the condenser sight glass is 0.4-0.5 ). 6. Open the shut-off valve after the condenser. 7. Turn the compressor on.

8. Set the operating mode switch to AUTO.

9. Monitor the refrigerating plant operation parameters. In case of the system overfilling with liquid refrigerant, there may be damp compressor operation.
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Compressor Replenishment with Oil This is performed if the oil level in the sight glass on the compressor sump has dropped to below 1/2 mark. The oil should best be added with the compressor not running (the oil level is clearly visible in the sight glass): 1. Set the compressor operating mode switch to MANUAL position.

2. Close the compressor suction valve. 3. After the suction pressure (in the sump) has dropped to a value below the atmospheric pressure ( -0.5 bars), stop the compressor. 4. Open the oil make-up valve.

5. After the end of the process (oil level is not higher than 2/3 of the sight glass), close the valve. 6. Turn the compressor on.

7. Set the operating mode switch to AUTO position.

8. Monitor the refrigerating plant operating parameters. Where the compressor cannot be stopped (e.g. loading of a considerable amount of goods with rather high temperature) at the moment of oil replenishment, it is necessary: 1. To re-adjust the low pressure switch on OFF scale make -0.5 -0.3 setting.

2. After the pressure has dropped below the atmospheric pressure, open the oil make-up valve. 3. After the end of the process, close the valve. 4. Re-adjust the low pressure switch to the operating mode. 5. Monitor the refrigerating plant operating parameters. If oil is added to the operating compressor, the replenishment will be either excessive or incomplete.

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Air Discharge This is performed if the pressure gauge needle on the charging line makes jerking oscillatory motions, and the charging pressure exceeds the optimum value by 0.2 MPa and more: 1. Set the compressor operating mode switch to MANUAL position.

2. Turn the compressor off.

3. Adjust the condensation pressure control to 100%-opening (see fig.):

4. After the water temperature drops at the condenser outlet (OUTLET temperature gauge) down to the sea water temperature (INLET temperature gauge), open the valve for the discharge of air from the system. 5. As the charging pressure drops to the value corresponding to the optimum condensation temperature, i.e. as the temperature readings in DISCHARGE pressure gauge and DISCHARGE temperature gauge are equalised, close the air discharge valve. 6. Monitor the level of liquid refrigerant by using the sight glass on the condenser (there should be no lowering of the level). 7. Adjust the condensation pressure control for the maintaining of the set pressure value (0.6-0.7 MPa). 8. Turn the compressor on.

9. Set the operating mode switch to AUTO| position.

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Replacement of Filter Drain This is done when the colour of the sight glass indicator changes. The indicator colour changes from green to yellow as the moisture penetrates in the liquid refrigerant system. 1. Close the shut-off valves of the filter drain.

2. Open the bypass valve of the filter drain.

As this is done, the indicator colour will change from the yellow colour to green, i.e. there will be an imitation of the filter drain replacement: 1. Open the shut-off valves of the filter drain. 2. Close the bypass valves of the filter drain. Compressor Breakdown In case of failure of one of the compressors, the other compressor will maintain the required temperature in all the six provision storerooms: 1. Re-adjust the low pressure switch of the operating compressor 2 as required (in case of breakdown of compressor 1). 2. Set the operating mode switch of the stopped (broken) compressor to MANUAL position.

3. Close the master solenoid valve on the refrigerating plant which is not operating. 4. Open the shut-off valves on the steam and liquid connecting lines.

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Air Conditioning System (AC Page)


Purpose of the System
The central straight flow twin-channel high-pressure conditioning system is designed for the year-round moisture and temperature treatment of the air in the accommodation spaces, mess room, and other rooms on the ship.

System Components
The system mnemonic diagram implemented in the simulator, is shown in Fig. 16.

Fig. 16

The following components are included in the system and modelled in the simulator: System of pipelines as a hydro- and gas dynamic object; Refrigeration plant; Cooling seawater pump; Steam air heaters; Air coolers; Centrifugal straight flow blower with an air filter; Moisture control unit.

The central straight flow twin-channel high-pressure conditioning system is designed for the year-round moisture and temperature treatment of the air in the accommodation spaces, mess room and other rooms on the ship (3 modes: Summer mode, ambient temperature above +25 C; Winter mode ambient temperature less then +15 C; Intermediate mode - ambient temperature between +15 C and +25 C).

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The air is propelled through the conditioner by the centrifugal straight flow blower with an electric motor and air filter. When the blower is operating, its operation indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram. In case of the air blower breakdown, the air is supplied to the conditioning system from the air blower of the conditioner on the other side, through the shutter on the mnemonic diagram. The plant has two steam air heaters of the first level BH1 (after the air blower) and of the second level B2 (at the conditioner outlet), shown the top part of the mnemonic diagram.

The air temperature after the first and second levels of heaters is controlled automatically by varying the water steam feed with the use of steam control valves (direct acting temperature controls). In this case, the first stage control is adjusted for maintaining constant temperature in the first duct, whereas the setting of the second stage control varies automatically with the ambient temperature. In case of automatic steam control valve failure, the steam supply is controlled by using manual control valves. The current status of the steam control and manual control valves (degree openness) is shown on the valves digital indicators on the mnemonic diagram. At an ambient temperature of below 5 , the treated air is saturated with water steam. The air saturator along with the demister are located after the first stage of the air heater on the mnemonic diagram.

The plant has two air coolers of the first (1) and second (2) stages of direct cooling. The air coolers are located in the top part of the mnemonic diagram. Installed after the air coolers are demisters.

The liquid refrigerant is supplied to the air coolers via the thermostatic expansions valves (below the air coolers on the mnemonic diagram). The current status (degree of openness) is shown on the digital indicator. As the solenoid valves are opened, their open status indicators light up on the mnemonic diagram (above and below air coolers). The right-hand part of the mnemonic diagram shows part of ship compartments serviced by the conditioner where it maintains desirable air temperature and humidity. The air parameters are controlled by using a cabin air distribution switch set in the room.

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The sea water pump supplies water to the condenser and compressor cooling. The sea water flow for the condenser cooling is controlled by using the condensing pressure control (water control valve) set on the water supply line to the condenser. The current position (degree of openness) is shown on the digital condensing pressure indicator on the mnemonic diagram.

Flow indicators are set on the mnemonic diagram on the pipelines for the water discharge from the condenser and compressor.

At an ambient temperature of 25 and more degrees, the conditioning system switches to SUMMER operating mode. In this case, it is serviced by the refrigerating plant using Freon 22. The piston eight-cylinder compressor is located in the left bottom part of the mnemonic diagram.

When the compressor motor is operating, an indicator in the centre lights up, as the cylinders are brought into operation, indicators light up showing the operation of corresponding cylinder pairs in the compressor. The bottom part of the compressor on the mnemonic diagram shows the oil level in the sump. The compressor refrigeration performance is controlled by taking its cylinders out of operation, pair by pair, on the account of electromagnetic pushing of suction valve plates with the drop of the suction pressure, which varies with the change of the air coolers thermal load. Electromagnetic pushing devices are controlled by the low pressure switch by means of a control system which includes a time switch. On the charging side of the compressor, there is an oil separator with an automatic float valve for the return of oil to the compressor sump. The oil separator shows the oil level in the device.

Installed on the oil line for the return of oil to the compressor sump, are a filter, oil flow indicator and a solenoid valve which opens up at a command from the thermal switch as the temperature in the oil separator grows to 60 .

As the solenoid valve opens up, its indicator on the mnemonic diagram lights up.

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The condenser is situated in the central part of the mnemonic diagram. The device has an air release valve; the valve open status is shown by an indicator on the mnemonic diagram: a highlighted arrow.

The receiver is located on the mnemonic diagram next to the condenser. Here the level of the liquid refrigerant in the container is shown. Installed on the equalising steam pipeline between the condenser and receiver is a solenoid valve which is opened as the compressor is started and closed when the compressor is stopped. When it is open, the solenoid valve open status indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram. Safety release valves are installed on the receiver and condenser. As the pressure in the device (container) grows to above the maximum admissible value of 20 bars (excessive pressure), the safety valves are actuated and the device (container) is connected to the pipeline for the emergency discharge of refrigerating fuel overboard. The actuation of the safety valve is shown on the indicator installed on the emergency pipeline, in addition an arrow lights up showing the discharge of liquid refrigerant overboard. Moisture is removed from the liquid refrigerant system by using the moisture eliminator located in the left-hand part of the mnemonic diagram. To control the moisture eliminator during its replacement procedure, use the buttons installed in the bottom part of the control group. The backlighted button indicator corresponds to the valve open status. As the valve is opened, the valve open status indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram. For the monitoring of moisture content in the liquid refrigerant and its condition, a sight glass is installed on the fluid line (moisture indicator). In the left-hand part of the mnemonic diagram, above the compressor, a old/heat exchanger is installed.

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Control Panel
The control panel located in the right-hand part of the screen page, contains the conditioning system monitoring and control units: Monitoring and Control of Conditioner

In the top left part of the control unit, there is POWER indicator lamp which shows that the system is powered.

Below the indicator lamp, there is SUMMER/OFF/WINTER conditioner operating mode switch. If the switch is set to SUMMER position, the conditioner operates in the summer mode providing the cooling and drying of the air. With the switch set to OFF, the motors of the compressor, sea water pump, and fan are disconnected from the power supply. When the switch is set to WINTER position, the conditioner operates either in the winter mode whereby the air is heated and saturated with moisture, or in the transient ventilation mode whereby there is no treatment of the air (air heaters and saturator are turned off). The heaters are turned on by using HEATER 1, HEATER 2 buttons, in this case the buttons are backlighted. The buttons are installed in the left-hand part of the control panel. The air temperature after the first and second levels of heaters is controlled automatically by varying the water steam feed with the use of steam control valves (direct acting temperature controls). In case of automatic steam control valve failure, the steam supply is controlled by using manual control valves.

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Controls of manual bypass 1, bypass 2 valves are installed on the control panel in the left bottom part.

The automatic humidity control is performed by the steam control valve of the first stage air heater. To attain this, during the switch to the winter operating mode, the system re-adjustment is performed, i.e. the setting of the necessary ratio of the air flow to the air heater 1 and saturator by using the manual control valve located above the air saturator on the mnemonic diagram. The air saturator control valve is adjusted by using H2O setter located on the control panel next to bypass 1 and bypass 2. The current valve status is shown on the digital indicator on the mnemonic diagram. Below the conditioner operating mode switch on the control panel, there is a digital pressure gauge which shows pressure of the water steam fed to the system.

In the right-hand part of the control panel, there are three temperature gauges for the display of ambient temperature AMBIENT AIR, air temperature in the first duct DUCT 1, and in the second duct DUCT 2.

Located below the temperature gauges are devices for the display of the air relative humidity in the first and second ducts.

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To the left of the thermostatic controls installed on the control panel, are digital setters of thermal switches monitoring the air temperature after the first and second air coolers and controlling the operation of solenoid valves at the supply and return of liquid refrigerant from the air coolers.

The air parameters are controlled by using a cabin air distribution switch set in the room. The current air temperature and humidity in the room is shown on the indicator set above the switch on the mnemonic diagram.

Monitoring and Control of Sea Water Supply The sea water pump supplies water to the condenser and compressor cooling.

To start the system operating, it is first necessary to press VALVE button in the bottom part of the panel in order to open the valve for the supply of water to the compressor cooling. As the valve is opened, the button indictor is backlighted and the valve open status indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram (below the compressor). Then turn on the sea water pump by using ON/OFF button on the control panel: the button indicator is backlighted. The pump ON indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram. Set above the buttons on the control panel is the digital pressure gauge which shows the pumps charging pressure.

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With the pumps charging pressure low, an alarm is generated, and an appropriate lamp starts flickering in the bottom part of the screen. To the right of the pressure gauge on the control panel, there are temperature gauges showing sea water temperature INLET and temperature of the water removed from the condenser OUTLET. The sea water flow for the condenser cooling is controlled by using the condensing pressure control (water control valve) set on the water supply line to the condenser. The PRESS. SET unit for the control of the water control valve for maintaining a certain condensing pressure (811 bars) is in the centre of the control panel.

The current position (degree of openness) is shown on the digital condensing pressure indicator on the mnemonic diagram.

Monitoring and Control of Refrigeration Plant At an ambient temperature of 25 and more degrees, the conditioning system switches to SUMMER operating mode. In this case, it is serviced by the refrigerating plant.

The compressor refrigeration performance is controlled by taking its cylinders out of operation, pair by pair, on the account of electromagnetic pushing of suction valve plates with the drop of the suction pressure which varies with the change of the air coolers thermal load. Electromagnetic pushing devices are controlled by the low pressure switch by means of a control system which includes a time switch.

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The pressure switch is adjusted by using PRESSURE analog setter.

OFF scale is used for setting suction pressure; as this pressure is reached, the compressor cylinders start to turn off. ON scale is used for setting the pressure value; as this value is reached, the compressor cylinders will start to turn on. The following gauges are installed in the top part of the control panel: amperemeter (shows electrical motor current), SUCTION pressure/vacuum gauge (shows suction pressure), DISCHARGE pressure gauge (shows charging pressure), OIL pressure gauge (shows pressure in the compressor lubricating system).

With a high charging pressure, low suctions pressure or low pressure in the compressor lubricating system, an alarm is generated: appropriate lamps start flickering in the bottom part of the screen, and the compressor is stopped (Shut Down). In the centre of the control panel, there are three pressure gauges for determining the liquid refrigerant temperature on the suction line SUCTION, on the charging line DISCHARGE, and condensation pressure CONDENSER.

With a high charging temperature of the compressor, an alarm is generated, and appropriate lamp starts flickering in the bottom part of the screen, the compressor stops (Shut Down). In the left-hand part of the control panel, AUTO/MANUAL compressor operating mode switch is located.

As the switch is set to AUTO position, control of the compressor operation, master solenoid valve and solenoid valves of the evaporators is exercised automatically.

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If the switch is set to MANUAL position, to turn the compressor on, it is first necessary to open the master solenoid by pressing MASTER SOLENOID button on the control panel. The button indicator is backlighted, and the valve open status indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram. In the Manual mode, the compressors suction shut-off valve is closed, the charging valve is open, the electromagnetic pushing devices which raise the suction valve plates are ON, taking the cylinders out of operation and thus creating the compressors idle running. Then use ON button on the control panel to turn the compressor on. After the compressor has been started, the evaporator solenoid valves open up, in several seconds the pushing devices are activated, and its cylinders start operating. On the mnemonic diagram, cylinder operation indicators light up. The suction valve of the compressor is opened via SUCTION VALVE setter in the right-hand part of the control panel.

The current position (degree of openness) is shown on the digital indicator of the suction valve on the mnemonic diagram. OFF button on the control panel serves for turning the compressor off when the operating mode switch is set to MANUAL. As this is done, evaporator solenoid valves are closed; The air valve is controlled via AIR VALVE button. The backlighted button indicator corresponds to the valves open status; FILTER DRAIN button serves for the control of the valve on the liquid refrigerant exhaust line from the moisture eliminator; FILTER button serves for the control of the moisture eliminator shut-off valve; BYPASS button serves for the control of the moisture eliminator bypass valve.

For the monitoring of moisture content in the liquid refrigerant and its condition, a sight glass is installed on the fluid line (moisture indicator). In the bottom part of the unit, valve control buttons are located. The backlighted button indicator corresponds to the valves open status. As the valve opens, the valve open status indicator lights up on the mnemonic diagram. Button for the control of the shut-off valves on the liquid refrigerant drain from the receiver; Button for the control of the valve for the system replenishment with liquid refrigerant;

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Button for the control of the valve for the supply of oil into the compressor; Button for the control of the air flap.

Alarm Signals
LOW PRESS. COMPR. INLET low compressor suction pressure; HIGH PRESS. COMPR. OUTLET high compressor charging pressure; LOW PRESS. LUB. OIL low pressure of compressor lubricating oil; HIGH T COMPR. OUTLET high temperature on the compressor charging side; LOW LEVEL COMPR. OIL low lubricating oil level in the compressor; LOW PRESS. COOL. WATER low pressure of cooling (Sea) water; SOLENOID CLOSED master solenoid is closed; STEAM OPENED steam supply is open; COMPRESSOR SHUT DOWN.

Safety System
No available as an individual device (system). It is implemented owing to the system automatics: shutdown of the refrigerating plant compressor in case of e.g. high charging pressure and temperature, low suction pressure of lubricating oil pressure.

System Faults Introduced by the Instructor


Condenser Fouling; Term. Exp. Valve 1 Fouling; Term. Exp. Valve 2 Fouling; Excessive moisture Filter; Air in System; Ref. Power fault; Refrigerant leakage; Ventilation fault air blower will not start; Air Filter fouling; Water Steam Reg.1 fault faulty control 1, full opening of steam valve; Water Steam Reg.2 fault faulty control 2, full opening of steam valve; Automatic Oil drain fault faulty oil separator, air supply is reduced; High Pressure Pressostat fault faulty pressostat, high pressure protection does not operate; Oil Leakage oil leakage from the compressor; SW Reg. Valve Fault faulty sea water valve, control for maintaining pressure in the condenser does not operate.

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Directions on the Plant Operation and Maintenance


Procedure to Bring the Air Conditioning System into Operation in Summer Mode The air conditioning system is switched to the summer more as the ambient temperature grows to +25 : 1. Set the conditioner operating mode switch to SUMMER position.

2. Open the valve for feeding water to the compressors cooling.

3. Turn on the sea water pump.

4. Open the shut-off valves on the liquid refrigerant circulation lines.

5. Adjust temperature switches.

6. Set the compressors operating mode switch to MANUAL position.

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7. Adjust the low pressure switch.

On OFF scale, set the suction pressure value whereupon, with some delay, the compressor cylinders will start to turn off. On ON scale, set the pressure value whereupon the compressor cylinders will start to turn on, by the timer, too. 8. Open the master solenoid valve.

9. Check if the compressor suction valve is closed.

10. Run the compressor.

As this is done, the electromagnetic actuators which raise the suction valve plates are ON, taking the cylinders out of operation and thus creating the compressors idle running. After the compressor has been run, the pushing devices are turned off in several seconds, and its cylinders start operating: 1. Partly open (to 510 %) the compressor suction valve.

2. Check pressure in the compressor lubricating system.

3. With normal oil pressure value, continue opening the suction valve observing safety precautions. 4. Set the compressor operating mode switch to AUTO position.
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5. Use manual switches to set the desired air temperature in the cabins.

Values of temperature and humidity in the cabin are shown on indicators.

6. Monitor the plant operating parameters maintaining their values within a standard range. The alarm system will signal about all the possible faults. As a monitored parameters reaches its limit value, and appropriate alarm lights up in the bottom part of the screen. Where no steps are made to normalise the compressor operation, SHUT DOWN protection is actuated, and the compressor is stopped, where after it can be brought back into operation in MANUAL mode only. Procedure to Bring the Air Conditioning System into Operation in Transient Mode The air conditioning system is switched to the transient mode at the ambient temperature of +15 to +25 . Set the conditioner operating mode switch to WINTER position, turn off the heaters and humidifier: the fan only will remain operating.

Procedure to Bring the Air Conditioning System into Operation in Winter Mode The air conditioning system is switched to the winter operating mode when the ambient temperature drops to +15 : 1. Set the conditioner operating mode switch to WINTER position. 2. Depending on the ambient temperature (t), tune on the first and second stage heaters. 3. Ambient temperature after the first and second stage heaters as well as relative humidity of the treated air is maintained automatically by using the direct-acting temperature controls (steam control valves). In this case, the first stage control maintains constant temperature at the first duct outlet, whereas the second stage control maintains temperature at the second duct outlet in accordance with its setting changed automatically with the ambient temperature.

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4. To control the air humidity, it is first necessary to turn on H2O valve manually monitoring the air humidity values in the first and second ducts. After it has been set, humidity is controlled automatically in accordance with the ambient temperature by the first duct temperature control.

5. Use manual switches in the cabin to set the desired temperature in the cabin. 6. Monitor the air conditioned operation parameters maintaining their values within the standard range. Refrigerant Replenishment The operation is performed if the refrigeration plant operating mode indicates insufficient refrigerant in the system (low refrigerant level in the receiver, gas bubbles in the sight glass, low suction pressure, excessive heating in the suction line and high temperature on the charging line): 1. Set the compressor operating mode switch to MANUAL position.

2. Close the shut-off valve on the liquid line after the receiver.

3. Open the make-up valve.

4. Monitor the refrigerant level by the sight glass on the receiver. 5. After the end of the process, close the make-up valve (the refrigerant level on the receiver sight glass is 50 %). 6. Open the shut-off valve after the receiver. 7. Set the operating mode switch to AUTO position.

8. Monitor the refrigerating plant operation parameters. 9. In case of the system overfilling with liquid refrigerant, there may be damp compressor operation.

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Compressor Replenishment with Oil This is performed if the oil level in the sight glass on the compressor sump has dropped to below height mark. The oil should best be added with the compressor not running (oil level is clearly visible in the sight glass): 1. Set the compressor operating mode switch to MANUAL position.

2. Close the compressor suction valve. 3. After the suction pressure (in the sump) has dropped to a value below the atmospheric pressure (-0.5 bars), stop the compressor. 4. Open the oil make-up valve.

5. After the end of the process (oil level is not higher than 2/3 of the sight glass), close the valve. 6. Turn the compressor on.

7.

Open the compressor suction valve.

8. Set the operating mode switch to AUTO position.

9. Monitor the refrigerating plant operating parameters. Air Discharge from the Refrigerant System This is performed if the pressure gauge needle on the charging line makes jerking oscillatory motions, and the charging pressure exceeds the optimum value by 2 bars or more: 1. Set the compressor operating mode switch to MANUAL position.

2. Close the compressor suction valve.

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3. Turn the compressor off.

4. Adjust the condensation pressure control to 100% opening (which corresponds to the setters position 5).

5. After the water temperature drops at the condenser outlet (OUTLET temperature gauge) down to the sea water temperature (INLET temperature gauge), open the valve for the discharge of air from the system. 6. As the charging pressure drops to the value corresponding to the optimum condensation temperature, i.e. as the temperature readings in DISCHARGE pressure gauge and DISCHARGE temperature gauge are equalised, close the air discharge valve. 7. Monitor the level of refrigerant by using the sight glass on the condenser (there should be no lowering of the level). 8. Adjust the condensation pressure control for the maintaining of the set pressure value (9-10 bars).

9. Turn the compressor on.

10. Open the compressor suction valve. 11. Set the operating mode switch to AUTO position.

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Replacement if Moisture Eliminator This is done when the colour of the sight glass indicator changes. The indicator colour changes from green to yellow as the moisture penetrates in the refrigerant system: 1. Close the moisture eliminator shut-off valves.

2. Open the moisture eliminator bypass valve.

3. Open the valve for drawing off refrigerant from the moisture eliminator for several minutes (1-2 minutes). 4. Close the valve for drawing off refrigerant from the moisture eliminator. 5. Open the moisture eliminator shut-off valves. 6. Close the moisture eliminator bypass valve. As this is done, the indicator colour will change from the yellow colour to green, i.e. there will be an imitation of the moisture eliminator replacement. Elimination of Compressor Damp Operation This is performed if there is a sharp drop of temperature on the charging line (down to +100), overheating decreases, the compressor noise changes to dull, the cylinder walls and sump are covered with ice (if there is considerable flooding with liquid refrigerant), rattling noise appears, and the amperemeter needle goes beyond the red line: 1. Close the compressor suction valve leaving it 510 % open.

2. After the indications of damp operation disappear, open the compressor suction valve slowly. 3. Check oil level in the sump replenish the compressor with oil as required. Breakage of Conditioner Fan If a fan is broken, air is supplied to this conditioner by the fan of the conditioner on the other board through the air flap. To do this, press the air flap control button.

You can act in much the same way in case of the fan air filter fouling until it is replaced (the fault is eliminated from the instructor workplace).

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Breakage of Automatic Steam Control Valve If the automatic steam control valve is broken: 1. Close the shut-off valves bypass 1 and bypass 2 of the steam control (for the time of the repairs).

2. Open the manual control valve on the bypass line, adjusting its flow by the readings of temperature gauges at the outlets of the first and second ducts.

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