Sie sind auf Seite 1von 64
Room Pressurization Control 125-2412 Rev. 2, June, 2004

Room Pressurization Control

125-2412

Rev. 2, June, 2004

Rev.2.0, June, 2004

NOTICE

The information contained within this document is subject to change without notice and should not be construed as a commitment by Siemens Building Technologies, Inc. Siemens Building Technologies, Inc. assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this document.

All software described in this document is furnished under a license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license.

WARNING

This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions manual, may cause interference to radio communications. It has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against such interference when operated in a commercial environment. Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause interference in which case users at their own expense will be required to take whatever measures may be required to correct the interference.

SERVICE STATEMENT

Control devices are combined to make a system. Each control device is mechanical in nature and all mechanical components must be regularly serviced to optimize their operation. All Siemens Building Technologies, Inc.branch offices and authorized distributors offer Technical Support Programs that will ensure your continuous, trouble-free system performance.

For further information, contact your nearest Siemens Building Technologies, Inc. representative.

Copyright 2001 by Siemens Building Technologies, Inc.

TO THE READER

Your feedback is important to us. If you have comments about this manual, please submit them to technical.editor@sbt.siemens.com

APOGEE is a trademark of Siemens Building Technologies, Inc. Tracer Summit is a trademark of The Trane Company BACnet is a trademark of American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Insight for Minicomputers is a registered trademark of Siemens Building Technologies, Inc. Insight for Personal Computers is a registered trademark of Siemens Building Technologies, Inc.

Printed in U.S.A.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Table of Contents

How To Use This Application Guide

I

How This Guide is Organzed

I

Getting Help

I

Where To Send Comments

I

Chapter 1—Introduction

1

Importance of Room Pressurization

1

Objective of this Application Guide

1

Intended Audience

2

Chapter 2—Pressurization Applications

3

Room Static Pressure

3

Building Pressurization

4

Room Pressurization Applications

5

Chemical Laboratories

5

Biological Laboratories

5

Biosafety Level 1 (BL-1)

6

Biosafety Level 2 (BL-2)

6

Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3)

6

Biosafety Level 4 (BL-4)

7

Hospitals

7

Animal Holding Rooms

7

Clean Rooms

8

Chapter 3—Room Pressurization Design Criteria

11

Design Considerations

11

Room Pressurization Reference Data

14

Room Pressurization Factors

15

Leakage Area

15

Chapter 4—Room Static Pressure Control

17

Laboratories

17

Airflow Tracking Static Pressure Control

17

Airflow Tracking Control Considerations

19

Direct Pressure Control

21

Direct Pressure Control Limitations

23

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Door Effects

23

VAV Fume Hood Effects

23

Cascaded Pressure Control

24

Dual Pressurization Laboratories

25

Health Care Facilities

27

Infectious Isolation Rooms

27

Protective Isolation Rooms

27

Static Pressure Control by Airflow Tracking

27

Infectious Isolation Room Layout

28

Ventilation and Control System Application

28

Room Pressure Monitors

29

Protective Isolation Room Layout

29

Ventilation and Control System Application

29

Isolation Room Changeover

30

Clean Rooms

30

Particulate Contamination

30

Clean Room Standards

31

Clean Room Pressurization Applications

33

Airlocks

34

Airlock Construction

38

Clean Room Static Pressure Control

40

Control System Components

41

Room Pressurization Control

42

Chapter 5—Air Pressurization Fundamentals

43

Forces Exerted by Air

43

Total Pressure

43

Static Pressure

44

Velocity Pressure

45

Air Velocity

47

Units of Pressure Measurement

47

Differential Pressure

48

Summary of Pressure Components

48

Glossary

Glossary-1

Index

Index-1

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

How To Use This Application Guide

This section covers this how this application guide is organized, how to access help, and where to send comments regarding this document.

How This Guide is Organzed

This application guide contains the following chapters:

Chapter 1, Introduction, introduces the topic of room pressurization by discussing the importance of room pressurization, the objective of this application guide, and the intended audience.

Chapter 2, Pressurization Applications, defines room pressurization and discusses positive and negative room pressurization; building pressurization; and room pressurization applications.

Chapter 3, Room Pressurization Design Criteria, discusses design considerations, room pressurization reference data, room pressurization factors, and leakage area.

Chapter 4, Room Static Pressure Control, discusses static pressure control in rooms in laboratories and healthcare facilities.

Chapter 5, Air Pressurization Fundamentals, introduces ventilation system pressure components and summarizes important factors in relation to these components.

The Glossary describes terms and acronyms used in this manual.

The Index helps you locate information presented in this manual.

Getting Help

For more information about room pressurization, contact Greg DeLuga Greg.Deluga@sbt.siemens.com in Systems & Advanced Technology.

Where To Send Comments

Your feedback is important to us. If you have comments about this manual, please submit them to technical.editor@sbt.siemens.com

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Chapter 1—Introduction

Chapter 1 introduces the topic of room pressurization and discusses the:

Importance of Room Pressurization

Objective of this Application Guide

Intended Audience

Importance of Room Pressurization

Proper room pressurization is an absolute necessity to ensure occupant health and safety as well as preserve the purity and integrity of an increasing array of manufactured products. In healthcare facilities, proper room pressurization is vital for protecting workers and patients from exposure to harmful and, sometimes, deadly airborne pathogens. Room pressurization is an important factor in guarding against occupant and worker exposure to hazardous fumes and biological agents in many types of laboratories. Additionally, proper room pressurization is necessary to prevent cross contamination and ensure that the required level of environmental sterility and purity is maintained for food and drug processing, and in micro- electronic and optical manufacturing industries.

With the ever-increasing focus on ensuring occupant protection and the increasingly stringent needs for environmental purity in production facilities, maintaining proper room pressurization is a key requirement for facility ventilation systems. This has imposed increased responsibility on the ventilation system designer as well as the facility operational staff to ensure that ventilation systems are able to provide and continue to provide the required levels of room pressurization.

Objective of this Application Guide

This Application Guide is intended to serve as a comprehensive reference to room pressurization. It provides information ranging from the fundamental concept of room pressurization though the design and configuration of room pressurization ventilation systems, and their associated control systems. The information in this guide is applicable to chemical and biological laboratories, animal research facilities, hospital isolation and treatment rooms, industrial clean rooms, pharmaceutical processing areas, and virtually any application where maintaining a specific static pressure relationship to another internal area or to the outdoors is desired.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Intended Audience

This Application Guide has been written to serve an audience with a wide range of interests:

Persons with overall administrative and management responsibilities in facilities that require room pressurization will find this guide an informative tutorial on the concept and ramifications of room pressurization. The content is intended to enable such individuals to effectively dialogue with their facility operations and safety professionals concerning facility safety and operational issues involving room pressurization.

Persons with day-to-day operational responsibilities in virtually all types of facilities can use this guide as a general reference on the subject of room pressurization. This guide also provides practical information that will enable such individuals to determine whether existing ventilation systems are capable of and are functioning in a manner that provides the required room pressurization.

Safety professionals in research and industrial facilities, and supervisory personnel in clinical treatment facilities should find the room pressurization concepts and other basic information presented in this guide helpful in understanding the role of room pressurization in protecting workers and occupants from airborne hazards.

HVAC system designers should find the descriptions of room pressurization systems (and their associated control systems) informative and helpful in choosing one type of system over another. This Application Guide also provides direct design assistance for properly configuring ventilation systems and their associated controls to meet specific room pressurization applications.

Chapter 2—Pressurization Applications

Chapter 2 defines room pressurization and discusses these topics:

Room Static Pressure

Building Pressurization

Room Pressurization Applications

Room Static Pressure

When referring to room pressurization, the term static pressure is usually applied to establish the fact that the pressure is not due to any air motion. Rather, the pressure exists independently of any motion of the air.

Every pressure measurement or pressure value is based on a difference between two points or locations. Therefore, a room's static pressure value is the difference in static pressure between the room and another location. Most often the other location is an adjoining room or corridor. However, the other location can also be:

The outdoors.

The floor above or below.

A stairwell.

A more distant area in the building.

It is important to use the terms positive and negative when referring to room static pressure values since it is not always apparent which location is at the higher (or lower) static pressure. Positive indicates that the location has the higher static pressure while negative indicates that the location has the lower value. So, stating that a room is positively pressurized indicates that the room has a higher static pressure than the reference area. Conversely, stating that a room is negatively pressurized indicates that the room has a lower static pressure than the reference area. Note also that a room can, and often does, have multiple static pressure values. For example, a room may be negative 0.01 inches w.c. with respect to an adjoining corridor and it could also be positive 0.01 inches w.c. with respect to another room or area. Because pressure values are always referenced to another area, there is no limit to the number of pressure values that a given room or space may have with respect to other locations.

If the static pressure of a certain room were negative 0.02 inches w.c. with reference to an adjacent corridor, it would be equivalent to saying that the static air pressure of the room is 0.02 inches w.c. lower than the static pressure of the corridor. It could also be stated that the corridor is positive 0.02 inches w.c. with respect to the room.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

NOTE:

In Chapter 5, Table 4. Velocity Pressure vs. Airflow Velocity shows that a differential pressure of 0.02 inches w. c. would result in an airflow velocity from the positive space to the negative space of about 566 feet per minute.

Given the chance, air in a positively pressurized room (higher static pressure) will flow out of the room and into an area of lower static pressure. Conversely, air will flow into a room that is negatively pressurized (lower static pressure) from a higher pressure (positively pressurized) room or area. The potential direction of airflow is always from the higher pressure area (positively pressurized) toward a lower pressure area (negatively pressurized).

Building Pressurization

A proper building ventilation system design ensures that all areas of the building are at a

slight positive pressure with reference to the outdoors to prevent outside air from entering the building. Note that even rooms within a building that are negative with respect to the adjacent corridor or another room, are often at a positive static pressure with respect to the outside of

a building. Without building pressurization, outside air (in accord with the positive-to-negative airflow) will enter a building in several ways, including door clearance openings, construction cracks, gaps, and even the porosity of the outer walls. However, by maintaining the inside of the building at a slight positive static pressure with respect to the outside, this undesirable inward airflow is prevented.

Without overall positive building pressurization, the inflow of outside air can pose many

problems:

Unfiltered outside air can deposit airborne dirt wherever the air enters. For example, around window frames, electrical outlets, etc.

Unfiltered outside air can bring in harmful contaminants and unpleasant odors creating health and inside air quality (IAQ) problems.

Cold outside air can produce drafts and cold spots especially near the outer walls, which adversely affect an otherwise good comfort control system.

Humid outside air can condense on cooler interior surfaces of the building causing dampness, wet spots and promoting growth of mold. This would very likely occur in unseen places, such as inside wall spaces and above ceilings.

Air entering through door clearances or window gaps can create annoying whistling sounds.

A building interior that is negative with respect to the outdoors will result in hard to open entry and exit doors along with annoying inward drafts whenever a door is opened.

Room Pressurization Applications

Room Pressurization Applications

In most applications, room pressurization is applied to control the direction of room transfer

airflow. Transfer air is air that is not directly supplied to a room or exhausted from the room

by the room’s ventilation system. Rather, transfer air is air that may enter the room or leave the room as a result of pressure differentials, through passageways other than the ventilation system ductwork. Typically, these passageways include the clearance area around doors and poke-throughs around electrical and plumbing services. These air passageways also include cracks, gaps, and even the porosity that comprises the room construction. In most situations where room pressurization is required, using close fitting doors can minimize the amount of these air passageways. It can also be reduced by caulking and sealing of all cutouts that were made to accommodate electrical conduits, piping, and other room equipment. However, depending on individual needs and applications, rooms may also be equipped with air transfer grills to facilitate transfer air movement into or out of the room.

Most room pressurization applications are intended to control the direction of the transfer air rather than prevent air transfer from occurring. Directional airflow is used to prevent airborne contaminants from entering or leaving a specific room or cluster of rooms. Room pressurization for contamination prevention can be grouped into several categories depending upon the type of room and its purpose. The following subsections describe the most common room pressurization applications.

Chemical Laboratories

A

chemical laboratory room must be maintained at a negative static pressure with reference

to

adjoining non-laboratory rooms to ensure that transfer air will not flow out of the laboratory

room and into the adjoining areas. Rather, transfer airflow should be directed into a laboratory room from the adjacent areas (corridors or other non-laboratory rooms) to prevent laboratory room chemical fumes from migrating out of a laboratory room. Although it is desirable to keep laboratory room air from migrating into other areas of a building as a health safeguard, it is also important from an IAQ perspective. Room air from chemical laboratories

often contains some trace amount of chemical fumes or gasses. Although the concentration

of chemicals or gasses in the air might be extremely slight and not a health hazard, building

occupants may react to the odor and assume that they are being exposed to an unhealthy or hazardous environment. Therefore, it is advantageous to prevent airflow out of laboratory

rooms by ensuring that the rooms are maintained at a negative static pressure with reference

to adjoining non-laboratory areas.

Biological Laboratories

Biological laboratory rooms must also be maintained at a negative static pressure to prevent airflow out of the laboratory room. Aside from preventing chemical odors from leaving the room, the inward directional airflow created by negative room pressurization is intended to prevent airborne pathogens from migrating out to other building areas. Biological laboratories are classified as Biosafety Level 1, 2, 3 or 4 with respect to the potential hazard that the particular laboratory presents due to the substances present and the nature of the work performed.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Biosafety Level 1 (BL-1)

Biosafety Level 1 (BL-1) is the lowest biosafety classification and applies to biological laboratories that need no special ventilation requirements apart from an adequate room ventilation rate. BL-1 laboratories present a low health risk to individuals and the community. Such laboratory rooms are only required to be separated from public areas by a closed door. Work may take place on bench tops and without containment provisions (biological safety cabinets). BL-1 laboratories are not specifically required to be negatively pressurized, although most ventilation designs do incorporate negative pressurization for odor control.

Biosafety Level 1 activities may also be conducted in a general chemical laboratory. In this case, the room ventilation must also meet the requirements for a general chemistry laboratory.

Biosafety Level 2 (BL-2)

Biosafety Level 2 (BL-2) is the classification that applies to the largest number of microbiological and biomedical laboratories. Although some of the substances present can result in an infection, they may still be manipulated or processed on open benches provided that the potential for a biological aerosol release is very low and the seriousness of a subsequent infection is also very low. BL-2 laboratories present only a small to moderate risk to individuals in the room and only a limited risk to the community. Such laboratories require self-closing doors and any work where biological aerosols are likely to be released must be done within biological safety cabinets. BL-2 laboratories are required to be negatively pressurized to prevent airborne pathogens and aerosols from leaving the room.

Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3)

Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3) is the classification that applies to laboratory rooms that work with highly infectious agents that are transmissible as aerosols (such as, Anthrax, Tuberculosis. etc.) and the room ventilation requirements are stringent. BL-3 rooms must use biological safety cabinets for all work being done in the room. These laboratory rooms must also be separated from other building areas and have a double door (airlock) entry arrangement. Most often, these laboratories also have adjacent areas under somewhat lesser negative pressurization for worker gowning, showering, and other support purposes. Ventilation system provisions for BL-3 laboratories require a single pass (no-return air) system with HEPA 1 filtered exhaust. The room static pressure must be negative to ensure against outward airflow. Maintaining an effective room barrier with minimal penetrations makes it advantageous to use a dedicated room ventilation system inside the laboratory unit.

1 High Efficiency Particulate Air filter. HEPA filters are capable of entrapping biological aerosols.

Room Pressurization Applications

Biosafety Level 4 (BL-4)

Biosafety Level 4 (BL-4) is the classification that applies to laboratories 2 that present the highest risk to individuals in the laboratory, the facility, and to nearby communities. As such, they must be designed in accord with very strict safety requirements. BL-4 laboratories require all of the BL-3 provisions plus use of the highest classification of biological safety cabinet (Class III glove box) for all work performed. These labs must be geographically isolated and functionally independent from the rest of the buildings associated with a facility having this type of laboratory.

BL-4 laboratories require a 100% outside air, non-re-circulating dedicated ventilation system with HEPA filtered intake and exhaust air. The laboratory itself must be at a relatively high negative static pressure and the adjacent support areas, such as gowning, showering, etc., are somewhat less negatively pressurized. However, all areas associated with the laboratory must also be at a negative static pressure (although at a somewhat lower level) with respect to the other non-laboratory areas of the building.

Hospitals

Operating rooms, intensive care units, nurseries, and certain other areas in hospitals are normally positively pressurized to prevent harmful pathogens (germs) from entering these rooms. In these instances, transfer air can only flow out from the positively pressurized room to prevent or at least retard airborne contaminants from entering the room. Certain patient rooms, particularly those for treating AIDS patients and any patient that is at a high risk of infection, are also maintained at a positive pressure (referred to as protective isolation rooms) to ensure patient protection via proper directional airflow.

Hospital rooms may also be negatively pressurized (referred to a infectious isolation) to prevent airborne pathogens from patients with a contagious disease, such as Tuberculosis, from migrating out and infecting hospital workers or other patients. In these instances, the room’s negative pressurization ensures that the direction of transfer airflow is always into the infectious isolation room.

Animal Holding Rooms

In general, rooms used to house animals and perform research functions must be kept at a positive static pressure level. A positive static pressure level prevents the animals from being contaminated by airborne pathogens that can enter the room. In contrast, research facility support areas, such as cage washing, or where contaminated or animal waste material is present, should be kept at a negative static pressure. A negative static pressure level prevents odors from emanating and prevents the airborne transmission of harmful substances to other areas of the facility.

2 Relatively few BL-4 laboratories exist since they deal with exotic, highly dangerous (with no known cure) infectious substances. Such laboratory facilities are usually isolated from other buildings and protected with a sophisticated security system to ensure against any unauthorized access.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Clean Rooms

Nearly all pharmaceutical, biomedical, microelectronics, as well as the optical industry and many others, need to prevent contamination of their products or processes by maintaining a clean room environment. In particular, the pharmaceutical and biomedical production facilities require very careful room pressurization control to ensure against biological and chemical agent contamination as a condition for meeting and maintaining regulatory (FDA) compliance.

Microelectronics fabrication and electronic component assembly areas need a high degree of environmental purity to prevent particulate contamination in the manufacturing process. As microelectronic chips and data storage media continue to become more miniaturized while providing greater processing power and data storage capacity, even the smallest airborne particle could create an undesirable circuit-to-circuit bridge. Today’s microelectronic circuit conductors are 100 times smaller in width than a human hair and use even smaller spacing between conductors. These applications all require the most intensive form of contamination prevention. As some components created by the micro electronics and optics industry become even more miniaturized, contamination concerns extend down to the single molecular level.

In all clean room applications, infiltration of contaminants from adjacent areas and the outdoors (dust particles, pathogens, aerosols, etc.) is prevented by maintaining the clean room space at a substantial positive pressure with respect to the surrounding areas. In many clean room applications the surrounding areas are also positively pressurized in order to act as buffer zones to help ensure against accidental contamination of the most critical areas.

Room Pressurization Applications

Table 1 lists various room pressurization applications and the normal static pressure relationships required.

Table 1. Room Static Pressurization Applications.

Application

Recommended

Relationship

Comments

 

Static

to Adjacent

Pressurization

Area(s)

 

Level

Inches

Pascals

Chemical Laboratory

0.01

2.5

Negative

These values apply to general chemistry laboratories. (Higher hazard laboratories

to

to

0.02

5

such as those handling toxic chemicals or radioactive substances should be at an increased negative pressurization level. Such labs may require double door entry provisions and a two-stage pressurization level.)

Biological lab: BL-1 & BL-2

0.01

2.5

Negative

Although negative pressurization is not specifically required for BL-1 labs, it is recommended for odor control.

Biological lab: BL-3

0.01

2.5

Negative

Lab support areas should be at lesser negative pressurization levels than the

to

to

0.03

8

laboratory itself to ensure airflow is from the area of least risk to highest risk.

Biological lab: BL-4

0.01

2.5

Negative

Airlock entry/exit provisions, clothing change areas, other support areas, and

to

to

0.05

12

the laboratory itself should all be under increasingly negative pressure to ensure airflow is toward the laboratory as the highest hazard area.

Animal Holding Room

0.01

2.5

Positive

Air supplied to surgery rooms to meet ventilation and pressurization requirements should not be re-circulated from other areas.

Animal Support Areas

0.01

2.5

Negative

These general support areas include autopsy rooms, cage washing, and feed storage rooms, as well as incinerator and sterilizer rooms.

Animal Surgical Room

0.01

2.5

Positive

Surgical support areas such as gowning, hand washing, etc., should be positively

to

to

0.02

5

pressurized at multiple pressurization levels, keeping the surgical room as the most positive area.

Hospital - Protective Isolation Room

0.01

2.5

Positive

The CDC actually recommends a minimum pressurization level of 0.001

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Table 1. Room Static Pressurization Applications.

Application

Recommended

Relationship

Comments

 

Static

to Adjacent

Pressurization

Area(s)

 

Level

Inches

Pascals

Hospital - Infectious Isolation Room

0.01

2.5

Negative

inches w.c. for these rooms; however, most designs incorporate higher pressurization levels. The most effective isolation room arrangement incorporates a lower pressurized anteroom as a buffer zone between the isolation room and corridor.

Hospital Surgical Suite

0.01

2.5

Positive

Surgical suites include gowning, hand washing, etc. All areas of the surgical

to

to

Delivery

0.02

5

suite should be positively pressurized using dual or multi-staged pressurization levels to keep the surgical room the most positive area.

Nursery

Cystoscopy

Trauma

Clean Room:

0.05

12.5

Positive

Pharmaceutical processing rooms should be 0.05 inches positive with respect to

to

to

Pharmaceutical Mfg.

0.10

25

rooms leading into the processing room. Such rooms should be at least 0.02 inches positive with respect to each other and non-classified areas.

Clean Room:

0.05

12.5

Positive

Clean spaces used for highly critical processes should be at least 0.05

to

to

Micro-Electronic Mfg. Data Storage Mfg. Optics Mfg.

0.20

50

inches positive to any connecting space and so on. An anteroom having 0.02 inches less positive pressurization should separate adjoining spaces that are of the same classification but used for different purposes.

Chapter 3—Room Pressurization Design Criteria

Chapter 3 discusses the following topics:

Design Considerations

Room Pressurization Reference Data

Room Pressurization Factors

Leakage Area

Design Considerations

As stated previously in this guide, the positive or negative room static pressurization relationship between two spaces determines the potential for transfer airflow between them. Unintentional openings that allow transfer airflow in or out of a negatively or positively pressurized room are cumulatively referred to as the room’s leakage area. However, if there is no room leakage area (the room is sealed off), then there can be no airflow in or out of the room, even though a static pressure difference exists between the room and other areas.

In buildings, rooms cannot generally be totally sealed off. Except for extreme situations, such as Biological Level 4 laboratories, there is little reason to try to maintain a perfect seal or barrier between pressurized spaces. Personnel, equipment, and contents must be allowed to continually enter and leave such spaces. Thus, a perfect seal or barrier is not a practical solution for the prevention of unwanted air transfer.

This consideration leads to the fundamental reason for maintaining a differential static pressure relationship between two spaces. Aside from a perfect seal or perfect isolation, the next best way to prevent unwanted air transfer is to maintain a differential pressure that only allows air transfer in an acceptable or desired direction. The differential static pressure relationship between spaces is then created and maintained by a properly designed and controlled ventilation system.

The most commonly used means to maintain a room at a negative or positive pressure is by airflow tracking. Airflow tracking, also referred to as volumetric airflow tracking, maintains a fixed differential airflow or offset between the total air supplied to the room and the total air exhausted from the room. The total air supplied to and the total air exhausted from a room to which airflow tracking is applied is considered to be the air that is provided by a fan powered, ducted, ventilation system.

Figure 1 illustrates the airflow relationship of a negatively pressurized room where the total room exhaust airflow exceeds the total room supply airflow by the fixed airflow tracking offset.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

AIRFLOW TRACKING OFFSET ROOM TOTAL ROOM EXHAUST AIRFLOW SUPPLY AIRFLOW LAB0192R1
AIRFLOW
TRACKING
OFFSET
ROOM
TOTAL ROOM
EXHAUST
AIRFLOW
SUPPLY
AIRFLOW
LAB0192R1

Figure 1. Negatively Pressurized Room Airflows.

For a negatively pressurized room, airflow tracking ensures that the total amount of air exhausted from the room always exceeds the amount of air that is supplied to the room. This creates a slight vacuum effect in the room, which causes air from adjacent areas to flow into the room through the room’s leakage area.

For a positively pressurized room, airflow tracking ensures that the total amount of air exhausted from the room is always less than the amount of air that is supplied to the room. This creates an excess amount of air in the room, which tends to flow out from the room and into adjacent areas.

Applying airflow tracking as the method of achieving room static pressurization does not ensure that a specific room static pressure value is attained. However, it does ensure that the room static pressure will be negative or positive as desired, and that the desired directional airflow into or out of the room will be maintained. Since the goal of room pressurization is to always ensure proper directional airflow, airflow tracking is a very reliable way of achieving this goal.

Figure 2 shows a chemical laboratory room with an airflow arrangement that maintains a negative static pressure. Both the room supply airflow and the total room exhaust airflow must be controlled to be at specific values to achieve the required airflow tracking offset for the room. The resulting deficiency in the room’s supply air creates the negative static pressure relationship between the laboratory room and the corridors. Since the laboratory room static pressure is negative with respect to the corridors, air always has a tendency to flow into the laboratory from the corridors, thus preventing undesirable airflow from the laboratory room to the corridors.

Design Considerations

Design Considerations SERVICE CORRIDOR 0.00 in. w.c. TOTAL ROOM EXHAUST AIR TRANSFER AIRFLOW INTO ROOM LABORATORY
SERVICE CORRIDOR 0.00 in. w.c. TOTAL ROOM EXHAUST AIR TRANSFER AIRFLOW INTO ROOM LABORATORY ROOM
SERVICE CORRIDOR
0.00 in. w.c.
TOTAL ROOM
EXHAUST AIR
TRANSFER
AIRFLOW
INTO
ROOM
LABORATORY ROOM
- 0.01 in. w.c.
ROOM
(-2.5Pa)
SUPPLY
AIR
MAIN CORRIDOR
0.00 in. w.c.
LAB0193R1

Figure 2. Laboratory Room at a Negative Static Pressure with Respect to the Adjacent Corridors.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Room Pressurization Reference Data

As indicated in Table 1, good ventilation system design for chemical laboratory rooms should ensure that the rooms are at a negative static pressure of approximately 0.01 inches w.c. with respect to adjacent non-laboratory spaces, such as a corridor 3 .

The specific relationship between Room Differential Pressure, Room Leakage Area, and the Differential Airflow is expressed by the following equations 4 based on inch-pound (IP) or metric (SI) units.

(IP)

Q = 2610 A (dP) 1/2

where:

Q is the differential airflow in Cubic Feet per Minute (cfm)

A is the total room leakage area in Square Feet

dP is the differential pressure in Inches of Water (inches w.c.)

(SI)

Q = 840 A (dP) 1/2

where:

Q is the differential airflow in Liters per Second,

A is the total room leakage area in Square Meters

dP is the differential pressure in Pascals

The graph in Figure 3 depicts the relationship between room differential pressure, room leakage area and differential airflow. Figure 3 also shows room leakage area in square feet as a family of curves on the graph. The differential airflow (difference between the total room supply and total room exhaust airflows) is shown as Cubic Feet per Minute (cfm) along the horizontal axis of the graph. The resulting room differential (static) pressurization values are shown as Inches of Water (inches w.c.) along the vertical axis.

To determine what room differential airflow is needed to provide a particular differential pressure, the desired differential pressure value on the vertical axis is followed to where its horizontal line intersects the room leakage area curves. The required differential room airflow is then indicated along the bottom of the graph directly below the points of intersection.

3 In applications where it is necessary to prevent contamination by air flowing into the laboratory room from adjacent spaces, the laboratory room can be maintained at a positive static pressure. However, the laboratory room must be separated from the adjoining area (a corridor) by a vestibule room that is maintained at a negative static pressure.

4 Equations taken from 1999 ASHRAE Application Handbook, Fire and Smoke Management Section, Page 51.5.

Room Pressurization Factors

LAB0194R1

0.020

0.019

0.018

0.017

0.016

0.015

0.014

0.013

0.012

0.011

0.010

0.009

0.008

0.007

0.006

0.005

0.004

0.003

0.002

0.001

0.000

0.1 Ft 2 ROOM LEAKAGE AREA CURVES 0.2 Ft 2 0.3 Ft 2 0.4 Ft
0.1 Ft 2
ROOM
LEAKAGE AREA CURVES
0.2 Ft 2
0.3 Ft 2
0.4 Ft 2
0.5 Ft 2
0.6 Ft 2
0.75 Ft 2
1.0 Ft 2
1.5 Ft 2
0 25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
250
275
300
325
350
375
ROOM DIFFERENTIAL AIRFLOW - CFM

400

DIFFERENTIAL

PRESSURE

INCHES

of

WATER

Figure 3. Room Differential Airflow vs. Differential Pressure for Various Room Leakage Areas.

Room Pressurization Factors

As Figure 3 shows, a room’s static pressurization value is wholly dependent on the differential airflow and the room’s leakage area. For instance, the graph shows that for a room with 1.0 sq. ft. of leakage area, a differential pressure (dP) of just under 0.010 inches w.c. occurs when the difference between the room’s supply air and the total room exhaust is 250 cfm. This relationship exists regardless of what the room’s ventilation rate is (air changes per hour). Therefore, to maintain a specific room pressurization value, the room’s differential airflow must be controlled and maintained at the appropriate value.

Leakage Area

Most modest sized rooms, such as a two-person laboratory with two hinged doors, will have

a total room leakage area of about 0.5 to 1.0 sq. ft. even with relatively tight construction. To obtain a tighter room, extensive sealing and meticulous attention to poke-throughs (places

where conduit, piping, ducts and other items pass through the room’s walls, ceiling, and floor) is required. However, room pressurization can be more easily maintained at a constant value

if the room construction is not extremely tight.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Figure 3 shows that when a room has as little as a 0.2 sq. ft. leakage area, a small change in differential airflow such as only 25 cfm causes a rather large variation in the resulting differential pressure value. Whereas, the same 25 cfm differential airflow variation for a room having a 1.0 sq. ft. leakage area would exhibit a much smaller differential pressure variation.

Except for biological laboratory rooms where highly contagious pathogens are present, and very critical clean rooms, little is gained by attempting to make the room exceptionally tight. Rather, a room’s static pressure can be maintained at a more stable value if the total room leakage area is perhaps between 0.5 and 1.0 sq. ft.

Note also that if room leakage area were significantly greater than about 1.5 sq. ft. the resulting leakage area curve would lie close to the bottom of the chart in Figure 3. Trying to maintain a 0.01 Inch static pressure differential for that much leakage area requires very high differential airflows. Experience indicates that a negative 0.01 inches w.c. room differential pressure (typical for chemical laboratory rooms) cannot be maintained in rooms that have a leakage area much greater than about 1.5 square feet due to the excessively high differential airflow required. Thus, except for very large rooms, a reasonable room tightness of between 0.5 and 1.5 sq. ft. of leakage area is recommended when a 0.01 inches w.c. room differential pressure is desired.

It is also very important to consider the effect that opening a room door will have on room pressurization. Opening a single width door of average size will increase a room's leakage area by approximately 20 square feet or more. The resulting room leakage area curve would essentially lie horizontally along the bottom of the graph and result in a near zero differential pressure value for the room. With an open door, no appreciable differential static pressure value can be maintained without an excessively high amount of differential airflow. Consequently, it should be realized that a room’s differential pressure drops to near zero anytime a door is opened. However, the occurrence of near zero differential pressure should not be interpreted as a failure to contain contaminants or prevent an undesirable air transfer, since the proper directional airflow (inward for a negative room and outward for a positive room) will still be maintained even with a (temporary) large increase in room leakage area.

Chapter 4—Room Static Pressure Control

Chapter 4 discusses static pressure control in rooms in the following facilities:

Laboratories

Healthcare Facilities

The most appropriate method of controlling a room's static pressure is dependent upon the room application. Since the purpose for maintaining a differential pressure relationship between rooms is to prevent cross contamination, the consequences of cross contamination must be known in order to determine the most appropriate method of control. If the main concern is to contain unpleasant odors, the consequences might be very small. On the other hand, very serious consequences result if occupant safety and health are involved. These are most typically associated with laboratories involved with highly infectious biological aerosols, highly toxic laboratory chemicals and others such as radioactivity.

This section covers room pressurization control applications for many applications and provides detailed recommendations for achieving the desired pressurization relationship between a particular space and adjacent areas.

Laboratories

Airflow Tracking Static Pressure Control

Airflow tracking is the preferred room static pressurization control approach for most laboratories. Airflow tracking can maintain desired room pressurization for both constant air volume (CAV) ventilation systems as well as variable air volume (VAV) ventilation systems.

Figure 4 shows the essential components of a typical chemical laboratory room ventilation system using a single duct supply terminal. This room ventilation system arrangement enables using airflow tracking for maintaining room pressurization. The Room Controller and the Fume Hood Controllers precisely control the room airflow as described below.

The Fume Hood Controllers modulate the exhaust airflow of the FUME HOODS to always maintain the proper amount of exhaust. For constant air volume (CAV) fume hoods, the fume hood exhaust is maintained at a constant value regardless of the amount that the fume hood sash is open. For variable air volume (VAV) fume hoods the fume hood exhaust is modulated so that the fume hood face velocity (incoming airflow) is maintained at the desired constant value.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

SUPPLY

TERMINAL ROOM FUME GENERAL HOOD EXHAUST CONTROLLERS CFM CFM CFM CFM ROOM CONTROLLER LAB0195R1
TERMINAL
ROOM
FUME
GENERAL
HOOD
EXHAUST
CONTROLLERS
CFM
CFM
CFM
CFM
ROOM
CONTROLLER
LAB0195R1

Figure 4. Airflow Tracking Control Arrangement for a Chemical Laboratory Room.

The specific amount of air exhausted by a VAV fume hood depends on the extent that its respective sash is open 5 . Aside from controlling the fume hood exhaust airflow, each Fume Hood Controller also provides an output signal to the Room Controller that indicates the exact amount of fume hood exhaust airflow. The Room Controller is apprised of the amount of exhaust air that is being exhausted by each fume hood in the room.

In addition to fume hoods, the Room General Exhaust that is directly controlled by the room controller may also draw air out of the laboratory room. A room general exhaust is often required for VAV laboratories with VAV fume hoods for one of the following reasons:

Allow more air to enter the room from the supply terminal.

Maintain sufficient room ventilation.

Maintain the desired room temperature when the fume hood sashes are closed.

The Room Controller maintains direct control over the Supply Terminal that provides the supply make-up air for the room. In a CAV laboratory, the supply airflow into the room is normally maintained at a constant value since the fume hood exhaust normally remains constant. However, in a VAV laboratory the total room exhaust is dependent upon the fume hood exhaust that varies in accordance with the fume hood sash position. Thus, the Room Controller in a VAV laboratory must modulate both the incoming supply airflow via the Supply Terminal and the Room General Exhaust to maintain a proper balance between the total room exhaust airflow and the incoming supply airflow.

5 A VAV fume hood controller uses an airflow sensor and a modulating damper in the fume hood exhaust to maintain the required exhaust airflow in accordance with the fume hood’s total open sash area. This ensures that fume hood face velocity remains constant for all sash positions. Each VAV fume hood controller continuously sends the fume hood exhaust airflow value to the room controller.

Laboratories

In a VAV laboratory the Room Controller must modulate the Room General Exhaust to ensure that there is sufficient total room exhaust to meet the required minimum room ventilation rate (ACH). The ROOM CONTROLLER must also modulate the Room General Exhaust to ensure that there is sufficient total room exhaust for the amount of supply airflow necessary to maintain the desired room temperature.

To maintain the required room static pressure, the room controller modulates the total room supply airflow to maintain the desired airflow tracking offset between the total room supply and total room exhaust airflows. Whenever the room's total exhaust airflow changes, the room controller adjusts the room supply airflow to maintain the airflow tracking offset.

With a VAV ventilation system there may be times when the room will require more supply airflow to cool the room in order to maintain the desired room temperature. In such instances, the room controller increases the amount of supply airflow to maintain the desired room temperature. In addition, the room controller also increases the room general exhaust so that a corresponding amount of room air is exhausted to maintain the airflow tracking offset.

Summarized, the many functions of the room controller include:

Maintaining the proper amount of room general exhaust to ensure that the required minimum room ventilation rate 6 is always maintained.

Maintaining the proper amount of room supply airflow needed to maintain a constant airflow tracking offset between the total room exhaust and room supply airflows.

Increasing the supply airflow when needed to maintain the proper room temperature. Simultaneously increasing the room general exhaust to maintain the required constant airflow tracking offset.

Airflow Tracking Control Considerations

As stated previously, the specific airflow tracking offset necessary to maintain a certain room static pressure value is dependent upon the room's total leakage area. However, it is not possible to know what a particular room’s total leakage area will be before construction is completed. When specifying the room control scenario, a ventilation system designer must ensure that the proper room airflow tracking offset will be maintained. To address this need, two options are suggested:

1. A specific room airflow tracking offset may be estimated by the designer based on past experience or as a practical maximum limit. This results in a final room differential pressure that may or may not be within the desired pressure range

2. A specific room static pressure value may be specified. This requires some trial and error effort during the test and balancing process to determine the necessary airflow tracking offset. This means that the room control system must be set up to maintain the required airflow tracking offset.

6 In negatively pressurized rooms the ACH rate is determined by the total room exhaust airflow. In positively pressurized rooms the ACH rate is determined by total room supply airflow.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Option 1, designing the ventilation system to maintain a specific room differential airflow, is generally recommended for applications where a lower room differential pressure (perhaps 0.01 to 0.02 inches w.c.) is sufficient. Recall that the primary purpose of room pressurization is to create the proper directional airflow to prevent or retard undesirable transfer of air. Therefore, it is the airflow direction rather than an arbitrary static pressure 7 that should be the design goal of a laboratory ventilation system. This approach enables the room airflow tracking control scenario to be set up without a lengthy trial and error process.

Option 2, choosing a specific room static pressure, is usually only necessary for applications where higher level room static pressures are required and where cross contamination must be strictly prevented. This presents a more difficult challenge for the testing and balancing process, and is not recommended for most laboratory applications. In actual practice it typically requires simultaneous adjusting the airflow in many rooms to achieve the correct airflow balance. This is particularly the case when several rooms adjoin a common corridor. Furthermore, it may not be possible to achieve a given static pressure relationship if a room’s leakage area is too large or the adjacent space does not have sufficient excess supply makeup air (such as a corridor).

For example, consider using Option 2 in a situation where 10 laboratory rooms adjoin a common corridor. Also assume that the balancing process finds that an average airflow tracking offset of 400 cfm is necessary to maintain a specific negative room pressurization value. The corridor will, therefore, need to have a supply makeup airflow of 10 rooms × 400 cfm (or 4000 cfm) to attain the required room static pressure. However, the total amount of room transfer air required (in this case 4,000 cfm) would not be known during the design process, and might exceed the actual amount of corridor supply air that is actually available.

In contrast, following Option 1 would enable an airflow tracking offset to be initially chosen and specified for each room. Then the total amount of excess corridor air would be known. Even when a laboratory room door is fully opened and the doorway area increases the total leakage area of a room, no change in the amount of room transfer airflow occurs. Although the room static pressure will diminish, the desired airflow direction (into the negatively pressurized room) will be maintained.

Finally, a specific airflow tracking value cannot ensure that a constant positive or negative static pressure value will be maintained over the life of a building. As seasons pass and building conditions change over time, the actual room static pressure level will also undoubtedly vary somewhat from what it was initially. This necessitates periodically checking (at least annually) and, perhaps, readjusting the differential tracking value as needed.

Although there will likely be some variation in the specific static pressure level when using airflow tracking, it should again be noted that the primary goal of maintaining a room at a negative (or positive) static pressure is to ensure that an undesirable transfer of air does not occur. Airflow tracking will meet this goal by maintaining the proper directional airflow.

7 Differential pressure should be used to ascertain if the airflow is in the right direction (into the room) and as a convenient reference for periodic testing to ensure that the amount of differential airflow is consistent over time.

Laboratories

Direct Pressure Control

The direct pressure control method uses a room pressure controller with a static pressure sensing arrangement. This enables the controller to modulate the room’s supply and total exhaust airflows as needed to maintain the room static pressure set point.

Figure 5 shows the essential components of a typical chemical laboratory room ventilation system using a single duct supply terminal. The room ventilation system may be either CAV or VAV with the room airflow being precisely controlled by the Fume Hood Controllers and the Room Controller.

The Fume Hood Controllers modulate the exhaust airflow of the Fume Hoods to always maintain the proper amount of exhaust. For constant air volume (CAV) fume hoods, the fume hood exhaust is maintained at a constant value regardless of the amount that the fume hood sash is open. For variable air volume (VAV) fume hoods, the fume hood exhaust is modulated so that the fume hood face velocity (incoming airflow) is maintained at the desired constant value.

The specific amount of air exhausted by a VAV fume hood depends on the extent that the sash is open 8 . Aside from controlling the fume hood exhaust airflow, each Fume Hood Controller also provides an output signal to the Room Controller that represents the amount of fume hood exhaust airflow. This output signal keeps the Room Controller apprised of the amount of exhaust air that is being exhausted by each fume hood in the room.

In addition to the air that is being exhausted from the fume hoods, air may also be exhausted from the laboratory room by the Room General Exhaust that is directly controlled by the Room Controller. A Room General Exhaust is often required for VAV laboratories with VAV fume hoods to allow more air to enter the room from the supply terminal to maintain sufficient room ventilation or maintain the desired room temperature when the fume hood sashes are closed.

The Room Controller also maintains direct control over the Supply Terminal that provides the supply make-up air for the room. In a CAV laboratory, the supply airflow into the room is normally maintained at a constant value since the fume hood exhaust normally remains constant. However, in a VAV laboratory, the room exhaust depends on the fume hood exhaust, which varies in accordance with the fume hood sash position. Thus, the Room Controller in a VAV laboratory must modulate both the incoming supply airflow via the Supply Terminal and the Room General Exhaust to maintain a proper balance between the total room exhaust airflow and the incoming supply airflow.

In a VAV laboratory, the Room Controller must modulate the Room General Exhaust to ensure that there is sufficient total room exhaust to meet the required minimum room ventilation rate (ACH) rate. The Room Controller must also modulate the Room General Exhaust to ensure that there is sufficient total room exhaust for the amount of supply airflow necessary to maintain the room’s ambient temperature.

8 A VAV fume hood controller uses an airflow sensor and a modulating damper in the fume hood exhaust to maintain the required exhaust airflow in accordance with the fume hood’s total open sash area. This ensures that fume hood face velocity remains constant for all sash positions. Each VAV fume hood controller continuously sends the fume hood exhaust airflow value to the room controller.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

SUPPLY

TERMINAL ROOM FUME GENERAL HOOD EXHAUST CONTROLLERS CFM CFM CFM CFM STATIC PRESSURE ROOM CONTROLLER
TERMINAL
ROOM
FUME
GENERAL
HOOD
EXHAUST
CONTROLLERS
CFM
CFM
CFM
CFM
STATIC PRESSURE
ROOM
CONTROLLER
ROOM STATIC
PRESSURE SENSOR
LAB0196R1

Figure 5. Direct Pressure Control Arrangement for a Chemical Laboratory Room.

The Room Controller also monitors the room static pressure via the Room Static Pressure Sensor and controls the total room supply airflow to maintain the required room static pressure set point.

If the room static pressure is less than the set point, the controller reduces the supply airflow to increase the difference between the room supply and total room exhaust airflow’s and, thus, increase the room’s negative static pressure.

If the room static pressure is greater than the set point, the controller increases the supply airflow to decrease the difference between the room supply and total room exhaust airflow’s and, thus, decrease the room’s negative static pressure 9 .

With a VAV ventilation system there may be times, particularly during the cooling season, when the room will require more supply airflow to maintain the desired room temperature than the amount needed to maintain the required room static pressure. In such instances, the Room Controller will increase the amount of supply airflow to maintain the desired room temperature while simultaneously increasing the room general exhaust as necessary so that the room static pressure remains constant.

In a VAV laboratory room served by a single supply duct that also has a Room General Exhaust, the many functions of the Room Controller include:

Maintaining the proper amount of room general exhaust to ensure that the required minimum room ventilation rate 10 is always maintained.

9 In negatively pressurized rooms the supply airflow needs to be less then the total room exhaust airflow. In positively pressurized rooms the supply airflow needs to be greater than the total room exhaust airflow.

10 In negatively pressurized rooms the ACH rate is determined by the total room exhaust airflow. In positively pressurized rooms the ACH rate is determined by total room supply airflow.

Laboratories

Maintaining the proper amount of room supply airflow to maintain the required room static pressure.

Increasing the supply airflow when needed to cool or heat the room while simultaneously increasing the room general exhaust to maintain a constant room static pressure.

Direct Pressure Control Limitations

Although direct static pressure control enables precise closed loop control of the room static pressure, its application has certain limitations since it can be adversely affected by numerous activities routinely taking place.

Door Effects

When a room door is opened, the area of the doorway increases the leakage area of the room. Thus, opening a single width door can add about 20 square feet of leakage area to a room. Figure 3 shows that if a 20 square foot leakage area curve were drawn, it would lie almost horizontally along the bottom of the graph, even if the differential airflow were increased beyond the values on the graph. Under an open door condition, the room controller would attempt to correct for the low room static pressure level by reducing the supply airflow. However, no reduction in supply airflow would restore the room static pressure to its set point while a door is open. Meanwhile, the reduction in supply airflow would eventually have an adverse effect on the room temperature and humidity.

To minimize the effect of an open door, the room controller should incorporate a means to limit the supply air reduction. One means is to impose a low limit on the supply airflow as part of the room pressure control scenario. Another means is to incorporate a door switch circuit that signals the room controller to not make any further reduction in the supply airflow whenever any door is not fully closed. Either of these methods can prevent the undesirable reduction in supply airflow, although the latter requires installation of a switch on each door and the associated circuit wiring.

VAV Fume Hood Effects

NOTE:

Direct pressure sensing control is not recommended if the room exhaust airflow can undergo rapid changes, as is the case of laboratory rooms with VAV fume hoods that are served by VAV ventilation systems.

To maintain a constant face velocity for all sash openings, the VAV fume hood exhaust is controlled. Thus, when a user opens or closes a fume hood sash, the associated fume hood controller will proportionately increase or decrease the fume hood exhaust airflow to maintain the required constant face velocity. This VAV fume hood control action can have a significant impact on the total room exhaust.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

To obtain a reliable room static pressure value from the room static pressure sensor, the room controller must sample the sensor output for several seconds to factor out the pressure variations caused by personnel movement, room air currents, and even outside air wind gusts (referred to as signal noise). This delays the room controller’s response to room static pressure variations. The slower control response translates into more elapsed time before the room supply airflow is properly adjusted to maintain the required room static pressure. This can result in an unacceptable delay before adequate supply makeup airflow is attained after a fume hood sash is repositioned 11 .

Cascaded Pressure Control

Although airflow tracking is the preferred method for preventing cross contamination for most laboratory applications, there may be valid reasons to ensure that a specific room static pressure level is always maintained. Changes in weather, inside and outside temperature variations, and changes occurring in building equipment and structures, can affect the room static pressure level that is maintained by airflow tracking static pressure control. To retain the superior speed and stability of airflow tracking and ensure that the required static pressure is always maintained, cascaded pressure control can be applied.

Cascaded pressure control combines the functionality of both direct pressure control and airflow tracking. This control approach is mainly an airflow tracking control approach with the addition of a room static pressure sensor and the control components are essentially the same as those of Figure 5.

The overall control scenario uses airflow tracking as the ongoing means to maintaining room static pressure. However, the control scenario also uses the wall mounted pressure sensor to enable the room controller to periodically read the actual room static pressure. If need be, the room controller will adjust the airflow tracking differential to maintain the room static pressure at the desired level. As a result of this arrangement, the airflow tracking value does not remain fixed as it would for regular airflow tracking, but is periodically reset (if needed) at regular intervals based on actual room static pressure. Therefore, this cascaded control arrangement compensates for static pressure variations that might otherwise occur with only airflow tracking.

An additional benefit of a cascaded control arrangement is that the room static pressure sensor enables providing a local indication and also remote monitoring of the specific room static pressure.

Although cascaded pressure control might seem to be the best means of static pressure control, it also has some drawbacks:

costs more than airflow tracking since it requires a room static pressure sensor and

It

a

more complex control algorithm.

must also address many of the problems associated with direct pressure control, such as a door that is left open for an extended time.

It

11 If a VAV fume hood sash is fully opened after being closed, it could require perhaps 10 or more seconds before a new stable room static pressure value can be used for controller response. This would delay increasing the supply makeup air required to offset the increased fume hood exhaust airflow and could therefore adversely affect fume hood containment.

Laboratories

It presents a greater design challenge and involves a more difficult startup and balancing process. In particular, the areas adjacent to the room (for example, corridors) must have the proper level of excess supply air since the laboratory room(s) airflow tracking offset will not remain at a constant value.

Dual Pressurization Laboratories

In some instances, it is necessary to ensure that a laboratory room does not become contaminated by airborne impurities from adjacent areas. Examples include laboratories with microelectronics that must maintain a clean environment, or biological or pharmaceutical laboratories that might be adversely affected by the inward airflow resulting from negative room pressurization. When the substances present in a laboratory room do not present a hazard to adjacent areas, positive room pressurization can be used to maintain an uncontaminated room environment by the control methods described previously. However, airflow tracking is generally the preferred method.

However, a more complex situation arises when laboratory rooms also use chemicals or contain substances that are hazardous. In such circumstances, the adjacent areas (corridors and non-laboratory areas of the building) must be protected by a design that ensures against improper directional airflow for the laboratory room itself as well as the adjacent non- laboratory areas.

Figure 6 shows how this can be achieved by using a dual pressurization arrangement for a laboratory room. The same physical arrangement can be applied to virtually any type of laboratory room regardless of its purpose or what it contains.

The major difference between Figure 6, and Figure 4 and Figure 5, is the addition of a vestibule entryway for the laboratory. The laboratory room controller maintains the laboratory at a positive static pressure by controlling the laboratory room supply airflow to always exceed the laboratory’s total room exhaust by a fixed offset value. As a result, the laboratory room is at a positive static pressure that prevents contaminants from entering the room. However, the vestibule exhaust, in conjunction with the laboratory room's total exhaust, exceeds the laboratory's supply airflow. As a result, the combined unit that consists of the laboratory room and vestibule will be at a negative static pressure with respect to the adjacent area.

The graph in Figure 6 illustrates that the combined exhaust airflow that consists of the vestibule exhaust, plus the total room exhaust, exceeds the room supply airflow. The resulting transfer airflows will be in the proper direction to prevent contamination of the laboratory and also prevent any chemical fumes or other airborne agents from migrating out from the laboratory into the adjacent area.

For example, the laboratory might have 300 cfm more supply airflow than its total exhaust. The vestibule exhaust might be 500 cfm. This results in a net excess exhaust of 200 cfm for the combination of laboratory and vestibule, and is therefore negative with respect to the adjacent area. This arrangement keeps air from the adjacent areas from entering the laboratory room and also prevents laboratory air from migrating into the adjacent area.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

With respect to the ventilation system design, the vestibule exhaust would normally be a constant air volume (CAV) exhaust while the laboratory room could employ either a CAV or VAV ventilation arrangement. The important element is that the laboratory room controller must ensure that the total exhaust of the room combination is always greater than the room supply air. Each entryway into the laboratory room requires a vestibule unless the entryway connects to an adjoining laboratory room that is also protected against contamination by positive pressurization. If an adjoining area is not at the same static pressure as the laboratory room, a vestibule entry arrangement should then be used for that respective entry.

When implementing a dual pressurization arrangement, it is advisable to ensure that the laboratory, vestibule walls, and ceilings be completely sealed to minimize the opportunity for transfer air to pass directly into the adjacent area from the laboratory. Depending on individual situations, an airlock type of entry for the vestibules may also be desirable. An airlock door arrangement uses electric door releases to ensure that only one door of the vestibule is opened at a time.

AIRFLOW TRACKING VESTIBULE OFFSET EXHAUST ROOM TOTAL SUPPLY ROOM AIRFLOW EXHAUST SUPPLY ROOM FUME EXHAUST
AIRFLOW
TRACKING
VESTIBULE
OFFSET
EXHAUST
ROOM
TOTAL
SUPPLY
ROOM
AIRFLOW
EXHAUST
SUPPLY
ROOM
FUME
EXHAUST
TERMINAL
GENERAL
HOOD
EXHAUST
CONTROLLER
CFM
CFM
CFM
DOORS
CFM
TRANSFER
ROOM
AIRFLOW
-
+
CONTROLLER
VESTIBULE
LABORATORY
LAB0197R1

Figure 6. Preventing Room Contamination by Room Positive Pressure & Vestibule Negative Pressure.

Healthcare Facilities

Healthcare Facilities

Infectious Isolation Rooms

Infectious isolation rooms in healthcare facilities are intended to ensure that the direction of airflow is always into the room, thus preventing the spread of disease to persons outside of the room, particularly the healthcare workers. The need for providing negatively pressurized infectious isolation rooms has become more focused because of the resurgence of the contagious disease Tuberculosis (TB). Since Tuberculosis is highly contagious, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published guidelines for preventing its transmission 12 . These guidelines call for a minimum room negative static pressure of 0.001 inches w.c. (0.25 Pa) for infectious isolation rooms along with a minimum room ventilation rate of 6, and preferably 12, air changes per hour (ACH).

In actual practice, a 0.001 inches w.c. room static pressure is quite low and impractical to use as design criteria. A more practical isolation room static pressure level is at least 0.005 inches w.c. (or higher) since this level is more readily maintained and is a necessary minimum level to enable measurement of the room static pressure as well as continuous monitoring. 13

Protective Isolation Rooms

Protective isolation rooms require positive pressurization to ensure that room airflow remains outward from the room, therefore preventing infectious pathogens from entering the room. Protective isolation rooms are intended to prevent a patient from being exposed to airborne pathogens outside of their room. This type of isolation room is needed for patients and associated medical procedures that are susceptible to infection including organ transplants; burn; bone marrow and leukemia patients; and for treating AIDS patients who have highly compromised immune systems.

Static Pressure Control by Airflow Tracking

Airflow tracking is the preferred room static pressurization control approach for all types of healthcare facility room pressurization applications. This includes operating rooms, nurseries, and medical laboratories as well as both infectious and protective patient isolation rooms. Airflow tracking maintains proper room pressurization (negative or positive) for both constant air volume (CAV) room ventilation systems and variable air volume (VAV) room ventilation systems.

12 1994 Guidelines for preventing the transmission of Mycobacterium and Tuberculosis in Healthcare facilities.

13 The CDC guidelines also recommend that isolation room static pressure be monitored daily. This can be done using a visible smoke or by a permanently mounted static pressure sensing device that provides continuous indication of room static pressure.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Infectious Isolation Room Layout

Figure 7 shows the optimum room airflow and control arrangement for an infectious isolation room. The room layout consists of the patient room and an anteroom. The anteroom provides added assurance against airflow coming out from the patient room. The airflow control arrangement maintains the patient room as the more negative of the two rooms so that airflow is always into the anteroom and then into the patient room. The supply air diffuser and the exhaust air grill in the patient room are located so that the airflow pattern is towards the patient and then out of the room. This provides maximum protection for the building occupants and in particular for workers who must enter the patient room.

CFM CFM ROOM CONTROLLER CFM SUPPLY EXHAUST CAV EXHAUST CONTROLLER ANTEROOM PATIENT ROOM ROOM PRESSURE
CFM
CFM
ROOM
CONTROLLER
CFM
SUPPLY
EXHAUST
CAV EXHAUST
CONTROLLER
ANTEROOM
PATIENT ROOM
ROOM
PRESSURE
MONITORS
DOOR
TRANSFER
DOOR
AIRFLOW
LAB0198R1

Figure 7. Infectious Isolation Room.

Ventilation and Control System Application

The ventilation system in Figure 7 provides an exhaust for both the anteroom and the patient room, while the patient room alone has an air supply provision.

When operating, the anteroom exhaust might typically be approximately 50 cfm (24 L/sec), while the patient room exhaust might be approximately 200 cfm (96 L/sec) greater than the room supply airflow.

The patient room controller maintains the proper room supply and exhaust airflows, which ensures that the proper airflow tracking offset is maintained. The patient room controller also maintains the proper room ambient temperature. The anteroom exhaust is also maintained at the proper airflow either by a separate CAV exhaust controller or the anteroom exhaust may be maintained by another control function of the patient room controller.

Healthcare Facilities

LAB0199R1

Room Pressure Monitors

Room pressure monitors are provided for both the patient room and the anteroom. This ensures that proper room pressurization for both rooms can be constantly monitored and verified. It is also important that both the anteroom and the patient room controllers be located outside of the rooms so that access to these devices does not require service personnel to enter either the anteroom or patient room.

Protective Isolation Room Layout

Figure 8 shows an optimum room airflow and control arrangement for a protective isolation room. The room layout consists of the patient room and an anteroom to provide added assurance against airflow entering the patient room from adjoining areas. The airflow control arrangement maintains the patient room positive with respect to the anteroom and the adjacent corridor.

CFM CFM ROOM
CFM
CFM
ROOM

CONTROLLER

SUPPLY ANTEROOM PATIENT ROOM ROOM PRESSURE MONITOR + TRANSFER DOOR AIRFLOW
SUPPLY
ANTEROOM
PATIENT ROOM
ROOM
PRESSURE
MONITOR
+
TRANSFER
DOOR
AIRFLOW

DOOR

ROOM PRESSURE MONITOR + TRANSFER DOOR AIRFLOW DOOR Figure 8. Protective Isolation Room. Ventilation and Control

Figure 8. Protective Isolation Room.

Ventilation and Control System Application

Room supply air is HEPA filtered and the room ventilation airflow is arranged to first pass over the patient and then proceed toward the room exhaust grill. As an option, the anteroom may be equipped with an exhaust provision so that the anteroom is negative with respect to the corridor, while the patient room remains positive with respect to the anteroom and corridor. Such an arrangement provides maximum protection for the patient even when others are present in the room. Since the patient is directly exposed to the incoming supply airflow, the supply air diffuser and airflow velocity must be carefully chosen to not create an uncomfortable draft for the patient.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Isolation Room Changeover

The American Institute of Architects (AIA) guidelines 14 do not permit the same room to be alternately used for both Infectious and Protective Isolation. Note that Figure 7 and Figure 8 show a location of the supply diffuser and exhaust grills that is different for infectious and protective isolation rooms.

Clean Rooms

The demand for high quality pharmaceutical products and the continual miniaturization of electronic components has created an increasing need for contamination control in their associated processing and manufacturing areas. Maintaining the required degree of purity in these areas is highly dependent upon room pressurization to prevent contamination.

Particulate Contamination

Particulate that can contaminate products comes from a variety of sources, including:

Occupants within the clean room

Atmospheric dust

Condensation of vapors

Bacteria

Chemical fumes

Keeping these contaminants within acceptable levels requires a coordinated approach, which includes:

Proper Room Design—High purity clean rooms cannot normally be obtained by conversion or by upgrading existing non-clean areas. Clean rooms typically need to be initially designed with sufficient height and ancillary space (space above and below the clean room) to house the large amount of specialized air handling and filtering equipment necessary.

Architectural & Physical Barriers—Clean rooms must be constructed of materials that will not release airborne particulate. Physical barriers (walls, ceilings, material joints, etc.) must also be meticulously sealed. Adjacent spaces and other support areas are often required to be constructed similar to the clean room itself in order to act as buffer zones between the clean and unclean spaces.

14 American Institute of Architects 1996 -1997 Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospital and Health Care Facilities.

Clean Rooms

Construction Procedures—Clean rooms must be constructed using specialized techniques and practices to prevent contamination of the room materials, ventilation ductwork, and room equipment. Room components, such as ductwork, must be pre- cleaned and sealed before installation so that no residual particulate is present. Construction personnel must be properly trained and must follow rigid guidelines for handling construction materials and equipment, and in carrying out construction procedures. Typically, they must wear outer garments that protect against bringing contaminants into the clean room during the construction process. Tools and construction equipment must meet a specific level of cleanliness before they may be brought into the clean area.

Room Utilization Procedures—Clean room access must be restricted to authorized personnel only. Such persons must be properly trained in acceptable procedures and work practices. Specialty outer garments are usually required. Occupants must not consume food in the clean room. Special room cleaning, maintenance, and decontamination processes must be used. Room entry decontamination procedures must be followed.

Ventilation & Directional Airflow—Clean rooms typically require very high rates of HEPA or ULPA 15 filtered ventilation airflow to maintain the required low level of airborne particulate in the room atmosphere. Airflow is typically from ceiling to floor in a laminar airflow arrangement that most often uses the entire ceiling as a supply plenum and filter bank.

Room Pressurization—Proper differential pressurization has been found to be very effective and an absolutely necessity for preventing contamination in clean rooms. All clean rooms and surrounding areas must be maintained at specific levels of pressurization to ensure against improper directional airflow. Two, three or more levels of positive pressurization may be used in clean room applications with the most critical area at the highest positive pressure level and the adjacent areas or support at lower positive pressure levels. Adequate levels of differential pressurization and proper directional airflow are especially critical at the room entry and exit points.

Clean Room Standards

Clean room purity is classified in accordance with the maximum allowable concentration of airborne particulate per cubic foot or cubic meter. Two standards set clean room classifications: FS 209E and ISO/FDIS 14644-1. FS 209E is a United States Federal Standard that was initially issued in the 1960's and was last revised in 1992. Up until 1999 it was the only recognized clean room standard. It is still widely used today, especially where U.S. Governmental regulations and interests are involved. However, in 1999 the international standard, ISO/FDIS 14644-1 was adopted and is likely to eventually replace the FS 209E standard.

15 HEPA - High Efficiency Particulate Air filters remove at least 99.97% of particulate 0.3 microns (0.3µm) or larger in size. ULPA - Ultra Low Penetration Air filters remove 99.999% of particulate 0.12 microns (0.12µm) or larger on size. A micron (µm) is one millionth of a meter or approximately 0.00003937 inches.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Table 2 provides the allowable limits for 0.1, 0.5 and 5.0 micron size airborne particles per cubic foot and cubic meter for different clean room classifications for the current versions of the FS 209E and ISO/FDIS 14644-1 standards. These standards also establish allowable limits for other size particles aside from those listed in the table, however the particle sizes listed in Table 2 provide a comparison between the two standards.

Table 2. Clean Room Standards—Particle Concentration Limits FS 209E vs. ISO 14644-1.

Clean Room

0.1 µm Particles Per Cubic Unit

0.5 µm Particles Per Cubic Unit

5.0 µm Particles Per Cubic Unit

Classification

FS

ISO

FS

ISO

FS

ISO

FS

ISO

Cubic

Cubic

Cubic

Cubic

Cubic

Cubic

Cubic

Cubic

Cubic

Ft.

Meter

Meter

Ft.

Meter

Meter

Ft.

Meter

Meter

   

1

   

10

           
   

2

   

100

   

4

     

1

M1.

3

35

1,230

1,000

1

35

32

     

5

10

M2.

4

345

12,200

10,000

10

353

352

     

5

100

M3.

5

3,450

122,000

100,000

100

3,530

3,520

   

29

5

1,000

M4.

6

34,500

1,220,0

1,000,0

1,000

35,300

35,200

7

247

293

5

00

00

10,000

M5.

7

345,000

1.22

×

 

10,000

353,000

352,000

65

2,300

2,930

5

10

7

100,00

M6.

8

3,450,0

1.22

×

 

100,00

3,530,0

3,520,00

700

24,700

29,300

0

5

00

8

10

0

00

0

   

9

3.45 ×

10

7

1.22

9

10

×

     

35,200,0

00

   

293,00

0

Clean Rooms

Clean Room Pressurization Applications

Figure 9 shows a simplified clean room arrangement for a pharmaceutical processing

application. The cleanest area is the aseptic

finished product is packaged (oral tablets, medications, etc.).

16

filling area, which is most likely where the

FINISHED

PRODUCT OUTLET ++ ++ PREPARATION AREA ASEPTIC FILLING AREA AIRFLOW DIRECTION +++ ARROWS + +
PRODUCT
OUTLET
++
++
PREPARATION
AREA
ASEPTIC FILLING
AREA
AIRFLOW
DIRECTION
+++
ARROWS
+
+
PERSONNEL CORRIDOR
EXIT &
ENTRY &
DE-GOWNING
GOWNING
AIRLOCK
AIRLOCK
LAB0200R1

Figure 9. Potential Clean Room Arrangement for Pharmaceutical Processing.

Workers enter and exit through the respective airlock in which they either put on the required outer garments for entry or remove them upon exiting. The airlocks are each equipped with two sets of doors (sliding or hinged) with an electrical interlocking arrangement that allows a

door to be open only when the other door is fully closed

open at a time, the amount of air that can flow out of the clean spaces through an airlock is

limited. Using airlocks for the entry and exit provisions ensures that the required level of positive pressurization in the clean spaces is always maintained.

17

. By allowing only one door to be

16 Aseptic refers to a space or area in which the bacterial count is contained within required limits. Although it is not a 100% sterile space it enables pharmaceutical products to be processed with a high degree of purity. Aseptic areas are generally Class 100 per FE 209E.

17 In some airlock arrangements a time delay of as much as several minutes is also incorporated to allow time to ventilate the airlock before the other door can be opened.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

The clean spaces are positively pressurized according to their required level of purity or cleanliness. The most critical operations are performed in the area that has the highest level of cleanliness (aseptic area), which also has the highest level of pressurization. In Figure 9, each plus sign indicates the area's relative level of positive pressurization. The more plus signs, the higher the positive pressurization. Clean room designs typically use a differential pressure of about 0.05 inches w.c. (12.4 Pascals) between each different clean room area classification. Thus, in Figure 9,the aseptic area (+++) would typically be designed to be 0.15 inches w.c. positive with respect to a neutral area such as the Personnel Corridor. The adjoining Preparation Area would then be maintained at about 0.10 inches w.c., and the entry and exit airlocks would be maintained at about 0.05 inches w.c. This ensures that airflow (shown by dotted lines and arrows) will always flow from the most critical and cleanest space (highest positive pressure) to a lesser clean space.

Airlocks

Four different types of airlocks are often applied to enable entry and exit to clean spaces depending upon the nature of the clean room's purpose:

Cascading Pressure AirlockFigure 10 shows an airlock that is kept at a lower positive pressure than the adjacent clean space, but at a higher positive pressure than the corridor. As a result, air from the highly positive pressurized clean space cascades through the airlock to the area of least cleanliness, which is the Non Classified Corridor. The same quantity of air is supplied to and exhausted from the airlock. The FDA prefers this type of airlock when absolute containment of the clean space is not required.

Pressure Bubble AirlockFigure 11 shows an airlock that is kept at a higher positive pressure than the adjacent spaces. This type of airlock is applied when it is necessary to separate a bio-contained clean area from other areas. Clean conditioned supply air is used to create a high positive pressure in the airlock, which does not have any exhaust provision. The supply airflows to the adjacent areas through the airlock leakage area that consists primarily of door clearances. This directional airflow prevents cross contamination between adjacent areas. The pressure bubble airlock is often used because its positive pressure relationship to the adjacent areas keeps contaminants from entering the airlock.

Pressure Sink AirlockFigure 12 shows an airlock that is kept very negatively pressurized with respect to all adjacent areas. All of the air that is supplied to the airlock, plus all air that flows into the airlock from the adjacent areas, is mechanically exhausted from the airlock. This ensures against cross-contamination between adjacent areas. Although the pressure sink airlock prevents cross contamination between adjacent areas, its disadvantage is that unlike the pressure bubble airlock, it is subject to contamination from the adjacent areas.

Clean Rooms

LAB0201R1

Potent Compound 18 AirlockFigure 13 shows a pressure bubble airlock combined with a pressure sink airlock. This two-compartment airlock arrangement allows personnel to protect themselves by putting on Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), such as outer garments and sometimes respirators, in the pressure bubble area (++) before entering the pressure sink area (– –) and clean space area in which the potent compound substances are present. The negative pressure of the pressure sink area prevents contamination of the clean space by the adjacent areas such as the corridor. All clean conditioned supply air to the pressure bubble area (++) flows into the adjacent pressure sink and corridor. All of the clean conditioned air supplied to the pressure sink area along with all air that flows into that area is exhausted.

CLEAN SPACE CEILING SUPPLY* SLIDING OR HINGED DOORS FLOOR EXHAUST RISER* AIRLOCK NON CLASSIFIED CORRIDOR
CLEAN SPACE
CEILING SUPPLY*
SLIDING OR
HINGED DOORS
FLOOR
EXHAUST
RISER*
AIRLOCK
NON CLASSIFIED CORRIDOR
FLOOR EXHAUST RISER* AIRLOCK NON CLASSIFIED CORRIDOR *CEILING SUPPLY CFM = FLOOR EXHAUST CFM Figure 10.

*CEILING SUPPLY CFM = FLOOR EXHAUST CFM

Figure 10. Cascading Pressure Airlock.

18 A potent compound is any substance that can present a danger to anyone coming into physical contact with the substance or airborne fumes or particulate from the substance.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

LAB0202R1

CLEAN SPACE

FILTERED CEILING SUPPLY* SLIDING OR HINGED DOORS AIRLOCK NON CLASSIFIED CORRIDOR
FILTERED
CEILING
SUPPLY*
SLIDING OR
HINGED DOORS
AIRLOCK
NON CLASSIFIED CORRIDOR
SLIDING OR HINGED DOORS AIRLOCK NON CLASSIFIED CORRIDOR *CEILING SUPPLY CFM = AIRLOCK DOOR LEAKAGE CFM

*CEILING SUPPLY CFM = AIRLOCK DOOR LEAKAGE CFM

Figure 11. Pressure Bubble Airlock.

Clean Rooms

LAB0203R1

CLEAN SPACE CEILING SUPPLY* FLOOR SLIDING OR HINGED DOORS EXHAUST RISER* AIRLOCK NON CLASSIFIED CORRIDOR
CLEAN SPACE
CEILING SUPPLY*
FLOOR
SLIDING OR
HINGED DOORS
EXHAUST
RISER*
AIRLOCK
NON CLASSIFIED CORRIDOR
DOORS EXHAUST RISER* AIRLOCK NON CLASSIFIED CORRIDOR *FLOOR EXHAUST CFM = CEILING SUPPLY + DOOR LEAKAGE

*FLOOR EXHAUST CFM = CEILING SUPPLY + DOOR LEAKAGE CFM

Figure 12. Pressure Sink Airlock.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

LAB0204R1

FLOOR CLEAN SPACE EXHAUST RISER* CEILING SUPPLY* CEILING SUPPLY* SLIDING OR HINGED DOORS
FLOOR
CLEAN SPACE
EXHAUST
RISER*
CEILING SUPPLY*
CEILING SUPPLY*
SLIDING OR
HINGED
DOORS

NON CLASSIFIED CORRIDOR

SUPPLY* SLIDING OR HINGED DOORS NON CLASSIFIED CORRIDOR Airlock Construction Figure 13. Potent Compound Airlock .
SUPPLY* SLIDING OR HINGED DOORS NON CLASSIFIED CORRIDOR Airlock Construction Figure 13. Potent Compound Airlock .

Airlock Construction

Figure 13. Potent Compound Airlock.

Proper airlock construction is critical to ensuring that the required pressurization levels can be attained. All surfaces should be well sealed and covered with a highly impervious finish such as epoxy paint.

Airlock doors can be either hinged or sliding. Hinged doors can typically be made to fit tighter (have less peripheral leakage area) especially if the frame is equipped with a seal or gasket and floor sweeps are used. When hinged doors are used, they should open into the dirtier area. Table 3 provides information on door leakage areas in inch-pound units.

Clean Rooms

Table 3. Airlock Door Clearance Areas.

Door Size

Total Closed Door Clearance Area

Hinged Door

Sliding Door

(See Note 1)

(See Note 2)

36

in. × 78 in.

0.229

sq. ft.

0.792

sq. ft.

36

in. × 84 in.

0.240

sq. ft.

0.833

sq. ft.

42

in. × 78 in.

0.245

sq. ft.

0.833

sq. ft.

42

in. × 84 in.

0.255

sq. ft.

0.875

sq. ft.

48

in. × 78 in.

 

0.875

sq. ft.

48

in. × 84 in.

 

0.917

sq. ft.

60

in. × 78 in.

 

0.958

sq. ft.

72

in. × 78 in.

 

1.042

sq. ft.

Note 1: Hinged door clearance area is based on 1/4 in. along the bottom and 1/8 in. along the sides and top.

Note 2: Sliding door clearance area is based on 1/2 in. around the entire door perimeter.

Figure 14 provides a graph of the airflow that results when a specific differential pressure is applied across various leakage areas (curves). The information in Table 3 and the graph in Figure 14 will help you approximate the differential airflow that results when a differential pressure is present.

As an example, consider a 42 in. × 84 in. closed airlock hinged door. The leakage area shown in Table 3 is 0.255 sq. ft. Figure 15 indicates that with a differential pressure of 0.0500 inches w.c. across the closed door, the resulting airflow would be approximately 150 cfm. Similarly, a 72 in. × 78 in. closed sliding door (leakage area of 1.042 sq. ft.) with a differential pressure of 0.02 inches w.c. across would result in an airflow rate of approximately 520 cfm.

The Differential Pressure and Differential Airflow data of Figure 14 is expressed by the following pressurization versus leakage area equations based on inch-pound (IP) or metric (SI) units:

(IP)

Q = 2610 A (dP) 1/2

where:

Q is the differential airflow in Cubic Feet per Minute (cfm)

A is the total room leakage area Square Feet

dP is the differential pressure Inches of Water (inches w.c.)

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

LAB0205R1

(SI)

Q = 840 A (dP) 1/2

where:

DIFFERENTIAL

PRESSURE

INCHES

of

WATER

Q is the differential airflow in Liters per Second,

A is the total room leakage area in Square Meters

dP is the differential pressure in Pascals 0.0600 0.0575 0.0550 1.1 Ft 2 0.0525 1.2
dP is the differential pressure in Pascals
0.0600
0.0575
0.0550
1.1 Ft
2
0.0525
1.2 Ft 2
0.0500
1.3
Ft 2
0.0475
0.1
Ft 2
1.4
Ft 2
0.0450
0.2
Ft 2
1.5
0.0425
0.3
Ft 2
Ft 2
1.6 Ft 2
0.0400
0.4
Ft 2
1.7
Ft 2
0.0375
0.5
Ft 2
1.8 Ft 2
0.0350
0.6
Ft 2
0.0325
0.7
Ft 2
1.9 Ft 2
2.0 Ft 2
0.0300
0.8
Ft 2
00275
0.9
Ft 2
0.0250
1.0 Ft 2
0.0225
0.0200
0.0175
0.0150
0.0125
LEAKAGE AREA
CURVES
0.0100
0.0075
0.0050
0.0025
0.0000
0 50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950 1000

DIFFERENTIAL AIRFLOW - CFM

Figure 14. Airflows for Door Leakage Area vs. Differential Pressure.

Clean Room Static Pressure Control

Controlling the static pressure in clean rooms typically involves controlling individual static pressure relationships in a multiple room arrangement. Figure 15 depicts such an arrangement that consists of three separate clean rooms with an airlock entry. Each room has a different positive static pressure level requirement, with the cleanest space at 0.20 inches w.c. The subsequent rooms are at 0.150 inches w.c. and 0.100 inches w.c. Finally, the airlock is at 0.050 inches w.c. The corridor for entry into this clean room arrangement is intended to be at a neutral (neither negative or positive) pressure. A series of Airflow Leakage Arrows indicates the relative direction of airflow, which is always from the cleanest area through each room space and then finally out to the Personnel Corridor.

Clean Rooms

AIRFLOW MEASUREMENT & CONTROL INPUTS / OUTPUTS ROOM MAKEUP ROOM MAKEUP EXHAUST AIRFLOW EXHAUST AIRFLOW
AIRFLOW MEASUREMENT
& CONTROL
INPUTS / OUTPUTS
ROOM
MAKEUP
ROOM
MAKEUP
EXHAUST
AIRFLOW
EXHAUST
AIRFLOW
DOOR
SWITCH
'CLEANEST'
SPACE
+0.200 in. w.c.
INPUTS
ROOM
CONTROLLER
STATIC
PRESSURE
DOOR SWITCH
INPUTS
DS
AIRFLOW
+0.100 in. w.c.
LEAKAGE
ARROWS
ROOM
EXHAUST
DS
DS
+0.150 in. w.c.
AIRLOCK
MAKEUP
+0.050
EXHAUST
AIRFLOW
in. w.c.
SUPPLY
DS
PERSONNEL CORRIDOR (NEUTRAL)
ROOM STATIC
PRESSURE SENSOR
LAB0206R1

Figure 15. Multi-room Pressurization Control Arrangement.

Control System Components

When viewing Figure 15, note the following components, which are necessary for overall room static pressurization control:

A Room Controller provides overall control for all of the rooms' static pressure and, although the control components are not shown, the room controller can also control each room environment (ambient temperature, relative humidity, and sometimes other factors such as particle counting).

The static pressure level of each room space with respect to the Personnel Corridor is sensed by a Room Static Pressure Sensor, which provides a static pressure input to the room controller

Entry and exit to each room is via a sliding door with an automatic closing arrangement. Each door is equipped with a Door Switch (DS), which provides an input to the room controller when the respective door is closed.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

The Makeup Airflow and Exhaust Airflow for each room is individually measured and controlled by the room controller.

Room Pressurization Control

The Room Controller continuously monitors each room's static pressure level between the respective room and the Personnel Corridor by means of the Room Static Pressure Sensor. The room controller modulates the room supply Makeup Airflow to ensure that the laboratory room is always maintained at its static pressure set point by a Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) closed loop control algorithm.

The room pressurization control scenario also includes selectable MAXIMUM and MINIMUM room airflow limits. These airflow limits prevent the room pressurization control strategy from attempting to increase the room supply makeup airflow above a specific limit or decrease the room exhaust below a specific limit under transient conditions, such as when a connecting door is open as indicated by the respective door switch. These limits prevent the control scenario from attempting to maintain the room static pressure set point by creating an excessive airflow imbalance.

The room static pressurization control strategy also includes selectable high and low room static pressure alarm limits and an adjustable Room Static Pressure alarm delay period. Whenever the room static pressure exceeds a high or low static pressure alarm limit in excess of the alarm delay period, annunciation of the alarm condition can occur at designated locations.

In operation, the control sequence first attends to the most critical area and then each succeeding area of lower pressurization. In other words, the higher the required pressurization, the higher its control priority will be.

Chapter 5—Air Pressurization Fundamentals

Chapter 5 presents the fundamentals of air pressurization, introduces ventilation system pressure components, and summarizes important factors in relation to these components. This chapter also discusses the following topics:

Forces Exerted by Air

Total Pressure

Static Pressure

Velocity Pressure

Air Velocity

Units of Measure

Forces Exerted by Air

Air can exert a force in two ways. Wind, which is air in motion, exerts a force as it strikes an object. As wind speed increases, the greater the force that is exerted. Air that is compressed and confined within a container, such as a compressed air tank, also exerts a force on the inside wall of the tank. And, the more the air is compressed the greater the force that is exerted.

The force exerted by wind (air in motion) as well as the force exerted by air that is under compression can be expressed in terms of its effect on a given size or unit of area. When this force is expressed in terms of force per unit area it is commonly referred to as air pressure.

Total Pressure

Air in motion occurs naturally as wind, but air can also be put into motion by mechanical means, such as a fan. Ventilation systems move fresh air into building areas and also remove contaminated air from areas by means of fans and ductwork. Any time air pressure (force per unit area) occurs as a result of air that is in motion it is termed total pressure. A piece of paper or tissue would be readily pushed through a ventilation system duct in the direction of airflow as a result of the force or effect of the air stream's total pressure. The total pressure of a moving air stream is at its maximum (and is always measured) in the direction of the airflow. Figure 16 illustrates the concept of total pressure as the result of an air stream moving through a ventilation system duct.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

LAB0189R1

TOTAL

PRESSURE

Control Application Guide LAB0189R1 TOTAL PRESSURE AIRFLOW Figure 16. Total Pressure (Force Per Unit Area)
Control Application Guide LAB0189R1 TOTAL PRESSURE AIRFLOW Figure 16. Total Pressure (Force Per Unit Area)
Control Application Guide LAB0189R1 TOTAL PRESSURE AIRFLOW Figure 16. Total Pressure (Force Per Unit Area)
Control Application Guide LAB0189R1 TOTAL PRESSURE AIRFLOW Figure 16. Total Pressure (Force Per Unit Area)
Control Application Guide LAB0189R1 TOTAL PRESSURE AIRFLOW Figure 16. Total Pressure (Force Per Unit Area)

AIRFLOW

Control Application Guide LAB0189R1 TOTAL PRESSURE AIRFLOW Figure 16. Total Pressure (Force Per Unit Area) Exerted
Control Application Guide LAB0189R1 TOTAL PRESSURE AIRFLOW Figure 16. Total Pressure (Force Per Unit Area) Exerted
Control Application Guide LAB0189R1 TOTAL PRESSURE AIRFLOW Figure 16. Total Pressure (Force Per Unit Area) Exerted

Figure 16. Total Pressure (Force Per Unit Area) Exerted in the Direction of Airflow and the Air Movement Force.

Static Pressure

In contrast to the force exerted by the wind or air in motion, air at rest can exert a force within any confined or enclosed space. Compressed air within an inflated tire exerts a force on the entire internal surface of the tire and the resulting force enables the tire to maintain its shape even when subjected to a heavy load. The force of air that is not due to its motion is also expressed in terms of force per unit area but it is termed static pressure. Static pressure is not the result of air movement. There may be no movement of the air in a tire or in a compressed air tank, yet air pressure most definitely exists. Unlike total pressure, static pressure is exerted in all directions as illustrated in Figure 17.

Forces Exerted by Air

STATIC PRESSURE Figure 17. Static Pressure is Force Per Unit Area Exerted Equally in All
STATIC
PRESSURE
Figure 17. Static Pressure is Force Per Unit Area Exerted Equally in All Directions and Not
Caused by Air Movement.
LAB0190R1

Now, consider what happens when air in a confined area (such as a ventilation system duct) is put in motion. In a confined area, air in motion has both a total pressure and a static pressure component, and each of these components can be individually measured. However, to measure the static pressure of a moving air stream, care must be used to ensure that the pressure measurement is made perpendicular to the direction of air movement to exclude the effect of the total pressure component.

If airflow in a duct is totally stopped by an obstruction (such as a fully closed damper) there can no longer be any force component due to air movement. However, even though the air is no longer moving, it still exerts static pressure in all directions (even in its previous forward direction). If you tried to measure the total pressure component (in the direction of normal airflow), you would receive a value that equals the static pressure. Therefore, total pressure equals static pressure when air is at rest. The static pressure that still exists does not result from air movement, but rather from the force that is being imposed upon the air. In ventilation systems the ventilation system’s fans typically create this force.

Velocity Pressure

As previously stated, air can have two distinct measurable pressure components:

Static pressure

Total pressure

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

In still (non-moving) air the total pressure equals the static pressure. The total pressure in a moving air stream is always greater than its static pressure. If the static pressure value of a moving air stream is subtracted from the total pressure value, the resulting difference is called the velocity pressure. This velocity pressure component bears a relationship to the speed or velocity of the moving air stream. Thus, its value provides a means to determine the velocity of a moving air stream.

Figure 18 illustrates the relationship of total pressure, static pressure, and velocity pressure in a moving air stream.

AIRFLOW IN DUCT

TOTAL
TOTAL

PRESSURE

STATIC

MEASUREMENT PRESSURE MEASUREMENT VELOCITY PRESSURE - LAB0191R1
MEASUREMENT
PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT
VELOCITY
PRESSURE
-
LAB0191R1

PRESSURE VALUE GRAPH

Figure 18. Moving Air Stream Pressure Relationships.

Air Velocity

Air Velocity

As illustrated in Figure 18, pressure measurement instruments can determine both the total pressure and static pressure of an airstream in a duct. Subtracting the static pressure value from the total pressure value yields the velocity pressure, which, in turn, enables the velocity of the air stream to be determined.

When air is rapidly flowing through a duct, it typically has a significant total pressure as evidenced by the force exerted in the direction it is moving. When air flowing through a duct is discharged into a room, its forward motion is significantly reduced while, due to the laws of physics (conservation of energy), its static pressure is increased. Then the difference between the total pressure and static pressure (the velocity pressure) becomes very small and, practically speaking, becomes nearly zero. Thus, the static pressure and total pressure become nearly equal as air enters a room, and for this reason, a room’s air pressure component can normally be considered to be only the static pressure.

Units of Pressure Measurement

Pressure measurements of compressed air, steam, and water are commonly expressed as pounds per square inch (psi) 19 . However, typical values for total pressure, velocity pressure, and static pressures in ventilation system applications are quite small when compared to the forgoing pressure measurements. Thus for ventilation applications, a smaller unit of pressure measurement is used to avoid fractions or very small decimal numbers.

The unit inches of water column (typically expressed as inches w.c., inches of water, or inches) is commonly used for this purpose. The term inches of water simply means that the air's static pressure value is the same as the pressure exerted by a layer of water of the stated height on a horizontal plane. In other words, a pressure value of 1 inch w.c. exerts the same force over a given area as would a layer of water that is exactly 1 inch in depth. Note that due to gravity, water can only exert a force in a downward direction. However, it is always to be assumed that air at a given static pressure (that is, 1 inch w.c.) exerts its force in all directions.

With reference to a room’s static pressure, typical values are much less than even 1 inch of water. In fact, values of 0.01 to 0.05 inches w.c. are more typical.

NOTE:

If psi units were used instead of inches of water, 0.01 inches w.c. and 0.05 inches w.c. would have to be expressed as 0.000361 psi and 0.001805 psi respectively. Such small numerical values would be very cumbersome to use. 20

19 In SI units the kiloPascal (kPa) is the normal unit of pressure measurement. (1.0 psi equals 6.89 kPa.)

20 A pressure of 1.0 psi is equivalent to the force produced by a column of water 27.72 inches in height over a given area. Therefore, a column of water 1.00 inches in height would be fractionally equivalent to 1/27.72 of 1.0 psi or 0.0361 psi. A pressure of only 0.01 inch of water then becomes 0.000361 psi.

Room Pressurization Control Application Guide

Differential Pressure

A pressure measurement is always a measurement of the pressure difference between two points or locations. Every pressure measurement can be termed a differential pressure measurement. In most instances, a plainly visible barrier separates the two “locations.” For example, when measuring automobile tire pressure, the measurement is the difference between the pressure inside the tire and atmospheric pressure outside the tire (with the tire wall being the “barrier”). Similarly, boiler steam pressure is a measurement of the difference between the pressure inside the boiler and atmospheric pressure outside of the boiler. In these and most other common pressure measurements, it is generally understood that the pressure value is the difference between the measured pressure and atmospheric pressure. Also, in most common pressure measurements it is usually apparent which location is at the higher pressure. For example, the pressure inside a steam pipe or inside an inflated tire is higher than outside of the pipe or tire.

When referring to ventilation system pressures (typically room static pressure), it is usually necessary to indicate the two locations that comprise the pressure measurement since this is not always apparent. It is also necessary to use a positive or negative prefix to indicate which location is at the higher or lower pressure. Thus, when referring to the static pressures associated with ventilation systems, it is usually necessary to add a prefix. The prefix “positive” indicates that the point or location is at the higher pressure, while the prefix “negative” indicates that the area or location is at the lower pressure.

Summary of Pressure Components

The following is a summary of important factors that relate to ventilation system pressure components.

Total Pressure—the force per unit area exerted by air in motion. It is measured by sensing the force exerted by a moving air stream in the direction of airflow.

Static Pressure—the force per unit area exerted by air in motion or at rest. When air is in motion (such as in a duct), it is measured by sensing the force exerted by a moving air stream perpendicular (at right angles) to the direction of airflow. When air is at rest, the static pressure can be measured by sensing the force exerted in any direction.