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A Absolutism Ancien Regime Assimilation Absolute Monarchy Anglicanism Ally/Alliance

The principle of a political system in which unrestricted power is vested in a monarch or dictator The old order. The Aristocratic, social and political system established in premodern France The process whereby a minority group gradually adopts the customs and attitudes of the prevailing culture Monarchy without constitutional limitations The doctrine and practice of the Church of England and other Anglican Churches A person or state that undertakes to help another person or state. Mostly a state that promised military assistance in case another state is attacked. A dictatorial form of government in which political authority is concentrated in one man or a small group. Authoritarian regimes emphasize obedience by the people to their rulers, and the unlimited power of rulers over their subjects. Animosity towards the Jews. Many European nations practiced racial discrimination against Jews for religious reasons, but also because they were envious of Jewish commercial success. A clergyman having spiritual and administrative powers over a diocese or province of the Church Middle class; the social class between the lower and upper classes


Anti Semitism B Bishops Bourgeoisie

C City State Culture

Catholicism Colonialism Capitalism

A sovereign state consisting of an independent city and its surrounding territory. - The attitudes, feelings, values, and behavior that characterize and inform society as a whole or any social group within it -The total of the inherited ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge, which constitute the shared bases of social action -The total range of activities and ideas of a group of people with shared traditions, which are transmitted and reinforced by members of the group The faith, doctrine, system, and practice of a Catholic church, especially the Roman Catholic Church European conquest and exploitation of territories in America, the East and Africa, starting about 1500. The term is associated with imperialism. The economic and political system in which industry and trade are owned and controlled by private individuals or groups. This system can lead to exploitation because of the concentration of capital (and the resulting power) in the hands of only a few people. The religious doctrines of John Calvin, emphasizing the omnipotence of God and the salvation of the elect by God's grace alone A form of government in which a monarch rules according to codes laid down in a constitution. Such a monarch has extensive limits to his or her powers and is usually bounded by decisions of parliament or cabinet The inclination, especially in politics, to maintain the existing or traditional order. The system of society that emphasizes common ownership of the means of production. Each member of the community should work for the common benefit according to their ability and should receive according to their needs. It holds the belief that private ownership should be abolished

Calvinism Constitutional Monarch

Conservatism Communism

Collectivization Coup [Coup d'tat] D Democracy Dynasty Despotism Dictatorship

The process of forming collectives or collective communities where property and resources are owned by the community and not individuals A violent or illegal change in government, usually effected by revolt A form of government in which political power resides in all the people and is exercised by them directly or is given to elected representatives A family or group that maintains political power for several generation A government or political system in which the ruler exercises absolute power Absolute rule by a person or group not answerable to the people. Often preceded by the seizure of power by the army or a particular party

E Empire Emperor Enlightenment

A vast area comprising of many peoples and nations that was ruled by an emperor A monarch who rules or reigns over an empire A philosophical movement of the 18th century that emphasized the use of reason to scrutinize previously accepted doctrines and traditions and that brought about many humanitarian reforms Is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. Enlightened monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their territories. They tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property The system where a village community is populated by peasants who were bound to the land. Peasants moved to manors to get protection from the landowner in return for their labour and to work on the land The totalitarian, nationalist, anti-communist movement founded in Italy by Mussolini in 1919

Enlightened despotism

F Feudalism

Fascism G Greco Roman H Humanism I Ideology Islam (Muslim) Industrial revolution

Having both Greek and Roman characteristics: integration of two cultures

A secular ideology which espouses reason, ethics, and justice, whilst specifically rejecting supernatural and religious dogma as a basis of morality and decision-making Ideas on which a theory about society is based, e.g. socialism, fascism, or communism The monotheistic religion articulated by the Quran The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times The creation and expansion of industry. Industrialization is characterised by mechanization and large-scale production Term used to denote a policy of expansion, usually at the expense of weaker peoples [Also see colonialism] Irrationalism was a philosophical movement. It opposed or de-emphasized the importance of the rationality of human beings. Part of the movements involved claims that science was inferior to intuition Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology




L Lutheranism


of Martin Luther. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation. Beginning with the 95 Theses, Luther's writings disseminated internationally, spreading the ideas of the Reformation beyond the ability of governmental and churchly authorities to control it A political and social philosophy advocating individual freedom, a form of government that is representative, progress and reform, and the protection of civil liberties

M Monotheism Monasticism Muslim (Islam) Manorialism Monarchy Mercantilism


The doctrine or belief that there is only one God The rule or system of life in a monastery. The life or condition of a monk A follower of the religion of Islam The system of manorial social and political organization, as in the Middle Ages, closely associated with Feudalism A government or state in which the supreme power is vested in a single figure, such as a king The theory and system of political economy prevailing in Europe after the decline of feudalism, based on national policies of accumulating bullion, establishing colonies and a merchant marine, and developing industry and mining to attain a favorable balance of trade The philosophical system, also known as scientific socialism, founded by Marx and Engels and developed by Plekhanov, Lenin and Stalin. According to Marxist analysis, economic matters are dominant in a society; class struggle has been the main agency of historical change; capitalism will inevitably be replaced by a socialist system and classless society. Marxism advocates that the abolition of private property is essential to end exploitation and that the state should provide work and subsistence for all. In the class struggle the proletariat must take the lead in creating a new classless society, free of class distinctions and exploitation

N Nation State Nationalism

A political unity in which the inhabitants share a feeling of common nationality The feeling (sometimes exaggerated) of belonging to a group united by common racial, linguistic and historical ties, and it is usually identified with a particular territory. Ideology, which regards the nation-state as the ideal form of political organization A political movement organized in a military manner that was implemented by Hitler

National Socialism O Ordinances P Polytheism Pope Papal Protestant R Revolution Renaissance

An authoritative regulation, decree, law, or practice The worship of or belief in more than one god The bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church Of, relating to, or issued by a pope A member of a Western Christian church whose faith and practice are founded on the principles of the Reformation Fundamental change in a political, social or economic system The humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning that originated


Racial nationalism S State Secular power Socialism

in Italy in the 14th century and later spread throughout Europe. The period of this revival, roughly the 14th through the 16th century, marking the transition from medieval to modern times. A 16th-century movement in Western Europe that aimed at reforming some doctrines and practices of the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the establishment of the Protestant churches. Nationalist feelings based on race and racial differences A sovereign political power or community Worldly rather than spiritual power An ideology which advocates that state power should be strengthened to provide social services (health care, education, etc.) to all; that class privilege should disappear; and that basic industries, including agricultural, should be nationalized. The objective of socialism is to achieve change through democratic processes The application of Darwinism to the study of human society, specifically a theory in sociology that individuals or groups achieve advantage over others as the result of genetic or biological superiority A system in which the government has control over all activities within a country The social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban as people move away from the countryside

Social Darwinism

T Totalitarianism U Urbanization