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CCC Turbomachinery Controls System

Who is the CCC?


CCC is a Controls Company dedicated to making the operation of Turbomachinery Safe and Efficient
Safe = No Missed Commissioning No Production Loss Efficient = Minimum Power

The CCC Product is Control Solutions


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In Operation 34 Years
Offices Worldwide +/- 400 Employees 8300+ Installations 200 Major Retrofit Projects/Year Worlds Largest GT Retrofitter

1974

2008 Next

Series 3+ Products
Multi-loop controllers for speed, extraction,

antisurge, & performance control


Serial communications for peer to peer
MTBF of Series 3 Plus controllers is 43.4 years, or 2.5 failures per million hours of operation

and host system communications

Series 5 Products

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Vanguard Duplex Chassis


MPU-750 Power Supplies

Extended Card IOC-555 Next

Series 5 Reliant Duplex


Same Electronics Assembly and Terminations as Reliant SN Switching Module

Status Indicators

Connector for Remote Switch Module

Manual Switchover Pushbuttons

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Guardian Overspeed Trip System


API-670 Compliant 2oo3 Voting of Speed Modules Redundant Power Supplies Hot-Swap Speed Modules Modbus Comms

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Vantage Steam Turbine Governors


Vantage GP for API-611 General Purpose Turbines Vantage GD for Generator Drive Turbines Local HMI for Configuration and Maintenance Reliant in an IP-54 Enclosure
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Air MiserTL Enclosure


NEMA 4 enclosure Touch Screen Color Graphics Operator Interface
Parameter monitoring Alarms (visual and audible) Events and data logging Real-time trending of process data Control loop tuning and maintenance screens Remote network and web data access

Optional Instrumentation and Value Packages

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Series 3++ Controllers


Class 1, Div 2 / Class 1 Zone 2 ATEX Group 2 Class 3 Simplex or hot backup redundant All AOs have built-in feedback loops to identify hardware or wiring problems On-board temperature monitoring On-board power supply voltage monitoring Wired Ethernet version Completely backward compatible with S3+

Raising the Bar Advanced Constraint Control

Upstream
improved control strategies for load sharing, expanders, integration of networks across platforms

Midstream
improved control strategies for Boil Off Gas networks, intense focus on all primary LNG services

Downstream
broader approach to process control, rather than just Turbomachinery control. Advanced control strategies for Ethylene, FCCU and PTA Plants. (Next focus is Ammonia).
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CCC Installations - Indonesia


PT. Pupuk Iskandar Muda PT. Pupuk Sriwidjaya PT. Pupuk Kujang PT. Pupuk Kalimantan Timur PT. DSM Kaltim Melamine Indonesia PT. Amoco Mitsui PTA PT. Polysindo Eka Perkasa PT. Chandra Asri Pertamina / Refinery (WGC Exor Project) ConocoPhillips Indonesia ExxonMobil Oil Indonesia Total Indonesie PT. Kangean Energi Indonesia BP Tangguh LNG PT. Badak LNG PT. Arun LNG PT. Indonesia Power (PLN) Etc.

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Typical Single Train Controls


(Suction Pressure Controls)

RSP

Train A
Section 1 out
LSIC

Section 2

UIC 1A

Serial network

UIC 1A

PT

Antisurge Controls System

Performance Controls System

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Compressor Refresher

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Compressor Type
Compressors
Positive Displacement Compressor Dynamic Compressor

Reciprocating Compressor

Centrifugal

Rotary Compressor

Axial

Membrane Compressor

Screw Compressor

CCC Focus
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Where do the different types of compressor fit?

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Types of Compressor - Dynamic Compressors

Axial Compressor

Centrifugal Compressor

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Types of Compressor - Dynamic Axial Compressors


Rotor

Stator
Stator Blades

Rotor Blades

Shaft

Casing

Stator Blades

Rotor Blades

Casing

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Cross section of axial compressor


Stator Blades Guide-vane actuator linkage Labyrinth seals

Rotor blades

Adjustable guide vanes Thrust bearing Compressor inlet nozzle Compressor outlet nozzle

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Types of Compressor Dynamic Centrifugal Compressors

Barrel (Centrifugal)

Bullgear (Centrifugal)

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Horizontally Split Type (Centrifugal)


Discharge volutes Impellers Drive coupling Shaft and labyrinth seal Journal bearing Impeller inlet labyrinth seals

Casing (horizontally split flange) Compressor discharge nozzle

Thrust bearing

Compressor inlet nozzle

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Types of Compressor - Picture of Horizontally Split Type (Centrifugal)

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Types of Compressor - Principal of Operation (Centrifugal)

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Types of Compressor - Classifications

Single-Section, Three-Stage

Single-Case, Two-Section, Six-Stage

What is the function of this cooler? Intercooling reduces energy consumption but results in having multiple compressor maps which need separate antisurge protection Next

Types of Compressor - Classifications

Two-Case, Two-Section, Six-Stage Parallel Network

Series Network

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Surge Phenomenon Why Compressor Surge and what happens when they do

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Developing the surge cycle on the compressor curve


Pd From A to B.20 - 50 ms.. Drop into surge From C to D.20 - 120 ms Jump out of surge A-B-C-D-A.0.3 - 3 seconds Surge cycle Pv Rlosses

Pd
B A D C

Pd = Compressor discharge pressure Pv = Vessel pressure Rlosses = Resistance losses over pipe

Pressure builds Resistance goes up Compressor rides the curve Pd = Pv + Rlosses Electro motor is started Machine accelerates to nominal speed Compressor reaches performance curve
Note: Flow goes up faster because pressure is the integral of flow

Machine shutdown no flow, no pressure

Qs,

vol

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Major Process Parameters during Surge


FLOW


TIME (sec.)

Rapid flow oscillations Thrust reversals Potential damage

1 PRESSURE

TIME (sec.) 1 TEMPERATURE 2 3

Rapid pressure oscillations with process instability Rising temperatures inside compressor

TIME (sec.) 1 2 3

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Some surge consequences


Unstable flow and pressure Damage in sequence with increasing

severity to seals, bearings, impellers, shaft Increased seal clearances and leakage Lower energy efficiency Reduced compressor life

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Factors leading to onset of surge


Startup Shutdown Operation at reduced throughput Operation at heavy throughput with: - Trips - Power loss - Operator errors - Process upsets - Load changes - Gas composition changes - Cooler problems - Filter or strainer problems - Driver problems

Standard Antisurge Control Vs CCC Controls System

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CCC Business in Constraint Control


process limit

Pressure

adding control margins maximum speed surge limit power limit

stonewall or choke limit Actual available operating zone stable zone of operation minimum speed

Flow

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CCC Business in Constraint Control


process limit

Pressure

adding control margins maximum speed surge limit power limit

stonewall or choke limit Actual available operating zone stable zone of operation minimum speed

Flow

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Expanding the Operating Envelope


Limit

General Purpose Control


Setpoint Operating Point

CCC Control

Limit Setpoint Operating Point

Base Ingredients: - Advanced algorithms - Rate of change feed forward signals - Fast hardware

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Standard Antisurge Control


Compressor

Antisurge Controller

FT 1

PsT 1

PdT 1

Suction

UIC 1

Process

Recycle Valve Next

Conventional Control Using Separate Performance Recycle


Conventional Capacity/Performance Controller

Compressor

F 1 T

PsT 1

PdT 1

Suction

UI 1 C PIC 1

Process

Additional Recycle Valve Next

Why Invest in Advanced Controls?

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How Will CCC Control?

Antisurge Control? Capacity Control?

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CCC Controls System

VSDS Compressor

Performance Controller

Load
ST 1 FT 1 PsT 1 TsT 1 PdT 1 TdT 1 PIC 1 HIC 1

Suction
UIC 1

Process
Serial network

Antisurge Controller Next

Control System Objective


Control System Objectives:

The control system objective is to keep the process on its Primary Process Variable (PV) set-point, and to return it to set-point as quickly as possible after a process disturbance The control system has to keep the process on/return to set-point while operating within compressor operating envelope limits, including protection against surge and surge damage

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Challenges of Compressor Control System


The ingredients of a successful compressor control system are:
z

z z

An algorithm that can accurately locate the operating point and its corresponding surge limit A controller execution speed that will allow a digital controller to emulate immediate analog control Control responses that allow different margins of safety for different operating conditions Advanced control strategies that can avoid the negative effects of loop interaction A quick acting, correctly sized antisurge control valve The elimination of unnecessary dead time or lag time within the system Valid load sharing strategies
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Standard Control VS CCC Controls


Standard
Compressor VSDS
F P 1 1 T s T P 1 d T U 1 I C

CCC

Compressor

Suction

Process
P 1 I C S T1 F 1 T P s1 T T s1 T U I1 C P d1 T T d1 T P I1 C

Load
H I1 C

Suction

Process
Serial network

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Standard Control VS CCC Controls

Standard
z z z

CCC
z z

z z

15% surge margin Quick opening valves No control of process variable via recycle No invariant coordinates Concentrating on Protection

Typically 8% surge margin Linear valves with positioners for control across 100% range Control of primary process variable by recycle when speed limit is reached Can handle varying molecular weight gases Concentrating on Control and Protection

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CCC Controller protection

How CCC Antisurge Controller protects compressor against surge?

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Antisurge Controller Operation Protection #1 The Surge Control Line (SCL)


The antisurge controller UIC-1 protects the compressor against surge by opening the recycle valve

VSDS Compressor

Rc

Rprocess Rprocess+valve

FT 1

PsT 1

PdT 1

Suction
UIC 1

Discharge

qr

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Antisurge Controller Operation Protection #1 The Surge Control Line (SCL)


Rc
SLL = Surge Limit Line SCL = Surge Control Line

B A

When the operating point crosses the SCL, PI control will open the recycle valve PI control will give adequate protection for small disturbances

qr
2

PI control will give stable control during steady state recycle operation Slow disturbance example

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Antisurge Controller Operation Protection #2 Moving The Surge Control Line (SCL)
Rc

When the operating point moves quickly towards the SLL = Surge Limit Line SCL = Surge Control Line SCL, the rate of change (dS/dT) can be used to dynamically increase the surge control margin. B
A

This allows the PID controller to react earlier. Smaller steady state surge control margins can be used w/o sacrificing reliability. Fast disturbance example
Q
2

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Antisurge Controller Operation Protection #3 The Recycle Trip Line (RTL)


Rc
SLL = Surge Limit Line RTL = Recycle Trip Line SCL = Surge Control Line

Benefits:

OP

Output to Valve

Reliably breaks the surge cycle Energy savings due to smaller surge margins needed Compressor has more turndown before recycle or blow-off Surge can be prevented for virtually any disturbance
PI Control Step Change

Total Response PI Control Response Open-loop Response Time

+
To antisurge valve

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What if one Recycle Trip step response is not enough?


After time delay C2 controller checks if Operating Point is back to safe side of Recycle Trip Line - If Yes: Exponential decay of Recycle Trip response. - If No: Another step is added to the Recycle Trip response. Output
to valve

Multiple step response

Total Output to valve 100% Recycle Trip C2 C2 C2 Time

One step response


PI Control

Total PI Control 0% C2 Recycle Trip Time

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Integrated control Decoupling of Performance and Antisurge control


Output to Turbine Valve

Input

Speed Inputs

Process Variable Inputs


Flow Pressure Temperature Gas Data

Antisurge Inputs

Output to Recycle Valve

(Field Transmitter)

Serial Communication Link CCC-DCS

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Integrated control Decoupling of Performance and Antisurge control


Rc
SL L
SC L

1. When operating at Point A, process encounters a large disturbance, operating point will move to Point B

2. The decoupling control starts to act


Performance control send request to increase speed

B C A
PIC-SP

3. The speed increasing combined with


antisurge valve opening, then, The trace of operating line as shown

4. The net control effect is more


stable operation even with large process disturbance Po Ps

5. This decoupling control is can


reduce the control safety margin, Therefore it can achieve energy saving and safe operation

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Antisurge Controller Operation Protection #4 Safety On


How about if the protection not capable against surge? Compressor has real surge What will CCC controller do?
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Antisurge Controller Operation Protection #5 Safety On


SOL = Safety On Line SLL = Surge Limit Line RTL Line = Recycle Trip SCL = Surge Control Line

If Operating Point crosses the Safety On Line the compressor is in surge The Safety On response shifts the SCL and the RTL to the right

Pressure axis

Additional safety or surge margin is added PI control and Recycle Trip will stabilize the machine on the new SCL

New SCL New RTL Additional surge margin

Flow axis

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CCC LOAD SHARING CONTROLS SYSTEM

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Compressor networks

Compressors are often operated in parallel and sometimes in series The purposes of networks include: z Redundancy z Flexibility z Incremental capacity additions Often each compressor is controlled, but the network is ignored Compressor manufacturers often focus on individual machines A network view of the application is essential to achieve good surge protection and good performance control of the network.

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Load Sharing
Control system objectives for compressors in parallel:
z

Maintain the primary performance variable (in this case suction pressure), and then: Optimally divide the load between the compressors in the network, while: Minimizing risk of surge Minimizing energy consumption Minimizing disturbance of starting and stopping individual compressors Operating within limits
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Load Sharing

Load Sharing Control system types:

1. Base and Swing Load Sharing system 2. Equal Flow Load Sharing system 3. CCC Equidistance Load Sharing controls system

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Base and Swing Load Sharing Flow Diagram for Control Process
VSDS Compressor 1
UIC 1

Swing machine

PIC 1 HIC 1

Suction header

Process
VSDS Compressor 2
UIC 2

Base machine

Notes All controllers act independently Transmitters are not shown

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Base and Swing Load Sharing Parallel Compressor Control


Rc,1

Compressor 1
Swing machine

Rc,2

Compressor 2
Base machine

PIC-SP

QP,1 + QP,2 = QP,1 + QP,2


qr,1 QP,1 QC,1 QP,1 QP,2 QC,2= QP,2
where: QP = Flow to process QC= Total compressor flow QC - QP = Recycle flow 2

qr,2

Notes:
Base loading is inefficient Base loading increases the risk of surge since compressor #1 will take the worst of any disturbance Base loading requires frequent operator intervention Base loading is NOT recommended

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Equal Flow Load sharing Flow Diagram for Control Process


VSDS RSP Compressor 1

out
UIC 1 FIC 1

RSP

out
PIC 1

Suction header Process


VSDS RSP Compressor 2

out
UIC 2 FIC 2

P RS

Notes Performance controllers act independent of antisurge control Higher capital cost due to extra Flow Measurement Devices (FMD) Higher energy costs due to permanent pressure loss across FMDs Next

Equal Flow Load sharing Parallel Compressor Control


Rc,1

Compressor 1

Rc,2

Compressor 2

PIC-SP

Equal flow

QP,1 = QP,2
qr,1
QP,1
2

Equal flow

qr,2
QP,2QC,2
where: QP = Flow to process QC= Total compressor flow QC - QP = Recycle flow

Notes:
Requires additional capital investment in FMDs Requires additional energy due to permanent pressure loss across FMDs Poor pressure control due to positive feedback in control system (see next) Equal flow division is NOT recommended

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CCC Equidistance Load sharing Flow Diagram for Control Process


VSDS

RSP Compressor 1
UIC 1

Serial network

out
LSIC

Serial network

MPIC

Suction header
VSDS

Process
RSP Compressor 2

out
UIC 2

Serial network

LSIC

Notes All controllers are coordinating control responses via a serial network Minimizes recycle under all operating conditions
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CCC Equidistance Load sharing Parallel Compressor Control


Rc,1

Compressor 1
SCL = Surge Control Line 0.1 0.2 0.3

Rc,2

Compressor 2
DEV = 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 PIC-SP

Dev1 = Dev2 Q1 = Q2 N1 = N2
q2 r,1
DEV1 DEV2
2 qr,2

Notes:
Maximum turndown (energy savings) without recycle or blow-off Minimizes the risk of surge since all machines absorb part of the disturbance Automatically adapts to different size machines CCC patented algorithm Next

The load balancing response


PV PID SP

DEV from other loadsharing controllers

Average

Master Controller

Analog Inputs
DEV DEV PV PI RT Primary response SP Load balancing Primary response

FA Mode

DEV

DEV

+ Antisurge Controller To antisurge valve


Loop Decoupling Loop Decoupling

+ Loadsharing Controller

To performance control element

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CCC LOAD SHARING Control System Drawing


MASTER CONTROLLER (Suction Header Controls) LOAD SHARING CONTROLLER

ANTISURGE CONTROLLER

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End Slides Thank You very much for your kind attention and cooperation
PT Putranata Adi Mandiri Jl Kartini VIII No. 9 Jakarta 10750 Tel: (021) 6007850 Fax: (021) 6007846 Email: pamccc@cbn.net.id