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# 4 The Laplace Transform

Exercises 4.1
1. {f(t)} =
_
1
0
e
st
dt +
_

1
e
st
dt =
1
s
e
st

1
0

1
s
e
st

1
=
1
s
e
s

1
s

_
0
1
s
e
s
_
=
2
s
e
s

1
s
, s > 0
2. {f(t)} =
_
2
0
4e
st
dt =
4
s
e
st

2
0
=
4
s
(e
2s
1), s > 0
3. {f(t)} =
_
1
0
te
st
dt +
_

1
e
st
dt =
_

1
s
te
st

1
s
2
e
st
_

1
0

1
s
e
st

1
=
_

1
s
e
s

1
s
2
e
s
_

_
0
1
s
2
_

1
s
(0 e
s
) =
1
s
2
(1 e
s
), s > 0
4. {f(t)} =
_
1
0
(2t + 1)e
st
dt =
_

2
s
te
st

2
s
2
e
st

1
s
e
st
_

1
0
=
_

2
s
e
s

2
s
2
e
s

1
s
e
s
_

_
0
2
s
2

1
s
_
=
1
s
(1 3e
s
) +
2
s
2
(1 e
s
), s > 0
5. {f(t)} =
_

0
(sint)e
st
dt =
_

s
s
2
+ 1
e
st
sint
1
s
2
+ 1
e
st
cos t
_

0
=
_
0 +
1
s
2
+ 1
e
s
_

_
0
1
s
2
+ 1
_
=
1
s
2
+ 1
(e
s
+ 1), s > 0
6. {f(t)} =
_

/2
(cos t)e
st
dt =
_

s
s
2
+ 1
e
st
cos t +
1
s
2
+ 1
e
st
sint
_

/2
= 0
_
0 +
1
s
2
+ 1
e
s/2
_
=
1
s
2
+ 1
e
s/2
, s > 0
7. f(t) =
_
0, 0 < t < 1
t, t > 1
{f(t)} =
_

1
te
st
dt =
_

1
s
te
st

1
s
2
e
st
_

1
=
1
s
e
s
+
1
s
2
e
s
, s > 0
8. f(t) =
_
0, 0 < t < 1
2t 2, t > 1
{f(t)} = 2
_

1
(t 1)e
st
dt = 2
_

1
s
(t 1)e
st

1
s
2
e
st
_

1
=
2
s
2
e
s
, s > 0
9. f(t) =
_
1 t, 0 < t < 1
0, t > 0
{f(t)} =
_
1
0
(1 t)e
st
dt =
_

1
s
(1 t)e
st
+
1
s
2
e
st
_

1
0
=
1
s
2
e
s
+
1
s

1
s
2
, s > 0
10. f(t) =
_
_
_
0, 0 < t < a
c, a < t < b
0, t > b
; {f(t)} =
_
b
a
ce
st
dt =
c
s
e
st

b
a
=
c
s
(e
sa
e
sb
), s > 0
165
Exercises 4.1
11. {f(t)} =
_

0
e
t+7
e
st
dt = e
7
_

0
e
(1s)t
dt =
e
7
1 s
e
(1s)t

0
= 0
e
7
1 s
=
e
7
s 1
, s > 1
12. {f(t)} =
_

0
e
2t5
e
st
dt = e
5
_

0
e
(s+2)t
dt =
e
5
s + 2
e
(s+2)t

0
=
e
5
s + 2
, s > 2
13. {f(t)} =
_

0
te
4t
e
st
dt =
_

0
te
(4s)t
dt =
_
1
4 s
te
(4s)t

1
(4 s)
2
e
(4s)t
_

0
=
1
(4 s)
2
, s > 4
14. {f(t)} =
_

0
t
2
e
2t
e
st
dt =
_

0
t
2
e
(s+2)t
dt
=
_

1
s + 2
t
2
e
(s+2)t

2
(s + 2)
2
te
(s+2)t

2
(s + 2)
3
e
(s+2)t
_

0
=
2
(s + 2)
3
, s > 2
15. {f(t)} =
_

0
e
t
(sint)e
st
dt =
_

0
(sint)e
(s+1)t
dt
=
_
(s + 1)
(s + 1)
2
+ 1
e
(s+1)t
sint
1
(s + 1)
2
+ 1
e
(s+1)t
cos t
_

0
=
1
(s + 1)
2
+ 1
=
1
s
2
+ 2s + 2
, s > 1
16. {f(t)} =
_

0
e
t
(cos t)e
st
dt =
_

0
(cos t)e
(1s)t
dt
=
_
1 s
(1 s)
2
+ 1
e
(1s)t
cos t +
1
(1 s)
2
+ 1
e
(1s)t
sint
_

0
=
1 s
(1 s)
2
+ 1
=
s 1
s
2
2s + 2
, s > 1
17. {f(t)} =
_

0
t(cos t)e
st
dt
=
__

st
s
2
+ 1

s
2
1
(s
2
+ 1)
2
_
(cos t)e
st
+
_
t
s
2
+ 1
+
2s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
_
(sint)e
st
_

0
=
s
2
1
(s
2
+ 1)
2
, s > 0
18. {f(t)} =
_

0
t(sint)e
st
dt
=
__

t
s
2
+ 1

2s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
_
(cos t)e
st

_
st
s
2
+ 1
+
s
2
1
(s
2
+ 1)
2
_
(sint)e
st
_

0
=
2s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
, s > 0
19. {2t
4
} = 2
4!
s
5
20. {t
5
} =
5!
s
6
21. {4t 10} =
4
s
2

10
s
22. {7t + 3} =
7
s
2
+
3
s
23. {t
2
+ 6t 3} =
2
s
3
+
6
s
2

3
s
24. {4t
2
+ 16t + 9} = 4
2
s
3
+
16
s
2
+
9
s
25. {t
3
+ 3t
2
+ 3t + 1} =
3!
s
4
+ 3
2
s
3
+
3
s
2
+
1
s
26. {8t
3
12t
2
+ 6t 1} = 8
3!
s
4
12
2
s
3
+
6
s
2

1
s
166
Exercises 4.1
27. {1 +e
4t
} =
1
s
+
1
s 4
28. {t
2
e
9t
+ 5} =
2
s
3

1
s + 9
+
5
s
29. {1 + 2e
2t
+e
4t
} =
1
s
+
2
s 2
+
1
s 4
30. {e
2t
2 +e
2t
} =
1
s 2

2
s
+
1
s + 2
31. {4t
2
5 sin3t} = 4
2
s
3
5
3
s
2
+ 9
32. {cos 5t + sin2t} =
s
s
2
+ 25
+
2
s
2
+ 4
33. {sinhkt} =
k
s
2
k
2
34. {cosh kt} =
s
s
2
k
2
35. {e
t
sinht} =
_
e
t
e
t
e
t
2
_
=
_
1
2
e
2t

1
2
_
=
1
2(s 2)

1
2s
36. {e
t
cosh t} =
_
e
t
e
t
+e
t
2
_
=
_
1
2
+
1
2
e
2t
_
=
1
2s
+
1
2(s + 2)
37. {sin2t cos 2t} =
_
1
2
sin4t
_
=
2
s
2
+ 16
38. {cos
2
t} =
_
1
2
+
1
2
cos 2t
_
=
1
2s
+
1
2
s
s
2
+ 4
39. (a) Using integration by parts for > 0,
( + 1) =
_

0
t

e
t
dt = t

e
t

0
+
_

0
t
1
e
t
dt = ().
(b) Let u = st so that du = s dt. Then
{t

} =
_

0
e
st
t

dt =
_

0
e
u
_
u
s
_

1
s
du =
1
s
+1
( + 1), > 1.
40. (a) {t
1/2
} =
(1/2)
s
1/2
=
_

s
(b) {t
1/2
} =
(3/2)
s
3/2
=

2s
3/2
(c) {t
3/2
} =
(5/2)
s
5/2
=
3

4s
5/2
41. Identifying f(t) = t
n
we have f

(t) = nt
n1
, n = 1, 2, 3, . . . . Then, since f(0) = 0,
n {t
n1
} = {nt
n1
} = s {t
n
} and {t
n
} =
n
s
{t
n1
}.
For n = 1, {t} =
1
s
{1} =
1
s
2
.
For n = 2, {t
2
} =
2
s
{t} =
2
s
3
.
For n = 3, {t
3
} =
3
s
{t
2
} =
6
s
4
.
42. Let F(t) = t
1/3
. Then F(t) is of exponential order, but f(t) = F

(t) =
1
3
t
2/3
is unbounded near t = 0 and
hence is not of exponential order.
167
Exercises 4.1
Let f(t) = 2te
t
2
cos e
t
2
=
d
dt
sine
t
2
. This function is not of exponential order, but we can show that its Laplace
transform exists. Using integration by parts we have
{2te
t
2
cos e
t
2
} =
_

0
e
st
_
d
dt
sine
t
2
_
dt = lim
a
_
e
st
sine
t
2

a
0
+ s
_
a
0
e
st
sine
t
2
dt
_
= s
_

0
e
st
sine
t
2
dt = s {sine
t
2
}.
Since sine
t
2
is continuous and of exponential order, {sine
t
2
} exists, and therefore {2te
t
2
cos e
t
2
} exists.
43. The relation will be valid when s is greater than the maximum of c
1
and c
2
.
44. Since e
t
is an increasing function and t
2
> lnM +ct for M > 0 we have e
t
2
> e
ln M+ct
= Me
ct
for t suciently
large and for any c. Thus, e
t
2
is not of exponential order.
45. By part (c) of Theorem 4.1
{e
(a+ib)t
} =
1
s (a +ib)
=
1
(s a) ib
(s a) +ib
(s a) +ib
=
s a +ib
(s a)
2
+b
2
.
By Eulers formula, e
i
= cos +i sin, so
{e
(a+ib)t
} = {e
at
e
ibt
} {e
at
(cos bt +i sinbt)}
= {e
at
cos bt} +i {e
at
sinbt}
=
s a
(s a)
2
+b
2
+i
b
(s a)
2
+b
2
.
Equating real and imaginary parts we get
{e
at
cos bt} =
s a
(s a)
2
+b
2
and {e
at
sinbt} =
b
(s a)
2
+b
2
.
46. We want f(x +y) = f(x) +f(y) or
m(x +y) +b = (mx +b) +(my +b) = m(x +y) + ( +)b
for all real numbers and . Taking = = 1 we see that b = 2b, so b = 0. Thus, f(x) = mx + b will be a
linear transformation when b = 0.
Exercises 4.2
1.
_
1
s
3
_
=
1
2
_
2
s
3
_
=
1
2
t
2
2.
_
1
s
4
_
=
1
6
_
3!
s
4
_
=
1
6
t
3
3.
_
1
s
2

48
s
5
_
=
_
1
s
2

48
24

4!
s
5
_
= t 2t
4
4.
_
_
2
s

1
s
3
_
2
_
=
_
4
1
s
2

4
6

3!
s
4
+
1
120

5!
s
6
_
= 4t
2
3
t
3
+
1
120
t
5
5.
_
(s + 1)
3
s
4
_
=
_
1
s
+ 3
1
s
2
+
3
2

2
s
3
+
1
6

3!
s
4
_
= 1 + 3t +
3
2
t
2
+
1
6
t
3
6.
_
(s + 2)
2
s
3
_
=
_
1
s
+ 4
1
s
2
+ 2
2
s
3
_
= 1 + 4t + 2t
2
168
Exercises 4.2
7.
_
1
s
2

1
s
+
1
s 2
_
= t 1 +e
2t
8.
_
4
s
+
6
s
5

1
s + 8
_
=
_
4
1
s
+
1
4

4!
s
5

1
s + 8
_
= 4 +
1
4
t
4
e
8t
9.
_
1
4s + 1
_
=
_
1
4

1
s + 1/4
_
=
1
4
e
t/4
10.
_
1
5s 2
_
=
_
1
5

1
s 2/5
_
=
1
5
e
2t/5
11.
_
5
s
2
+ 49
_
=
_
5
7

7
s
2
+ 49
_
=
5
7
sin7t
12.
_
10s
s
2
+ 16
_
= 10 cos 4t
13.
_
4s
4s
2
+ 1
_
=
_
s
s
2
+ 1/4
_
= cos
1
2
t
14.
_
1
4s
2
+ 1
_
=
_
1
2

1/2
s
2
+ 1/4
_
=
1
2
sin
1
2
t
15.
_
2s 6
s
2
+ 9
_
=
_
2
s
s
2
+ 9
2
3
s
2
+ 9
_
= 2 cos 3t 2 sin3t
16.
_
s + 1
s
2
+ 2
_
=
_
s
s
2
+ 2
+
1

2
s
2
+ 2
_
= cos

2t +

2
2
sin

2 t
17.
_
1
s
2
+ 3s
_
=
_
1
3

1
s

1
3

1
s + 3
_
=
1
3

1
3
e
3t
18.
_
s + 1
s
2
4s
_
=
_

1
4

1
s
+
5
4

1
s 4
_
=
1
4
+
5
4
e
4t
19.
_
s
s
2
+ 2s 3
_
=
_
1
4

1
s 1
+
3
4

1
s + 3
_
=
1
4
e
t
+
3
4
e
3t
20.
_
1
s
2
+s 20
_
=
_
1
9

1
s 4

1
9

1
s + 5
_
=
1
9
e
4t

1
9
e
5t
21.
_
0.9s
(s 0.1)(s + 0.2)
_
=
_
(0.3)
1
s 0.1
+ (0.6)
1
s + 0.2
_
= 0.3e
0.1t
+ 0.6e
0.2t
22.
_
s 3
(s

3 )(s +

3 )
_
=
_
s
s
2
3

3
s
2
3
_
= cosh

3 t

3 sinh

3 t
23.
_
s
(s 2)(s 3)(s 6)
_
=
_
1
2

1
s 2

1
s 3
+
1
2

1
s 6
_
=
1
2
e
2t
e
3t
+
1
2
e
6t
24.
_
s
2
+ 1
s(s 1)(s + 1)(s 2)
_
=
_
1
2

1
s

1
s 1

1
3

1
s + 1
+
5
6

1
s 2
_
=
1
2
e
t

1
3
e
t
+
5
6
e
2t
25.
_
1
s
3
+ 5s
_
=
_
1
s(s
2
+ 5)
_
=
_
1
5

1
s

1
5
s
s
2
+ 5
_
=
1
5

1
5
cos

5t
169
Exercises 4.2
26.
_
s
(s
2
+ 4)(s + 2)
_
=
_
1
4

s
s
2
+ 4
+
1
4

2
s
2
+ 4

1
4

1
s + 2
_
=
1
4
cos 2t +
1
4
sin2t
1
4
e
2t
27.
_
2s 4
(s
2
+s)(s
2
+ 1)
_
=
_
2s 4
s(s
2
+ 1)
2
_
=
_

4
s
+
3
s + 1
+
s
s
2
+ 1
+
3
s
2
+ 1
_
= 4 + 3e
t
+ cos t + 3 sint
28.
_
1
s
4
9
_
=
_
1
6

3
s
2
3

1
6

3
s
2
3
_
=
1
6

3
sinh

3 t
1
6

3
sin

3 t
29.
_
s
(s
2
+ 4)(s + 2)
_
=
_
1
4

s
s
2
+ 4
+
1
4

2
s
2
+ 4

1
4

1
s + 2
_
=
1
4
cos 2t +
1
4
sin2t
1
4
e
2t
30.
_
6s + 3
(s
2
+ 1)(s
2
+ 4)
_
=
_
2
s
s
2
+ 1
+
1
s
2
+ 1
2
s
s
2
+ 4

1
2

2
s
2
+ 4
_
= 2 cos t + sint 2 cos 2t
1
2
sin2t
31. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {y} y(0) {y} =
1
s
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
1
s
+
1
s 1
.
Thus
y = 1 +e
t
.
32. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
2s {y} 2y(0) = {y} = 0.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
6
2s + 1
=
3
s + 1/2
.
Thus
y = 3e
t/2
.
33. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {y} y(0) + 6 {y} =
1
s 4
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
1
(s 4)(s + 6)
+
2
s + 6
=
1
10

1
s 4
+
19
10

1
s + 6
.
Thus
y =
1
10
e
4t
+
19
10
e
6t
.
34. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {y} {y} =
2s
s
2
+ 25
.
170
Exercises 4.2
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
2
(s 1)(s
2
+ 25)
=
1
13

1
s 1

1
13
s
s
2
+ 25
+
5
13

5
s
2
+ 25
.
Thus
y =
1
13
e
t

1
13
cos 5t +
5
13
sin5t.
35. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

## (0) + 5 [s {y} y(0)] + 4 {y} = 0.

Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
s + 5
s
2
+ 5s + 4
=
4
3
1
s + 1

1
3
1
s + 4
.
Thus
y =
4
3
e
t

1
3
e
4t
.
36. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

## (0) 4 [s {y} y(0)] =

6
s 3

3
s + 1
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
6
(s 3)(s
2
4s)

3
(s + 1)(s
2
4s)
+
s 5
s
2
4s
=
5
2

1
s

2
s 3

3
5

1
s + 1
+
11
10

1
s 4
.
Thus
y =
5
2
2e
3t

3
5
e
t
+
11
10
e
4t
.
37. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) + {y} =
2
s
2
+ 2
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
2
(s
2
+ 1)(s
2
+ 2)
+
10s
s
2
+ 1
=
10s
s
2
+ 1
+
2
s
2
+ 1

2
s
2
+ 2
.
Thus
y = 10 cos t + 2 sint

2 sin

2 t.
38. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} + 9 {y} =
1
s 1
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
1
(s 1)(s
2
+ 9)
=
1
10

1
s 1

1
10

1
s
2
+ 9

1
10

s
s
2
+ 9
.
Thus
y =
1
10
e
t

1
30
sin3t
1
10
cos 3t.
39. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
2
_
s
3
{y} s
2
(0) sy

(0) y

(0)

+ 3
_
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

(0)

## 3[s {y} y(0)] 2 {y} =

1
s + 1
.
171
Exercises 4.2
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
2s + 3
(s + 1)(s 1)(2s + 1)(s + 2)
=
1
2
1
s + 1
+
5
18
1
s 1

8
9
1
s + 1/2
+
1
9
1
s + 2
.
Thus
y =
1
2
e
t
+
5
18
e
t

8
9
e
t/2
+
1
9
e
2t
.
40. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
3
{y} s
2
(0) sy

(0) y

(0) + 2
_
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

(0)

## [s {y} y(0)] 2 {y} =

3
s
2
+ 9
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
s
2
+ 12
(s 1)(s + 1)(s + 2)(s
2
+ 9)
=
13
60
1
s 1

13
20
1
s + 1
+
16
39
1
s + 2
+
3
130
s
s
2
+ 9

1
65
3
s
2
+ 9
.
Thus
y =
13
60
e
t

13
20
e
t
+
16
39
e
2t
+
3
130
cos 3t
1
65
sin3t.
41. For y

+ 6y = e
4t
the transfer function is W(s) = 1/(s + 6). The zero-input response is
y
0
(t) =
_
2
s + 6
_
= 2e
6t
,
and the zero-state response is
y
1
(t) =
_
1
(s 4)(s + 6)
_
=
_

1
10

1
s + 6
+
1
10

1
s 4
_
=
1
10
e
6t
+
1
10
e
4t
.
42. For y

4y

= 6e
3t
3e
t
the transfer function is W(s) = 1/(s
2
4s). The zero-input response is
y
0
(t) =
_
s 5
s
2
4s
_
=
_
5
4

1
s

1
4

1
s 4
_
=
5
4

1
4
e
4t
,
and the zero-state response is
y
1
(t) =
_
6
(s 3)(s
2
4s)

3
(s + 1)(s
2
4s)
_
=
_
27
20

1
s 4

2
s 3
+
5
4

1
s

3
5

1
s + 1
_
=
27
20
e
4t
2e
3t
+
5
4

3
5
e
t
.
43. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {y} + {y} =
s + 3
(s + 3)
2
+ 4
=
s + 3
s
2
+ 6s + 13
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
s + 3
(s + 1)(s
2
+ 6s + 13)
=
1
4

1
s + 1

1
4

s + 1
s
2
+ 6s + 13
=
1
4

1
s + 1

1
4
_
s + 3
(s + 3)
2
+ 4

2
(s + 3)
2
+ 4
_
.
172
Exercises 4.3
Thus
y =
1
4
e
t
e
3t
cos 2t +
1
4
e
3t
sin2t.
44. Let f(t) = 1 and g(t) =
_
1, t 0, t = 1
0, t = 1
. Then {f(t)} = {g(t)} = 1, but f(t) = g(t).
Exercises 4.3
1.
_
te
10t
_
=
1
(s 10)
2
2.
_
te
6t
_
=
1
(s + 6)
2
3.
_
t
3
e
2t
_
=
3!
(s + 2)
4
4.
_
t
10
e
7t
_
=
10!
(s + 7)
11
5.
_
t
_
e
t
+e
2t
_
2
_
=
_
te
2t
+ 2te
3t
+te
4t
_
=
1
(s 2)
2
+
2
(s 3)
2
+
1
(s 4)
2
6.
_
e
2t
(t 1)
2
_
=
_
t
2
e
2t
2te
2t
+e
2t
_
=
2
(s 2)
3

2
(s 2)
2
+
1
s 2
7.
_
e
t
sin3t
_
=
3
(s 1)
2
+ 9
8.
_
e
2t
cos 4t
_
=
s + 2
(s + 2)
2
+ 16
9. {(1 e
t
+ 3e
4t
) cos 5t} = {cos 5t e
t
cos 5t + 3e
4t
cos 5t} =
s
s
2
+ 25

s 1
(s 1)
2
+ 25
+
3(s + 4)
(s + 4)
2
+ 25
10.
_
e
3t
_
9 4t + 10 sin
t
2
__
=
_
9e
3t
4te
3t
+ 10e
3t
sin
t
2
_
=
9
s 3

4
(s 3)
2
+
5
(s 3)
2
+ 1/4
11.
_
1
(s + 2)
3
_
=
_
1
2
2
(s + 2)
3
_
=
1
2
t
2
e
2t
12.
_
1
(s 1)
4
_
=
_
1
6
3!
(s 1)
4
_
=
1
6
t
3
e
t
13.
_
1
s
2
6s + 10
_
=
_
1
(s 3)
2
+ 1
2
_
= e
3t
sint
14.
_
1
s
2
+ 2s + 5
_
=
_
1
2
2
(s + 1)
2
+ 2
2
_
=
1
2
e
t
sin2t
15.
_
s
s
2
+ 4s + 5
_
=
_
(s + 2)
(s + 2)
2
+ 1
2
2
1
(s + 2)
2
+ 1
2
_
= e
2t
cos t 2e
2t
sint
16.
_
2s + 5
s
2
+ 6s + 34
_
=
_
2
(s + 3)
(s + 3)
2
+ 5
2

1
5
5
(s + 3)
2
+ 5
2
_
= 2e
3t
cos 5t
1
5
e
3t
sin5t
17.
_
s
(s + 1)
2
_
=
_
s + 1 1
(s + 1)
2
_
=
_
1
s + 1

1
(s + 1)
2
_
= e
t
te
t
173
Exercises 4.3
18.
_
5s
(s 2)
2
_
=
_
5(s 2) + 10
(s 2)
2
_
=
_
5
s 2
+
10
(s 2)
2
_
= 5e
2t
+ 10te
2t
19.
_
2s 1
s
2
(s + 1)
3
_
=
_
5
s

1
s
2

5
s + 1

4
(s + 1)
2

3
2
2
(s + 1)
3
_
= 5 t 5e
t
4te
t

3
2
t
2
e
t
20.
_
(s + 1)
2
(s + 2)
4
_
=
_
1
(s + 2)
2

2
(s + 2)
3
+
1
6
3!
(s + 2)
4
_
= te
2t
t
2
e
2t
+
1
6
t
3
e
2t
21. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {y} y(0) + 4 {y} =
1
s + 4
.
Solving for {y} we obtain {y} =
1
(s + 4)
2
+
2
s + 4
. Thus
y = te
4t
+ 2e
4t
.
22. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {y} {y} =
1
s
+
1
(s 1)
2
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
1
s(s 1)
+
1
(s 1)
3
=
1
s
+
1
s 1
+
1
(s 1)
3
.
Thus
y = 1 +e
t
+
1
2
t
2
e
t
.
23. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

(0) + 2
_
s {y} y(0)

+ {y} = 0.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
s + 3
(s + 1)
2
=
1
s + 1
+
2
(s + 1)
2
.
Thus
y = e
t
+ 2te
t
.
24. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

## (0) 4 [s {y} y(0)] + 4 {y} =

6
(s 2)
4
.
Solving for {y} we obtain {y} =
1
20
5!
(s 2)
6
. Thus, y =
1
20
t
5
e
2t
.
25. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

## (0) 6 [s {y} y(0)] + 9 {y} =

1
s
2
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
1 +s
2
s
2
(s 3)
2
=
2
27
1
s
+
1
9
1
s
2

2
27
1
s 3
+
10
9
1
(s 3)
2
.
Thus
y =
2
27
+
1
9
t
2
27
e
3t
+
10
9
te
3t
.
174
Exercises 4.3
26. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

## (0) 4 [s {y} y(0)] + 4 {y} =

6
s
4
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
s
5
4s
4
+ 6
s
4
(s 2)
2
=
3
4
1
s
+
9
8
1
s
2
+
3
4
2
s
3
+
1
4
3!
s
4
+
1
4
1
s 2

13
8
1
(s 2)
2
.
Thus
y =
3
4
+
9
8
t +
3
4
t
2
+
1
4
t
3
+
1
4
e
2t

13
8
te
2t
.
27. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

## (0) 6 [s {y} y(0)] + 13 {y} = 0.

Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
3
s
2
6s + 13
=
3
2
2
(s 3)
2
+ 2
2
.
Thus
y =
3
2
e
3t
sin2t.
28. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
2
_
s
2
{y} sy(0)

+ 20
_
s {y} y(0)

+ 51 {y} = 0.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
4s + 40
2s
2
+ 20s + 51
=
2s + 20
(s + 5)
2
+ 1/2
=
2(s + 5)
(s + 5)
2
+ 1/2
+
10
(s + 5)
2
+ 1/2
.
Thus
y = 2e
5t
cos(t/

2 ) + 10

2 e
5t
sin(t/

2 ).
29. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

## (0) [s {y} y(0)] =

s 1
(s 1)
2
+ 1
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
1
s(s
2
2s + 2)
=
1
2
1
s

1
2
s 1
(s 1)
2
+ 1
+
1
2
1
(s 1)
2
+ 1
.
Thus
y =
1
2

1
2
e
t
cos t +
1
2
e
t
sint.
30. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

## (0) 2 [s {y} y(0)] + 5 {y} =

1
s
+
1
s
2
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
4s
2
+s + 1
s
2
(s
2
2s + 5)
=
7
25
1
s
+
1
5
1
s
2
+
7s/25 + 109/25
s
2
2s + 5
=
7
25
1
s
+
1
5
1
s
2

7
25
s 1
(s 1)
2
+ 2
2
+
51
25
2
(s 1)
2
+ 2
2
.
175
Exercises 4.3
Thus
y =
7
25
+
1
5
t
7
25
e
t
cos 2t +
51
25
e
t
sin2t.
31. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the dierential equation and letting c = y(0) we obtain
{y

} + {2y

} + {y} = 0
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

## (0) + 2s {y} 2y(0) + {y} = 0

s
2
{y} cs 2 + 2s {y} 2c + {y} = 0
_
s
2
+ 2s + 1
_
{y} = cs + 2c + 2
{y} =
cs
(s + 1)
2
+
2c + 2
(s + 1)
2
= c
s + 1 1
(s + 1)
2
+
2c + 2
(s + 1)
2
=
c
s + 1
+
c + 2
(s + 1)
2
.
Therefore,
y(t) = c
_
1
s + 1
_
+ (c + 2)
_
1
(s + 1)
2
_
= ce
t
+ (c + 2)te
t
.
To nd c we let y(1) = 2. Then 2 = ce
1
+ (c + 2)e
1
= 2(c + 1)e
1
and c = e 1. Thus
y(t) = (e 1)e
t
+ (e + 1)te
t
.
32. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of the dierential equation and letting c = y

(0) we obtain
{y

} + {8y

} + {20y} = 0
s
2
{y} y

## (0) + 8s {y} + 20 {y} = 0

s
2
{y} c + 8s {y} + 20 {y} = 0
(s
2
+ 8s + 20) {y} = c
{y} =
c
s
2
+ 8s + 20
=
c
(s + 4)
2
+ 4
.
Therefore,
y(t) =
_
c
(s + 4)
2
+ 4
_
= ce
4t
sin2t.
To nd c we let y

() = 0. Then 0 = y

() = ce
4
and c = 0. Thus, y(t) = 0. (Since the dierential equation
is homogeneous and both boundary conditions are 0, we can see immediately that y(t) = 0 is a solution. We
have shown that it is the only solution.)
33. Recall from Chapter 3 that mx

= kxx

## . Now m = W/g = 4/32 =

1
8
slug, and 4 = 2k so that k = 2 lb/ft.
Thus, the dierential equation is x

+ 7x

## + 16x = 0. The initial conditions are x(0) = 3/2 and x

(0) = 0.
The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{x} +
3
2
s + 7s {x} +
21
2
+ 16 {x} = 0.
Solving for {x} we obtain
{x} =
3s/2 21/2
s
2
+ 7s + 16
=
3
2
s + 7/2
(s + 7/2)
2
+ (

15/2)
2

7

15
10

15/2
(s + 7/2)
2
+ (

15/2)
2
.
176
Exercises 4.3
Thus
x =
3
2
e
7t/2
cos

15
2
t
7

15
10
e
7t/2
sin

15
2
t.
34. The dierential equation is
d
2
q
dt
2
+ 20
dq
dt
+ 200q = 150, q(0) = q

(0) = 0.
The Laplace transform of this equation is
s
2
{q} + 20s {q} + 200 {q} =
150
s
.
Solving for {q} we obtain
{q} =
150
s(s
2
+ 20s + 200)
=
3
4
1
s

3
4
s + 10
(s + 10)
2
+ 10
2

3
4
10
(s + 10)
2
+ 10
2
.
Thus
q(t) =
3
4

3
4
e
10t
cos 10t
3
4
e
10t
sin10t
and
i(t) = q

(t) = 15e
10t
sin10t.
35. The dierential equation is
d
2
q
dt
2
+ 2
dq
dt
+
2
q =
E
0
L
, q(0) = q

(0) = 0.
The Laplace transform of this equation is
s
2
{q} + 2s {q} +
2
{q} =
E
0
L
1
s
or
_
s
2
+ 2s +
2
_
{q} =
E
0
L
1
s
.
Solving for {q} and using partial fractions we obtain
{q} =
E
0
L
_
1/
2
s

(1/
2
)s + 2/
2
s
2
+ 2s +
2
_
=
E
0
L
2
_
1
s

s + 2
s
2
+ 2s +
2
_
.
For > we write s
2
+ 2s +
2
= (s +)
2

2
_
, so (recalling that
2
= 1/LC,)
{q} = E
0
C
_
1
s

s +
(s +)
2
(
2

2
)

(s +)
2
(
2

2
)
_
.
Thus for > ,
q(t) = E
0
C
_
1 e
t
cosh
_

2
t

2
sinh
_

2
t
_
.
For < we write s
2
+ 2s +
2
= (s +)
2
+
_

2
_
, so
{q} = E
0
_
1
s

s +
(s +)
2
+ (
2

2
)

(s +)
2
+ (
2

2
)
_
.
Thus for < ,
q(t) = E
0
C
_
1 e
t
cos
_

2
t

2
sin
_

2
t
_
.
For = , s
2
+ 2 +
2
= (s +)
2
and
{q} =
E
0
L
1
s(s +)
2
=
E
0
L
_
1/
2
s

1/
2
s +

1/
(s +)
2
_
=
E
0
L
2
_
1
s

1
s +

(s +)
2
_
.
177
Exercises 4.3
Thus for = ,
q(t) = E
0
C
_
1 e
t
te
t
_
.
36. The dierential equation is
R
dq
dt
+
1
C
q = E
0
e
kt
, q(0) = 0.
The Laplace transform of this equation is
R {q} +
1
C
{q} = E
0
1
s +k
.
Solving for {q} we obtain
{q} =
E
0
C
(s +k)(RC
s
+ 1)
=
E
0
/R
(s +k)(s + 1/RC)
.
When 1/RC = k we have by partial fractions
{q} =
E
0
R
_
1/(1/RC k)
s +k

1/(1/RC k)
s + 1/RC
_
=
E
0
R
1
1/RC k
_
1
s +k

1
s + 1/RC
_
.
Thus
q(t) =
E
0
C
1 kRC
_
e
kt
e
t/RC
_
.
When 1/RC = k we have
{q} =
E
0
R
1
(s +k)
2
.
Thus
q(t) =
E
0
R
te
kt
=
E
0
R
te
t/RC
.
37.
_
(t 1) (t 1)
_
=
e
s
s
2
38.
_
e
2t
(t 2)
_
=
_
e
(t2)
(t 2)
_
=
e
2s
s + 1
39.
_
t (t 2)
_
= {(t 2) (t 2) + 2 (t 2)} =
e
2s
s
2
+
2e
2s
s
40.
_
(3t + 1) (t 1)
_
= 3
_
(t 1) (t 1)
_
+ 4
_
(t 1)
_
=
e
s
s
2
+
4e
s
s
41.
_
cos 2t (t )
_
= {cos 2(t ) (t )} =
se
s
s
2
+ 4
42.
_
sint
_
t

2
__
=
_
cos
_
t

2
_ _
t

2
__
=
se
s
s
2
+ 1
43.
_
e
2s
s
3
_
=
_
1
2

2
s
3
e
2s
_
=
1
2
(t 2)
2
(t 2)
44.
_
(1 +e
2s
)
2
s + 2
_
=
_
1
s + 2
+
2e
2s
s + 2
+
e
4s
s + 2
_
= e
2t
+ 2e
2(t2)
(t 2) +e
2(t4)
(t 4)
45.
_
e
s
s
2
+ 1
_
= sin(t ) (t )
46.
_
se
s/2
s
2
+ 4
_
= cos 2
_
t

2
_ _
t

2
_
178
Exercises 4.3
47.
_
e
s
s(s + 1)
_
=
_
e
s
s

e
s
s + 1
_
= (t 1) e
(t1)
(t 1)
48.
_
e
2s
s
2
(s 1)
_
=
_

e
2s
s

e
2s
s
2
+
e
2s
s 1
_
= (t 2) (t 2) (t 2) +e
t2
(t 2)
49. (c) 50. (e) 51. (f ) 52. (b) 53. (a) 54. (d)
55.
_
2 4 (t 3)
_
=
2
s

4
s
e
3s
56.
_
1 (t 4) + (t 5)
_
=
1
s

e
4s
s
+
e
5s
s
57.
_
t
2
(t 1)
_
=
__
(t 1)
2
+ 2t 1

(t 1)
_
=
__
(t 1)
2
+ 2(t 1) 1

(t 1)
_
=
_
2
s
3
+
2
s
2
+
1
s
_
e
s
58.
_
sint
_
t
3
2
__
=
_
cos
_
t
3
2
_ _
t
3
2
__
=
se
3s/2
s
2
+ 1
59.
_
t t (t 2)
_
=
_
t (t 2) (t 2) 2 (t 2)
_
=
1
s
2

e
2s
s
2

2e
2s
s
60.
_
sint sint (t 2)
_
=
_
sint sin(t 2) (t 2)
_
=
1
s
2
+ 1

e
2s
s
2
+ 1
61.
_
f(t)
_
=
_
(t a) (t b)
_
=
e
as
s

e
bs
s
62.
_
f(t)
_
=
_
(t 1) + (t 2) + (t 3) +
_
=
e
s
s
+
e
2s
s
+
e
3s
s
+ =
1
s
e
s
1 e
s
63. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {y} y(0) + {y} =
5
s
e
s
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
5e
s
s(s + 1)
= 5e
s
_
1
s

1
s + 1
_
.
Thus
y = 5 (t 1) 5e
(t1)
(t 1).
64. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {y} y(0) + {y} =
1
s

2
s
e
s
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
1
s(s + 1)

2e
s
s(s + 1)
=
1
s

1
s + 1
2e
s
_
1
s

1
s + 1
_
.
Thus
y = 1 e
t
2
_
1 e
(t1)
_
(t 1).
65. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {y} y(0) + 2 {y} =
1
s
2
e
s
s + 1
s
2
.
179
Exercises 4.3
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
1
s
2
(s + 2)
e
s
s + 1
s
2
(s + 1)
=
1
4
1
s
+
1
2
1
s
2
+
1
4
1
s + 2
e
s
_
1
4
1
s
+
1
2
1
s
2

1
4
1
s + 2
_
.
Thus
y =
1
4
+
1
2
t +
1
4
e
2t

_
1
4
+
1
2
(t 1)
1
4
e
2(t1)
_
(t 1).
66. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

(0) + 4 {y} =
1
s

e
s
s
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
1 s
s(s
2
+ 4)
e
s
1
s(s
2
+ 4)
=
1
4
1
s

1
4
s
s
2
+ 4

1
2
2
s
2
+ 4
e
s
_
1
4
1
s

1
4
s
s
2
+ 4
_
.
Thus
y =
1
4

1
4
cos 2t
1
2
sin2t
_
1
4

1
4
cos 2(t 1)
_
(t 1).
67. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

(0) + 4 {y} = e
2s
1
s
2
+ 1
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
s
s
2
+ 4
+e
2s
_
1
3
1
s
2
+ 1

1
6
2
s
2
+ 4
_
.
Thus
y = cos 2t +
_
1
3
sin(t 2)
1
6
sin2(t 2)
_
(t 2).
68. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

## (0) 5 [s {y} y(0)] + 6 {y} =

e
s
s
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} = e
s
1
s(s 2)(s 3)
+
1
(s 2)(s 3)
= e
s
_
1
6
1
s

1
2
1
s 2
+
1
3
1
s 3
_

1
s 2
+
1
s 3
.
Thus
y =
_
1
6

1
2
e
2(t1)
+
1
3
e
3(t1)
_
(t 1) +e
3t
e
2t
.
69. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

(0) + {y} =
e
s
s

e
2s
s
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} = e
s
_
1
s

s
s
2
+ 1
_
e
2s
_
1
s

s
s
2
+ 1
_
+
1
s
2
+ 1
.
Thus
y = [1 cos(t )] (t ) [1 cos(t 2)] (t 2) + sint.
180
Exercises 4.3
70. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

(0) + 4
_
s {y} y(0)

+ 3 {y} =
1
s

e
2s
s

e
4s
s
+
e
6s
s
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
1
3
1
s

1
2
1
s + 1
+
1
6
1
s + 3
e
2s
_
1
3
1
s

1
2
1
s + 1
+
1
6
1
s + 3
_
e
4s
_
1
3
1
s

1
2
1
s + 1
+
1
6
1
s + 3
_
+e
6s
_
1
3
1
s

1
2
1
s + 1
+
1
6
1
s + 3
_
.
Thus
y =
1
3

1
2
e
t
+
1
6
e
3t

_
1
3

1
2
e
(t2)
+
1
6
e
3(t2)
_
(t 2)

_
1
3

1
2
e
(t4)
+
1
6
e
3(t4)
_
(t 4) +
_
1
3

1
2
e
(t6)
+
1
6
e
3(t6)
_
(t 6).
71. Recall from Chapter 3 that mx

## = kx + f(t). Now m = W/g = 32/32 = 1 slug, and 32 = 2k so that

k = 16 lb/ft. Thus, the dierential equation is x

## + 16x = f(t). The initial conditions are x(0) = 0, x

(0) = 0.
Also, since
f(t) =
_
20t, 0 t < 5
0, t 5
and 20t = 20(t 5) + 100 we can write
f(t) = 20t 20t (t 5) = 20t 20(t 5) (t 5) 100 (t 5).
The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{x} + 16 {x} =
20
s
2

20
s
2
e
5s

100
s
e
5s
.
Solving for {x} we obtain
{x} =
20
s
2
(s
2
+ 16)

20
s
2
(s
2
+ 16)
e
5s

100
s(s
2
+ 16)
e
5s
=
_
5
4

1
s
2

5
16

4
s
2
+ 16
_
_
1 e
5s
_

_
25
4

1
s

25
4

s
s
2
+ 16
_
e
5s
.
Thus
x(t) =
5
4
t
5
16
sin4t
_
5
4
(t 5)
5
16
sin4(t 5)
_
(t 5)
_
25
4

25
4
cos 4(t 5)
_
(t 5)
=
5
4
t
5
16
sin4t
5
4
t (t 5) +
5
16
sin4(t 5) (t 5) +
25
4
cos 4(t 5) (t 5).
72. Recall from Chapter 3 that mx

## = kx + f(t). Now m = W/g = 32/32 = 1 slug, and 32 = 2k so that

k = 16 lb/ft. Thus, the dierential equation is x

## + 16x = f(t). The initial conditions are x(0) = 0, x

(0) = 0.
Also, since
f(t) =
_
sint, 0 t < 2
0, t 2
and sint = sin(t 2) we can write
f(t) = sint sin(t 2) (t 2).
181
Exercises 4.3
The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{x} + 16 {x} =
1
s
2
+ 1

1
s
2
+ 1
e
2s
.
Solving for {x} we obtain
{x} =
1
(s
2
+ 16) (s
2
+ 1)

1
(s
2
+ 16) (s
2
+ 1)
e
2s
=
1/15
s
2
+ 16
+
1/15
s
2
+ 1

_
1/15
s
2
+ 16
+
1/15
s
2
+ 1
_
e
2s
.
Thus
x(t) =
1
60
sin4t +
1
15
sint +
1
60
sin4(t 2) (t 2)
1
15
sin(t 2) (t 2)
=
_

1
60
sin4t +
1
15
sint, 0 t < 2
0, t 2.
73. The dierential equation is
2.5
dq
dt
+ 12.5q = 5 (t 3).
The Laplace transform of this equation is
s {q} + 5 {q} =
2
s
e
3s
.
Solving for {q} we obtain
{q} =
2
s(s + 5)
e
3s
=
_
2
5

1
s

2
5

1
s + 5
_
e
3s
.
Thus
q(t) =
2
5
(t 3)
2
5
e
5(t3)
(t 3).
74. The dierential equation is
10
dq
dt
+ 10q = 30e
t
30e
t
(t 1.5).
The Laplace transform of this equation is
s {q} q
0
+ {q} =
3
s 1

3e
1.5
s 1.5
e
1.5s
.
Solving for {q} we obtain
{q} =
_
q
0

3
2
_

1
s + 1
+
3
2

1
s 1
3e
1.5
_
2/5
s + 1
+
2/5
s 1.5
_
e
1.55
.
Thus
q(t) =
_
q
0

3
2
_
e
t
+
3
2
e
t
+
6
5
e
1.5
_
e
(t1.5)
e
1.5(t1.5)
_
(t 1.5).
75. (a) The dierential equation is
di
dt
+ 10i = sint + cos
_
t
3
2
_ _
t
3
2
_
, i(0) = 0.
The Laplace transform of this equation is
s {i} + 10 {i} =
1
s
2
+ 1
+
se
3s/2
s
2
+ 1
.
182
1 2 3 4 5 6
t
-0.2
0.2
i
1 2 3 4 5 6
t
1
q
Exercises 4.3
Solving for {i} we obtain
{i} =
1
(s
2
+ 1)(s + 10)
+
s
(s
2
+ 1)(s + 10)
e
3s/2
=
1
101
_
1
s + 10

s
s
2
+ 1
+
10
s
2
+ 1
_
+
1
101
_
10
s + 10
+
10s
s
2
+ 1
+
1
s
2
+ 1
_
e
3s/2
.
Thus
i(t) =
1
101
_
e
10t
cos t + 10 sint
_
+
1
101
_
10e
10(t3/2)
+ 10 cos
_
t
3
2
_
+ sin
_
t
3
2
__ _
t
3
2
_
.
(b)
The maximum value of i(t) is approximately 0.1 at t = 1.7, the minimum is approximately 0.1 at 4.7.
76. (a) The dierential equation is
50
dq
dt
+
1
0.01
q = E
0
[ (t 1) (t 3)], q(0) = 0
or
50
dq
dt
+ 100q = E
0
[ (t 1) (t 3)], q(0) = 0.
The Laplace transform of this equation is
50s {q} + 100 {q} = E
0
_
1
s
e
s

1
s
e
3s
_
.
Solving for {q} we obtain
{q} =
E
0
50
_
e
s
s(s + 2)

e
3s
s(s + 2)
_
=
E
0
50
_
1
2
_
1
s

1
s + 2
_
e
s

1
2
_
1
s

1
s + 2
_
e
3s
_
.
Thus
q(t) =
E
0
100
__
1 e
2(t1)
_
(t 1)
_
1 e
2(t3)
_
(t 3)
_
.
(b)
The maximum value of q(t) is approximately 1 at t = 3.
77. The dierential equation is
EI
d
4
y
dx
4
= w
0
[1 (x L/2)].
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y

(0) = 0 we obtain
s
4
{y} sy

(0) y

(0) =
w
0
EI
1
s
_
1 e
Ls/2
_
.
183
Exercises 4.3
Letting y

(0) = c
1
and y

(0) = c
2
we have
{y} =
c
1
s
3
+
c
2
s
4
+
w
0
EI
1
s
5
_
1 e
Ls/2
_
so that
y(x) =
1
2
c
1
x
2
+
1
6
c
2
x
3
+
1
24
w
0
EI
_
x
4

_
x
L
2
_
4
_
x
L
2
_
_
.
To nd c
1
and c
2
we compute
y

(x) = c
1
+c
2
x +
1
2
w
0
EI
_
x
2

_
x
L
2
_
2
_
x
L
2
_
_
and
y

(x) = c
2
+
w
0
EI
_
x
_
x
L
2
_ _
x
L
2
__
.
Then y

(L) = y

## (L) = 0 yields the system

c
1
+c
2
L +
1
2
w
0
EI
_
L
2

_
L
2
_
2
_
= c
1
+c
2
L +
3
8
w
0
L
2
EI
= 0
c
2
+
w
0
EI
_
L
2
_
= c
2
+
1
2
w
0
L
EI
= 0.
Solving for c
1
and c
2
we obtain c
1
=
1
8
w
0
L
2
/EI and c
2
=
1
2
w
0
L/EI. Thus
y(x) =
w
0
EI
_
1
16
L
2
x
2

1
12
Lx
3
+
1
24
x
4

1
24
_
x
L
2
_
4
_
x
L
2
_
_
.
78. The dierential equation is
EI
d
4
y
dx
4
= w
0
[ (x L/3) (x 2L/3)].
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y

(0) = 0 we obtain
s
4
{y} sy

(0) y

(0) =
w
0
EI
1
s
_
e
Ls/3
e
2Ls/3
_
.
Letting y

(0) = c
1
and y

(0) = c
2
we have
{y} =
c
1
s
3
+
c
2
s
4
+
w
0
EI
1
s
5
_
e
Ls/3
e
2Ls/3
_
so that
y(x) =
1
2
c
1
x
2
+
1
6
c
2
x
3
+
1
24
w
0
EI
_
_
x
L
3
_
4
_
x
L
3
_

_
x
2L
3
_
4
_
x
2L
3
_
_
.
To nd c
1
and c
2
we compute
y

(x) = c
1
+c
2
x +
1
2
w
0
EI
_
_
x
L
3
_
2
_
x
L
3
_

_
x
2L
3
_
2
_
x
2L
3
_
_
and
y

(x) = c
2
+
w
0
EI
__
x
L
3
_ _
x
L
3
_

_
x
2L
3
_ _
x
2L
3
__
.
Then y

(L) = y

## (L) = 0 yields the system

c
1
+c
2
L +
1
2
w
0
EI
_
_
2L
3
_
2

_
L
3
_
2
_
= c
1
+c
2
L +
1
6
w
0
L
2
EI
= 0
c
2
+
w
0
EI
_
2L
3

L
3
_
= c
2
+
1
3
w
0
L
EI
= 0.
184
Exercises 4.3
Solving for c
1
and c
2
we obtain c
1
=
1
6
w
0
L
2
/EI and c
2
=
1
3
w
0
L/EI. Thus
y(x) =
w
0
EI
_
1
12
L
2
x
2

1
18
Lx
3
+
1
24
_
_
x
L
3
_
4
_
x
L
3
_

_
x
2L
3
_
4
_
x
2L
3
_
__
.
79. The dierential equation is
EI
d
4
y
dx
4
=
2w
0
L
_
L
2
x +
_
x
L
2
_ _
x
L
2
__
.
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y

(0) = 0 we obtain
s
4
{y} sy

(0) y

(0) =
2w
0
EIL
_
L
2s

1
s
2
+
1
s
2
e
Ls/2
_
.
Letting y

(0) = c
1
and y

(0) = c
2
we have
{y} =
c
1
s
3
+
c
2
s
4
+
2w
0
EIL
_
L
2s
5

1
s
6
+
1
s
6
e
Ls/2
_
so that
y(x) =
1
2
c
1
x
2
+
1
6
c
2
x
3
+
2w
0
EIL
_
L
48
x
4

1
120
x
5
+
1
120
_
x
L
2
_ _
x
L
2
__
=
1
2
c
1
x
2
+
1
6
c
2
x
3
+
w
0
60EIL
_
5L
2
x
4
x
5
+
_
x
L
2
_
5
_
x
L
2
_
_
.
To nd c
1
and c
2
we compute
y

(x) = c
1
+c
2
x +
w
0
60EIL
_
30Lx
2
20x
3
+ 20
_
x
L
2
_
3
_
x
L
2
_
_
and
y

(x) = c
2
+
w
0
60EIL
_
60Lx 60x
2
+ 60
_
x
L
2
_
2
_
x
L
2
_
_
.
Then y

(L) = y

## (L) = 0 yields the system

c
1
+c
2
L +
w
0
60EIL
_
30L
3
20L
3
+
5
2
L
3
_
= c
1
+c
2
L +
5w
0
L
2
24EI
= 0
c
2
+
w
0
60EIL
[60L
2
60L
2
+ 15L
2
] = c
2
+
w
0
L
4EI
= 0.
Solving for c
1
and c
2
we obtain c
1
= w
0
L
2
/24EI and c
2
= w
0
L/4EI. Thus
y(x) =
w
0
L
2
48EI
x
2

w
0
L
24EI
+
w
0
60EIL
_
5L
2
x
4
x
5
+
_
x
L
2
_
5
_
x
L
2
_
_
.
80. The dierential equation is
EI
d
4
y
dx
4
= w
0
[1 (x L/2)].
Taking the Laplace transform of both sides and using y(0) = y

(0) = 0 we obtain
s
4
{y} sy

(0) y

(0) =
w
0
EI
1
s
_
1 e
Ls/2
_
.
Letting y

(0) = c
1
and y

(0) = c
2
we have
{y} =
c
1
s
3
+
c
2
s
4
+
w
0
EI
1
s
5
_
1 e
Ls/2
_
185
Exercises 4.3
so that
y(x) =
1
2
c
1
x
2
+
1
6
c
2
x
3
+
1
24
w
0
EI
_
x
4

_
x
L
2
_
4
_
x
L
2
_
_
.
To nd c
1
and c
2
we compute
y

(x) = c
1
+c
2
x +
1
2
w
0
EI
_
x
2

_
x
L
2
_
2
_
x
L
2
_
_
.
Then y(L) = y

## (L) = 0 yields the system

1
2
c
1
L
2
+
1
6
c
2
L
3
+
1
24
w
0
EI
_
L
4

_
L
2
_
4
_
=
1
2
c
1
L
2
+
1
6
c
2
L
3
+
5w
0
128EI
L
4
= 0
c
1
+c
2
L +
1
2
w
0
EI
_
L
2

_
L
2
_
2
_
= c
1
+c
2
L +
3w
0
8EI
L
2
= 0.
Solving for c
1
and c
2
we obtain c
1
=
9
128
w
0
L
2
/EI and c
2
=
57
128
w
0
L/EI. Thus
y(x) =
w
0
EI
_
9
256
L
2
x
2

19
256
Lx
3
+
1
24
x
4

1
24
_
x
L
2
_
4
_
x
L
2
_
_
.
81. From Theorem 4.6 we have {te
kti
} = 1/(s ki)
2
. Then, using Eulers formula,
{te
kti
} = {t cos kt +it sinkt} = {t cos kt} +i {t sinkt}
=
1
(s ki)
2
=
(s +ki)
2
(s
2
+k
2
)
2
=
s
2
k
2
(s
2
+k
2
)
2
+i
2ks
(s
2
+k
2
)
2
.
Equating real and imaginary parts we have
{t cos kt} =
s
2
k
2
(s
2
+k
2
)
2
and {t sinkt} =
2ks
(s
2
+k
2
)
2
.
82. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{x} +
2
{x} =
s
s
2
+
2
.
Solving for {x} we obtain {x} = s/(s
2
+
2
)
2
. Thus x = (1/2)t sint.
Exercises 4.4
1. {t cos 2t} =
d
ds
_
s
s
2
+ 4
_
=
s
2
4
(s
2
+ 4)
2
2. {t sinh3t} =
d
ds
_
3
s
2
9
_
=
6s
(s
2
9)
2
3. {t
2
sinht} =
d
2
ds
2
_
1
s
2
1
_
=
6s
2
+ 2
(s
2
1)
3
4. {t
2
cos t} =
d
2
ds
2
_
s
s
2
+ 1
_
=
d
ds
_
1 s
2
(s
2
+ 1)
2
_
=
2s
_
s
2
3
_
(s
2
+ 1)
3
5.
_
te
2t
sin6t
_
=
d
ds
_
6
(s 2)
2
+ 36
_
=
12(s 2)
[(s 2)
2
+ 36]
2
186
Exercises 4.4
6.
_
te
3t
cos 3t
_
=
d
ds
_
s + 3
(s + 3)
2
+ 9
_
=
(s + 3)
2
9
[(s + 3)
2
+ 9]
2
7.
_
1 t
3
_
=
1
s
3!
s
4
=
6
s
5
8.
_
t
2
te
t
_
=
2
s
3
(s 1)
2
9.
_
e
t
e
t
cos t
_
=
s 1
(s + 1) [(s 1)
2
+ 1]
10.
_
e
2t
sint
_
=
1
(s 2)(s
2
+ 1)
11.
__
t
0
e

d
_
=
1
s
{e
t
} =
1
s(s 1)
12.
__
t
0
cos d
_
=
1
s
{cos t} =
s
s(s
2
+ 1)
=
1
s
2
+ 1
13.
__
t
0
e

cos d
_
=
1
s
_
e
t
cos t
_
=
1
s
s + 1
(s + 1)
2
+ 1
=
s + 1
s (s
2
+ 2s + 2)
14.
__
t
0
sin d
_
=
1
s
{t sint} =
1
s
_

d
ds
1
s
2
+ 1
_
=
1
s
2s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
=
2
(s
2
+ 1)
2
15.
__
t
0
e
t
d
_
= {t} {e
t
} =
1
s
2
(s 1)
16.
__
t
0
sin cos(t ) d
_
= {sint} {cos t} =
s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
17.
_
t
_
t
0
sin d
_
=
d
ds
__
t
0
sin d
_
=
d
ds
_
1
s
1
s
2
+ 1
_
=
3s
2
+ 1
s
2
(s
2
+ 1)
2
18.
_
t
_
t
0
e

d
_
=
d
ds
_
t
_
t
0
e

d
_
=
d
ds
_
1
s
1
(s + 1)
2
_
=
3s + 1
s
2
(s + 1)
3
19. (a)
_
1
s(s 1)
_
=
_
1/(s 1)
s
_
=
_
t
0
e

d = e
t
1
(b)
_
1
s
2
(s 1)
_
=
_
1/s(s 1)
s
_
=
_
t
0
(e

1)d = e
t
t 1
(c)
_
1
s
3
(s 1)
_
=
_
1/s
2
(s 1)
s
_
=
_
t
0
(e

1)d = e
t

1
2
t
2
t 1
20. (a) The result in (4) is {F(s)G(s)} = f g, so identify
F(s) =
2k
3
(s
2
+k
2
)
2
and G(s) =
4s
s
2
+k
2
.
Then
f(t) = sinkt kt cos kt and g(t) = 4 cos kt
so
_
8k
3
s
(s
2
+k
2
)
2
_
= {F(s)G(s)} = f g = 4
_
t
0
f()g(t )dt
= 4
_
t
0
(sink k cos k) cos k(t )d.
187
Exercises 4.4
Using a CAS to evaluate the integral we get
_
8k
3
s
(s
2
+k
2
)
3
_
= t sinkt kt
2
cos kt.
(b) Observe from part (a) that
_
t(sinkt kt cos kt)
_
=
8k
3
s
(s
2
+k
2
)
3
,
and from Theorem 4.8 that
_
tf(t)
_
= F

## (s). We saw in (5) that {sinktkt cos kt} = 2k

3
/(s
2
+k
2
)
2
,
so
_
t(sinkt kt cos kt)
_
=
d
ds
2k
3
(s
2
+k
2
)
2
=
8k
3
s
(s
2
+k
2
)
3
.
21. f(t) =
1
t
_
d
ds
[ln(s 3) ln(s + 1)]
_
=
1
t
_
1
s 3

1
s + 1
_
=
1
t
_
e
3t
e
t
_
22. f(t) =
1
t
_
d
ds
_
ln
_
s
2
+ 1
_
ln
_
s
2
+ 4
_
_
=
1
t
_
2s
s
2
+ 1

2s
s
2
+ 2
2
_
=
1
t
(2 cos t 2 cos 2t)
23. {f(t)} =
1
1 e
2as
__
a
0
e
st
dt
_
2a
a
e
st
dt
_
=
(1 e
as
)
2
s(1 e
2as
)
=
1 e
as
s(1 +e
as
)
24. {f(t)} =
1
1 e
2as
_
a
0
e
st
dt =
1
s(1 +e
as
)
25. {f(t)} =
1
1 e
bs
_
b
0
a
b
te
st
dt =
a
s
_
1
bs

1
e
bs
1
_
26. {f(t)} =
1
1 e
2s
__
1
0
te
st
dt +
_
2
1
(2 t)e
st
dt
_
=
1 e
s
s
2
(1 e
2s
)
27. {f(t)} =
1
1 e
s
_

0
e
st
sint dt =
1
s
2
+ 1

e
s/2
+e
s/2
e
s/2
e
s/2
=
1
s
2
+ 1
coth
s
2
28. {f(t)} =
1
1 e
2s
_

0
e
st
sint dt =
1
s
2
+ 1

1
1 e
s
29. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {y} + {y} =
2s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
2s
(s + 1)(s
2
+ 1)
2
=
1
2
1
s + 1

1
2
1
s
2
+ 1
+
1
2
s
s
2
+ 1
+
1
(s
2
+ 1)
2
+
s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
.
Thus
y(t) =
1
2
e
t

1
2
sint +
1
2
cos t +
1
2
(sint t cos t) +
1
2
t sint
=
1
2
e
t
+
1
2
cos t
1
2
t cos t +
1
2
t sint.
30. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {y} {y} =
2(s 1)
((s
2
1)
2
+ 1)
2
.
188
Exercises 4.4
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
2
((s 1)
2
+ 1)
2
.
Thus
y = e
t
sint te
t
cos t.
31. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

(0) + 9 {y} =
s
s
2
+ 9
.
Letting y(0) = 2 and y

## (0) = 5 and solving for {y} we obtain

{y} =
2s
3
+ 5s
2
+ 19s 45
(s
2
+ 9)
2
=
2s
s
2
+ 9
+
5
s
2
+ 9
+
s
(s
2
+ 9)
2
.
Thus
y = 2 cos 3t +
5
3
sin3t +
1
6
t sin3t.
32. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

(0) + {y} =
1
s
2
+ 1
.
Solving for {y} we obtain
{y} =
s
3
s
2
+s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
=
s
s
2
+ 1

1
s
2
+ 1
+
1
(s
2
+ 1)
2
.
Thus
y = cos t
1
2
sint
1
2
t cos t.
33. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

## (0) + 16 {y} = {cos 4t cos 4t (t )}

or
(s
2
+ 16) {y} = 1 +
s
s
2
+ 16
e
s
{cos 4(t +)}
= 1 +
s
s
2
+ 16
e
s
{cos 4t}
= 1 +
s
s
2
+ 16

s
s
2
+ 16
e
s
.
Thus
{y} =
1
s
2
+ 16
+
s
(s
2
+ 16)
2

s
(s
2
+ 16)
2
e
s
and
y =
1
4
sin4t +
1
8
t sin4t
1
8
(t ) sin4(t ) (t ).
34. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} sy(0) y

(0) + {y} =
_
1
_
t

2
_
+ sint
_
t

2
__
(s
2
+ 1) {y} = s +
1
s

1
s
e
s/2
+e
s/2
_
sin
_
t +

2
__
or
= s +
1
s

1
s
e
s/2
+e
s/2
{cos t}
= s +
1
s

1
s
e
s/2
+
s
s
2
+ 1
e
s/2
.
189
1 2 3 4 5 6
t
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
y
1 2 3 4 5 6
t
-4
-2
2
4
y
Exercises 4.4
Thus
{y} =
s
s
2
+ 1
+
1
s(s
2
+ 1)

1
s(s
2
+ 1)
e
s/2
+
s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
e
s/2
=
s
s
2
+ 1
+
1
s

s
s
2
+ 1

_
1
s

s
s
2
+ 1
_
e
s/2
+
s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
e
s/2
=
1
s

_
1
s

s
s
2
+ 1
_
e
s/2
+
s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
e
s/2
and
y = 1
_
1 cos
_
t

2
__ _
t

2
_
+
1
2
_
t

2
_
sin
_
t

2
_ _
t

2
_
= 1 (1 sint)
_
t

2
_
+
1
2
_
t

2
_
cos t
_
t

2
_
.
35. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s
2
{y} + {y} =
1
(s
2
+ 1)
+
2s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
.
Thus
{y} =
1
(s
2
+ 1)
2
+
2s
(s
2
+ 1)
3
and, using Problem 20,
y =
1
2
(sint t cos t) +
1
4
(t sint t
2
cos t).
36. (a)
(b)
37. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
{f} + {t} {f} = {t}.
Solving for {f} we obtain {f} =
1
s
2
+ 1
. Thus, f(t) = sint.
38. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
{f} = {2t} 4 {sint} {f}.
190
Exercises 4.4
Solving for {f} we obtain
{f} =
2s
2
+ 2
s
2
(s
2
+ 5)
=
2
5
1
s
2
+
8
5

5
s
2
+ 5
.
Thus
f(t) =
2
5
t +
8
5

5
sin

5 t.
39. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
{f} =
_
te
t
_
+ {t} {f}.
Solving for {f} we obtain
{f} =
s
2
(s 1)
3
(s + 1)
=
1
8
1
s 1
+
3
4
1
(s 1)
2
+
1
4
2
(s 1)
3

1
8
1
s + 1
.
Thus
f(t) =
1
8
e
t
+
3
4
te
t
+
1
4
t
2
e
t

1
8
e
t
40. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
{f} + 2 {cos t} {f} = 4
_
e
t
_
+ {sint}.
Solving for {f} we obtain
{f} =
4s
2
+s + 5
(s + 1)
3
=
4
s + 1

7
(s + 1)
2
+ 4
2
(s + 1)
3
.
Thus
f(t) = 4e
t
7te
t
+ 4t
2
e
t
.
41. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
{f} + {1} {f} = {1}.
Solving for {f} we obtain {f} =
1
s + 1
. Thus, f(t) = e
t
.
42. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
{f} = {cos t} +
_
e
t
_
{f}.
Solving for {f} we obtain
{f} =
s
s
2
+ 1
+
1
s
2
+ 1
.
Thus
f(t) = cos t + sint.
43. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
{f} = {1} + {t}
8
3
{t
3
} {f}.
Solving for {f} we obtain
{f} =
s
2
(s + 1)
s
4
+ 16
=
s
3
s
4
+ 16
+
s
2
s
4
+ 16
.
Thus
f(t) = cos

2 t cosh

2 t +
1
2

2
(sin

2 t cosh

2 t + cos

2 t sinh

2 t).
191
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
t
-30
-20
-10
10
20
30
i
Exercises 4.4
44. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
{t} 2 {f} =
_
e
t
e
t
_
{f}.
Solving for {f} we obtain
{f} =
s
2
1
2s
4
=
1
2
1
s
2

1
12
3!
s
4
.
Thus
f(t) =
1
2
t
1
12
t
3
.
45. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
s {y} y(0) = {1} {sint} {1} {y}.
Solving for {f} we obtain
{y} =
s
3
s
2
+s
s(s
2
+ 1)
2
=
1
s
2
+ 1
+
1
2
2s
(s
2
+ 1)
2
.
Thus
y = sint
1
2
t sint.
46. The Laplace transform of the given equation is
s {y} y(0) + 6 {y} + 9 {1} {y} = {1}.
Solving for {f} we obtain {y} =
1
(s + 3)
2
. Thus, y = te
3t
.
47. The dierential equation is
0.1
di
dt
+ 3i +
1
0.05
_
t
0
i()d = 100
_
(t 1) (t 2)

or
di
st
+ 30i + 200
_
t
0
i()d = 1000
_
(t 1) (t 2)

,
where i(0) = 0. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {i} y(0) + 30 {i} +
200
s
{i} =
1000
s
(e
s
e
2s
).
Solving for {i} we obtain
{i} =
1000e
s
1000e
2s
s
2
+ 30s + 200
=
_
100
s + 10

100
s + 20
_
(e
s
e
2s
).
Thus
i(t) = 100
_
e
10(t1)
e
20(t1)
_
(t 1) 100
_
e
10(t2)
e
20(t2)
_
(t 2).
192
0.5 1 1.5 2
t
0.5
1
1.5
2
i
1 2 3 4
t
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
i
Exercises 4.4
48. The dierential equation is
0.005
di
dt
+i +
1
0.02
_
t
0
i()d = 100
_
t (t 1) (t 1)

or
di
st
+ 200i + 10,000
_
t
0
i()d = 20,000
_
t (t 1) (t 1)

,
where i(0) = 0. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation is
s {i} + 200 {i} +
10,000
s
{i} = 20,000
_
1
s
2

1
s
2
e
s
_
.
Solving for {i} we obtain
{i} =
20,000
s(s + 100)
2
(1 e
s
) =
_
2
s

2
s + 100

200
(s + 100)
2
_
(1 e
s
).
Thus
i(t) = 2 2e
100t
200te
100t
2 (t 1) + 2e
100(t1)
(t 1) + 200(t 1)e
100(t1)
(t 1).
49. The dierential equation is
di
dt
+i = E(t),
where i(0) = 0. The Laplace transform of this equation is
s {i} + {i} = {E(t)}.
From Problem 23 we have
{E(t)} =
1 e
s
s(1 +e
s
)
.
Thus
(s + 1) {i} =
1 e
s
s(1 +e
s
)
and
{i} =
1 e
s
s(s + 1)(1 +e
s
)
=
1 e
s
s(s + 1)
1
1 +e
s
=
_
1
s

1
s + 1
_
(1 e
s
)(1 e
s
+e
2s
e
3s
+e
4s
)
=
_
1
s

1
s + 1
_
(1 2e
s
+ 2e
2s
2e
3s
+ 2e
4s
).
Therefore
i(t) =
_
1 2 (t 1) + 2 (t 2) 2 (t 3) + 2 (t 4)

_
e
t
+ 2e
(t1)
(t 1) 2e
(t2)
(t 2)
+ 2e
(t3)
(t 3) 2e
(t4)
(t 4) +

= 1 e
t
+ 2

n=1
(1)
n
_
1 e
(tn)
_
(t n).
193
1 2 3 4
t
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
i
Exercises 4.4
50. The dierential equation is
di
dt
+i = E(t),
where i(0) = 0. The Laplace transform of this equation is
s {i} + {i} = {E(t)}.
From Problem 25 we have
{E(t)} =
1
s
_
1
s

1
e
s
1
_
=
1
s
2

1
s
1
e
s
1
.
Thus
(s + 1) {i} =
1
s
2

1
s
1
e
s
1
and
{i} =
1
s
2
(s + 1)

1
s(s + 1)
1
e
s
1
=
_
1
s
2

1
s
+
1
s + 1
_

_
1
s

1
s + 1
_
1
e
s
1
=
_
1
s
2

1
s
+
1
s + 1
_

_
1
s

1
s + 1
_
_
e
s
+e
2s
+e
3s
+e
4s

_
.
Therefore
i(t) =
_
t 1 +e
t
) (1 e
(t1)
_
(t 1)
_
1 e
(t2)
_
(t 2)

_
1 e
(t3)
_
(t 3)
_
1 e
(t4)
_
(t 4)
=
_
t 1 +e
t
_

n=1
_
1 e
(tn)
_
(t n).
51. The dierential equation is x

+ 2x

+ 10x = 20f(t), where f(t) is the meander function with a = . Using the
initial conditions x(0) = x

## (0) = 0 and taking the Laplace transform we obtain

(s
2
+ 2s + 10) {x(t)} =
20
s
(1 e
s
)
1
1 +e
s
=
20
s
(1 e
s
)(1 e
s
+e
2s
e
3s
+ )
=
20
s
(1 2e
s
+ 2e
2s
2e
3s
+ )
=
20
s
+
40
s

n=1
(1)
n
e
ns
.
Then
{x(t)} =
20
s(s
2
+ 2s + 10)
+
40
s(s
2
+ 2s + 10)

n=1
(1)
n
e
ns
=
2
s

2s + 4
s
2
+ 2s + 10
+

n=1
(1)
n
_
4
s

4s + 8
s
2
+ 2s + 10
_
e
ns
=
2
s

2(s + 1) + 2
(s + 1)
2
+ 9
+ 4

n=1
(1)
n
_
1
s

(s + 1) + 1
(s + 1)
2
+ 9
_
e
ns
194

2
t
x
3
3
4 2
t
x
5
5
Exercises 4.4
and
x(t) = 2
_
1 e
t
cos 3t
1
3
e
t
sin3t
_
+ 4

n=1
(1)
n
_
1 e
(tn)
cos 3(t n)

1
3
e
(tn)
sin3(t n)
_
(t n).
The graph of x(t) on the interval [0, 2) is shown below.
52. The dierential equation is x

+ 2x

+x = 5f(t), where f(t) is the square wave function with a = . Using the
initial conditions x(0) = x

## (0) = 0 and taking the Laplace transform, we obtain

(s
2
+ 2s + 1) {x(t)} =
5
s
1
1 +e
s
=
5
s
(1 e
s
+e
2s
e
3s
+e
4s
)
=
5
s

n=0
(1)
n
e
ns
.
Then
{x(t)} =
5
s(s + 1)
2

n=0
(1)
n
e
ns
= 5

n=0
(1)
n
_
1
s

1
s + 1

1
(s + 1)
2
_
e
ns
and
x(t) = 5

n=0
(1)
n
(1 e
(tn)
(t n)e
(tn)
) (t n).
The graph of x(t) on the interval [0, 4) is shown below.
53. Let u = t so that du = d and
f g =
_
t
0
f()g(t ) d =
_
0
t
f(t u)g(u)du = g f.
54. f (g +h) =
_
t
0
f()[g(t ) +h(t )] d =
_
t
0
f()g(t ) d +
_
t
0
f()h(t ) d
=
_
t
0
f()[g(t ) +h(t )] d = f g +f h
195
t
q
5
5
3
Exercises 4.4
55. (a) The output for the rst three lines of the program are
9y[t] + 6y

[t] +y

[t] == t sin[t]
1 2s + 9Y +s
2
Y + 6(2 +sY ) ==
2s
(1 +s
2
)
2
Y
_
11 4s 22s
2
4s
3
11s
4
2s
5
(1 +s
2
)
2
(9 + 6s +s
2
)
_
The fourth line is the same as the third line with Y removed. The nal line of output shows a solution
involving complex coecients of e
it
and e
it
. To get the solution in more standard form write the last line
as two lines:
euler = {E(I t) -> Cos[t] +I Sin[t], E(-I t) -> Cos[t] - I Sin[t]}
InverseLaplaceTransform[Y,s,t]/.euler//Expand
We see that the solution is
y(t) =
_
487
250
+
247
50
t
_
e
3t
+
1
250
(13 cos t 15t cos t 9 sint + 20t sint) .
(b) The solution is
y(t) =
1
6
e
t

1
6
e
t/2
cos

15 t
_
3/5
6
e
t/2
sin

15 t.
(c) The solution is
q(t) = 1 cos t + (6 6 cos t) (t 3) (4 + 4 cos t) (t ).
Exercises 4.5
1. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
1
s 3
e
2s
so that
y = e
3(t2)
(t 2).
2. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
2
s + 1
+
e
s
s + 1
so that
y = 2e
t
+e
(t1)
(t 1).
3. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
1
s
2
+ 1
_
1 +e
2s
_
196
Exercises 4.5
so that
y = sint + sint (t 2).
4. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
1
4
4
s
2
+ 16
e
2s
so that
y =
1
4
sin4(t 2) (t 2).
5. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
1
s
2
+ 1
_
e
s/2
+e
3s/2
_
so that
y = sin
_
t

2
_ _
t

2
_
+ sin
_
t
3
2
_ _
t
3
2
_
= cos t
_
t

2
_
+ cos t
_
t

2
_
.
6. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
s
s
2
+ 1
+
1
s
2
+ 1
(e
2s
+e
4s
)
so that
y = cos t + sint[ (t 2) + (t 4)].
7. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
1
s
2
+ 2s
(1 +e
s
) =
_
1
2
1
s

1
2
1
s + 2
_
(1 +e
s
)
so that
y =
1
2

1
2
e
2t
+
_
1
2

1
2
e
2(t1)
_
(t 1).
8. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
s + 1
s
2
(s 2)
+
1
s(s 2)
e
2s
=
3
4
1
s 2

3
4
1
s

1
2
1
s
2
+
_
1
2
1
s 2

1
2
1
s
_
e
2s
so that
y =
3
4
e
2t

3
4

1
2
t +
_
1
2
e
2(t2)

1
2
_
(t 2).
9. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
1
(s + 2)
2
+ 1
e
2s
so that
y = e
2(t2)
sint (t 2).
10. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
1
(s + 1)
2
e
s
so that
y = (t 1)e
(t1)
(t 1).
197
Exercises 4.5
11. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
4 +s
s
2
+ 4s + 13
+
e
s
+e
3s
s
2
+ 4s + 13
=
2
3
3
(s + 2)
2
+ 3
2
+
s + 2
(s + 2)
2
+ 3
2
+
1
3
3
(s + 2)
2
+ 3
2
_
e
s
+e
3s
_
so that
y =
2
3
e
2t
sin3t +e
2t
cos 3t +
1
3
e
2(t)
sin3(t ) (t )
+
1
3
e
2(t3)
sin3(t 3) (t 3).
12. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
1
(s 1)
2
(s 6)
+
e
2s
+e
4s
(s 1)(s 6)
=
1
25
1
s 1

1
5
1
(s 1)
2
+
1
25
1
s 6
+
_

1
5
1
s 1
+
1
5
1
s 6
_
_
e
2s
+e
4s
_
so that
y =
1
25
e
t

1
5
te
t
+
1
25
e
6t
+
_

1
5
e
t2
+
1
5
e
6(t2)
_
(t 2)
+
_

1
5
e
t4
+
1
5
e
6(t4)
_
(t 4).
13. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
1
2
2
s
3
y

(0) +
1
6
3!
s
4
y

(0) +
1
6
P
0
EI
3!
s
4
e
Ls/2
so that
y =
1
2
y

(0)x
2
+
1
6
y

(0)x
3
+
1
6
P
0
EI
_
X
L
2
_
3
_
x
L
2
_
.
Using y

(L) = 0 and y

(L) = 0 we obtain
y =
1
4
P
0
L
EI
x
2

1
6
P
0
EI
x
3
+
1
6
P
0
EI
_
x
L
2
_
3
_
x
L
2
_
=
_

_
P
0
EI
_
L
4
x
2

1
6
x
3
_
, 0 x <
L
2
P
0
L
2
4EI
_
1
2
x
L
12
_
,
L
2
x L.
14. From Problem 13 we know that
y =
1
2
y

(0)x
2
+
1
6
y

(0)x
3
+
1
6
P
0
EI
_
X
L
2
_
3
_
x
L
2
_
.
Using y(L) = 0 and y

(L) = 0 we obtain
y =
1
16
P
0
L
EI
x
2

1
12
P
0
EI
x
3
+
1
6
P
0
EI
_
x
L
2
_
3
_
x
L
2
_
=
_

_
P
0
EI
_
L
16
x
2

1
12
x
3
_
, 0 x <
L
2
P
0
EI
_
L
16
x
2

1
12
x
3
_
+
1
6
P
0
EI
_
x
L
2
_
3
,
L
2
x L.
198
Exercises 4.6
15. The Laplace transform of the dierential equation yields
{y} =
1
s
2
+
2
so that y(t) = sint. Note that y

## (0) = 1, even though the initial condition was y

(0) = 0.
Exercises 4.6
1. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
s {x} = {x} + {y}
s {y} 1 = 2 {x}
{x} =
1
(s 1)(s + 2)
=
1
3
1
s 1

1
3
1
s + 2
so that
{y} =
1
s
+
2
s(s 1)(s + 2)
=
2
3
1
s 1
+
1
3
1
s + 2
. and
Then x =
1
3
e
t

1
3
e
2t
and y =
2
3
e
t
+
1
3
e
2t
.
2. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
s {x} 1 = 2 {y} +
1
s 1
s {y} 1 = 8 {x}
1
s
2
{y} =
s
3
+ 7s
2
s + 1
s(s 1)(s
2
16)
=
1
16
1
s

8
15
1
s 1
+
173
96
1
s 4

53
160
1
s + 4
so that
y =
1
16

8
15
e
t
+
173
96
e
4t

53
160
e
4t
. and
Then x =
1
8
y

+
1
8
t =
1
8
t
1
15
e
t
+
173
192
e
4t
+
53
320
e
4t
.
3. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
s {x} + 1 = {x} 2 {y}
s {y} 2 = 5 {x} {y}
{x} =
s 5
s
2
+ 9
=
s
s
2
+ 9

5
3
3
s
2
+ 9
so that
x = cos 3t
5
3
sin3t. and
Then y =
1
2
x
1
2
x

= 2 cos 3t
7
3
sin3t.
4. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
(s + 3) {x} +s {y} =
1
s
(s 1) {x} + (s 1) {y} =
1
s 1
199
Exercises 4.6
{y} =
5s 1
3s(s 1)
2
=
1
3
1
s
+
1
3
1
s 1
+
4
3
1
(s 1)
2
so that
{x} =
1 2s
3s(s 1)
2
=
1
3
1
s

1
3
1
s 1

1
3
1
(s 1)
2
. and
Then x =
1
3

1
3
e
t

1
3
te
t
and y =
1
3
+
1
3
e
t
+
4
3
te
t
.
5. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
(2s 2) {x} +s {y} =
1
s
(s 3) {x} + (s 3) {y} =
2
s
{x} =
s 3
s(s 2)(s 3)
=
1
2
1
s
+
5
2
1
s 2

2
s 3
so that
{y} =
3s 1
s(s 2)(s 3)
=
1
6
1
s

5
2
1
s 2
+
8
3
1
s 3
. and
Then x =
1
2
+
5
2
e
2t
2e
3t
and y =
1
6

5
2
e
2t
+
8
3
e
3t
.
6. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
(s + 1) {x} (s 1) {y} = 1
s {x} + (s + 2) {y} = 1
{y} =
s + 1/2
s
2
+s + 1
=
s + 1/2
(s + 1/2)
2
+ (

3/2)
2
so that
{x} =
3/2
s
2
+s + 1
=
3/2
(s + 1/2)
2
+ (

3/2)
2
. and
Then y = e
t/2
cos

3
2
t and x = e
t/2
sin

3
2
t.
7. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
(s
2
+ 1) {x} {y} = 2
{x} + (s
2
+ 1) {y} = 1
{x} =
2s
2
1
s
4
+ 2s
2
=
1
2
1
s
2

3
2
1
s
2
+ 2
so that
x =
1
2
t
3
2

2
sin

2 t. and
Then y = x

+x =
1
2
t +
3
2

2
sin

2 t.
8. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
(s + 1) {x} + {y} = 1
4 {x} (s + 1) {y} = 1
200
Exercises 4.6
{x} =
s + 2
s
2
+ 2s + 5
=
s + 1
(s + 1)
2
+ 2
2
+
1
2
2
(s + 1)
2
+ 2
2
so that
{y} =
s + 3
s
2
+ 2s + 5
=
s + 1
(s + 1)
2
+ 2
2
+ 2
2
(s + 1)
2
+ 2
2
. and
Then x = e
t
cos 2t +
1
2
e
t
sin2t and y = e
t
cos 2t + 2e
t
sin2t.
9. Adding the equations and then subtracting them gives
d
2
x
dt
2
=
1
2
t
2
+ 2t
d
2
y
dt
2
=
1
2
t
2
2t.
Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
{x} = 8
1
s
+
1
24
4!
s
5
+
1
3
3!
s
4
and
{y} =
1
24
4!
s
5

1
3
3!
s
4
so that x = 8 +
1
24
t
4
+
1
3
t
3
and y =
1
24
t
4

1
3
t
3
.
10. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
(s 4) {x} +s
3
{y} =
6
s
2
+ 1
(s + 2) {x} 2s
3
{y} = 0
{x} =
4
(s 2)(s
2
+ 1)
=
4
5
1
s 2

4
5
s
s
2
+ 1

8
5
1
s
2
+ 1
so that
{y} =
2s + 4
s
3
(s 2)(s
2
+ 1)
=
1
s

2
s
2
2
2
s
3
+
1
5
1
s 2

6
5
s
s
2
+ 1
+
8
5
1
s
2
+ 1
. and
x =
4
5
e
2t

4
5
cos t
8
5
sint Then
y = 1 2t 2t
2
+
1
5
e
2t

6
5
cos t +
8
5
sint. and
11. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
s
2
{x} + 3(s + 1) {y} = 2
s
2
{x} + 3 {y} =
1
(s + 1)
2
so that {x} =
2s + 1
s
3
(s + 1)
=
1
s
+
1
s
2
+
1
2
2
s
3

1
s + 1
.
x = 1 +t +
1
2
t
2
e
t
Then
y =
1
3
te
t

1
3
x

=
1
3
te
t
+
1
3
e
t

1
3
. and
201
Exercises 4.6
12. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
(s 4) {x} + 2 {y} =
2e
s
s
3 {x} + (s + 1) {y} =
1
2
+
e
s
s
{x} =
1/2
(s 1)(s 2)
+e
s
1
(s 1)(s 2)
so that
=
_
1
2
1
s 1

1
2
1
s 2
_
+e
s
_

1
s 1
+
1
s 2
_
{y} =
e
s
s
+
s/4 1
(s 1)(s 2)
+e
s
s/2 + 2
(s 1)(s 2)
and
=
3
4
1
s 1

1
2
1
s 2
+e
s
_
1
s

3
2
1
s 1
+
1
s 2
_
.
x =
1
2
e
t

1
2
e
2t
+
_
e
t1
+e
2(t1)
_
(t 1) Then
y =
3
4
e
t

1
2
e
2t
+
_
1
3
2
e
t1
+e
2(t1)
_
(t 1). and
13. The system is
x

1
= 3x
1
+ 2(x
2
x
1
)
x

2
= 2(x
2
x
1
)
x
1
(0) = 0
x

1
(0) = 1
x
2
(0) = 1
x

2
(0) = 0.
Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
(s
2
+ 5) {x
1
} 2 {x
2
} = 1
2 {x
1
} + (s
2
+ 2) {x
2
} = s
{x
1
} =
s
2
+ 2s + 2
s
4
+ 7s
2
+ 6
=
2
5
s
s
2
+ 1
+
1
5
1
s
2
+ 1

2
5
s
s
2
+ 6
+
4
5

6
s
2
+ 6
so that
{x
2
} =
s
3
+ 5s + 2
(s
2
+ 1)(s
2
+ 6)
=
4
5
s
s
2
+ 1
+
2
5
1
s
2
+ 1
+
1
5
s
s
2
+ 6

2
5

6
s
2
+ 6
. and
x
1
=
2
5
cos t +
1
5
sint
2
5
cos

6 t +
4
5

6
sin

6 t Then
x
2
=
4
5
cos t +
2
5
sint +
1
5
cos

6 t
2
5

6
sin

6 t. and
14. In this system x
1
and x
2
represent displacements of masses m
1
and m
2
from their equilibrium positions. Since
the net forces acting on m
1
and m
2
are
k
1
x
1
+k
2
(x
2
x
1
) and k
2
(x
2
x
1
) k
3
x
2
,
202
Exercises 4.6
respectively, Newtons second law of motion gives
m
1
x

1
= k
1
x
1
+k
2
(x
2
x
1
)
m
2
x

2
= k
2
(x
2
x
1
) k
3
x
2
.
Using k
1
= k
2
= k
3
= 1, m
1
= m
2
= 1, x
1
(0) = 0, x
1
(0) = 1, x
2
(0) = 0, and x

2
(0) = 1, and taking the
Laplace transform of the system, we obtain
(2 +s
2
) {x
1
} {x
2
} = 1
{x
1
} (2 +s
2
) {x
2
} = 1
so that {x
1
} =
1
s
2
+ 3
and {x
2
} =
1
s
2
+ 3
.
Then x
1
=
1

3
sin

3 t and x
2
=
1

3
sin

3 t.
15. (a) By Kirchos rst law we have i
1
= i
2
+i
3
. By Kirchos second law, on each loop we have E(t) = Ri
1
+L
1
i

2
and E(t) = Ri
1
+L
2
i

3
or L
1
i

2
+Ri
2
+Ri
3
= E(t) and L
2
i

3
+Ri
2
+Ri
3
= E(t).
(b) Taking the Laplace transform of the system
0.01i

2
+ 5i
2
+ 5i
3
= 100
0.0125i

3
+ 5i
2
+ 5i
3
= 100
(s + 500) {i
2
} + 500 {i
3
} =
10,000
s
gives
400 {i
2
} + (s + 400) {i
3
} =
8,000
s
so that {i
3
} =
8,000
s
2
+ 900s
=
80
9
1
s

80
9
1
s + 900
.
Then
i
3
=
80
9

80
9
e
900t
and i
2
= 20 0.0025i

3
i
3
=
100
9

100
9
e
900t
.
(c) i
1
= i
2
+i
3
= 20 20e
900t
16. (a) Taking the Laplace transform of the system
i

2
+i

3
+ 10i
2
= 120 120 (t 2)
10i

2
+ 5i

3
+ 5i
3
= 0
(s + 10) {i
2
} +s {i
3
} =
120
s
_
1 e
2s
_
gives
10s {i
2
} + 5(s + 1) {i
3
} = 0
so that
{i
2
} =
120(s + 1)
(3s
2
+ 11s + 10)s
_
1 e
2s
_
=
_
48
s + 5/3

60
s + 2
+
12
s
_
_
1 e
2s
_
and
{i
3
} =
240
3s
2
+ 11s + 10
_
1 e
2s
_
=
_
240
s + 5/3

240
s + 2
_
_
1 e
2s
_
.
203
Exercises 4.6
i
2
= 12 + 48e
5t/3
60e
2t

_
12 + 48e
5(t2)/3
60e
2(t2)
_
(t 2) Then
i
3
= 240e
5t/3
240e
2t

_
240e
5(t2)/3
240e
2(t2)
_
(t 2). and
(b) i
1
= i
2
+i
3
= 12 + 288e
5t/3
300e
2t

_
12 + 288e
5(t2)/3
300e
2(t2)
_
(t 2)
17. Taking the Laplace transform of the system
i

2
+ 11i
2
+ 6i
3
= 50 sint
i

3
+ 6i
2
+ 6i
3
= 50 sint
(s + 11) {i
2
} + 6 {i
3
} =
50
s
2
+ 1
gives
6 {i
2
} + (s + 6) {i
3
} =
50
s
2
+ 1
so that
{i
2
} =
50s
(s + 2)(s + 15)(s
2
+ 1)
=
20
13
1
s + 2
+
375
1469
1
s + 15
+
145
113
s
s
2
+ 1
+
85
113
1
s
2
+ 1
.
i
2
=
20
13
e
2t
+
375
1469
e
15t
+
145
113
cos t +
85
113
sint Then
i
3
=
25
3
sint
1
6
i

11
6
i
2
=
30
13
e
2t
+
250
1469
e
15t

280
113
cos t +
810
113
sint. and
18. Taking the Laplace transform of the system
0.5i

1
+ 50i
2
= 60
0.005i

2
+i
2
i
1
= 0
s {i
1
} + 100 {i
2
} =
120
s
gives
200 {i
1
} + (s + 200) {i
2
} = 0
so that
{i
2
} =
24,000
s(s
2
+ 200s + 20,000)
=
6
5
1
s

6
5
s + 100
(s + 100)
2
+ 100
2

6
5
100
(s + 100)
2
+ 100
2
.
i
2
=
6
5

6
5
e
100t
cos 100t
6
5
e
100t
sin100t Then
i
1
= 0.005i

2
+i
2
=
6
5

6
5
e
100t
cos 100t. and
19. Taking the Laplace transform of the system
2i

1
+ 50i
2
= 60
0.005i

2
+i
2
i
1
= 0
2s {i
1
} + 50 {i
2
} =
60
s
gives
200 {i
1
} + (s + 200) {i
2
} = 0
{i
2
} =
6,000
s(s
2
+ 200s + 5,000)
so that
=
6
5
1
s

6
5
s + 100
(s + 100)
2
(50

2 )
2

6

2
5
50

2
(s + 100)
2
(50

2 )
2
.
204
Exercises 4.6
i
2
=
6
5

6
5
e
100t
cosh50

2 t
6

2
5
e
100t
sinh50

2 t Then
i
1
= 0.005i

2
+i
2
=
6
5

6
5
e
100t
cosh50

2 t
9

2
10
e
100t
sinh50

2 t. and
20. (a) Using Kirchos rst law we write i
1
= i
2
+i
3
. Since i
2
= dq/dt we have i
1
i
3
= dq/dt. Using Kirchos
second law and summing the voltage drops across the shorter loop gives
E(t) = iR
1
+
1
C
q, (1)
so that i
1
=
1
R
1
E(t)
1
R
1
C
q.
Then
dq
dt
= i
1
i
3
=
1
R
1
E(t)
1
R
1
C
q i
3
and R
1
dq
dt
+
1
C
q +R
1
i
3
= E(t).
Summing the voltage drops across the longer loop gives
E(t) = i
1
R
1
+L
di
3
dt
+R
2
i
3
.
Combining this with (1) we obtain
i
1
R
1
+L
di
3
dt
+R
2
i
3
= i
1
R
1
+
1
C
q
L
di
3
dt
+R
2
i
3

1
C
q = 0. or
(b) Using L = R
1
= R
2
= C = 1, E(t) = 50e
t
(t 1) = 50e
1
e
(t1)
(t 1), q(0) = i
3
(0) = 0, and taking
the Laplace transform of the system we obtain
(s + 1) {q} + {i
3
} =
50e
1
s + 1
e
s
(s + 1) {i
3
} {q} = 0,
so that {q} =
50e
1
e
s
(s + 1)
2
+ 1
and q(t) = 50e
1
e
(t1)
sin(t 1) (t 1) = 50e
t
sin(t 1) (t 1).
21. (a) Taking the Laplace transform of the system
4

1
+

2
+ 8
1
= 0

1
+

2
+ 2
2
= 0
4
_
s
2
+ 2
_
{
1
} +s
2
{
2
} = 3s gives
s
2
{
1
} +
_
s
2
+ 2
_
{
2
} = 0
so that
_
3s
2
+ 4
_ _
s
2
+ 4
_
{
2
} = 3s
3
or {
2
} =
1
2
s
s
2
+ 4/3

3
2
s
s
2
+ 4
.
205
3 6
t
1
2
1
1
2
3 6
t
2
2
1
1
2
-1-0.5 0.5 1
1
-2
-1
1
2
2
t

1

2
1 -0.2111 0.8263
2 -0.6585 0.6438
3 0.4830 -1.9145
4 -0.1325 0.1715
5 -0.4111 1.6951
6 0.8327 -0.8662
7 0.0458 -0.3186
8 -0.9639 0.9452
9 0.3534 -1.2741
10 0.4370 -0.3502
t=0
t=1
t=2
t=3
t=4
t=5
Exercises 4.6
Then
2
=
1
2
cos
2

3
t
3
2
cos 2t and

1
=

2
2
2
so that
1
=
1
4
cos
2

3
t +
3
4
cos 2t.
(b)
Mass m
2
has extreme displacements of greater magnitude. Mass m
1
rst passes through its equilibrium
position at about t = 0.87, and mass m
2
rst passes through its equilibrium position at about t = 0.66.
The motion of the pendulums is not periodic since cos 2t/

3 has period

3 , cos 2t has period , and the
ratio of these periods is

3 , which is not a rational number.
(c) The Lissajous curve is plotted for 0 t 30.
(d)
206
t=6
t=7
t=8
t=9
t=10
t=0.75
Chapter 4 Review Exercises
(e) Using a CAS to solve
1
(t) =
2
(t) we see that
1
=
2
(so that the double pendulum
is straight out) when t is about 0.75 seconds.
(f ) To make a movie of the pendulum it is necessary to locate the mass in the plane as a function of time.
Suppose that the upper arm is attached to the origin and that the equilibrium position lies along the
negative y-axis. Then mass m
1
is at (x, (t), y
1
(t)) and mass m
2
is at (x
2
(t), y
2
(t)), where
x
1
(t) = 16 sin
1
(t) and y
1
(t) = 16 cos
1
(t)
and
x
2
(t) = x
1
(t) + 16 sin
2
(t) and y
2
(t) = y
1
(t) 16 cos
2
(t).
A reasonable movie can be constructed by letting t range from 0 to 10 in increments of 0.1 seconds.
Chapter 4 Review Exercises
1. {f(t)} =
_
1
0
te
st
dt +
_

1
(2 t)e
st
dt =
1
s
2

2
s
2
e
s
2. {f(t)} =
_
4
2
e
st
dt =
1
s
_
e
2s
e
4s
_
3. False; consider f(t) = t
1/2
.
4. False, since f(t) = (e
t
)
10
= e
10t
.
5. True, since lim
s
F(s) = 1 = 0. (See Theorem 4.5 in the text.)
6. False; consider f(t) = 1 and g(t) = 1.
7.
_
e
7t
_
=
1
s + 7
8.
_
te
7t
_
=
1
(s + 7)
2
9. {sin2t} =
2
s
2
+ 4
10.
_
e
3t
sin2t
_
=
2
(s + 3)
2
+ 4
11. {t sin2t} =
d
ds
_
2
s
2
+ 4
_
=
4s
(s
2
+ 4)
2
207
Chapter 4 Review Exercises
12. {sin2t (t )} = {sin2(t ) (t )} =
2
s
2
+ 4
e
s
13.
_
20
s
6
_
=
_
1
6
5!
s
6
_
=
1
6
t
5
14.
_
1
3s 1
_
=
_
1
3
1
s 1/3
_
=
1
3
e
t/3
15.
_
1
(s 5)
3
_
=
_
1
2
2
(s 5)
3
_
=
1
2
t
2
e
5t
16.
_
1
s
2
5
_
=
_

5
1
s +

5
+
1

5
1
s

5
_
=
1

5
e

5 t
+
1

5
e

5 t
17.
_
s
s
2
10s + 29
_
=
_
s 5
(s 5)
2
+ 2
2
+
5
2
2
(s 5)
2
+ 2
2
_
= e
5t
cos 2t +
5
2
e
5t
sin2t
18.
_
1
s
2
e
5s
_
= (t 5) (t 5)
19.
_
s +
s
2
+
2
e
s
_
=
_
s
s
2
+
2
e
s
+

s
2
+
2
e
s
_
= cos (t 1) (t 1) + sin(t 1) (t 1)
20.
_
1
L
2
s
2
+n
2

2
_
=
1
L
2
L
n
_
n/L
s
2
+ (n
2

2
)/L
2
_
=
1
Ln
sin
n
L
t
21.
_
e
5t
_
exists for s > 5.
22.
_
te
8t
f(t)
_
=
d
ds
F(s 8).
23. {e
at
f(t k) (t k)} = e
ks
{e
a(t+k)
f(t)} = e
ks
e
ak
{e
at
f(t)} = e
k(sa)
F(s a)
24.
__
t
0
e
a
f() d
_
=
1
s
{e
at
f(t)} =
F(s a)
s
, whereas
_
e
at
_
t
0
f() d
_
=
__
t
0
f() d
_

ssa
=
F(s)
s

ssa
=
F(s a)
s a
.
25. f(t) (t t
0
)
26. f(t) f(t) (t t
0
)
27. f(t t
0
) (t t
0
)
28. f(t) f(t) (t t
0
) +f(t) (t t
1
)
29. f(t) = t [(t 1) + 1] (t 1) + (t 1) (t 4) = t (t 1) (t 1) (t 4)
{f(t)} =
1
s
2

1
s
2
e
s

1
s
e
4s
_
e
t
f(t)
_
=
1
(s 1)
2

1
(s 1)
2
e
(s1)

1
s 1
e
4(s1)
30. f(t) = sint (t ) sint (t 3) = sin(t ) (t ) + sin(t 3) (t 3)
{f(t)} =
1
s
2
+ 1
e
s
+
1
s
2
+ 1
e
3s
_
e
t
f(t)
_
=
1
(s 1)
2
+ 1
e
(s1)
+
1
(s 1)
2
+ 1
e
3(s1)
208
Chapter 4 Review Exercises
31. f(t) = 2 2 (t 2) + [(t 2) + 2] (t 2) = 2 + (t 2) (t 2)
{f(t)} =
2
s
+
1
s
2
e
2s
_
e
t
f(t)
_
=
2
s 1
+
1
(s 1)
2
e
2(s1)
32. f(t) = t t (t 1) + (2 t) (t 1) (2 t) (t 2) = t 2(t 1) (t 1) + (t 2) (t 2)
{f(t)} =
1
s
2

2
s
2
e
s
+
1
s
2
e
2s
_
e
t
f(t)
_
=
1
(s 1)
2

2
(s 1)
2
e
(s1)
+
1
(s 1)
2
e
2(s1)
33. Taking the Laplace transform of the dierential equation we obtain
{y} =
5
(s 1)
2
+
1
2
2
(s 1)
3
so that
y = 5te
t
+
1
2
t
2
e
t
.
34. Taking the Laplace transform of the dierential equation we obtain
{y} =
1
(s 1)
2
(s
2
8s + 20)
=
6
169
1
s 1
+
1
13
1
(s 1)
2

6
169
s 4
(s 4)
2
+ 2
2
+
5
338
2
(s 4)
2
+ 2
2
so that
y =
6
169
e
t
+
1
13
te
t

6
169
e
4t
cos 2t +
5
338
e
4t
sin2t.
35. Taking the Laplace transform of the given dierential equation we obtain
{y} =
s
3
+ 6s
2
+ 1
s
2
(s + 1)(s + 5)

1
s
2
(s + 1)(s + 5)
e
2s

2
s(s + 1)(s + 5)
e
2s
=
6
25

1
s
+
1
5

1
s
2
+
3
2

1
s + 1

13
50

1
s + 5

6
25

1
s
+
1
5

1
s
2
+
1
4

1
s + 1

1
100

1
s + 5
_
e
2s

_
2
5

1
5

1
2

1
s + 1
+
1
10

1
s + 5
_
e
2s
so that
y =
6
25
+
1
5
t
2
+
3
2
e
t

13
50
e
5t

4
25
(t 2)
1
5
(t 2)
2
(t 2)
+
1
4
e
(t2)
(t 2)
9
100
e
5(t2)
(t 2).
36. Taking the Laplace transform of the dierential equation we obtain
{y} =
s
3
+ 2
s
3
(s 5)

2 + 2s +s
2
s
3
(s 5)
e
s
=
2
125
1
s

2
25
1
s
2

1
5
2
s
3
+
127
125
1
s 5

_

37
125
1
s

12
25
1
s
2

1
5
2
s
3
+
37
125
1
s 5
_
e
s
so that
y =
2
125

2
25
t
1
5
t
2
+
127
125
e
5t

37
125

12
25
(t 1)
1
5
(t 1)
2
+
37
125
e
5(t1)
_
(t 1).
209
Chapter 4 Review Exercises
37. Taking the Laplace transform of the integral equation we obtain
{y} =
1
s
+
1
s
2
+
1
2
2
s
3
so that
y(t) = 1 +t +
1
2
t
2
.
38. Taking the Laplace transform of the integral equation we obtain
( {f})
2
= 6
6
s
4
or {f} = 6
1
s
2
so that f(t) = 6t.
39. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
s {x} + {y} =
1
s
2
+ 1
4 {x} +s {y} = 2
so that
{x} =
s
2
2s + 1
s(s 2)(s + 2)
=
1
4
1
s
+
1
8
1
s 2
+
9
8
1
s + 2
.
Then
x =
1
4
+
1
8
e
2t
+
9
8
e
2t
and y = x

+t =
9
4
e
2t

1
4
e
2t
+t.
40. Taking the Laplace transform of the system gives
s
2
{x} +s
2
{y} =
1
s 2
2s {x} +s
2
{y} =
1
s 2
so that
{x} =
2
s(s 2)
2
=
1
2
1
s

1
2
1
s 2
+
1
(s 2)
2
and
{y} =
s 2
s
2
(s 2)
2
=
3
4
1
s

1
2
1
s
2
+
3
4
1
s 2

1
(s 2)
2
.
Then
x =
1
2

1
2
e
2t
+te
2t
and y =
3
4

1
2
t +
3
4
e
2t
te
2t
.
41. The integral equation is
10i + 2
_
t
0
i() d = 2t
2
+ 2t.
Taking the Laplace transform we obtain
{i} =
_
4
s
3
+
2
s
2
_
s
10s + 2
=
s + 2
s
2
(5s + 2)
=
9
s
+
2
s
2
+
45
5s + 1
=
9
s
+
2
s
2
+
9
s + 1/5
.
Thus
i(t) = 9 + 2t + 9e
t/5
.
42. The dierential equation is
1
2
d
2
q
dt
2
+ 10
dq
dt
+ 100q = 10 10 (t 5).
210
Chapter 4 Review Exercises
Taking the Laplace transform we obtain
{q} =
20
2(s
2
+ 20s + 200)
_
1 e
5s
_
=
_
1
10
1
s

1
10
s + 10
(s + 10)
2
+ 10
2

1
10
10
(s + 10)
2
+ 10
2
_
_
1 e
5s
_
so that
q(t) =
1
10

1
10
e
10t
cos 10t
1
10
e
10t
sin10t

_
1
10

1
10
e
10(t5)
cos 10(t 5)
1
10
e
10(t5)
sin10(t 5)
_
(t 5).
43. Taking the Laplace transform of the given dierential equation we obtain
{y} =
2w
0
EIL
_
L
48

4!
s
5

1
120

5!
s
6
+
1
120

5!
s
6
e
sL/2
_
+
c
1
2

2!
s
3
+
c
2
6

3!
s
4
so that
y =
2w
0
EIL
_
L
48
x
4

1
120
x
5
+
1
120
_
x
L
2
_
5
_
x
L
2
_
+
c
1
2
x
2
+
c
2
6
x
3
_
where y

(0) = c
1
and y

(0) = c
2
. Using y

(L) = 0 and y

(L) = 0 we nd
c
1
= w
0
L
2
/24EI, c
2
= w
0
L/4EI.
Hence
y =
w
0
12EIL
_

1
5
x
5
+
L
2
x
4

L
2
2
x
3
+
L
3
4
x
2
+
1
5
_
x
L
2
_
5
_
x
L
2
_
_
.
44. Taking the Laplace transform of the given dierential equation we obtain
{y} =
c
1
2

2s
s
4
+ 4
+
c
2
4

4
s
4
+ 4
+
w
0
4EI

4
s
4
+ 4
e
s/2
so that
y =
c
1
2
sinxsinhx +
c
2
4
(sinxcosh x cos xsinhx)
+
w
0
4EI
_
sin
_
x

2
_
cosh
_
x

2
_
cos
_
x

2
_
sinh
_
x

2
__ _
x

2
_
where y

(0) = c
1
and y

(0) = c
2
. Using y() = 0 and y

() = 0 we nd
c
1
=
w
0
EI
sinh

2
sinh
, c
2
=
w
0
EI
cosh

2
sinh
.
Hence
y =
w
0
2EI
sinh

2
sinh
sinxsinhx
w
0
4EI
cosh

2
sinh
(sinxcosh x cos xsinhx)
+
w
0
4EI
_
sin
_
x

2
_
cosh
_
x

2
_
cos
_
x

2
_
sinh
_
x

2
__ _
x

2
_
.
211