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A Transformer works on the principle of mutual Inductance. It transfers electric power from one circuit to another circuit without change in frequency. It raises or lowers the voltage by lowering or increasing the current. A transformer consists of two windings namely primary winding and secondary windings. These two winding possess high mutual inductance. Electrically these windings are separated. However they are linked magnetically by flux.

THE IMPORTANT PARTS OF TANSFORMERS ARE 1. Main tank., 2.Core, 3. Oil, 4. Winding, 5. Conservator, 6. Breather, Vent pipe, 8.Bushing, 9.Cooling system, 10. Buchholz relay.

MAIN TANK Main tank is made out of either steel plates or boilerplates according to the size. Provisions are given in the main tank for housing bushings, providing manholes, fixing vent pipe. conservators etc.

CORE Transformer core is that part around which the windings are housed and is made out of high permeability steel laminations. In order to improve permeability silicon content is added with steel for manufacture of laminations. The laminations are insulated on both sides. The core is laminated to reduce eddy current losses. According to the manner in which windings are placed around the transformers are classified as core type and shell type. core the

In core type transformer, windings surround a considerable portion of core, whereas in the shell type transformer core surrounds the winding. Fig. shows the core type and shell type transformers. Core laminations are manufactured in the shape E, L, I etc. and then they are assembled to form core. In core type transformers cruciform core is used. Coil is of cylindrical type and form wound. Form of the coils is circular or oval or rectangular.
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SHELL TYPE TRANSFORMER In this transformer multi layer disc type coils are used. The form of these coils are as pancakes. OIL Transformer oil is a petroleum product i.e. it is a mineral oil, which has less fat content.

WINDING The different types of winding are 1. Cross over winding 2. Helical winding 3. Disc or continuous windings.

CONSERVATOR Conservator is provided in the transformer for the following reasons. a) To facilitate the expansion and contraction of oil according to variations of temperature of winding. b) To reduce the surface area of transformer oil exposed to the air. c) To ensure that the transformer is completely filled with oil. d) To collect the sludge formed due to oxidation taking place with in the oil.

BREATHER It will facilitate the sending out of air and permitting the air into the conservator according to variations in the temperature of winding. Further the silica gel in the breather absorbs the moisture from air and permits only moisture free air into conservator. The oil at the bottom of the breather filters the dust of the air entering the conservator.

VENT PIPE The diaphragm provided in the vent pipe breaks and vents out the pressure oil when the pressure inside the transformer increases due to fault. BUSHING There are three types of bushings used for insulation and bringing out the transformer terminal from the main tank. (a) Communicative type, (b) Non communicative type, (c) Capacitor type.
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COOLING SYSTEM OF TRANSFORMER INTRODUCTION All losses in a transformer are dissipated as heat. The heat developed in a transformer causes temperature rise in core and windings. To limit the temperature rise within the specified value, special cooling arrangements are made. Depending upon the capacity of transformers various types of cooling arrangements are adopted. CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSFORMERS For the purpose of cooling, the transformers can be classified as i. dry type transformers. ii. Oil filled transformers. COOLING METHODS 1. For dry type transformers: a. Natural air cooling - type AN 2. For oil filled transformers. OIL CIRCULA TION a. Natural thermal head 1. Air natural 2. Air blast 1. Air natural 2. Air blast 3. Water forced ON AN ON AF OF AN OF AF OF WF COOLING METHOD ABBRIVATION TYPE LETTER b. Forced air-cooling - type AF

b. Forced oil Circulation by pumps

1. NATURAL AIR COOLING: TYPE AN (AIR NATURAL) This type of cooling is adopted for dry type transformers. The natural air coming in contact with the surface of the core and windings takes away the heat developed in it and keeps the temperature of the winding with in limits.

2. FORCED AIR COOLING TYPE AF (AIR FORCED) In this system a blast of air is forced on the core and winding by providing either fans or blower. The effect of cooling is more by forced air cooling method. This method is also adopted for cooling dry type transformers.

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3. ON AN TYPE OF COOLING (OIL NATURAL AIR NATURAL) This type is adopted for oil filled transformers. The heat developed in the core and windings is first transmitted to the oil. The hot oil by its natural thermal head goes to the top of the transformer and then travels downwards through the radiators. During the down wards oil travel, the heat available in the oil is taken away by the atmospheric air coming in contact with the outside surface of the radiators by its natural circulation. The oil so cooled goes back to the transformer tank. This type of heating and cooling process continues as long as the transformer is in service. This type of cooling system is adopted on transformers upto 10MVA capacity. 4 .ON AF TYPE OF COOLING (OIL NATURAL AIR FORCED) In this type of cooling the principle is similar to the one explained above except for blasting of air on the radiators by providing required number of fans. Forced air-cooling accelerated the heat dissipation. ON AF system of cooling is adopted on transformers upto 16MVA capacity. 5. OF AN TYPE OF COOLING (OIL FORCED AIR NATURAL) In this type of cooling air circulation is natural. But oil is forced by providing oil pumps. Because of forced oil circulation the rate of dissipation of heat is more than that of circulation of oil by natural thermal head. 6. OF AF TYPE OF COOLING (OIL FORCED AIR FORCED) In this method both oil and air are forced by providing pumps and fans. This type of cooling is adopted for transformer having capacity of 25 M V A and above. 7. OF WF TYPE OF COOLING (OIL FORCED WATER FORCED) This type of cooling is adopted in transformers installed in hydro generating stations where plenty of water is available. For transformers designed for this type of cooling there will not be any radiator tanks but one or more coolers are provided. Both oil and water are forced to flow by means of pumps. During the process the heat available in the hot oil is transmitted to the cold water. The coolers are designed in such a manner that the oil and water never come in direct contact. The pressure of the oil will be kept slightly more than that of the water pressure so as to avoid mixing of water with the oil in case of puncture of cooler tubes by ageing or due to some other reasons.

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Power Transformer

BUCH - HOLZ RELAY The relay is intended for the protection of transformer in case of short circuit inside the core or failure of insulation. The gas developed is sensed by this relay and gives alarm or disconnects the supply to the power transformer depending upon the magnitude of the fault. It is essential that the trip circuit and alarm circuit and functioning of the relay is checked once in three months or once in a year. POWER TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS Electric power is produced in generating stations, using 3 phase alternators at 11 KV. This is stepped up to 110 KV, 230 KV or 400 KV, using 3 phase power transformers and power is transmitted at this high voltage. PARALLEL OPERATION OF TRANSFORMERS The satisfactory performance of transformers connected on both sides in parallel requires that they have the essential features of the same polarity, the same phase sequence, and zero relative phase - displacement angle, a near identify of voltage ratio and a limited disparity in per unit impedance. POLARITY This can be either right or wrong. If wrong it results in a dead short circuit. PHASE SEQUENCE AND RELATIVE PHASE DISPLACEMENT These questions arise with poly phase transformers. Only a few of the possible connections can be worked in parallel without excessive circulating current on small loads. For example, the secondary voltages of star/star and

star/delta transformers have a phase difference of 30 degrees, making parallel connection inadmissible. The various connections produce various magnitudes, and phase displacements. Magnitudes can be adjusted by tapping but phase divergence must be identical cannot be compensated. The phase sequence must be identical for two parallel transformers. If three secondary terminals a1 b1 c1 of transformer 1 are to be paralleled with a2b2c2 of transformer 2, the polarity and ratio being correct, then al may be connected to a2 if the result is a potential difference across b1b2 or C1C2, then the phase sequences differ. The following are typical of the connections for which, from the point of view of sequence and phase the divergence, transformers can be connected in parallel. Transformer 1 : Yy Yd Yd Transformer 2 : Dd Dy Yd

Thus all transformers in the same group can be paralleled. Further, transformers with a + 30 and a - 30 angle can be paralleled by reversing the primary and secondary phase sequence of one.

VOLTAGE RATIO Equal voltage - ratio (not necessarily precisely the same as equal turns ratio) is necessary to avoid no -load circulating when transformers are in parallel on both primary and secondary sides. The leakage impedance being low, a small difference may cause considerable no - load circulating current and additional I2R loss. On load, the circulating current is, masked, but may cause over - current on one transformer when the paralleled group is loaded to the full combined rating.

LEAKAGE IMPEDANCE The leakage impedances of transformers required to operate in parallel may differ in magnitude and in quality (i.e. in reactance / resistance ratio). It is necessary also to distinguish between per-unit and ohmic impedance, the currents carried by two transformers are proportional to their ratings if their ohmic impedances are inversely proportional, and per-unit impedance directly proportional, to those ratings. A difference in the quality of the per - unit impedance results in a divergence of phase angles of the two currents, so that one transformer will be working with a higher, and the other with a lower power factor than that of the combined output.

VOLTAGE CONTROL, TAP CHANGING Voltage control in a supply network is required for 1) Adjustment of consumer's terminal voltage within the statutory limits. 2) Control of active and reactive power flow in the network. 3) Seasonal, daily and short period adjustments in accordance with the corresponding variations of load. Much of the adjustment is done by altering the effective turns - ratio of the system transformers by tappings on the windings. Adjustments can be made by off circuit tap changing, the common range being + 10 % to in 2.5 % steps. Daily and short - time adjustment is done generally by means of on-load tap-changing gear.
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TAPPINGS The principal tapping is that to which the rating of the winding is related. A positive tapping includes more, and a negative tapping less, turns than those of the principal tap. Tap-changing may be arranged in accordance with one of three conditions, namely, 1) Voltage variation with constant flux and constant turn emf. 2) With varying flux 3) A mixture of both the above. Location of the tapped part of a winding is partly a constructional question. With tappings near the line ends, the number of bushing insulators is reduced, with tapings near the neutral ends the insulation conditions between phases are increased, where a large voltage variation is required. Tappings should be near the centres of the phase windings to reduce magnetic asymmetry, but this arrangement cannot be-used on LV windings placed next to the core. It is not possible to tap other than an integral number of turns and this may cause difficulty with LV windings. It is consequently necessary to tap the HV windings, further advantage in a step-down transformer being that, on light load with lowest secondary voltage, the maximum number of turns is included on the HV side reducing the emf per turn, the flux density and the core loss. Taps at one end are permissible for small transformers. In large units they are placed centrally, both for delta and star-connected windings. Axial mmf unbalance is mitigated by 'thinning' the LV winding or by balancing parts of the winding more symmetrically. The untapped winding may be split into several parts corresponding to the tapped side, and connected in parallel. For very large tapping ranges a special tapping coil may be used.

OFF - CIRCUIT TAP CHANGING This adjustment is obtained by tapping the respective winding as required and taking connections there from to some position near the top of the transformer. Change of tapping is effected by means of hand holes in the cover.

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Power Transformer

Alternatively the reconnection can be made by carrying the tapping leads through the cover for changing by hand or by manually operated switch. Two common types of switch are:

VERTICAL TAPPING SWITCH This comprises of an insulated bar, one for each phase, carrying knife contacts, to be raised or lowered by hand - wheel and gearing to make connection to the tapping contacts.

FACE PLATE SWITCH The spindles of movable contact arms are geared to a shaft with a hand wheel external to the tank. The face plate switches may be mounted on the upper yoke, or located nearer to the tapped positions on the windings.

ON LOAD TAP - CHANGING The essential feature is the maintenance of circuit continuity through out the tap change operation. Momentary connection must be made simultaneously to two adjacent taps during the transition and the short circuit current between them must be limited by some form of impedance. Inductors have been used for this purpose, but in modern designs the current limiting is almost invariably obtained by means of a pair of resistors. Irrespective of the form of transition, on - load tap-changers have one or other of the following switching arrangements. 1) A separate contact for each winding tap and camshaft operation to ensure the proper sequence. 2) Winding taps connected to a selector switch with an associated pair of contacts. Make and break occurs at the selector switch contacts and some degree of carbonisation and wear is unavoidable. This single compartment tap changer is common for transformers rated upto 20 M V A. 3) For very large transformers the tap selector switches do not move when carrying current. Make and break is carried out by two separate diverter switches, usually in a separate compartment to minimise main - oil pollution by
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carbon. The diverters are mechanically interlocked with the selectors, which move to provide the correct sequence of tap connection. On - load tap - changer control gear can vary from simple push - button initiation to complex automatic control of as many as four transformers operating in parallel. The object of control is. to maintain a set voltage level within a specified tolerance, or to raise it with load to compensate for line drop. Potential transformers and current transformers are installed for measuring the voltage and current and also to feed supply to protective relays. Isolators are provided for isolating the supply when the machines are not in service. Thermometers: The oil temperature and winding temperature shall be noted periodically (Le.) once in an hour during the transformer in service. Whenever the temperature exceeds the set limit, an alarm indication will show that the temperature is at a dangerous level. Immediately either load on the transformer shall be reduced or transformer shall be disconnected from services. This alarm circuit also shall be tested once in a year. In higher capacity transformers, forced air-cooling system with set of fans connected to operate at a particular temperature are available. These D.C. circuits shall be frequently tested if necessary or if any defect occurs, that should be rectified immediately.

Silicagel: The expansion and contraction of oil inside the power transformer due to the variations of the load conditions, the air inside the tank of the power transformer has either to leave or enter inside the tank frequently from atmosphere. This phenomenon is called breathing inside the transformer. As the breathing take place chances of atmospheric air with impurities like moisture etc. may get inside the tank and spoil the oil. This is avoided by having a breather fitted with silicagel. The silicagel is usually having a blue colour without absorbing moisture and if it absorbs moisture it will be in pink colour. The silicagel should be watched and should be changed if the colour of the silicagel was found pink.

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Power Transformer

Oil: Transformer oil, a mineral oil, is an insulator. If impurities like moisture, dust etc., are allowed to mix with it, the quality may get deteriorated leading to damage of core insulation. The oil leakage around the body of the transformer should be arrested to avoid the ingress of moisture getting inside. The oil dielectric strength shall be tested once in a quarter by taking out the oil samples through the oil drain pipe. The oil should withstand the dielectric strength of 40 KV per min, when tested by an oil testing kit having a gap length of 40 mm as per I.S.S.

TRANSFORMER - THREE PHASE (HIGH LIGHTS) 1. Out of the various methods available for transforming voltages to higher or i) Y-Y ii) - iii) Y- iv) -Y v) open delta or V-V and vi) Scott - connection or T- T connection. 2. Y-Y connection is most economical for small, high voltage transformers. This connection works satisfactorily only when the load is balanced. The unbalanced load results in shifting or floating neutral. This difficulty of shifting neutral can be obviated by connecting the primary neutral back to the generator. This further helps in eliminating distortion in the secondary phase voltages. 3.

lower 3 phase voltages the most common are

Connection is economical for large, low voltage transformers in which

insulation problems is not so important. There is no angular displacement between primary and secondary voltage triangles. Advantages of this connection: a) it gives sinusoidal secondary voltage. B) No difficulty is experienced from unbalanced loads. C) If one transformer is disabled, the system can continue to work in open delta or V-V although with reduced available capacity. 4. Y- connection IS mostly used at the substation end of a transmission line where the voltages are to be stepped down. There is a 30 shift between the primary and secondary line voltages. It gives sinusoidal voltages.

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- Y connection is generally employed for stepping up the voltages as at the

beginning of a high tension transmission system, it can be used for supplying both 3 phase power equipment and single phase lighting circuits. This connection is open neither to the objection of floating neutral nor to voltage distortion. 6. Open delta V -V connection is employed (a) when the 3 k load is too small for 3 phase transformer bank (b) when one of the transformers in

bank is

disabled (c) when it is anticipated that in future the load will increase necessitating the closing of open delta. It is worth noting that the capacity of a V - V bank is 58% of a - bank. The advantages of this connection are a) the average P.F at which V - V bank operates 86.6% of the balanced load b) except for balanced load unity P.F the two transformers in the V-V bank operate at different P.F c) on increasing the load (even though - balanced) secondary terminal voltages tend to become unbalanced. 7. Scott or T- T connection is used for 30 to 30 conversion with the help of two transformers only. It can also be used for 3 0 to 2 0 transformations. It consists of a main transformer and a tertiary transformer. In this connection, the full rating of the two transformers is not utilized. In fact the capacity to rating ratio is 86.8%. This connection is also used for 30 to 2 0 conversion and vice versa i.e. for supplying 2 phase furnaces, for linking 2 phase circuits with 3 phase systems and also for supplying 3 phase apparatus from a 2 phase supply source.

8. The conditions for parallel running of 3 phase transformer are the same as for parallel operation of single-phase transformers but with the following additions. a. The voltage ratio must refer to the terminal voltages of the primary and secondary.

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b. The phase displacement between primary and secondary voltages must be the same for all transformers, which are to be connected for parallel operation. c. The phase sequence must be the same.

9. Instrument transformers are used, as their name implies for extending the range of AC ammeters and voltmeter.

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Power Transformer