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Chapter 8 Study Guide

Terms
-EI (employment insurance) + An unemployment insurance program in Canada that allows individuals who have recently lost a job to receive temporary financial assistance. +Employment insurance can also be extended to individuals who are unable to work because of illness or who are caring for a young child or a seriously ill family member. +In additional to financial assistance, the program assists the unemployed with job search services. -Health care + Maintaining and restoring health by the treatment and prevention of disease especially by trained and licensed professionals (as in medicine, dentistry, clinical psychology, and public health) -CPP (Canadian pension program) +The Canada Pension Plan (CPP) is a contributory, earnings-related social insurance program. + Two major components of Canada's public retirement income system + Other component being Old Age Security (OAS) + Other parts of Canada's retirement system are private pensions, either employersponsored or from tax-deferred individual savings (known in Canada as a Registered Retirement Savings Plan) +The CPP program mandates all employed Canadians who are 18 years of age and over to contribute a prescribed portion of their earnings income to a nationally administered pension plan. -PST (Provincial Sales tax) +tax paid at the time of buying a product or service, and based on a percentage of the price of the product or service +A provincial sales tax in Alberta. (0%) -GST (Goods and Sales tax) +tax paid at the time of buying a product or service, and based on a percentage of the price of the product or service +a federal sales tax in Canada (5%) -Income tax -Tax, percentage that is taken out of the workers income and paid towards the government to spend. -tax based on a percentage of a persons income -Political platform +A political platform describes the official policies of a political party.

+It reflects a variety of issues, including those linked to social programs and taxation models. -Social program +services provided by government to reduce economic inequalities and promote the well-being of citizens -Canada Health Act + Federal law that sets out five principles for health care in Canada. +The act says that, in every province and territory, health care must be: Publicly administered: run by government for no profit. Comprehensive: for care provided by hospitals, physicians and surgeons. Universal: available to everyone. Portable: available everywhere in Canada, no matter where you make your home in Canada. Accessible: available within reasonable time and distance. +These principles apply to services provided by hospitals, physicians and surgeons. They do not apply to other health services, such as dental care and eye care. (NOT APPLIED) -Tax Evasion +misrepresenting what you earn to avoid paying taxes -Consensus +Reaching consensus means that each person respects the ideas of others and works for the good of the whole group. +The objective is to build common values for a course of action that everyone can support. -Public +Run by government -Equity +Every citizen is equal, has equal (rights, freedom to express opinions) -Underground economy +Economic activity based on buying and selling products and services illegally. -Pensions + A sum of money paid regularly as a retirement benefit or by way of patronage. -Planned economy (Left Wing, Theory, not possible) +Government makes all the decisions about how to solve scarcity. +Owns and manages the resources needed to produce things. +Plans what will be produced and decides how to use limited resources.

-Tax base (everybody has to pay the base tax) +All the economic activity in a society, taxed by government to pay for services -Median (Average, middle income) +a concept in statistics that means the middle number in a set of data organized in order of least to mo`t + In 2005, Canadian families paid, on average, 17 percent of their income on taxes. If your family earned $67 000 the median income for families in 2005 your family would have paid about $11 000 in taxes. -Social Service + Canadas Government Spending: 32% Social Services (e.g., affordable housing and pensions for senior citizens and monies transferred to the provinces through the Canada Social Transfer) +Albertas Government spending: 15% Social Services (e.g., affordable housing, child protection, and income assistance) +(Social service) Welfare work: an organized activity to improve the condition of disadvantaged people in society.

Ideas
-Requirements for becoming a member of a political party? +Most parties have these membership requirements: Resident of Canada. At least 14 years old. Endorse the principles of the party. Not a member of any other political party. (Cant be in 2 parties at once) -Requirements for becoming a political party? +Anyone 18 years of age or older can form a new federal political party. +For the name of the party to appear on ballots during an election, the part must: Have the endorsement of at least 250 eligible voters in Canada. Have a name. Run at least one candidate during a federal election ` ` -Who introduced universal healthcare to Canadians? + Tommy Douglas +Called Father of Canadas Health Care System + Championed the idea of a health care system available to all and paid for by taxes, first as premier of Saskatchewan from 1944 to 1961, and then as leader of the New Democratic Party from 1961 to 1971. + NDP won only 19 seats in the federal election of 1961, after Tommy Douglas became leader. +Other federal leaders, however, also supported the idea of universal health care. These included John Diefenbaker, leader of the Progressive Conservative Party and prime

minister from 1957 to 1963, and Lester Pearson, leader of the Liberal Party and prime minister from 1963 to 1968. +Canadas health care system was established in 1966 by the Medical Care Act. At the time, the Liberal Party formed a minority government (see page 28), which meant that it needed the support of other parties in Parliament, such as the NDP, to stay in power. -Healthcare- Canada (mixed) vs US (market) Canada -All citizens receive basic health care from a system paid for by taxes. -The federal and provincial governments fund Canadas health care system -Within the provisions of the Canada Health Act, each province decides what services are paid for by taxes. -Legislation: Canada Health Act (federal) USA -Citizens with low incomes receive health care paid for by taxes. -All other citizens pay for health services or health insurance personally. -In 2007, about 15 percent of people in the U.S. did not have health insurance, and some could not afford medical care. -Canadian pension plan how does it work? CPP (Canadian Pension Plan) +The CPP program mandates all employed Canadians who are 18 years of age and over to contribute a prescribed portion of their earnings income to a nationally administered pension plan. +When they become the age of 65, they get an -Who are the Bloc Quebecois? What do they believe? +The Bloc Qubcois is a federal political party in Canada devoted to the protection of Quebec's interests in the House of Commons of Canada, and the promotion of Quebec sovereignty. +Supports accessible health care for all citizens. +Supports income assistance for senior citizens in financial need, beyond payments under the Old Age Security Act. -What is income tax? How does it work? Who pays? +Income Tax: tax based on a percentage of a persons income +The tax is taken out of a persons income automatically when given the paycheck +Every worker who gets an income pays income tax -What are the beliefs of the major political parties regarding health care in Canada? Policies in 2007 Bloc Quebecois + Supports accessible health care for all citizens. +Supports income assistance for senior citizens in financial need, beyond payments under the Old Age Security Act.

Conservative Party of Canada + The Conservative Party is improving Canadas health care system to build a stronger, safer, better Canada. For example, Conservatives have provided $612 million in new funding to help provinces reduce patient wait times. Green Party +The Green Party of Canada fully supports the Canada Health Act and all of its principles. We oppose any level of privatized, for-profit health care. +The Green Party of Canada would take steps towards a Guaranteed Livable Income (GLI) for all. A GLI could eliminate poverty. It would provide a regular annual payment to every Canadian without regard to need, set at a bare subsistence level. Canadians would add to the GLI with other income. Liberal +Our national health care system is a legacy that Liberals will never abandon. We will ensure that our health care system will continue to be there when Canadians need it, no matter where they live, and no matter what their income. + Canada has the capacity to improve its social programs and help Canadians across the country experience equality of opportunity. New Democratic Party +Canadians want quality, reliable health care for everyone, not just those who can afford to buy it. That's why the NDP created public medicare in this country, and its why we defend it so strongly today. - Poverty denies us freedom and hope. Confronting poverty means recognizing the human dignity in everyone and our responsibility to help those neighbors` who fall through the cracks. -What is a political platform? What influences a partys political platform? A political platform describes the official policies of a political party. It reflects a variety of issues, including those linked to social programs and taxation models. Political parties create platforms to reflect the values of their members. Parties also consult constituents in electoral ridings to learn more about issues that concern voters. Parties add and remove policies as issues become more or less important to their members and to voters. Issues can change in response to local, national and world events. +Economic policies come from values and form part of the platform of political parties. +The policies within platforms indicate where parties fit on the economic continuum -What is Canada Health Act? How does it relate to the federal and provincial goxvts? -The Canada Health Act is a federal law that sets out five principles for health care in Canada. The act says that, in every province and territory, health care must be: -Publicly administered -Comprehensive -Universal

- Portable -Accessible -Who is responsible for healthcare according to Canadas constitution?


+Different levels of government provide and fund social programs in Canada. +This is because, under Canadas constitution, the federal and provincial governments have different responsibilities. The provinces have responsibility for health care. This ensures citizens in different provinces can have a role in shaping health care to fit their unique views, perspectives and needs. The federal government has responsibility for peace, order and good government. It can pass laws, such as the Canada Health Act, that affect the way provinces carry out their responsibilities.

-Canadas healthcare must be publicly administered, comprehensive, portable,. What does it mean? Publicly administered: run by government for no profit. Comprehensive: for care provided by hospitals, physicians and surgeons. Universal: available to everyone. Portable: available everywhere in Canada, no matter where you make your home in Canada. Accessible: available within reasonable time and distance.

-Who are the major federal political parties in Canada? In the US? +Canada: -Conservative Party -Liberal Party -NDP (New Democratic Party) -Green Party -Bloc Quebecois Party +USA: -Democratic Party -Republican Party

Written Response
Based on Canadas social programs, what do you think Canadians value? Justify answer using examples from class, or the text. (Start with quality of life, equity, chance to fair start) Canada values its health program and education.