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Chapter 12

Cascade, Ratio, and Feedforward Control

Overall Course Objectives

• Develop the skills necessary to function as an industrial process control engineer.

– Skills

• Tuning loops

Control loop design

• Control loop troubleshooting

• Command of the terminology

– Fundamental understanding

• Process dynamics

• Feedback control

Cascade, Ratio, and Feedforward Control

• Each of these techniques offers advantages with respect to disturbance rejection:

– Cascade reduces the effect of specific types of disturbances.

– Ratio reduces the effect of feed flow rates changes

– Feedforward control is a general methodology for compensating for measured disturbances.

Compensating for Disturbances Reduces Deviations from Setpoint and Settling Time

6 FB-only 3 0 -3 Compensating for disturbance s -6 0 10 20 30 40
6
FB-only
3
0
-3
Compensating
for disturbance
s
-6
0
10
20
30
40
50
T' (K)

Time (seconds)

Level Controller on a Tank With and Without Cascade Control

F in L sp F out LC LT
F
in
L
sp
F
out
LC
LT
F in L sp F out LC LT FT FC RSP
F
in
L
sp
F
out
LC
LT
FT
FC
RSP

Analysis of Cascade Example

• Without a cascade level controller, changes in downstream pressure will disturb the tank level.

• With cascade level controller, changes in downstream pressure will be absorbed by the flow controller before they can significantly affect tank level because the flow controller responds faster to this disturbance than the tank level process.

Key Features for Cascade Control to be Successful

• Secondary loop should reduce the effect of one or more disturbances.

• Secondary loop must be at least 3 times faster than master loop.

• The CV for the secondary loop should have a direct effect on the CV for the primary loop.

• The secondary loop should be tuned tightly.

Cascade Reactor Temperature Control

Feed TC Cooling water TT Product Feed RSP TT TC Cooling water TT TC Product
Feed
TC
Cooling
water
TT
Product
Feed
RSP
TT
TC
Cooling
water
TT
TC
Product

Analysis of Example

• Without cascade, changes in the cooling water temperature will create a significant upset for the reactor temperature.

• With cascade, changes in the cooling water temperature will be absorbed by the slave loop before they can significantly affect the reactor temperature.

Multiple Cascade Example RSP TT TC AC RSP FC FT AT
Multiple Cascade Example
RSP
TT
TC
AC
RSP
FC
FT
AT

• This approach works because the flow control loop is much faster than the temperature control loop which is much faster than the composition control loop.

Example

PT Steam TT Feed Condensate
PT
Steam
TT
Feed
Condensate

• Draw schematic: A temperature controller on the outlet stream is cascaded to a pressure controller on the steam which is cascaded to a control valve on the condensate.

Feed

Solution

Steam

Steam
RSP TC PC PT TT
RSP
TC
PC
PT
TT
Feed Solution Steam RSP TC PC PT TT Condensate
Feed Solution Steam RSP TC PC PT TT Condensate
Feed Solution Steam RSP TC PC PT TT Condensate

Condensate

Ratio Control

• Useful when the manipulated variable scales directly with the feed rate to the process.

• Dynamic compensation is required when the controlled variable responds dynamically different to feed rate changes than it does to a changes in the manipulated variable.

Impurity Concentration

Typical Performance Improvements using Ratio Control

w/o ratio control

Impurity Concentration Typical Performance Improvements using Ratio Control w/o ratio control w/ ratio control Time
Impurity Concentration Typical Performance Improvements using Ratio Control w/o ratio control w/ ratio control Time
Impurity Concentration Typical Performance Improvements using Ratio Control w/o ratio control w/ ratio control Time

w/ ratio control

Time

Ratio Control for Wastewater Neutralization

RSP ×××× FC FT FT NaOH Acid Solution Wastewater pHC pHT Effluent
RSP
××××
FC
FT
FT
NaOH
Acid
Solution
Wastewater
pHC
pHT
Effluent

Analysis of Ratio Control Example

• The flow rate of base scales directly with the flow rate of the acidic wastewater.

• The output of the pH controller is the ratio of NaOH flow rate to acid wastewater flow rate; therefore, the product of the controller output and the measured acid wastewater flow rate become the setpoint for the flow controller on the NaOH addition.

Ratio Control Applied for Vent Composition Control

AC × AT FT FC Feed FT Steam TT
AC
×
AT
FT
FC
Feed
FT
Steam
TT
Ratio Control Applied for Vent Composition Control AC × AT FT FC Feed FT Steam TT

Vent

Product

Ratio Control Applied for Vent Composition Control AC × AT FT FC Feed FT Steam TT

Ratio Control Requiring Dynamic Compensation

FT DC Feed ×××× AC RSP FC FT AT
FT
DC
Feed
××××
AC
RSP
FC
FT
AT

Example

FT TT
FT
TT
FT Process Fluid Fuel
FT
Process
Fluid
Fuel

Flue

Gas

Draw schematic: For a control system that adjusts

the ratio of fuel flow to the flow rate of the process fluid to control the outlet temperature of the process fluid. Use a flow controller on the fuel.

Solution

×
×

Ratio

TC
TC
FT TT RSP FC FT Process Fluid Fuel
FT
TT
RSP
FC
FT
Process
Fluid
Fuel

Flue

Gas

Feedforward and Feedback Level Control

To Steam

Users LC LT Make-up Water
Users
LC
LT
Make-up
Water
To Steam Users FT FF LT Make-up Water
To Steam Users
FT
FF
LT
Make-up
Water
Users FT FF LC + LT Make-up Water
Users
FT
FF
LC
+
LT
Make-up Water

To Steam

Analysis of Feedforward and Feedback Level Control

• Feedback-only must absorb the variations in steam usage by feedback action only.

• Feedforward-only handle variation in steam usage but small errors in metering will eventually empty or fill the tank.

• Combined feedforward and feedback has best features of both controllers.

Derivation of FF Controller

D(s) G ff (s) G ds (s) G d (s) C ff (s) G a
D(s)
G
ff (s)
G
ds (s)
G
d (s)
C
ff (s)
G
a (s)
G
p (s)
+ +
Y
(
s
) =
D s
(
)
G
(
s
)
G
(
s
)
G
(
s
)
G
(
s
)
+
D s
(
)
ds
ff
a
p
Solving for
G
(
s
)
ff

G

ff

(

s

) =

G

d

(

s

)

G

ds

(

s

)

G

a

(

s

)

G

p

(

s

)

Y(s)

G

d

(

s

)

=

0

Lead/Lag Element for Implementing FF Control

G

G

ds

d

( )

s

G

(

s

) =

a

(

s

)

G

p

(

s

K

d e

θ

d

s

τ

d

s + 1

) =

K

p e

θ

p

s

τ

p

s + 1

K

d

(

τ

p

 

+ 1)

s

e

d

s

 

p

(

τ

d

 

+ 1)

θ

s

K

s

e

p

 

K

,

ff

θ

G

( ) = −

s

=

ff

Lead/Lag parameters:

τ

ld

K

ff

(

τ

ld

s

+

1)

e

θ

ff

s

,

τ

lg

,

(

τ lg

θ

ff

s +

1)

ff

c

Effect of Lead/Lag Ratio

ττττ ld /ττττ lg = 2 ττττ ld /ττττ lg = 1 ττττ ld /ττττ
ττττ ld /ττττ lg = 2
ττττ ld /ττττ lg = 1
ττττ ld /ττττ lg = ½

Time

Static Feedforward Controller

G

ff

(s) = K

ff

• A static feedforward controller make a correction that is directly proportional to the disturbance change.

• A static feedforward controller is used when the process responds in a similar fashion to a change in the disturbance and the manipulated variable.

Feedforward When τ p «τ d

Feed

TT Coolant Inlet FF FC FT FT Coolant Outlet − s K e θ ff
TT
Coolant
Inlet
FF
FC
FT
FT
Coolant
Outlet
s
K
e
θ ff
ff
G
( s
) =
ff
s + 1
τ ld

Example of Feedforward Control for τ d <τ p

Q T T i o T o T o 10ºC 10ºC 2 T i Q
Q
T
T
i
o
T o
T o
10ºC
10ºC
2
T i
Q
10 kW
10ºC
0
2
4
6
8
10
0
2
4
6
8
10

Time (minutes)

Time (minutes)

Static Feedforward Results

12 8 4 6.5 ºC 0 -4 0 2 4 6 8 10 T' (ºC)
12
8
4
6.5 ºC
0
-4
0
2
4
6
8
10
T' (ºC)

Time

• When the inlet temperature drops by 20ºC, Q is immediately increased by 20 kW.

• Deviations from setpoint result from dynamic mismatch

Perfect Feedforward Control

30 15 FF Effect Net result 0 -15 T i effect -30 0 2 4
30
15
FF Effect
Net result
0
-15
T i effect
-30
0
2
4
6
8
10
T' (ºC)

Time (minutes)

• FF correction is mirror image of disturbance effect.

• Net effect is no change in controlled variable.

Required Dynamic Compensation

20 Perfect FF 10 Q=20kW 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Time (minutes) T(ºC)
20
Perfect FF
10
Q=20kW
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
Time (minutes)
T(ºC)

• Since the Q affects the process slower than T i , initially overcompensation in Q is required followed by cutting back on Q to 20 kW.

Results with Dynamic Compensation

12 8 w/o DC 4 w/ DC 0 -4 0 2 4 6 8 10
12
8
w/o DC
4
w/ DC
0
-4
0
2
4
6
8
10
T' (C)

Time (minutes)

Q

Feedforward Control Action

w/o DC w/ DC 0 5 10 15 20
w/o DC
w/ DC
0
5
10
15
20

Time (minutes)

ff

c

Effect of Lead/Lag Ratio

ττττ ld /ττττ lg = 2 ττττ ld /ττττ lg = 1 ττττ ld /ττττ
ττττ ld /ττττ lg = 2
ττττ ld /ττττ lg = 1
ττττ ld /ττττ lg = ½

Time

y

Tuning a FF Controller

• Make initial estimates of lead/lag parameters based on process knowledge.

• Under open loop conditions, adjust K ff until steady- state deviation from setpoint is minimized.

• Under open loop conditions, adjust K f f until steady- state deviation from setpoint is

Time

y

Tuning a FF Controller

• Analyzing the dynamic mismatch, adjust θ ff .

y Tuning a FF Controller • Analyzing the dynamic mismatch, adjust θ f f . Time

Time

y

Tuning a FF Controller

• Finally, adjust (τ ld - τ lg ) until approximately equal areas above and below the setpoint result.

Finally, adjust ( τ l d - τ l g ) until approximately equal areas above

Time

Demonstration: Visual Basic Simulator

Tuning a FF Controller

Feedback Control

• Can effectively eliminate disturbances for fast responding processes.

• But it waits until the disturbance upsets the process before taking corrective action.

• Can become unstable due to nonlinearity and disturbance upsets.

Feedforward Control

• Compensates for d’s before process is affected

• Most effective for slow processes and for processes with significant deadtime.

• Can improve reliability of the feedback controller by reducing the deviation from setpoint.

• Since it is a linear controller, its performance will deteriorate with nonlinearity.

Combined FF and FB Control

D(s)

C

ff (s)

G

ff (s)

 
Control D(s) C f f (s) G f f (s)   G d (s) Y sp
Control D(s) C f f (s) G f f (s)   G d (s) Y sp

G d (s)

C f f (s) G f f (s)   G d (s) Y sp (s) +
Y sp (s) + -
Y sp (s)
+ -

G

c (s)

C

fb (s)

 
f f (s)   G d (s) Y sp (s) + - G c (s) C
+ +
+ +

G

G

p (s)

p (s)
G p (s)
G p (s)
f f (s)   G d (s) Y sp (s) + - G c (s) C
+ +
+ +

Y(s)

f f (s)   G d (s) Y sp (s) + - G c (s) C
f f (s)   G d (s) Y sp (s) + - G c (s) C
f f (s)   G d (s) Y sp (s) + - G c (s) C

Combined FF and FB for the CSTR

TC + FF RSP TT FC Feed FT Steam TT Product
TC
+
FF
RSP
TT
FC
Feed
FT
Steam
TT
Product

T' (K)

Results for CSTR

6

3

0

-3

-6

FB-only
FB-only
T' (K) Results for CSTR 6 3 0 -3 -6 FB-only FF-only F F + F

FF-only

FF+FB

0

10

20

30

40

Time (seconds)

50

Analysis of Results for CSTR

• FB-only returns to setpoint quickly but has large deviation from setpoint.

• FF-only reduces the deviation from setpoint but is slow to return to setpoint.

• FF+FB reduces deviation from setpoint and provides fast return to setpoint.

Example

Steam PT TT TT Feed Condensate
Steam
PT
TT
TT
Feed
Condensate

• Draw schematic: For a combined feedforward and feedback controller in which the inlet feed temperature is the feedforward variable and the outlet temperature is the feedback variable. The combined controller output is the setpoint for a steam pressure controller.

Feed

Solution

+ RSP TC PC
+
RSP
TC
PC
TT
TT
Feed Solution + RSP TC PC TT P T Steam FF Condensate TT

PT

Steam

FFFeed Solution + RSP TC PC TT P T Steam Condensate TT

Feed Solution + RSP TC PC TT P T Steam FF Condensate TT
Feed Solution + RSP TC PC TT P T Steam FF Condensate TT
Feed Solution + RSP TC PC TT P T Steam FF Condensate TT
Feed Solution + RSP TC PC TT P T Steam FF Condensate TT
Feed Solution + RSP TC PC TT P T Steam FF Condensate TT
Feed Solution + RSP TC PC TT P T Steam FF Condensate TT

Condensate

TT
TT
Feed Solution + RSP TC PC TT P T Steam FF Condensate TT
Feed Solution + RSP TC PC TT P T Steam FF Condensate TT
Feed Solution + RSP TC PC TT P T Steam FF Condensate TT
Feed Solution + RSP TC PC TT P T Steam FF Condensate TT

Overview

• Cascade can effectively remove certain disturbances if the slave loop is at least 3 times faster than the master loop.

• Ratio control is effective for processes that scale with the feed rate.

• Feedforward can be effective for measured disturbances for slow responding processes as long as the process nonlinearity is not too great.