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Multiphase M l i h Flow Fl and d Flow Assurance Olga g Users Meeting g

Sam Kashou ETC Flow Assurance, MCP Team November

Safety Moment Ensure safety devices are in place and functioning.

Objective

To give a high level overview of Flow Assurance in Multiphase Flow Describe some of the obstacles the fluid faces while flowing inside wellbores, llb pipelines, i li and d risers, i etc. Answer questions that you may have.

What is Flow Assurance

The ability to produce and transport fluids from the reservoir to a customer in an economically and technically feasible way. way Designing and operating the production and transportation systems to manage challenges to the flow throughout the fi ld life. field lif
Flow Assurance = Cash Flow Assurance
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Why is Flow Assurance Important?

Identify FA drivers that will influence concept t selection l ti Identify technology gaps & develop solutions l ti Ensure preferred concept is feasible from a FA perspective ti Ensure preferred concept can be operated t d safely f l and d effectively ff ti l

What could happen if Flow Assurance Studies are not performed?

Hydrate Blockage and Remediation Offshore Pipeline (plug can be many meters long and in many sections of line)

Due to improper MEG dosage to prevent hydrates

Hydrate Blockage Offshore

Wax in Pipeline

Napthenates

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Asphaltenes

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Slugging
1400 Tes st Separator Liquid R Rate, m3/d 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 8500

Test Separator p Liquid q Rates, , Feb 7

8510

8520

8530 Time, minutes

8540

8550

8560

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Explosion, Fire
It Could be due to internal pipe corrosion and lack of corrosion monitoring

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Is this Flow Assurance? Overloaded Donkey (cant move, therefore cant flow - gravity dominated flow)

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Flow Assurance Activities

THERMAL HYDRAULIC MODELING SAMPLING

SOLIDS FORMATION

SYSTEM DESIGN PARAMETERS

OPERATING STRATEGIES

MULTIPHASE FLOW LAB ANALYSES SLUGGING

HYDRATES

LINE DIAMETERS

BOUNDARIES

WAX

INSULATION

STARTUP & SHUTDOWN

ASPHALTENES FLUID MODELING THERMAL MODELING

CHEMICAL INJECTION

PIGGING

SCALE

TOPSIDES EQUIPMENT

INTERVENTION

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The Flow Assurance Challenge

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HOW ARE FLOW ASSURANCE STUDIES INTEGRATED

PHASE 1
IDENTIFY AND ASSESS OPPORTUNITY

PHASE 2
GENERATE AND SELECT ALTERNATIVE(S)

PHASE 3
DEVELOP PREFERRED ALTERNATIVE(S)

PHASE 4

PHASE 5
OPERATE AND EVALUATE

EXECUTE

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HOW ARE FLOW ASSURANCE STUDIES INTEGRATED WITH THE PROJECT WORKSCOPE?

PHASE 1
IDENTIFY AND ASSESS OPPORTUNITY

PHASE 2

PHASE 3

PHASE 4

PHASE 5

Flow Assurance Activities Fluid Sampling Program Reservoir Fluids Water Samples

Plan Fluid Testing Program Measure Key Fluid Properties PVT Data Water Composition Hydrate Wax & Asphaltenes Scale
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HOW ARE FLOW ASSURANCE STUDIES INTEGRATED WITH THE PROJECT WORKSCOPE?

PHASE 1

PHASE 2
GENERATE AND SELECT ALTERNATIVE(S)

PHASE 3

PHASE 4

PHASE 5

Flow Assurance Activities


Perform any additional experimental testing R fi Refine fl fluid id property predictions di i Steady state hydraulics of concepts Preliminary transient hydraulics of concepts System deliverability y FA Mitigation g plan p Preliminary Input to subsea facilities design work
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HOW ARE FLOW ASSURANCE STUDIES INTEGRATED WITH THE PROJECT WORKSCOPE?

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

PHASE 3
DEVELOP PREFERRED ALTERNATIVE(S)

PHASE 4

PHASE 5

Flow Assurance Activities


Continue experimental work if needed Update/ U d / refinement fi of f preferred f d concept(s) using Details of subsea facilities New Production Profiles Refine transient simulations Updates of FA Mitigation Strategy gy Development of Subsea Operating Philosophy
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HOW ARE FLOW ASSURANCE STUDIES INTEGRATED WITH THE PROJECT WORKSCOPE?

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

PHASE 3

PHASE 4
EXECUTE

PHASE 5

Flow Assurance Activities


Major flow assurance related tasks complete Selection / compatibility of treating chemicals Training simulator Operating procedures Start-up & commissioning

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HOW ARE FLOW ASSURANCE STUDIES INTEGRATED WITH THE PROJECT WORKSCOPE?

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

PHASE 3

PHASE 4

PHASE 5
OPERATE AND O EVALUATE

Flo Assurance Flow Ass ance Activities Acti ities


Provide support to operations as needed: Modifications to chemical selection Program Support of processing operations
z Separation z Naphthenates

Blockage remediation issues Optimize production


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FLOW ASSURANCE Spectrum


Reservoir Fluids

Multiphase Flow

System y Integration
Chemical Injection

Solids

Internal C Corrosion i

Flow Assurance
Emulsions Sand Thermal Management

Operability

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FLOW ASSURANCE Spectrum (1) (1) Reservoir Fluids


z Sampling, Sampling lab analysis, analysis development of predictive models

(2) Multiphase Flow


z Rheology, flow modeling z Pressure loss, diameter of tubing & flowlines z Slugging Sl i and d liquid li id surge

(3) Solids
z Hydrates, wax, asphaltenes, scale, naphthenates, etc. z Flow restrictions or blockages

(4) Internal Corrosion


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FLOW ASSURANCE Spectrum (2)

(5) Emulsions (6) ( ) Sand d


z Sand transport / deposition z Erosion

(7) Thermal Th l Management M t


z Insulation, heating

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FLOW ASSURANCE Spectrum (3)

(8) System Operability


z Various operating modes: normal

operation, shutdown, startup, well testing, turndown/rampup, pigging, etc.

(9) Chemical Injection (10) System Integration

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(1) RESERVOIR FLUIDS


Hydrocarbons
z Saturates / Paraffins /

Alkanes
z Aromatics z Resins R i z Asphaltenes

THERE CAN BE THOUSANDS OF DIFFERENT MOLECULES IN A RESERVOIR FLUID

Non Non-hydrocarbons hydrocarbons


z Water z Mineral salts z CO2, H2S, mercaptans, N2,

He

z Metals z Microorgansims

THIS LEADS TO COMPLEX FLUID BEHAVIOR WHICH CAN BE DIFFICULT TO ANALYZE AND PREDICT
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RESERVOIR FLUIDS Form the Basis for Flow Assurance and other design work; Flow Assurance work is as good as the Reservoir Fluid Sampling and Analysis.
PVT (Pressure, ( Volume, l Temperature) )
z Describes the thermodynamic relationship between pressure,

volume, and temperature for all phases

Phase Behavior
z Phase refers to the state of matter: gas, liquid, solid, z Temperatures & pressures the different phases form, and the

relative quantities of each phase

Fluid Properties
z Chemical composition z Parameters related to solids formation
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RESERVOIR FLUIDS
350

PHASE ENVELOPE

300 LIQUID 250 Pre essure (bara) BUBBLE POINT CURVE 200

Highest possible temperature and RESERVOIR pressure for which di ti t liquid distinct li id or CRICONDENBAR gas phases can be observed
CRITICAL POINT

WELLHEAD
CRICONDENTHERM

150

FLOWLINE/ PIPELINE

CHOKE

TWO PHASE REGION 100

RISER
50

TOPSIDES SEPARATOR
0 0 50 100 150 200 250

DEW POINT CURVE VAPOR 300 350 400 450 500


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Temperature (C)

RESERVOIR FLUIDS
Sampling
z Surface sample or downhole sample
F

Gas Sampling Port Separator Liquid Sampling Port

Downhole Sampling Tool

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(2) MULTIPHASE FLOW


Multiphase flow is the simultaneous flow of multiple fluid phases (gas, oil, and water) inside a flow device. The flow device can be:
z Reservoir z Wellbore e bo e z Flowlines z Subsea pipelines z Risers z Export pipelines
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Quiz: What is a Pipeline?

zA p pipeline p is a long g hole surrounded by y metal concentric with hole, z O.D. of all pipes must exceed the I.D. otherwise the hole will be on the outside, z All pipe is to be hollow throughout Pipeline entire ti l length, th as oil, il gas,blockage and d water t can be added on site.
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MULTIPHASE FLOW
Flow Regimes in Pipes
z Have great impact on pressure drop, drop liquid holdup, holdup

stability, slug catcher sizing, etc.

Dispersed Bubble Flow

Annular Flow

Slug Flow

Stratified Flow

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Flow Regimes in Pipelines


Stratified-Slug Stratified Slug Flow

Stratified Flow Flow-Back Back Flow Flow-Slug Slug Flow

Various Flows

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Flow Regimes in Pipelines, Severe Slugging

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MULTIPHASE FLOW
Holdup (HL)
z Relative amount of liquid at one point in a pipeline. pipeline z Due to slip HL > fraction of liquid due to phase

behavior

Gas

~50% Liquid Holdup


Liquid

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MULTIPHASE FLOW
Holdup, this is very real
Gas Condensate Liquid Holdup Example
60000
PIPESIM Plot Mar 17 2001

Tota al Liquid Hol ldup (bbl)

50000
Gas

40000
Liquid

30000
Gas

20000 10000 0 0
Liquid

100

200

300

400

500

600

Stock-tank Gas at Outlet (MMSCFD)


PIPESIM for Windows Baker Jardine & Associates, London

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(3) SOLIDS
Hydrates Wax / Paraffins Scale Asphaltenes Calcium Naphthenates

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HYDRATES
Ice that burns

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HYDRATES

Water molecules

Methane guest molecule

40

HYDRATES
250 Subcooling Definition

200
Design Pressure Subcooling or Temperature Depression

Press sure (bara)

150

Hydrate Zone
100
Design Temperature

50

Hydrate Free Zone

0 0 5 10 15 Temperature (C)
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20

25

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HYDRATES Hydrate prevention - Chemical Inhibitors


z Thermodynamic (shift chemical equilibrium)

f Methanol f Glycols Gl l (MEG, (MEG DEG DEG, TEG TEG, others) th ) Salt (brine)
z Low dosage (a.k.a. LDHI)

f Anti-agglomerants (prevents accumulation) f Kinetic inhibitors (delay nucleation)

42

HYDRATES
Hydrate prevention
z Thermal management (maintain temperature

above hydrate formation conditions) f Insulation f Active heating


z Water removal z Low pressure operation (maintain pressure below

hydrate formation conditions)

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WAX / PARAFFINS
Wide range of high molecular weight paraffins (alkanes or saturated hydrocarbons) Slightly soluble in oil Solidify from oil primarily due to a decrease in temperature

44

WAX / PARAFFINS

As wax solidifies from oil, there are three major concerns:


z Wax deposition on tubing and pipe walls

during normal flow


z Gelling of the oil during shutdown z Increases in viscosity due to wax

particles suspended p p in the oil

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WAX / PARAFFINS

Wax Management
z Pigging z Chemical injection z Insulation z Active A ti h ti heating z Operating procedures

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Pigging

Stratified Flow Flow-Back Back Flow Flow-Slug Slug Flow

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SCALE

A deposit of inorganic mineral compounds from formation water

48

SCALE
Scale formation and deposition occurs due to:
z Temperature and pressure changes z Mixing of different waters z Adding methanol or glycol to production stream z Corrosion

Deposition can occur in the: h


z Formation z Wellbore z Flowlines z Process equipment
49

SCALE

Scale can be managed by:


z Prevent deposition using chemical

inhibitors
z Pre-treatment to remove scale

formers in injection water


z Allow scale to form and periodically

remove it

50

ASPHALTENES
What are Asphaltenes?
z Heavy molecules, molecules highly heterogeneous z Defined by solubility z Exist as a colloidal system

What is a Colloidal System?


z Dispersion of one phase in a continuous phase z Example: Milk fat in water

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ASPHALTENES
Causes of Asphaltenes deposition
z Drop in pressure z Gas lifting z Mixing of different oils

Asphaltenes can deposit


z Formation, wellbore

tubing, flowlines, and topsides p

Courtesy of BakerPetrolite

Asphaltenes can cause emulsion problems

Asphaltene p deposition
52

ASPHALTENES

Asphaltenes Control
z Inhibitors

f Chemical inhibitors are available to prevent asphaltene deposition f Normally N ll i injected j t d at t th the bottom b tt of f the th well

53

CALCIUM NAPHTHENATES
Naphthenates are a solid that forms from a reaction between calcium in produced water and naphthenic acid in oil Found in some West African and North Sea fields High TAN oils (TAN = total acid number)

54

(4) INTERNAL CORROSION


Corrosion can occur inside a pipe any time water is present Corrosion is accelerated by the presence of O2, CO2, or H2S (sour) Pipeline failures are a big potential liability Corrosion prevention
z Chemical inhibitors z Protective coatings, corrosion resistant alloys z Limit flow rates / velocities z Other
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(5) EMULSIONS
Emulsions are complex mixtures of immiscible liquids consisting of a dispersed liquid in a continuous liquid phase Water-in-oil emulsions
z Most common in crude oil systems z Exists sts in water ate cuts as high g as 80%

Oil-in-water emulsions
z High water cuts

Increased viscosity Separation problems


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EMULSIONS
Viscosity
3000

Albacore-Leste Oil -Brine Fluid


Flow Velocity 2 ft/sec.
Fluid Temperature 100 oF

A3WCMU14

2500
o

110 F

Fluid Visc cosity, cP

2000

120 oF
1500

130 oF
1000

140 oF
500

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Water-Cut, %
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(6) SAND
Belongs on the beach

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SAND

Sand

Small quantities of sand are typically produced from oil and gas reservoirs Sand can have detrimental impacts on production
z Erosion z Increase corrosion z Can form restrictions or plugging z It can settle in topsides equipment

Sand transport
z If you can live with sand fines then a minimum velocity can

be defined for sand transport

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SAND Prediction and Monitoring


Prediction in design phase
z Core C analysis l i & well ll test t td data t z Erosion & solids transport modeling

Sand

Gravel packs and screens in completion Continuous or periodic monitoring for sand Limit well ramp ramp-up up If a well begins to produce significant sand, then
z Repair completion z Permanently shut-in z Operate at reduced flow rate

60

SAND Detection

Sand

Subsea sand detectors are commercially available


z Intrusive z Acoustic

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SAND Detection

Sand

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(7) THERMAL MANAGEMENT

Why are we interested in thermal management? g


z Many of the potential solids are

temperature sensitive, particularly hydrates and wax


z Viscosity increases (sometimes

significantly) with decreasing temperature

Thermal management options


z Insulation keep the heat you have z Active heating add energy
63

THERMAL MANAGEMENT
Insulation
z Flowlines

z Subsea equipment

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Pipeline Insulation Manufacturing

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(8) OPERABILITY Development of Operating Philosophies, Strategies, g , and eventually y Procedures Integration of Flow Assurance into system design Definition of operating boundaries/ranges Consider various modes of operation Operational p monitoring g Intervention requirements

66

GENERAL OPERABILITY STRATEGIES

For Life Cycle


z Steady State Operations (line sizes,

pressure and temperature drops, flow rates, etc.)


z Transient Operating Events

(Production Start-up, Planned Shutin Unplanned Shut in, Shut-in, in pigging, pigging etc etc.) )

67

(9) CHEMICAL INJECTION


Chemicals are needed to control a number of potential solids and production chemistry concerns Chemical compatibility Chemical Injection Design Philosophy
z Reservoir fluid analyses z Chemical performance testing z Umbilical and injection system design z Operation monitoring

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CHEMICAL INJECTION Example Chemical Injection Layout


STORAGE S O G TANK FILTER PUMP FLOW METER FLOW CONTROL VALVE

TUTA

UMBILICAL

SUBSEA TREE

FLYING LEADS

SUTA

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(10) SYSTEM INTEGRATION

Introduction

Consider all components of production system: z Reservoir, wells, subsea equipment, fl li flowlines, risers, i t topsides id processing i facilities, control and umbilical system etc. system, etc Consider interaction of all components Address design interfaces

70

SYSTEM INTEGRATION

Emulsions/ Foaming

Advanced MPF Modeling Asphaltene Control

Corrosion Control

Wax Control MP Flow Improvement Hydrate Control Integrated Production System Model
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Scale Control

Systems World Wide Existing and to be Developed


Country Length [km] Gorgon Australia 70 Jansz Australia 134 Wheatstone Australia 160 WTR Australia 165 Ormen Lange Norway 120 Qatar Gas II Qatar 90 Snhvit Norway 143 Goldeneye UK 105 Scarrab/Saffron Egypt 90 South Pars 2+3 Iran 105 Nam Con Son Vietnam 399 Canyon Express US 92 Firebird US 10 Huldra Norway 145 Gemini US 44 S bl I Sable Island l d C Canada d 225 Sable Island Canada 175 Ras Gas Qatar 92 Field Diameter [in] 34 30-34 34 18 2x30 32 28 20 20 to 36 2x32 24 2x12 dual 6 22 dual 12 26 <20 32 Depth Subsea Production Fluid [m] Development Start 200 Yes ? 3 Phase 1340 Yes ? 3 Phase 190 Both ? 3 Phase 140 Yes ? 3 Phase 800-1100 Yes 2007 3 Phase 50 No 2006 3 Phase 250-345 Yes 2005 3 Phase 120 No 2004 3 Phase 90 Yes 2003 3 Phase 65 No 2002 3 Phase 180 No 2002 2 Phase 2200 Yes 2002 3 Phase 300 yes 2001 3 Phase 120 No 2001 3 phase 1050 Yes 1999 3 Phase N No 1999 2 Ph Phase No 1999 3 Phase 50 No 1999 2 Phase

72

Flow Issues in Pipelines, Can Cause Severe Headaches

Deepwater pipe section replacement Being at the wrong place and at the wrong time
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Final Thoughts, Is this Flow Assurance?

Pipeline or W lk Walkway Blockage?

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Flow Assurance Modeling Example

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Modeling: LNG Plant Start-up Gas Flow Rate


100% gas flow is 22.5 BCM annual gas rate
80 Ga as Flow Rate at LNG Plant t (MMm D)
3/

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
ramp up from 0 to 7 5% in 7.5% 3 months ramp up to 12.5% in 3 months hold at 12.5% for 1 month

ramp up to 25% in 3 months

hold at 25% for 1 month ramp up to 50% over 1 month

Hold at 100%

Gas
ramp up to 100% over 1 month

hold at 50% for 12 months

60

120

180

240

300

360

420

480

540

600

660

720

780

840

Time (days)

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Modeling: LNG Plant Start-up


Pipeline Pressure

160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

100% is 22.5 BCM annual gas rate


ramp up to 25% in 3 months Hold at 100%

Pipelin ne Pressure (bar)

hold at 12.5% for 1 month

hold at 25% for 1 month

Inlet

ramp up to 50% over 1 month

Outlet
hold at 50% for 12 months ramp up to 100% over 1 month

ramp up to 12.5% in 3 months ramp up from 0 to 7.5% in 3 months th

60

120

180

240

300

360

420

480

540

600

660

720

780

840

Time ( (days) y )

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Modeling: LNG Plant Start-up


Liquid Holdup
26000 24000
ramp up to 25% in 3 months hold at 25% for 1 month hold at 12.5% for 1 month ramp up to 50% over 1 month ramp up to 12.5% in 3 months ramp up from 0 to 7.5% in 3 months ramp up to 100% over 1 month

100% gas flow is 22.5 BCM annual gas rate

Liquid Hold dup in Pipeli ine (m3)

22000 20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

Condensate

hold at 50% for 12 months

Hold at 100%

Water/MEG
120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 600 660 720 780 840
Time (days)

60

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Modeling: LNG Plant Start-up


Liquid Flow Rate
2500 Liquid Flow R L Rate at LNG P Plant (m D) 2250 2000 1750 1500 1250 1000 000 750 500 250 0
ramp up from 0 to 7 5% in 7.5% 3 months ramp up to 12.5% in 3 months hold at 12.5% for 1 month ramp p up p to 25% in 3 months
3/

100% gas flow is 22.5 BCM annual gas rate

hold at 25% for 1 month ramp up to 50% over 1 month hold at 50% for 12 months ramp p up p to 100% over 1 month

Hold at 100%

Condensate Water/MEG 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 540 600 660 720 780 840

60

Time (days)

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Modeling: LNG Plant Start-up


Accumulated Liquid Flow

22.5 BCM annual gas rate


40000 Total Liquid d Flow at LNG G Plant (m ) 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0
25000 m 3 of liquid produced in a month about b t 850 m 3/d ramp up to 50% over 1 month hold at 50% for 12 months
3

300

310

320

330

340

350
Time ( (days) y )

360

370

380

390

400

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