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Consumer Behavior Topic 3 Motivation Section I As per lecture on 2/19/08 notes to be added later.

. Section II Advertising plays into motives. Some motives lead the consumer towards a goal (vs. a negative goal). A manifest motive is known and freely identified and if you ask the consumer why they bought the product, they would provide an answer. However some may be latent motives that are unknown to the consumer or they are reluctant to admit does that make some motives unconscious? Focus groups are often utilized to try and determine motives. The marketer seeks to find motive, in particular the real motive. 1. what are real motives? As stated above, some are manifest, that is, known, such as milk and bread. Sometimes there may be multiple motives, some manifest and perhaps some latent. Knowing the motive assists in creating effective advertising. What do the tobacco companies show in juxtaposition with the cigarette? Often you see young, healthy, athletic people who are engaging in some extreme activity exhibiting individuality and autonomy (i.e., hang gliding etc.). So the marketer works to find the real motive that may not be easily expressed. If the motive is latent, this is an easy task. If latent, then enlisting focus groups and/or other research techniques may help. Once located, these are the motives stressed in the advertising. 2. The marketer seeks to reduce the conflict between motives. There may be conflicts inherent in motivation: a. approach-approach a person may have two goals (i.e., purchase a car and go on vacation) but only has enough money for one both are positive motives perhaps fly now pay later and do both with approachapproach the person is pulled in two directions (this is a motivational conflict) b. approach-avoidance this represents a conflict in motives (i.e., desire ice cream but it is fattening) so the marketer must help people rationalize their motives (purchase a low fat ice cream) c. avoid-avoid this is a stable situation a car is too expensive so the consumer selects to replace the transmission on their old car the consumer does not want to do either but must choice ads might stress pay now or pay later but by paying later, the consumer will pay a great deal more (due to interest). Theories of Motivation Maslows Hierarchy of Motives (A Theory of Human Motivation 1943) Maslow said we seek to satisfy first our most basic needs and then move up the hierarchy as each lower rung is satisfied. The most basic needs and the lowest level of the pyramid is physiological food, water,

sleep. The second level is satisfy which translates to providing security and stability perhaps harvest some food for the winter and build a hut for protection from the elements. The third level is referred to as social and has to do with belongingness that is, friendship and love. As humans, we are social and tribal by nature we depend on one another and seek others for our needs and desires we need another to propagate. The forth level has to do with esteem status and prestige. As we achieve the other levels we begin to seek admiration and recognition. Here is where a husband will place jewels and furs on his wife and park his luxury vehicle in his driveway so his friends and neighbors will recognize his success. Finally we may someday reach the top most level of self actualization. This is where we feel entirely fulfilled and most of us never do reach this point in our lives. But advertising certainly encourages us to seek this an older Army campaign stressed Be All That You Can Be. During the 1950s studies were done to establish reliable forms of motivational research. This was a Freudian approach in which focus groups, in-depth interviews, and projective techniques (i.e., word association sentence completion) were utilized. Focus groups consist of 3 to 5 participants (earlier groups had 8 to 10 but it was noted that usually a couple of participants dominated the discussion so the size has been reduced over the years) of the select demographic for the product, service or candidate. Their discussion is guided by a professional leader who knows how to elicit responses to specific questions posed by the marketer. From focus groups discussion such advertising lines as ring around the collar came in response to the question what is your worst laundry day problem. Some of the findings from this research included baking a cake is an unconscious association with birthing a baby, or a convertible car is a substitute for a mistress or men smoke cigars because women hate them. As you can see from these sorts of conclusions, just what use is this information for the marketer? The field fell apart because the technique was really too subjective and relied too much on the opinions of the researcher. The results were often too ridiculous to be true. Today marketers want objective measures of personality and personality traits.