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Arranging the Paramitas As the Threefold Training Recounting the verses from the Sadhinirmocana-stra (in the 1st

post of the Sutra thread), we find the Buddha showing Avalokitevara how the Six Pramits can be arranged under the most basic paradigm of Buddhist training the Threefold Training (Triik): la (Discipline): Dna (Giving) la (Morality) Knti (Patience) Samdhi (Concentration): Dhyna (Meditation) Praj (Wisdom): Praj (Wisdom) *Vrya (Energy) pervades all As the Twofold Accumulation However, there are also other ways of understanding, arranging and practicing the paramitas. Through the long course of a Bodhisattva's journey, he must accumulate vast stores of karmic merit (puya) and gnosis (jna) - the Twofold Accumulation (bodhisambhra) gathered during the Path of Accumulation (sambhra-marga), which is the 1st of the 5 Paths (of Accumulation, Application, Seeing, Cultivation and Completion). Merit nurtures and actualizes the meritorious qualities and marks of a Buddha, whereas Gnosis matures and develops the supra-mundane wisdom that illuminates the path and brings liberation. In view of the twofold accumulation, Xuanzang's Cheng Weishi Lun ( Discourse on the Consciousness-Only) describes how the paramitas can also be arranged as: Puyasambhra (Accumulation of Merit): Dna (Giving) la (Morality) Knti (Patience) Vrya (Energy) Dhyna (Meditation) Jnasambhra (Accumulation of Gnosis): Praj (Wisdom)

Sometimes, they can also be seen as a threefold structure of Merit, Gnosis and MeritGnosis: Puyasambhra (Accumulation of Merit): Dna (Giving) la (Morality) Knti (Patience) Jnasambhra (Accumulation of Gnosis): Praj (Wisdom) Combination of Puyasambhra and Jnasambhra: Vrya (Energy) Dhyna (Meditation) As Pairs The Paramitas can also be seen as pairs seemingly opposing twins but yet complimentary. For example, we can group them as: Dna and la: The Outer and Inner; altruistic giving and self-cultivation. The Bodhisattva gives selflessly wealth, medicine, protection from fear, teachings, friendship and even life. Seeing all sentient beings as his own children, he holds nothing back. As much as he gives selflessly, he does not neglect his own development and mindfully cultivates his inner being, practicing self-restrain so that unwholesome thoughts, speech and actions do not flow out and harm self and others. By these means of giving and guarding, he helps those in need and at the same time perfects himself. Knti and Vrya: Passivity and Activity; Water and Fire. The Bodhisattva tempers his energetic efforts with great forbearance and patience. As we engage ourselves in activity, no doubt we will encounter obstacles and frustrations, both with ourselves and others. This is where Patience comes in, bringing balance, calm and rectitude amidst the endless labours. Dhyna and Praj: Singularity and Infinity; Transcendence and Immanence The practice of Dhyna and Praj can be viewed as opposite in character Dhyna unifies the discursive mind and focuses it to a purifying one-pointedness. This laser-like sharpness opens the way for the expansion of wisdom an ever-widening envelope that culminates in the boundless wisdom and knowledge of a Buddha. Just as one cannot see clearly without washing the dirt off one's eyes, without Dhyna there can be no true Praj.

The above are not the only ways the Paramitas can be paired. An early Theravadan treatise on the paramis (the Pali equivalent for the Paramitas) gives the following combinations: (1) The pair -- giving and virtue -- perfects the pair of doing what is beneficial for others and abstaining from what is harmful to them. (2) The pair -- giving and patience -- perfects the pair of non-greed and non-hatred. (3) The pair -- giving and energy -- perfects the pair of generosity and learning. (4) The pair -- giving and meditation -- perfects the abandoning of sensual desire and hatred; (5) The pair -- giving and wisdom, the noble vehicle and burden; (6) The dyad of virtue and patience -- the purification of means and the purification of the end; (7) The dyad of virtue and energy -- the dyad of meditative development (i.e. serenity and insight); (8) The dyad of virtue and meditation -- the abandoning of moral depravity and of mental obsession; (9) The dyad of virtue and wisdom -- the dyad of giving; (10) The dyad of patience and energy -- the dyad of acceptance and fervour; (11) The dyad of patience and meditation -- the abandoning of opposing and favouring; (12) The dyad of patience and wisdom -- the acceptance and penetration of emptiness; (13) The dyad of energy and meditation -- the dyad of exertion and non-distraction; (14) The dyad of energy and wisdom -- the dyad of refuges; (15) The dyad of meditation and wisdom perfects the dyad of vehicles (i.e. the vehicles of serenity and insight). For those who are interested in this work, you can find Bhikkhu Bodhi's translation here: