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AIIMS PG 2011: PHYSIOLOGY 1. True regarding animals that are chronically exposed to cold? a. Increased sympathetic stimulation b.

Increased vagal action c. Increase insulin levels in blood. d. Decrease blood supply to adipose tissue 2. True about shunt vessels: a. Evenly distributed throughout the skin. b. Role in nutrition c. Play a role in thermoregulation d. No autonomic nervous regulation 3. Vasomotor centre of medulla is associated with: a. Acts with the cardiovagal centre to maintain BP b. Independent of corticohypothalamic inputs. c. Influenced by baroreceptors not chemoreceptors. d. Essentially silent in sleep. 4. Energy expenditure in resting state depends on: a. Lean body mass b. Adipose tissue c. Resting heart rate d. Exercise 5. The primary direct stimulus for excitation of central chemoreceptors regulating ventilation is: a. Increased H+ b. Increased CO2 c. Increased O2 d. Decreased CO2 6. True regarding myocardial O2 demand? a. Inversly related to heart rate b. Has direct relation to external cardiac work c. Directly roportional to duration of systole d. Is negligible at rest

7. Angiotensin 2 causes all of the following except: a. Stimulation of thrist b. Aldosterone secretion c. Increased ADH secretion d. Vasodilation 8. Maximum postprandial motility is seen in: a. Ascending colon b. Transverse colon c. Descending colon d. Sigmoid colon 9. CSF pressure is mainly regulated by: a. Rate of CSF formation b. Rate of CSF absorption c. Cerebral blood flow d. Venous pressure 10.Which of the following statement is true? a. Fluid coming from descending limb of Henle is hypotonic. b. Descending limb of loop of Henle is permeable to solutes. c. If clearance of a substance is greater than GFR, then tubular secretion must be present. d. Clearance of a substance is always more than GFR if there is tubular secretion. 11.Nitrogen narcosis is caused due to: a. Nitrogen inhibits dismutase enzyme. b. Increase production of Nitrous Oxide. c. Increased solubility of nitrogen in nerve cell membrane. d. Decrease in oxygen free radicals. ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS 1.c, Explanation: Insulin is an anabolic hormone. It helps to the entry of glucose into the cell that produces more amount of ATP which helps to maintain the temperature inside their body.

2.c,Explanation: Cutaneous blood vessels have a role in thermoregulation. The nutritive function is performed by skin capillaries and not by the shunt vessels and they are under control of Autonomous nervous system. The Cutaneous blood vessels are not evenly distributed throughout the skin ( especially in fingers, ear lobules, toes and nose). 3. a, Explanation: Neural regulation of BP is brought about 2 different centres located in medulla. They are: Vasomotor centre: Controls the sympathetic outflow. Cardiovagal centre: Controls the parasympathetic outflow. They act together to control the BP. Here it should be noted that vasomotor centre is located in RVLM (Rostral ventrolateral medulla) and cardiovagal centre is located in the nucleus ambiguous. The vasomotor centre receives inputs from corticohypothalamic fibres. It is tonically active and discharge rhythmically. It receives inputs from both barorecepters and chemorecepters. 4. a, Explanation: Energy expenditure is almost equal to the BMR, that is the minimum energy expenditure for the body to exist. The BMR is related to both body surface area and Lean body mass. Lean body mass is the total mass of the body-the fat. 5.a, Explanation: The primary direct stimulus for central chemorecepters is increased H+ concentration in the CSF and brain interstitial fluid. The blood H+ ions are poorly permeable to the blood brain barrier but highly permeable to Carbon di oxide. So CO2 is hydrated after entering and forms H+. These H+ ions directly stimulate the central chemorecepters to regulate the ventilation. 6.b, Explanation: Myocardial oxygen demand has constant relationship with cardiac work. Cardiac work is composed of external and internal cardiac work. External cardiac work refers to the work done during the ejection phase of the cardiac cycle. Internal cardiac work refers to the work done during isovolumetric contraction. External cardiac work has a constant relationship with the oxygen demand. It increases with increase in the external work done.

7. d, Explanation: Angiotensin 2 is one of the most potent vasoconstrictors known. 8. c, Explanation: The major postprandial motility is seen in the proximal descending colon. 9.d, Explanation: The CSF pressure is mostly dependent on the absorption of CSF. Arachnoid villi acts as valves and allows CSF to flow into venous sinuses when CSF pressure is about 1.5 mm Hg greater than pressure of blood in venous sinuses. 10.c, If clearance of a substance is greater than GFR, then tubular secretion must be present. Example: PAH (para amino hippuric acid). 11. c, Explanation: Nitrogen narcosis is an effect of the brain of gaseous nitrogen that occurs in divers who go below 100 feet depth of sea. It occurs due to laws of partial pressure. At greater depth of the sea, the pressure becomes high. At sea level, nitrogen has no significant role on the body. But at high depth below the sea level, nitrogen produces significant degree of narcosis. Nitrogen dissolves in the fatty substances of neuronal membranes producing nitrogen narcosis.