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Table of Content Page Introduction Purpose of Training Evaluation Training Evaluation Model Kirk Patrick Model 1 2 3 4

Theory & Practice: Discussion on Training Evaluation in Slovene State Administration - A Journal Article Summary Reference

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1.0 INTRODUCTION Training is one of the important elements in Human Resource Management. It is essential for employee development and also organization development and achievement. Training may define as an effort by organization to change employees capability in terms of knowledge, skill and attitude through the learning process so that the employees are able to perform the job effectively and efficiently. According to Nadler (1984), training is the organizational activity which aims to improve and employees current performance.

2.0 TRAINING MODEL Training is one of the major financial investments for the employer, thus, it is important to ensure that the training is conducted in effective manner. A systematic approach in organizing and conducting training program is essential to avoid a lot of money being wasted for ineffective training. There are a lot of training model that useful to the organization in designing, conducting and organizing the training. Among all the training models, there are to model that will discuss further in this assignment as follows: 1. Instructional System Development Model 2. Systematic Training Model

2.1 Instructional System Development Model Instructional System Development (ISD) training model was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. It is a system approach that ensures and effective, cost efficient training solution when problems are determined to be caused by a lack of knowledge and skill. This model helps the organization determine and develop strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved.

The ISD process has traditionally used for development of individual type instruction programs. The entry point of the training model is at training situation and objective, followed by individual task analysis then training task analysis. ISD is a flexible proven process for determining whether instruction is necessary in a given situation, for defining what instruction is needed and for development of training material to serve the needs of training. ISD enables organization or leaders to: i. ii. iii. iv. Prepare focus area Ensure training is realistic Conduct training for all types and levels Give attention to training for joint and combined operation

Instructional System Development training model is a systematic approach to develop instructional materials by integrating the process of analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. Therefore, it comprise of 5 stages as follows:

Figure 2: Instructional System Development Model

1. Analysis Phase Analysis phase is important to identify critical task and identify the standards, conditions, performance measures and other criteria required to perform task. This analysis will form the basis for a training program. Analysis result will help training practitioners to identify knowledge, skill and attitude for the performance. Therefore, this phase identify the training need assessment, job analysis, and target audience analysis.

2. Design Phase In instructional design phase, the training practitioners select the instructional methods and media and determine the instructional strategies. In other words, it is a planning stage which consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, methods of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e. selection of content, sequencing of content, etc. 3. Development Phase In development phase, the instructional materials for trainer and trainee are developed. This phase translates design decisions into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc, course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. 4. Implementation Phase Implementation phase is the time for execution of the whole instructional system. Therefore, this phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lighting, parking, and other training accessories. 5. Evaluation Evaluation is a continuous process in ISD. The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. The feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program as the output of one phase is an input

to the next phase.

2.2 Systematic Training Model Systematic Training Model has been shaped the training approach since 1960s. Although it is quite new, this approach has been recognized as the best way to ensure effective training by training practitioners. Systematic approach to training helps ensure that supervisors are getting the most out of themselves and their employees. A systematic approach to training includes taking the time to analyze what results the organization needs from its employees, if employees are accomplishing those results, and what training and development approaches are needed by employees to better accomplish those results. A systematic approach includes evaluating approaches before, during and after training to ensure employees truly benefited from the training in terms of enhanced results to the organization. This model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards.

Identify Training Needs Set Training Objective Design the Training Program Implement the Training Program Evaluate the Training 6 Program

In a systematic approach to training, each phase of the process produces results needed by the next phase. For example, the training analysis phase produces learning goals that are used by the next phase, training design. Training design (often called instructional design) references the goals to design methods and materials from which learners can reach the goals and objectives. Typically, each phase provides ongoing evaluation feedback to other phases in order to improve the overall systems process. The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows: 1. Analyze and Identify 2. Design and Provide Training 3. Develop

4. Implement/Conduct 5. Evaluate

Reference Scott Snell & George Bohlander, Human Resource Management, 2007 Josh Bersin, The Training Measurement; Best Practices, Proven Methodologies and Practical Approaches, USA, 2008

Goran Vukovic, Bruno Zavrsnik, Blaz Rodic and Gozdana Miglic, The training of civil servants in the Slovene state administration: issues in introducing training evaluation,