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Q1. Why is gravitational potential energy always negative? Q2. At what height above the surface of the earth value of acceleration due to gravity is reduced to one fourth of its value on the surface of the earth? Q3. Name two factors which determine whether a planet has atmosphere or not? Q4. What is kepler s law of periods? Show it mathematically? Q5. With two characteristics of gravitational force? Q6. Assuming earth to be a uniform sphere finds an expression for density of earth in terms of g and G? Q7. If radius of earth is 6400km, what will be the weight of 1 quintal body if taken to the height of 1600 km above the sea level? Q8. A satellite is revolving is a circular path close to a planet of density P. find an expression for its period of revolution? Q9. How far away from the surface of earth does the value of g is reduced to 4% of its value on the surface of the earth given radius of earth = 6400km Q10. A body weighs 63 N on the surface of the earth. What is the gravitational force on it due to the earth at a height equal to half the radius of the earth? Q11. The gravitational force between two blocks is F what would happen if a mass of both the blocks as well as distance between them is doubled? Q12. Find an expression for the weight of a body at the centre of the earth? Q13. A spaceship is stationed on Mars. How much energy must be expended on the spaceship to launch it out of the solar system? Mass of the space ship = 1000 kg;

mass of the Sun = 2 1030 kg; mass of mars = 6.4 1023 kg; radius of mars = 3395 km; radius of the orbit of mars = 2.28 108kg; G= 6.67 1011 m2kg2. ? Q14. Derive an expression for a gravitational potential energy of a body? Q15. A satellite orbits the earth at a height of 400 km above the surface. How much energy must be expended to rocket the satellite out of the earths gravitational influence? Mass of the satellite = 200 kg; mass of the earth = 6.0 1024 kg; radius of the earth = 6.4 106 m; G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2 Q16. Suppose there existed a planet that went around the sun twice as fast as the earth. What would be its orbital size as compared to that of the earth? Q17. Derive an expression for escape velocity? Q18. How will you weigh the sun, that is estimate its mass? The mean orbital radius of the earth around the sun is 1.5 108 km? Q19. Show that an artificial satellite circling round the earth in an orbit of radius obeys keepers third law? Q20. A star 2.5 times the mass of the sun and collapsed to a size of 12 km rotates with a speed of 1.2 rev. per second. (Extremely compact stars of this kind are known as neutron stars. Certain stellar objects called pulsars belong to this category). Will an object placed on its equator remain stuck to its surface due to gravity? (Mass of the sun = 2 1030 kg).

ANSWER

A1. Gravitational potential energy is always negative because gravitational force is always attractive in nature. A2. gh = g/4 = g (R / R+h) = 1/ 4 = 1/ 2 = 2R R = h =R=h A3. (1) Acceleration due to gravity at the surface of planet (2) Surface temperature of the planet A4. It states that the square of the period of revolution of a planet around the sun is proportional of a planet to the cube of the semi-major axis of the elliptical orbit. i.e. T2 R3 T2 = KR3 where T is time period of evolution R is the length of semi major axis K is constant for all planets A5. (1) It is a central force (2) It is a conservation force (3) It obeys inverse square law. (4) It is a universal force and is always attractive in nature. A6. Since g = GM/R2 If earth is uniform sphere of mean density P g = G/R2 (4/3 R3 P)

g = 4/3 GRP P = 3g/4GR A7. R = 6400km = 6400 x 103m h = 1600km w = mg = 1 quintal = 100 kg = 100x9.8 N weight (w) = mgh w = mg (R / R+h) 2 w = 100x9.8 (6400/1600+6400)2 w = 64x9.8N = 64kg A8. If satellite revolvers around the earth of radius r T = 2r/v where v is orbital velocity where v = Gm/r T = 2r/v = 2r/Gm/r = 2r3/Gm If a satellite is revolving near the plants surface then r = R radius of planet and m = (4/3 R3 P) T = 2r3/G X (4/3 R3 P) = 23/4GP = 3 /GP A9. gh = g (R / R+h) 2 gh = 4% of g = 4g/100

R = 6400km (4g/100) X g (R / R+h) 2 4/100 = (R / R+h) 2 2/10 = R / R+h 2R+2h = 10R 2h = 8R h = 4R = 4x6400 = 25,600km. A10. Weight of the body, W = 63 N Acceleration due to gravity at height h from the Earths surface is given by the relation:

Where, g = Acceleration due to gravity on the Earths surface Re = Radius of the Earth

A11. We know F = Gm 1m2 /r2 Here m1 = m2 (2m) r1 = r2 = 2r F = G (2m) (2m)/4 r2 = Gm2/ r2 i.e. force will remain the same A12. gd =g (1 / d R) At the centre of the earth d=R Hence g centre = g (1-R/R) G centre = 0 Weight = mg centre Weight = 0 i.e. weight of a body at the centre of earth is weightless. A13. Mass of the spaceship, ms = 1000 kg Mass of the Sun, M = 2 1030 kg Mass of Mars, mm = 6.4 1023 kg Orbital radius of Mars, R = 2.28 108 kg =2.28 1011m Radius of Mars, r = 3395 km = 3.395 106 m Universal gravitational constant, G = 6.67 1011 m2kg2

Potential energy of the spaceship due to the gravitational attraction of the Sun

Since the spaceship is stationed on Mars, its velocity and hence, its kinetic energy will be zero. Total energy of the spaceship

The negative sign indicates that the system is in bound state. Energy required for launching the spaceship out of the solar system = (Total energy of the spaceship)

A14. Let us consider mass at We have to calculate work done F = GMm/x2 dw = Fdxcos 0 = GMm/x2 dx Total work done is obtained by integrating above equation w= r GMm / x2 dx = GMm r dx/ x2 = -GMm [1/r-(1/)] = -GMm/r =U A15. Mass of the Earth, M = 6.0 1024 kg Mass of the satellite, m = 200 kg Radius of the Earth, Re = 6.4 106 m Universal gravitational constant, G = 6.67 1011 Nm2kg2 Height of the satellite, h = 400 km = 4 105 m = 0.4 106 m Total energy of the satellite at height h

The negative sign indicates that the satellite is bound to the Earth. This is called bound energy of the satellite. Energy required to send the satellite out of its orbit = (Bound energy)

A16. Time taken by the Earth to complete one revolution around the Sun, Te = 1 year Orbital radius of the Earth in its orbit, Re = 1 AU Time taken by the planet to complete one revolution around the Sun,

Orbital radius of the planet = Rp From Keplers third law of planetary motion, we can write:

Hence, the orbital radius of the planet will be 0.63 times smaller than that of the earth. A17. Let G be the gravitational constant and let M be the mass of the earth and 'm' be the mass of the escaping body or projectile.

Because

A18. Orbital radius of the Earth around the Sun, r = 1.5 1011 m Time taken by the Earth to complete one revolution around the Sun, T = 1 year = 365.25 days = 365.25 24 60 60 s Universal gravitational constant, G = 6.67 1011 Nm2 kg2 Thus, mass of the Sun can be calculated using the relation,

Hence, the mass of the Sun is 2 1030 kg. A19. Orbital velocity of a satellite is v = Gm/r Where M is the crass of earth Time period of satellite T = 2/v = 2/Gm/r T = 2r3/Gm T2 = 4r32/Gm 42/Gm = R (constant) T2 R3

A20. Yes, a body gets stuck to the surface of a star if the inward gravitational force is greater than the outward centrifugal force caused by the rotation of the star. Gravitational force, fg

Where, M = Mass of the star = 2.5 2 1030 = 5 1030 kg m = Mass of the body R = Radius of the star = 12 km = 1.2 104 m

Centrifugal force, fc = mr2 = Angular speed = 2 = Angular frequency = 1.2 rev s1 fc = mR (2)2 = m (1.2 104) 4 (3.14)2 (1.2)2 = 1.7 105m N Since fg > fc, the body will remain stuck to the surface of the star.

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