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Mtgnt_08 trans wk bk 11/3/03 3:43 PM Page 179

8.6 Proportions and Similar Triangles


Goals p Use proportionality theorems to calculate segment lengths.
p Solve real-life problems.

THEOREM 8.4: TRIANGLE PROPORTIONALITY THEOREM


If a line parallel to one side of a triangle Q T
intersects the other two sides, then it
R
divides the two sides proportionally .
U
RT RU S
& 储 QS
If TU &*, then    .
TQ US

THEOREM 8.5: CONVERSE OF THE TRIANGLE


PROPORTIONALITY THEOREM
If a line divides two sides of a triangle Q T
proportionally, then it is parallel to the
R
third side .
U
RT RU S
*& 储 QS
If   , then TU *& .
TQ US

Example 1 Finding the Length of a Segment


&* ?
What is the length of NR R

N
Solution
PQ NR 9
    Theorem 8.4
MP MN
M 6 P 4 Q
4 NR
 Substitute.
6 9

4(9)
  NR Multiply each side by 9 .
6

6  NR Simplify.

&* is 6 .
Answer So, the length of NR

Lesson 8.6 • Geometry Notetaking Guide 179


Mtgnt_08 trans wk bk 11/3/03 3:43 PM Page 180

Checkpoint Complete the following exercises.

&*.
1. Find the length of DF 2. Given the diagram,
G
&* is
determine whether MN
6
F &.
parallel to PQ
D M
42
12
P
H
8
J 54

N 36 Q 48 R

9 no

THEOREM 8.6
If three parallel lines intersect two r s t
l
transversals, then they divide the U W Y
transversals proportionally . V X Z m

If r 储 s and s 储 t, and l and m


UW VX
intersect r, s, and t, then    .
WY XZ

THEOREM 8.7
If a ray bisects an angle of a triangle, A
then it divides the opposite side into D
segments whose lengths are
proportional to the lengths of the
other two sides. C B

AD CA
wy bisects aACB, then 
If CD    .
DB CB

180 Geometry Notetaking Guide • Chapter 8


Mtgnt_08 trans wk bk 11/3/03 3:43 PM Page 181

Example 2 Using Proportionality Theorems


&*?
What is the length of GH F 28 G H
Solution
Because corresponding angles are congruent, K L
J 25
the lines are parallel and you can use
30
Theorem 8.6.
FG JK
    Parallel lines divide transversals
GH KL
proportionally.
28 30
  Substitute.
GH 25
28 p 25  30 p GH Cross product property.
70
  GH Divide each side by 30 and simplify.
3
70 1
&* is  , or 23  .
Answer So, the length of GH
3 3

Example 3 Using Proportionality Theorems


In the diagram, aQPR c aRPS. Use P
the given side lengths to find the 12 8

&*.
length of QR
Q R S
Solution 18

&* is an angle bisector of


Because PR
aQPS, you can apply Theorem 8.7.
Let x  QR. Then, RS  18  x.
PS RS
   Apply Theorem 8.7.
QP QR

8 18  x
  Substitute.
12 x
8 p x  12 ( 18  x ) Cross product property
8 x  216  12 x Distributive property
20 x  216 Add 12x to each side.
x  10.8 Divide each side by 20 .
&* is 10.8 units.
Answer So, the length of QR

Lesson 8.6 • Geometry Notetaking Guide 181


Mtgnt_08 trans wk bk 11/3/03 3:43 PM Page 182

Example 4 Finding the Length of a Segment


Hiking Trails A state park has five trails, as shown in the diagram.
The horizontal Red, Green, and Blue trails are evenly spaced. The
River and Sky trails intersect the Red, Green and Blue trails. Explain
why the distance between the Red and Green trails on the Sky trail
is the same as the distance between the Green and Blue trails on
the Sky trail.

Red A B

Green C D

Blue E F

River Sky
Solution
Because the Red, Green, and Blue trails are each horizontal , you
know that they are parallel to each other. Using Theorem 8.6 , you
AC BD
can conclude that    . Because the trails are evenly spaced,
CE DF
you know that AC  CE. So, you can conclude that BD  DF ,
which means that the distance between the Red and Green trails
and the Green and Blue trails on the Sky trail have the same
lengths.

Checkpoint Complete the following exercises.

&* 储 LM
3. In the diagram, HK &* 储 NP
&*, HL  2.4, N
KM  2.8, and MP  4.9. Find the H L

&*.
length of LN K
M

P
4.2

4. Find the value of x.


x 21

16
12
12

182 Geometry Notetaking Guide • Chapter 8