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Alfred the Great

•King of England 871-899


•reorganized the army, infused new vigor into local government, founded new towns, codified
English laws
•established a court school and fostered an interest in Anglo-Saxon writing and other elements of
national culture
•he modeled himself closely on Carolingian example

Archon
•Greek word that means “ruler”
•in Athens, a system of three concurrent Archons evolved (Eponymous, Polemarch, Archon
Basileus). Originally these offices were filled from the aristocracy by elections every ten years
•After 683 BCE the offices were held for only a single year
•After 487 BCE the archonships were assigned by lot to any citizen and the Polemarch’s military
duties were taken over by new class of generals strategoi

Arianism
•Theological teaching of Arius (250-335 CE)
•Arius had controversial teachings about relationship between God the Father and the person
Jesus, saying that Jesus was not of the one substance with the Father and that there had been a
time before he existed. This conflicts with other christological positions help by Church
theologians.

Attila the Hun


•Ruler of the Huns from 434 until death in 453
•Leader of Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germany to Ural River and from River Danube
to the Baltic Sea
•One of the most fearsome of the Western and Eastern Roman Empire’s enemies
•Invaded Balkans twice and marched through Gaul

Battle of Actium
•31 BCE
•Octavian’s forces defeated those of Anthony and Cleopatra, both of whom son afterward
commited suicide.
•Egypt’s independent existence came to an end, and Rome reigned supreme throughout the
Mediterranean world.

Battle of Adrianople
•378 BCE
•Fought between a Roman army led by the Roman Emperor Valens and Gothic rebels led by
Fritigern
•Took place north of Adrianople in the Roman province of Thracia
•Ended with overwhelming victory for the Goths
•Part of Gothic War, this battle is considered the start of the final collapse of the Western Roman
Empire in the 5th century.

Battle of Issus
•Southern Anatolia
•333 BCE
•Alexander of Macedonia’s troops outnumbered Darius III of Achaemenid Persia’s troops 2:1
•Alexandra took control of southern Asia Minor
•marked the beginning of the end of Persian power
•first time Persian army had been defeated with Darius III as king

Battle of Marathon
•490 BCE
•Athenians dealt Darius the only major setback of his reign
•during first Persian invasion of Greece
•Athenian victory
•Athenians were helped by Plataeans VS Persian Empire

Battle of Thermopylae
•Under the military leadership of Sparta, the outnumbered Greek allies confronted Xerces at the
pass of Thermopylae in August of 480.
•For three days the Greeks held off the Persian multitude, while Greek fleet engaged a Persian
flotilla at nearby Artemisium.
•The Spartan-led defense at Thermopylae failed, but their sacrifice allowed the fleet, under
Themistocles’ guidance, to inflict heavy losses on the Persians and then withdraw safely to the
south.

Byzantium
•Ancient city of Thrace
•Founded by Greeks from Megara in 667
•Important because of position on the Bosporus
•In the Peloponnesian War it was captured and recaptured by the contending forces.
•Taken in 196 by Roman Empire
•In 330 Constantine ordered a new city was built there... Constantinople

Charlemagne
•King of the Franks from 768-814
•Expanded the Frankish kingdoms into a Frankish Empire.
•During reign, conquered Italy and was crowned Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III as a rival
of the Byzantine Emperor in Constantinople.
•Through foreign conquests and internal reforms, helped define both Western Europe and Middle
Ages
•Father of Europe- his empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans
and the Carolingian renaissance encouraged the formation of a common European identity

Constantinople
•former capital of Byzantine Empire and of the Ottoman Empire
•founded in 330 as new capital of Roman Empire by Constantine I
•Shared the glories and vicissitudes of the Byzantine Empire

Clovis
•511 CE
•Frankish king, great warrior
•by converting to orthodox Catholic Christianity established an alliance between his dynasty and
the powerful Roman bishops of Gaul
•became sole leader of the Salian Franks by force of perseverance and by murdering relatives
•Shortly before his death, he probably had the Salian Law revised and put into writing

Darius the Great


•king of Persia
•521-486 BCE
•concentrated on consolidating his predecessor’s military gains by improving the administration
of the Persian state.
•divided the empire into provinces called satrapies, each administered by a satrap
•allowed the various peoples of the Persian Empire to retain most of their local institutions while
enforcing a standardized currency and system of weights and measures.
•great builder, erected new royal residence and ceremonial capital, which the Greeks called
Persepolis
•ordered canal dug from the Nile to the Red Sea to facilitate trade with the Egyptian interior
•installed irrigation systems on the Persian Plateau and on the fringe of the Syrian desert to
increase agricultural production
•expanded the Assyrian road system to enhance trade and communication in his far-flung realms.
The most famous was the Royal Road, stretching 1,600 miles from Susa to Sardis
•made a mistake when he attempted to extend Persian hegemony into Greece.

Delian League
•an association of approximately 150 5th century BCE Greek city-states under the leadership of
Athens
•purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea
at the end of the Greco-Persian Wars
•founded in 478 BCE

Dorian
•one of the three major tribes into which the ancient Greeks divided themselves
Edict of Milan
•313 CE
•Letter signed by emperors Constantine and Licinius that proclaimed religious toleration in the
Roman Empire

Etruscans
•Non-Indo-European-speaking settles of the Italian peninsula who dominated the region from the
late Bronze Age until the rise of the Romans in the 6th century BCE
•single most important influence on Roman culture and in its transition to civilization
•ived in independent, fortified city-states; these city-states would form small confederacies. In
the earliest times, these city-states were ruled by a monarch, but were later ruled by oligarchies
that governed through a council and through elected officials
•not much gender inequality
•polytheistic
•900-800 BCE
•Perhaps came from the eastern Mediterranean, possibly Asia Minor

Gaul(s)
•Gauls under Brennus sacked Rome circa 390 BCE
•In the Aegean world, a huge migration of Eastern Gauls appeared in Thrace in 281 BCE

Gracchi Brothers
•Tiberius and Gaius
•in 133 BCE, Tiberius proposed a law that restricted the current rents or holders of state lands to
a maximum of 300 acres per citizen plus 150 acres for each child in the family
•pair of trubines in the 2nd century BCE who attempted to pass land reform legislation in
Ancient Rome that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among plebians
•Gaius enacted laws for the benefit of the less privileged. One stabilized the price of grain in
Rome by building public granaries along the Tiber.

Hellenic
•Hellenic tyants- The heyday of the classical Hellenic tyrants came in the early 6th century BC,
when Cleisthenes ruled Sicyon in the Peloponnesus, and Polycrates ruled Samos. During this
time, revolts overthrew many governments in the Aegean world. Simultaneously Persia first
started making inroads into Greece, and many tyrants sought Persian help against forces seeking
to remove them.

Helots
•enslaved Messenians
•had to work the land for Spartans
•outnumbered Spartans 10:1
•650 BCE- revolted, gained support from several neighboring cities and briefly threatened Sparta
with annhililation
Hoplite
•Greek
•Dark Age
•foot soldiers, armed with spears or short swords, and protected by a large round shield (hoplon),
a breastplate, a helmet and sometimes wrist and leg guards
•in battle, they stood shoulder to shoulder in a close formation called a phalanx, several rows
across and several lines deep, with each hoplite carrying his shield on the left arm to protect the
unshielded right side of the man standing next to him. In his right hand, each hoplite carried a
thrusting weapon such as a spear or short sword
•Greeks may have learned this from Assyrians
•by end of 7th century BCE, hoplite tactics were a standard element in Greek warfare
•result was a social and political revolution because singe every polis needed a hoplite force to
protect independence, farmers became a political and social force

Ionian
•one of three populations into which the ancient Greeks considered the population of Hellenes to
have been divided.
•Ionic dialect spoken between Greece and Anatolia.
•Located around the shores of the Aegean Sea and in most Aegean islands.
•According to myth, descended from the hero Ion, son of Xuthus, son of Hellen.

Islam

Justinian
•483-565
•Byzantine emperor from 527-565
•As emperor, instituted major administrative changes and tried to increase state revenues at the
expense of his subjects
•His fiscal policies as well as other things caused Nika riot in 532 which would have cost him the
throne of not for his wife, Empress Theodora and his generals, Belisarius and Narses
•With help from those generals, recovered Africa from the Vandals
•GREATEST accomplishment- codification of Roman law, commonly called Corpus Juris
Civilis. It gave unity to the centralized state and greatly influenced all subsequent legal history

Lucretia (rape of)


•her brother was Publius Lucretius Tricipitnus, one of the second Consuls of Rome
•her rape and consequent suicide were the cause for the overthrow of the monarchy and the
establishment of the Roman republic
•the last king of Rome had a violent son, Sextus Tarquinis, who in 509 BCE raped her
•he said that if she didn’t do what he said, he’d kill her and lay her body by a slave. She would
have been shamed, so she let him do what he wanted and then kill herself
•her brother Lucius Junius Brutus incited the people of Rome against the royal family by
displaying her body. They were impelled to avenge her.

Marcus Aurelius
•Roman emperor from 161 to death in 180.
•Last of “five good emperors,” also considered to be one of the most important Stoic
philisophers (wrote something called Meditations)
•won victory over the Marcomanni, which was commemorated by the Antonine column
•concerned with improving living conditions for the poor, particularly minots
•lenient with political criminals
•tried to decrease the brutality at gladiatorial shows

Monasticism
• began to emerge in 3rd century as a response to the anxieties of that age, but it became a
dominant movement only in the 4th century
•Two main reasons for appeal: As persecution of Christians ended, extreme asceticism
sometimes functioned as a substitute for martyrdom. A response to the increasing worldliness of
the 4th century church.
•First emerged in the east, where is spread rapidly during the 4th century.
•In East, Saint Basil 330-379
•In West, Saint Benedict of Nursia 480-547

Ostracism
•introduced by Cleisthenes
•508/7 BCE
•Athenians could decide each year whether they wanted to banish somebody for ten years
•often used preemptively as a way of defusing major confrontation between rival politicians,
neutralizing someone thought to be a threat to the state or exiling a potential tyrant.

Pax Romana
•a long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the
Roman empire in the first and second centuries AD (27 BC to 180 AD)
•Established by Caesar Augustus

Pompey the Great


•106-48 BCE
•military and political leader of the late Roman Republic
•rival of Marcus Licinius Crassus, at first an ally to Gaius Julius Caesar. Joined them in political
alliance known as the First Triumvirate. Pompey profited least from this combination.
•Fought for Sulla so successfully that Sulla sllowed him to enter Rome in triumph and receive
the title Magnus.
•supported laws restoring the powers of the tribunes and forcing the senate to share some of the
magistracies with the knights
•main career began in 67 when he was commissioned by the law proposed by Aulus Gabinius to
destroy the pirates infesting the Mediterranean.
•Assassinated in Egypt after being defeated at Pharsalus.

Punic Wars
•First (264- 241 BCE) began because of Rome’s genuine fear that the Carthaginians might gain
control of Messina. Peace agreement reached in 241 where Carthage was forced to cede all of
Sicily and Rome and pay a large indemnity
•Second (218-201 BCE) the Romans interpreted Carthage’s attempt to expand its rule in Spain as
a threat to Roman interests and responded with a declaration of war. The Carthaginian
commander Hannibal, brought a Spanish army and war elephants. In the end, Carthage was
compelled to abandon all its possessions except the city of Carthage itself to pay an indemnity
three times greater than at the end of the Punic War
•Third (149-146 BCE) Romans charged Carthage with a technical breach of treaty in resisting
the encroachment of the Numidian King Masinissa. Rome declared war and blockaded the city.
Carthage never surrendered. The younger Scipio conquered it and sold the surviving inhabitants
into slavery.

Romulus
•771 BCE- 717 BCE
•twins with Remus, traditional founders of Rome
•sons of Vestal Virgin Rhea Silva and Mars
•Romulus slew Remus over a dispute about which one of the brothers had the support of the
local deities to rule the new city and give it his name

Solon
•594 BCE was made sole archon
•Athenian aristrocrat who’d made his name and fortune as merchant, so was trusted by all
•his political and economic reforms laid the foundations for Athenian democracy
•forbade practice of debt slavery and set up a fund to buy back Athenian debt slaves sold abroad
•encouraged Athenians to grow olives and grapes, spurring cash-crop farming and urban
industries necessary to make Athens a commercial power
•set up courts in which broader range of citizens serves as jurors and to which any Athenian
might appeal if he disliked a decision of the Areapagus
•gave the Athenian citizen assembly the right to elects archons
•During Solon's time, many Greek city-states had seen the emergence of tyrants, opportunistic
noblemen who had grabbed power on behalf of sectional interests.
•At some time (perhaps c.600 ) he led the Athenians in the recapture of Salamis from the
Megarians.

St. Augustine
•354-430 CE
•One of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity
•Framed the concepts of original sin and just war
•When the Roman Empire in the West was starting to disintegrate, Augustine developed the
concept of the Church as a spiritual City of God distinct from the material City of Man.
•His autobiography, The Confessions, is first Western autobiography
•pre-eminent Doctor of the Church

St. Benedict’s Rule


•Book of preceps written by St. Benedict of Nursia for monks living communally under the
authority of an abbot.
•480-547
•About 500 CE, Benedict became so upset by the immorality of society in Rome that he gave up
his studies there and chose the life of an ascetic monk in the pursuit of personal holiness, living
as a hermit in a cave ear Subiaco.
•His rule shows influences by the Rules of Saint Augustine.

Struggle of the Orders


•political struggle between the plebeians and patricians of the ancient Roman Republic, in which
the Plebeians sought political equality with the Patricians.
•the plebeians made up nearly 98 % of the population but had no political power
•the plebeians rebelled in the early 5th century BCE that forced the patricians to agree to the
election of new officers known as tribunes who would protect the plebeians by vetoing unlawful
patrician acts
•Led to 12 Tables

Sulla dictator
• 138-78 BCE
•Roman general and politician who held the office of consul twice as well as the dictatorship
•used his armies to march on Rome twice, and after the second the revived the office of dictator,
which had not been used since the 2nd Punic War over a century before
•used his powers to enact a series of reforms to the Roman constitution, meant to restore the
balance of power between the Senate and the Tribunes

Tetrarchy
•Diocletian’s political reform, which divided Roman empire into two halves ruled by two rulers
and two lieutenants
•happened in 293 CE. Lasted until 313 CE when internecine conflict eliminated most claimants
to power, leaving Constantine in the West and Licinius in the East

Theodoric (Visigoth)

Twelve Tables
•450 BCE
•foundation of Roman Law
•formed the centerpiece of the constitution of the Roman Republic
•the tables were supposedly written in response to the plebeian’s protest that the patrician judges
were able to discriminate against them with impunity because the principles governing legal
disputes were known only orally
•the tables were probably wooden

Tyrant
•In ancient Greece, tyrants were influential opportunists that came to power by securing the
support of different factions of a deme. The word "tyrannos" then carried no ethical censure; it
simply referred to anyone, good or bad, who obtained executive power in a polis by
unconventional means. Support for the tyrants came from the growing class of business people
and from the peasants who had no land or were in debt to the wealthy land owners. It is true that
they had no legal right to rule, but the people preferred them over kings or the aristocracy. The
Greek tyrants stayed in power by using mercenary soldiers from outside of their respective city
state.

Vandals
•East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century CE
•Best known for sack of rome in 455
•In 455, Rome was sacked by Gaiseric's troops, and Empress Eudoxia and her two daughters
were taken as hostages.
•The Vandals were Arian Christians, and, especially under Gaiseric and his son, Hunneric, they
harshly persecuted Orthodox Christianity.
•The Roman emperors Marjorian and Leo I made attempts to destroy Vandal power, but Zeno
was forced to make peace (476) with Gaiseric.
•After the death (477) of Gaiseric, however, the Vandals declined quickly as a dominant power.
•In 533, Justinian I sent against them an army under Belisarius, which after meeting weak
resistance, captured Carthage. With this overwhelming defeat the Vandals ceased to exist as a
nation.

ESSAY 1: Discuss the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations of the Bronze Age. Consider
their relationships with Anatolia (Hittites and neighbors) and the Near East. What was
their collective role in the collapse and re-composion of the Near Eastern and Eastern
Mediterranean civilizations (e.g., Phoenecians, Persians; Greeks or Etruscans)?

Minoan: on Crete, flourished from 1900 to 1500 BCE, high degree of material and architectural
sophistication, sometimes known as “Palace Age,” the palace sat at center of redistributive
economy, their success depended on overseas trade, exchanged goods with Egypt, southwest
Anatolia and Cyprus, Minoan palaces weren’t fortified so at first people thought they were
peaceful, also thought they were carefree and devoted to mother goddess, in actuality it was just
that their navy was good so no need for army, they did human sacrifice, one focus of Minoan
commercial activity was the mainland of Greece

Mycenaeans: advanced through conquest,authority was based on ability to lead men into battle
and reward people with plunder, ancient Greece, flourished between 1600 and 1100 BCE,
collapsed probably because of the Dorian invasion, was a warrior aristocracy, while the
Mycenaean kings liked the chariots used by their Near Eastern contemporaries it was impractical
for the rocky Greek terrain, around 1400 the Mycenaeans extended their control to Crete (the
center of the Minoan civilization) taking over Knossos and using it as a Mycenaean center. In
Western Anatolia at lease one Mycenaean king exercised enough influence for a Hittite king to
address him as “my brother”

The political and commercial foundation of the Mycenaean world (a powerful place, headed by a
king who was also a war leader, a warrior aristocracy, a bureaucracy of local officials, state-
regulated land holdings, a redistributive economy, large territorial kingdoms) became typical of
Near Eastern contemporary world. Greek language can be traced back to Mycenaeans. The
Linear B tablets talk about a social group with considerable economic and political rights, the
damos, precursor to the demos which was a group that sought full political empowerment in
many Greek cities later on. Mycenaean culture collapsed under own weight at end of 13th
century BCE. Since it was such an integrated part of this international network of commercial,
political and military relationships, their collapse was felt across whole Near East.

ESSAY 2: Consider the effects of the Bronze Age collapse in the E. Mediterranean and the
Aegean. What will continue or change into the Iron Age? Discuss Greece of the Dark Age
and the Archaic period. What were the main features of the polis? What was the purpose
of colonization? What were the differences or similarities among the city-states such as
Athens and Sparta?

Drought in the Eastern Mediterranean could have easily precipitated or hastened socio-economic
problems and led to wars, As part of the Late Bronze Age- Early Iron Age Dark Ages, it was a
period associated with the collapse of central authorities, a general depopulation, particularly of
highly urban areas, the loss of literacy in Anatolia and the Aegean, and its restriction elsewhere,
the disappearance of established patterns of long-distance international trade, increasingly
vicious intra-elite struggles for power, and reduced options for the elite if not for the general
mass of population.

The Greek Dark Ages (1150-800 BCE) Mainland Greece had depopulation of 90%, except at
Athens the citadels were destroyed, settlements moved inland away from vulnerable shores,
taxes were not collected, roads were not repaired so no wagons could go, people were poor
because no gold in their graves, no craftsmen. The DORIANS invaded. Knowledge of how to
make tools and weapons spread from Hittites around the Mediterranean Sea, iron was good
because they could mine tin in Greece.

The Archaic Period (800-480 BCE) emergence of the polis, return of writing and literacy. Also
called Age of Experiment. Saw significant advancements in political theory, rise of democracy,
philosophy, theatre, poetry. Greek cities didn’t have kinds anymore, had oligarchy. Instead, built
temples to the Gods. Population grew so much that they had to colonize in parts of Europe and
Africa. Began trade with Phoenicians again and learned their alphabet. Started using hoplite
method of fighting.

Polis- could range from absolute monarchy to pure democracy. Only citizens participated in
government.
Sparta vs Athens: Sparta (oligarchy) had two kings who ruled until death. Focus on obedience
and war. Athens (democracy) ruled by archons who were elected annually. Focus on creativity,
didn’t have to serve in army or navy.

ESSAY 3: What was the role of the Persian Wars in the history of the Greek city-states?
Consider the scope and history of the Persian Empire, the causes of its offensive and the
expectations of its success. Did Athens become an ideal democracy? Was the Delian League
a real Empire? How did its existence contribute to the Peloponnesian Wars?

In 501 BCE, Aristagoras (who was Persian’s tyrant over Miletus) thought he was gonna get
booted so he got Milesians and rest of Ionia to revolt against Persian rule. Spartans refused to
send their army abroad, but Athens and Eretria felt sympathetic to Ionians and sent ships and
crews. They captured Sardis and burned it. Athenians and Eretrians left, leaving Ionians to own
devices. After 5 years of fighting, they lost to Persia in 494 BCE. To teach Athens and Eretria a
lesson, Darius sent 20,000 troops, who sacked and burned Eretria, then moved on and landed at
Marathon.
Athens asked Sparta to help them, but Sparta was busy with a religious festival. Small nearby
polis of Plataea offered to help. Holding them back from between two hills, the Athenians waited
until the Persians were watering their horses and then attacked, killing many Persians and
making them retreat.
Darius’ son, Xerxes, was determined to conquer Greece. Went with 600 ships to Sardis, in 480
BCE. Many Greek cities capitulated, but Athens, Sparta, Corinth and 30 others didn’t. The
Athenians ended up having to go to Salamis, but in September after sailing into the Bay of
Eleusis, the Greeks rammed the Persian fleet and won!
Athens has successful democracy. Direct democracy- where the people do no not elect
representatives to vote on their behalf but vote on legislation and executive bills in their own
right.
The Athenians were basically just making money off the League, only accepting money instead
of ships and troops, so it almost became an empire.
ESSAY 4: What was the aftermath of the Peloponnesian Wars in Greece and the Near
East? Discuss the rise of the Macedonian Empire and its Hellenistic legacy. To what extent
did Alexander’s personality contribute to its success or failure? Consider other political,
cultural, economic and geographical factors in the diffusion of pan-Hellenic civilization.

After Wars, Athens was ruled by the Thirty Tyrants and democracy was suspended. The oligarchs
were overthrown and a democracy was restored by Thrasybulus in 403 BCE.
Macedonia Empire- Alexander the Great (356-323 BCE) took over Greek city-states and Persian
empire. He adopted the styles of government of the conquered territories and that spread Greek
culture and learning throughout his empire. After his death, empire fractured into many Hellenic
regimes but left Greek-speaking cities across Persia’s Western territories. This heralded the
Hellenistic period.
What is notable about the Macedonian regime during the Hellenistic times is that it was the only
successor state to the Empire that maintained the old archaic perception of Kingship, and never
adopted the ways of the Hellenistic Monarchy. The ancient Macedonians during the Hellenistic
times were still addressing their kings in a far more casual way than the subjects of the rest of the
Diadochi, and the Kings were still consulting with their aristocracy (Philoi) in the process of
making their decisions.

ESSAY 5: Discuss the causes of Roman expansion under the Republic. How did the modest
city-state gain control of Italy and the Mediterranean? What social and cultural values
contributed to its successful conquests? How were they changed in the process?

The Roman expansion, from 509-265 BCE, started because the Latin population planned a
rebellion and in 509, had a revolution which dethroned the Etruscan king and drove his people
from Rome. After being sacked by the Celts in 390 BCE, Rome had the entire Italian peninsula
South of Po was conquered. This created strong military ethos and provided the Roman state
with manpower. Continued on to defeat Carthaginian navy in Punic Wars, then acquired more of
Mediterranean. Rome did not enforce absolute subjection, for local govts, traditions and laws
were respected and conquered subjects were encouraged to identify their well-being with Roman
success. Rome achieved this by granting full rights of citizenship to nearest neighbors, partial
citizenship or ally status to other subjects. Everyone had to pay taxes and provide military
service in war time, but it was clear that partial citizenship would turn to full.

ESSAY 6: What characterized Pax Romana (27BC-AD 160)? What were the benefits and
who were the beneficiaries? If the reforms of Diocletian and Constantin (tetrarchy and
Christianity) saved the Empire, what caused the split and collapse of the West?
Long period of peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by Roman Empire in
from 27 BC to 180 AD established by Caesar Augustus. This period refers mainly to the great
Romanization of the Western world. Emperors frequently had to quell rebellions, border
skirmishes and Roman wars of conquest. It was an era of relative tranquility in which Rome
endured neither major civil wars, serious invasions or killings.
While Constantine was smart enough to carry on most of the effective changes that Diocletian
put into place, the one thing he changed was disastrous. By changing it so that the succession of
the throne was hereditary, he brought back the principle of dynastic monarchy. Also, he divided
the empire among his 3 sons. These two things caused civil war because of the differences in the
son’s Christianity beliefs. 3rd century CE. Greek-speaking east part of Rome was growing more
populous, more prosperous, and more central to imperial policy. the Latin-speaking west was
becoming poorer and more peripheral to the political, economic and cultural life of the empire.
West relied on money transfers. the 4th century empire was slowly dissolving.