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Advanced Robot Designs

Moshi Badalov

Moshi Badalov Senior Research Project Research Document

Submitted on May 9, 2013

Analysis and Development of Advanced Robot Designs

Introduction This document contains all the information I gathered during the course of my SRP, from my own research and from the experience I have obtained during my internship at the Materials and Electrochemical Research (MER) Corp. It also contains the robot designs that I made myself, as per my project proposal. I have also formally presented my research in an academic presentation, of which a recording should be available online shortly after the submission of this document. The presentation displays how many of the robots I have analyzed actually move about, which may provide a better understanding of how they work rather than learning from still snapshots. Before I begin, I would like to confirm the meaning of a few terms that are used in this document, as I use a bit of robot jargon throughout this paper: Robot: in the context of this paper, a machine that is either automated, or performs functions that require automation when using them, such as a robot leg when you make it move forward. The term robot is also used in this paper to refer to a complex vehicle if it is manned (such as a walking tank), or any vehicle if it is unmanned. Mobile robot: a robot that is free to change the position of its entire mass; in other words, a robot that is not mounted to a larger platform, like the ground. Advanced robot: a relative term which I use subjectively, but by the end of this paper it will be clear just what an advanced robot is. Mech (pronounced mek): an advanced robot that typically walks and usually has a human pilot Exosuit: an exoskeletal robotic suit, that is relatively not much taller than a human. It must be worn or occupied by a human to operate, like Iron Man, for instance. Data Suit: a suit that, when worn on a person, causes a humanoid machine to remotely mimic the movements the wearer produces in real time.

Now that we have these definitions, allow me to explain the purpose of my research. There are not that many kinds of advanced robots in use today. Most modern robots are only capable of accomplishing very specific tasks, but the progress of technology is on the way to developing robots made for very generalized purposes. For example, iRobot's Roomba (Fig A), an autonomous vacuum cleaner, is meant to only vacuum and do nothing else. However, the NS-5 (Fig B) from the futuristic film I, Robot, can definitely use a vacuum, but can perform an endless variety of other tasks. The robots analyzed in this Fig A document are all machines that can perform tasks that 'non-advanced' robots can't, and the data obtained from this analysis can be used to optimize the designs of countless robots that have yet to be built. The information I have gathered from all the robots in this paper contains every innovative ability and feature the machines have, many of which can be extracted and combined into newer, more advanced robots.

Fig B

The procedure for my research went as follows. I created a digital file cabinet, or a library, of most of the advanced robots I already knew about, and also a few that I came across in the process of gathering data. Each robot was either a modern machine, or a futuristic rendering from a movie, video game, or concept art. Every robot was categorized by its associated industry, in the following order: robots for research, domestic robots, construction/mining robots, space exploration robots, security/rescue robots, and military robots. I analyzed every machine by listing its categorical specifics, such as what it is meant for and who built/designed it, and then I proceeded to list and display every advanced ability the machine had. After compiling the entire list of all these abilities, I proceeded to sketching some robotic designs that exemplified trends seen in the robots I analyzed, to illustrate a few important concepts I learned during the course of my research. In the end, I explored the concept of interchangeable robotic body parts, which I discussed in depth during my presentation.

Advanced Robot Design Analysis

Let's start the analysis. As I mentioned, the types of robots I studied are categorized into research-based, domestic, construction/mining, space exploration, security/rescue, and military robots. All these machines are also categorized into modern and futuristic (film, video game, or concept art) robots. Within each industrial category, I start with modern robots and progress to the futuristic ones. However, not all the categories consist of futuristic designs, but they all contain some robots seen in the modern world. Keep in mind that there are hundreds if not thousands of robot designs out there that could qualify to be in this analysis, but I had to compile a list short enough to contain only the best and most useful features, and so that every robot was unique. It is also interesting to note that certain industries have a considerably larger amount of advanced robots associated with them than others, military and research being the ones with the most (although the military industry has an overpowering amount of futuristic designs dedicated to it).

INDUSTRY: Research DESCRIPTION: These are robots used mainly for study purposes, to stand as predecessors for better machines. ERA: Modern Name: Achilles [Fig 1] Developer: University of Arizona, Robotics and Neural Systems Laboratory Completed in: 2012 Purpose: Research to optimize bipedal motion in robots Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid Unique Features/Abilities: 1) Motor commands are sent in a biologically-accurate manner, meaning that the motors engage in the same order as human leg muscles while walking. 2) Half the motors are above the hip. This minimizes the mass of the lower leg and allows for faster movement (Fig 3). 3) Each foot has a 'toe joint', which just about all modern bipeds lack. 4) Kevlar straps are used to mimic muscle contractions (Fig 2). 5) It's actually shaped like human muscles (Fig 4).

Fig 1

Fig 2

Fig 3

Fig 4

Notes: The Achilles robot was made in the process of studying the methods of how the human brain sends commands to the leg muscles. All the joint movements in the robot are triggered in the same pattern that our brains create. However, all it can do is walk forward. It is also very important to understand that muscles do not expand voluntarily, but can only contract with applied energy. This is how Achilles works; one motor moves a joint clockwise, while a completely separate motor moves the joint counterclockwise. Most walking robots do not mimic biology in this manner, like the robot that follows: Name: Asimo [Fig 5] Developer: Honda Motor Co. Completed in: 2000 Purpose: Research to build better domestic robots Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid Unique Features/Abilities: 1) The head has two cameras for 3D viewing. This enables it to recognize moving objects and even people. 2) Other sensors in the head allow it to locate the source of a sound. 3) It can hold and manipulate many objects with its arms (i.e, pour water from a cup, flip a switch, push a cart). 4) It can converse to some degree. 5) It can play soccer, albeit slowly (Fig 6). 6) It can jump a couple inches off the ground, and also with only one leg. Notes: Asimo is said to be the world's most advanced robot. Although it was made in 2000, the scientists behind the project are constantly working on improving it. This robot was built several times over, each prototype becoming progressively smaller but smarter, until the engineers finally decided to label this version as the final version. It does not have that joint within the foot that Achilles has, but this is because the mechanical design of the robot would work without it. Like most walkers, Asimo's joints are powered by motors that spin in two directions, which the makers of Achilles have avoided.

Fig 5

Fig 6

Name: BRAVE Robot V7.2 [Figures 7 and 8] Developer: Brave Robotics

Completed in: 2012

Fig 7

Fig 8

Purpose: Research to build a full size, drivable car that can transform into a humanoid robot, by 2030. Mobility Platform: 4 wheeled car in vehicle form [Fig 7], Bipedal humanoid in robot form [Fig 8] Unique Features/Abilities: 1) It can literally transform between car and humanoid robot, with a relatively intricate mechanism. 2) It can actually move in all planar directions in both configurations. 3) It can shoot a small spring-loaded dart from both arms in robot mode. 4) It can pick itself up if fallen (in robot mode). Notes: Brave Robotics is a small, independent hobby business in Japan with the motto, No transform, no robot. The v7.2 robot is one of the most recent machines they have developed, and the only one available for sale (for $24,000.00). Other people have attempted to make similar machines, but in the end the vehicle mode is always very, very slow and the robot can barely drag its feet. This one, however, drives at a decent speed in car mode, and walks wonderfully for a robot with so many car parts all over it. It is controlled by a wireless joystick. Name: Cheetah [Fig 9]

Developer: Boston Dynamics Completed in: 2012 Purpose: Research to maximize running speed in robots Mobility Platform: 4 legged Unique Features/Abilities: 1) It set a record for fastest runner ever (surpassing even the fastest human) at 29.3 mph

Fig 9

2) It has an articulated back that flexes back and forth while running. This allows for greater speed and stride length, and mimics the actual animal accurately. Notes: This robot was made as a competitor to a challenge issued by DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The challenge was, simply, to make the fastest running robot. The MIT Biomimetic Robotics Lab also made a Cheetah robot that has gotten much attention, but it did not come close to the speed as this one. Name: Humanoid [Fig 10] Developer: FESTO Completed in: 2006 Purpose: To explore the use of the artificial muscle Mobility Platform: Immobile Unique Features/Abilities: 1) Every joint is powered by fluidic muscles (Fig 11). These are elastic air-filled tubes that hold their position with a very strong stationary force. Pumping air in causes the tubes to increase in diameter but contract in length, like biological muscles. Thus, it has no torquepowered joints. 2) It is controlled by a data suit (Fig 10). Notes:

Fig 10

Fig 11

Festo is a well known robotics corporation in Germany, that manufactures many parts for automated factory lines around the globe. One of their main research projects, the Bionic Learning Network, has brought about some of the world's most advanced biology-mimicking robots to date. The aim of this project is to study the mechanisms used in their biologyinspired robots and figure out where they can be used in assembly lines. Their fluidic muscle, a revolutionary form of pneumatic drive, has already been implemented in many factories that need high-force compression machines in tight areas. The arms of theHumanoid, utilize these elastic parts beautifully, and the robot stands as a wonderful model for biologicallyinspired machines. Name: ExoHand [Fig 12] Developer: FESTO

Completed in: 2012 Purpose: Research for human power augmentation and remote operations in hazardous environments

Fig 12

Mobility Platform: Immobile Unique Features/Abilities: 1) Like the Humanoid, the robot hand is controlled by a data glove. Interestingly, both the glove and the robot hand have the exact same mechanical parts on them, but are programmed for different purposes. 2) The remotely operated hand has a force feedback system. If the fingers on the robot hand feel a force, the fingers on the wearable glove pull back so that the wearer can remotely feel that something is being touched by the robot.

Fig 13

3) The fingers are only powered externally, even in the robot hand. In the data glove, the external mechanisms can provide power augmentation to the human hand wearing it. This is one way of keeping the robot hand entirely human in shape (Fig 13), although the mechanical parts are on the outside. Maintaining absolute human shape is essential for the purpose of this robot. 4) The remotely controlled robot hand matches the data glove's movements with extreme precision (the Humanoid has a notable latency between the movements of the human and that of the robot, for instance). This is especially useful for managing dangerous objects from a distance. Notes: The ExoHand is one of several humanoid-arm robots Festo has made. What makes it so original is the fact that the wearer of the data glove can feel the forces that the robot hand feels. If the wearer remotely grabs an object, the robot hand sends signals to the data glove to not allow the wearer to close his/her hand any further, once it is firmly gripped. This feature would be especially useful in exosuits, which are barely oozing their way into reality. Name: Mahru-III [Fig 14] Developer: Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Center for Cognitive Robotics Research

Completed in: 2012 Purpose: Research to build better domestic robots Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid Unique Features/Abilities:

Fig 14

1) It is one of the only robots in the world to be operated by a full-body data suit

2) Its upper body has almost no latency in receiving movement commands. 3) The robot uses a gyro sensor to maintain gravitational balance. Because of this, commands to move the legs take a small moment to execute. This is due to the fact that Mahru is not perfectly human in shape, and therefore cannot copy all human movements the instant they are made (since its imperfect form might topple it over with instant responses). 4) It's arms have force sensors. If you push down on its arm, it will fight back to retain its position. Like the ExoHand, Mahru's hands detect an object being gripped, and can hold fairly delicate objects without breaking them. 5) While holding an object, Mahru guards it from human or environmental interference. In Figure 15, a man pushes Mahru's left arm, but the right arm moves with it to prevent the balloon from compressing. Notes:

Fig 15

Mahru's control method was made to help implement more human movement in domestic humanoid robots. Essentially, the engineers made their job of programming the robot much easier by first recording the data of real human motion. Most other humanoids, however, are programmed on the spot, and their coding goes through a whole lot of trial and error until the machine walks. Mahru was made so that the programmers would not have to go through that complex and lengthy process, by getting the code through natural means. The overall aim of the Mahru project is the same as Asimo, to create a household helper. Name: HRP3L-JSK [Fig 16] Developer: University of Tokyo JSK Lab

Completed in: 2012 Purpose: Research to maximize robot leg power Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid Unique Features/Abilities: 1) The legs use high-powered liquid-cooled motor drivers powered by a large capacitor (Fig 17). Most robots use batteries to power their motors directly, but capacitors can create current surges that batteries simply cannot produce.

Fig 16

2) Because of the above feature, the robot can jump almost a foot off the ground (however it needs some more programming to land flat, but this may have been achieved by now).

Fig 17

Fig 19 Notes:

3) It can save itself from falling if someone or something crashes into it (Fig 18). Within one millisecond after a collision, the robot evaluates about 170 possible trajectories of where to land its feet so that it doesn't fall (Fig 19). The algorithm's goal is to keep the upper body parallel to the ground at all times.

Fig 18

Many humanoid-robot-builders in Japan have started to use capacitors in their walking robots, such as this one. This model, HRP3L-JSK, was made by modifying a Japanese robot by the name of HRP-3, and the main modifications were the capacitor-powered motor drives. This is an incredibly useful concept, as human muscles work the same way. After a capacitor discharges all its power, the on-board battery quickly recharges it (in a matter of seconds). Smaller movements can still be made during the moment of recharging. As you might imagine, moving a leg or arm (or any) muscles very rapidly for long periods of time tires the muscle pretty quickly. If you wait for a bit, it feels fine to shake the muscle again. This phenomenon is mimicked by the powering mechanism of HRP3L-JSK. Name: Sandia Hand [Fig 20] Developer: Sandia National Laboratories Completed in: 2012 Purpose: To eventually be used for remote bomb-disposal missions, especially for roadside bombs Mobility Platform: Immobile Unique Features/Abilities: 1) The hand is modular, meaning that its main components (fingers in this case) are meant to detach easily (Figures 21 and 22). The reason it has this ability is because the robot is designed to be used in dangerous operations, which may result in parts Fig 20 breaking. Therefore, the engineers decided it would be beneficial for the parts to snap off rather than break. 2) Because of the above feature, other tools can be built to attach to the same modular frame. For example, one of the fingers can be replaced with a screwdriver.

Fig 21

Fig 22

3) This machine exhibits superior finger adduction/abduction (Fig 23), which allows it to grasp a huge variety of oddly shaped objects (Fig 24).

Fig 23

Fig 24

4) The fingers are able to arch over backwards (Fig 25). Such dexterity allows it to pick up a fallen finger and put it back into its socket. It can also utilize this ability to keep unused fingers out of harm's way of a certain object. 5) It can interact with an object connected to another, while avoiding any interaction with the other object (Figures 26 and 27).

Fig 25

Fig 26

Fig 27

6) The robot can be controlled either by a control panel or a data glove (Fig 28). The Sandia Hand project is funded by DARPA's Autonomous Robot Manipulation Program, and is known for being a relatively low cost machine of its caliber ($10,000). It's amazing range of positions allows it to grasp and manipulate all sorts of objects, as seen in the figures. The control methods are extremely precise and articulate, much like Festo's ExoHand. This robot uses a white gel-like layer to mimic the grip force of human tissue, making it the perfect substitute for human hands when handling bombs.

Fig 28

Name: The Sarcos Robot [Fig 29] Developer: Raytheon Sarcos, and Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute Completed in: 2011 Purpose: Research to improve gravitational balance in humanoid robots Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid Unique Features/Abilities: 1) It can recreate motions generated by humans from a motion capture system (not in real time, but as a replay of a recording). 2) Because the weight distribution does not have the same ratios as that of humans, it programmed to balance itself during replays of dances, so that replicating motions exactly does not cause it to topple over. 3) Like HRP3L-JSK, if this robot is Fig 29 met with an external force, it finds a way to keep itself standing straight, either by resisting the force by leaning, or stepping in the direction of the force. In Figure 30, an engineer pushes the robot with a stick, but it steps a bit forward in response.

Fig 30

4) It has a flexible torso that most fully-body humanoids like Asimo and Mahru do not have. This is also incredibly important for maintaining balance on two legs.

Notes: This robot, informally named The Sarcos Robot, was made by Sarcos, a sub-branch of Raytheon, and was programmed by a PhD student at Carnegie Mellon. The research involved in keeping this robot standing goes to show just how important and complex it is to keep such a machine balancing naturally. As humans, we do not pay much attention to how our brains allow us to walk on oddly shaped surfaces and recover from collisions, but this is a crucial component in developing humanoid robots. This concludes my list of robots labeled under the research industry. There are no futuristic designs in this section because it does not make much sense to design a machine that is meant to stand as an incomplete predecessor - to be a sci-fi robot. We continue with robots in the domestic industry.

INDUSTRY: Domestic [Home Convenience] DESCRIPTION: Robots that are made for performing household tasks and assisting the disabled are known as domestic robots. ERA: Modern Name: AR [Assistant Robot] Robot Maid [Fig 1] Developer: Tokyo University IRT, and Toyota

Completed in: 2008 Purpose: Carry out household chores Mobility Platform: Tower on wheels Unique Features/Abilities: 1) It is able to pick up a tray with dishes (Fig 2), and hold it level (Fig 3).

Fig 1

Fig 2

Fig 3

2) It can judge if an article of clothing has dirt on it, and place it in a washing machine (Figures 4 and 5). It can also activate the washing machine.

Fig 4
3) It can locate dirt on the floor and sweep it away.

Fig 5

4) If it locates dirt under a table, it will clear a path (for instance, if a chair is an obstruction, as in Figure 6) and sweep under the table without nudging the table (Fig 7).

Fig 6
5) It can learn from previous mistakes.

Fig 7

6) It is said that AR can also place dishes in a dishwasher, although this has not been demonstrated officially. Notes: Although this robot was made in partnership with many companies, the Information and Robot Technology Research Initiative in the University of Tokyo played the main role in developing the Assistant Robot. It's incredible ability to handle objects gently (and without too much slowness) allows it to navigate around the house without causing any accidents, and if it performs a task defectively, it will take note to never make the same mistake. Toyota plans to release this machine for consumer sale within two decades, at an estimated $10,000 USD. Name: Twendy-One [Fig 8] Developer: Waseda University, Sugano Laboratory

Completed in: 2000 Purpose: Provide assistance to a(n) disabled/Elderly individual Mobility Platform: Tower on wheels Unique Features/Abilities: 1) The robot is dressed in torque and pressure sensors. This allows it to feel just about every external force, and be able to respond accordingly (Figures 9 and 10).

Fig 8 Fig 10 2) Like the Sandia Hand, Twendy-One's hands use a gel-like layer to simulate human skin (Fig 10).
3) If a human interacts with an object that Twendy must not let go of, the fingers will move to avoid damage to the object. Notice the differences in Figures 10 and 11:

Fig 9

Fig 10
4) It can help a person out of bed (Fig 12). 5) It can help a person into a wheelchair (Fig 13).

Fig 11

6) It can pick up objects as thin as a straw (Fig Fig 13 Fig 12 14), alternate which fingers hold it (Fig 15), use its other hand to pick up a cup filled with beverage, and insert the straw into it (Fig 16), without ever pinching the straw. It then hands the cup its master.

Fig 15 7) Twendy-One can access a refrigerator and obtain an object that the master asks for (Fig 17), although the object needs to be familiarized with the robot. In the demonstration that the Figures depict, it is doing this to assemble a breakfast tray.
8) It can prepare toast and use tongs to place the toast on a tray (Fig 18).

Fig 14

Fig 16

Fig 17

Fig 18
9) After the breakfast tray has been assembled, it can transfer it to a table, holding it level during the entire transfer (Fig 19), as Assistant Robot can also do.

Fig 19

10) Its prototype, WENDY (made in 1999; Fig 20), was able to crack eggs into a frying pan (Fig 21). Twendy-One may be able to do this as well.

Fig 21 Fig 20

ERA: Futuristic Media: Film Name: Nestor Class NS-5 [Fig 22] Film: I, Robot [2004] Designed to exist in: 2035 Designer: Digital Domain

Purpose: Help families around the house, save humans from deadly situations, run errands Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid Why it conflicts with modern technology: The level of intelligence this robot has is far beyond what modern computers are capable of. Its power source also never seems to go low, as it is never addressed in the film. Unique Features/Abilities: 1) The NS-5 has extreme intelligence for an autonomous machine. The brain is actually in the head. 2) It can converse flawlessly.

Fig 22

3) It is designed to have a perfectly accurate human shape. This includes a flexible spine (Fig 22) and feet with joints in the middle (Fig 23), which most modern humanoids lack. 4) The face is made of a hypothetical plastic-like material that can flex to convey mouth movements and facial expressions. 5) Nearly all its joints are powered by artificial muscles, similar to the ones Festo makes and uses. 6) It also has extreme strength (Fig 24) and agility. It is a master of its own body form and can perform acrobatics that are deadly for humans (Fig 25).

Fig 23

Fig 24

Fig 25

7) It will respond to virtually any command a human gives it, as there is almost no physical human task it cannot perform. It can cook (Fig 26), clean, pick up the phone, draw (Fig 27) and much, much more.

Fig 26

Fig 27

8) It receives timely wireless updates from its hypothetical manufacturing company, United States Robotics (USR). Notes: The NS-5's represent the epitome of the most advanced service robots the world might ever see. The film they feature in does a good job of illustrating the possible problems that may be encountered if all the robots have wireless contact with the same central computer, as opposed to being independent machines. When robots get this advanced, let's hope that no singularity claims power over them all. This concludes the short list of advanced domestic robots. Unfortunately, no such robots are available for consumer sale, but time guarantees that they will be, soon. Although they probably won't look like NS-5's, they will hopefully give us more time to focus on more challenging tasks in life, rather than make us lazier. The following group of robots is from the construction/mining industry.

INDUSTRY: Construction / Mining DESCRIPTION: Advanced construction/mining robots can outperform the regular vehicles seen on sites, utilizing innovative features that make dealing with huge loads much easier, or eliminating the risk of a human life in a dangerous zone. ERA: Modern Name: Timberjack Walking Machine [Fig 1] Developer: Plustech Oy, subsidiary of John Deere Completed in: 2008 Purpose: Cut trees located in extremely uneven forest terrain, and strip bark off of them Mobility Platform: 6 legged vehicle Unique Features/Abilities: 1) It has six legs. Not two, not four, but six. This Fig 1 number may have been chosen for extreme stability (as this machine manages heavy loads), and may have also been meant to mimic the body of a grasshopper. 2) Although it moves slowly, an on-board computer distributes the weight of the machine evenly among all the legs. Because of this, each leg never exceeds its carrying capacity. This is done by force sensors in the legs, similar to some of the robots analyzed previously. 3) The feet only land where anticipated. If an irregularity in the terrain is detected, the cabin tilts to stay perpendicular to gravity, just like HRP3L-JSK. Tilting is demonstrated in Figures 2 and 3.

Fig 2

Fig 3

4) The operator can adjust the altitude of the cabin to change the amount of ground clearance below the robot (Figures 4 and 5).

Fig 5 Fig 4 5) Hip adduction/abduction allows it to walk sideways or turn in one place (Figures 6 and 7).

Fig 6

Fig 7

The Timberjack Walking Machine is a novel development in the field of construction vehicles, utilizing robotic walking technology to move through forest areas that wheeled or tracked vehicles cannot. It took ten years to develop, but remains a prototype platform for a walking forest harvester. Plustech Oy (Plus Tech, Ltd.), a John Deere branch in Finland, built this machine and is likely to be working on better models to release for industrial sale. Name: Remote Surveying Vehicle [RSV] [Fig 8] Developer: University of Exeter, Camborne School of Mining

Completed in: 2008 Purpose: Generate a 3D map of unexplored mines remotely, to avoid human injury Mobility Platform: Tracked vehicle Unique Features/Abilities:

Fig 8

1) This robot uses an on-board laser scanner to survey a mine (Fig 9) and produce a 3D image of everything it explores (Fig 10). It takes under a minute for it carry out thousands of scanning calculations in one area. It was tested in a silver mine in Mexico, which took 18 months for a human team to survey. This robot produced the same information with higher-definition 3.5 days. The time difference is a factor of approximately 155. Both runs surveyed the same 2.2 kilometers of tunnels.

Fig 9
2) It has extreme ground clearance (Fig 11). This allows it to drive over extremely uneven terrain.

Fig 10

Fig 11
3) It is operated wirelessly by a gaming joystick (Fig 12), which is very easy to control and replace if broken. This is an extremely simple alternative to an autonomous navigation system. 4) All the parts that it's made of are available for regular sale. The robot uses a standard laptop for 3D mapping, a wireless router for camera connection, and of course a gaming controller. Another laptop receives the live camera feed. Notes:

Fig 12

The RSV was developed by a PhD student in the University of Exeter, in the U.K. The aim was, quite simply, to replace a human in a potentially dangerous, unknown underground cave with a robot. The first step of every mining mission is to generate a map of the tunnel systems, and the next is to mine it out the material of interest. Although I have not come

across any robot designs that are made for the last step, it is at least satisfactory to see a real-life machine working on the first step. On a side note, a firm by the name of Anglo American has recently signed an agreement with Carnegie Mellon University to research and develop autonomous mining robots, which just might perform the entire mining procedure. ERA: Futuristic Media: Film Name: Caterpillar Power Loader P-5000 [Fig 13] Film: Aliens [1986] Designed to exist in: 2122 Designers: Syd Mead, James Cameron Purpose: Pick up large objects in confined areas and transport them with ease Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid exosuit Why it conflicts with modern technology: It probably doesn't, unless the power source is too small (the power source is never a concern in the film, like for the NS-5). Unique Features/Abilities: 1) Even though the P-5000 is taller than a human, its knees are still at the level of the operator's knees. When the operator barely flexes his/her knee, the mechanical knee right behind it follows (Fig 14). 2) The arms and legs are designed to mimic the design of other Caterpillar construction vehicles. Each limb uses heavy-duty hydraulic cylinders to allow for heavy lifting operations (Figures 15 and 16).

Fig 13

Fig 14

Fig 15

Fig 16
3) The pincer hands use a mechanism similar to that of forklifts, but also garbage trucks. This concept was utilized to standardize crates with handles meant for the P-5000 (Fig 15). 4) It has a blowtorch located on the right side of the steel pipe hatch, right in front of the operator's face (Figures 17 and 18). This location is optimal for building machinery while inside machinery.

Fig 17
5) Each arm is controlled by its own joystick, located behind both wrist areas. Sliding the entire joystick on a short rail moves the shoulder joint, tilting the handle moves the elbows, and moving the knob around rotates the pincer hands (Fig 19). Notes: The P-5000 Power Loader was originally conceptualized by Syd Mead (Fig 20). However, James Cameron, now famed for his direction in

Fig 18

Fig 19

Avatar, did a bit of remodeling with his own hands (Fig 21). The machine was designed to operate in space, especially for loading military supplies and heavy weapons onto vehicles and other moving platforms. Cameron's style of industrial design definitely made the P-5000 more iconic.

Fig 20
Media: Video Game Name: Buckethead Loader [Fig 22] Video Game: Gears of War 3 Designed to exist in: Unknown time frame, on the fictional planet of Sera Designer: Epic Games Purpose: Transport large objects in confined areas, kick/punch away heavy objects when necessary Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid exosuit

Fig 21

Fig 22

Why it conflicts with modern technology: Like the P-5000, it doesn't seem to, unless again the power source is not sophisticated enough. Unique Features/Abilities: 1) It was purposefully designed to be small, to be able to navigate in obstacle-heavy locations where forklifts cannot operate. 2) It has much more flexibility than the P-5000, since the shoulder joints have more degrees of freedom (Fig 23).

Fig 23
3) Not only does it have the large pincer hands that the P-5000 has, it also has small pincers that reside between the large ones (Fig 24; the leg armor in Figure 24 did not remain in the final design).

Fig 24

4) It's melee function is a right-arm punch if no object is being held and a kick if an object is being held. Both these attacks can knock down walls or hurl parked vehicles (Figures 25 and 26).

Fig 25

Fig 26

The Loader is probably the only construction exosuit in the entire video game industry. Its design seems to exist only because it is based off the Silverback, the heavy-weapon variant of this machine. In the game, players spend much more time operating the Silverback rather than the Loader. As ephemeral as its usage is, it still stands as a considerable concept design for futuristic construction robots. The official Gears of War information website states that the Loader can also be outfitted with a bulldozer shovel, to replace bulldozers in areas where they are too big. Media: Concept Art

Fig 27

Name: Construction Mech 01 [Fig 27] Designed by: Paul Pepera Purpose: Carry enormous loads in the manner of a mobile crane Mobility Platform: Quadruped spider Biggest challenge it poses to reality: Since quadruped designs walk by having two feet off the ground during each step, only two of the four legs must be able to support the extreme weight. Unique Features/Abilities: 1) It has the exact same upper-body features as a mobile crane (Fig 28): Two cabins, a turret-mounted arm that extends into four segments, and a giant hook, hinting at the possibility of detaching the top to mount it on wheels, if so desired.

Fig 28

2) The walking platform allows it to move sideways and turn in one place, like the Timberjack. Such mobility is absolutely impossible for the crane in Figure 28, which may be necessary for avoiding fifty point turns in zones that are dense with construction vehicles or objects to lift.

Fig 29

Name: Construction Mech 02 [Fig 29] Designed by: Paul Pepera Purpose: Drill holes in the ground for mining or underground resource harvesting Mobility Platform: Quadruped vehicle Biggest challenge it poses to reality: Same as Construction Mech 01 Unique Features/Abilities: 1) The drill bit can proportionally be much larger on a legged chassis than the standard tracked chassis (Fig 30). If the heavy drill on the quadruped would seem to cause the whole machine to tip over (while the drill extends), the legs can be arranged in a manner to prevent toppling. Tracked vehicles have sharp limits to the drill size because of this. 2) Each foot has the shape of a bullet shell, suggesting that there is a piston inside which shoots or drills a spike into the ground to mount the vehicle. Each spike would then retract to resume walking. Notes:

Fig 30 Both of these construction mechs are very intriguing and innovative, and might just be the designs for the next generation construction vehicles. Paul Pepera, lead mission artist of the Halo series at 343 Industries, designed these machines possibly as inspiration for some upcoming video game.
We have reached the end of the list of advanced construction and mining robots. Although it will take some time before robots like Pepera's will be seen on the roadside, the technology required to make them seems to exist currently. We continue to space exploration robots.

INDUSTRY: Space Exploration DESCRIPTION: Space exploration robots can perform a huge variety of functions, mainly for the purpose of avoiding the risk of human life while exploring extraterrestrial zones. There are also those that perform basic functions such as hauling equipment to a base. ERA: Modern Name: All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer [ATHLETE] [Fig 1] Developer: California Institute of Technology, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Completed in: 2007 Purpose: Explore the terrain and geology of the moon, and haul payloads to designated locations Mobility Platform: Hexapod spider Unique Features/Abilities [As listed in a Popular Science issue by artist Kevin Hand, in accordance to Figure 2]:

Fig 1

Fig 2

1) The ATHLETE moon rover has 48 stereo cameras, which stream 3-D video from its limbs, frame, and wheels to human operators on Earth or the moon, allowing them to look for hazards and maneuver tools. ATHLETE will have more cameras than any previous rover. 2) The rover can refill its hydrogen fuel cells at a solar-powered station that splits water into hydrogen and oxygen (for astronauts to breathe). 3) ATHLETEs wheeled limbs let it walk, drive, or climb, depending on the environment. Each has seven motorized joints that bend and twist. ATHLETE controls each leg separately so that it can keep cargo level even while climbing uneven terrain (Fig 1). 4) Drills, scoops, and grippers collect rock and soil samples for analysis. One set of motors operates both the wheels and tools, which saves weight and makes the rover cheaper to launch into space. 5) Clamps on the wheels hold interchangeable tools. 6) A tool belt stores gear when not in use. 7) Airless tires cant burst or go flat. How it Hauls [8 12 in Figure 2]: 8) Drive: People in mission control (on Earth or on the moon) tell the ATHLETE rover to drive to a lander that has just touched down, carrying a cargo pallet. Incoming supplies must land far from the astronauts base to prevent jagged moondust from damaging equipment. Split: ATHLETE divides into two identical, three-legged rovers, called TriATHLETEs, by lifting motorized hooks that latch across its center (Fig 3).


Fig 3
10) Stretch: The rovers straighten their legs until theyre 27 feet tallhigh enough to reach above the lander to the cargo palletand use their motorized hooks to grab pins on either side of the cargo.

11) Walk: If the rovers travel over rocky terrain too uneven for driving, they can walk while keeping the cargo level. 12) Deliver: The rovers crouch down until the pallet is on the ground and then release it. Notes: As you can see, this robot has already been analyzed in a similar way to how I have done the others. What makes this robot unique, however, is its modular tool frame. I am inclined to believe that the robot is able to attach tools to its wheels remotely, without having a human do so manually, although this has not been specified (but should be the case, judging from the robot's purpose). It is also important to note that the existing ATHLETE robot is only half the size of the anticipated machine that is scheduled for operation by 2017. The final version of ATHLETE will have a maximum standing height of 26 feet. Name: Robonaut 2 [R2] [Fig 4] Developers: NASA and General Motors

Fig 4
Completed in: 2009 Purpose: Aid astronauts aboard the International Space Station Mobility Platform: Interchangeable, no final version yet Unique Features/Abilities: 1) Robonaut 2 is made to work alongside human astronauts in shoulder to shoulder proximity. This is accomplished by varying the stiffness of every motor. Just like Twendy-One has the ability to resist human force, Robonaut 2 tries to revert to its earlier position if someone moves it. However, the resistive force in such responses can be adjusted to better safety when humans are nearby. For example, if it is performing an action, and a human blocks the path of its arm, the arm will stop calmly against the human (Fig 5). Once the human is out of the way, the arm moves into the predetermined position (Fig 6). This minimizes safety issues of working next to a pair of 50 pound arms.

Fig 5

Fig 6

2) R2 can operate in microgravity. Most robots with as many sensors are designed only for on-Earth operation, but R2's sensors can feel the absence of gravity (Fig 7). 3) Robonaut 2 can easily weight lift 20 pounds in each arm (Fig 8). This is a relatively excellent ratio of body mass to maximum weight capacity. However, no humanoid robot has surpassed humans in this statistic. 4) R2 can wield power tools and is being trained how to use them aboard the ISS (Fig 9). Notes: The Robonaut 2 is the first humanoid robot ever to be launched into the cosmos. It was at first intended to be a research platform to operate only on Earth, but science teams on the International Space Station were far too impressed with its performance to leave it be on land. The most impressive feature of this machine is its compatibility with human safety. Also, as mentioned in the Mobility Platform specification, R2 Fig 9 does not have a finalized base yet. It has gone through several kinds, as seen in Figures 10 and 11, but since the engineers are striving to allow R2 to go outside a vessel and onto terra firma, a concept for humanoid legs has been released (Fig 12).

Fig 7

Fig 8

Fig 10

Fig 11

Fig 12

Era: Futuristic Media: Concept Art

Name: Nautillus Submersible Mech [Fig 13] Designed by: Fausto De Martini Purpose: Explore extraterrestrial lands and waters Mobility Platform: Humanoid biped and underwater jets Biggest challenge it poses to reality: Seeing as it has no solar panels like modern space rovers [since it is meant to explore bodies that are far beyond considerable sunlight], a long lasting power source may be the most difficult component to create for this machine. There is the option of a solar charging station, but this does not eliminate the risk of losing all battery power. Unique Features/Abilities: 1) It can alternate its form between humanoid robot and a submarine-like robot (Fig 14).

Fig 13

Fig 14 2) The submarine configuration moves via two underwater jets (Fig 15), which can tilt toward any direction to steer it. This is evident because of the spherical joints they are mounted on, which are exposed in its humanoid configuration (Fig 16).

Fig 15

Fig 16

3) Nautillus has two pegs in each foot that drill into the ground when it needs to mount on the ground firmly, as I assumed for Pepera's Construction Mech 02. These pegs are seen in red in Figures 15 and 16. 4) One of its arms (Fig 17) can fold its gripper to allow another set of equipment to rotate into its stead (Fig 18). Martini did not specify what these other devices do, but it is an efficient concept to have multiple devices compatible in the same location, as ATHLETE demonstrates with the tool clamps on each of its six wheels.

Fig 17

Fig 18

This robot concept was developed out of inspiration from the theory that oceans exist under the ice of Europa, one of Jupiter's moons. Fausto de Martini, the designer of Nautillus, is a 3D artist that participated in making the cinematic cut scenes of Starcraft 2, Diablo 3, and World of Warcraft. The Submersible Mech is one of his many works that he creates for fun. In my opinion, if a small enough power source was to be developed that could power a machine like this for months, NASA might actually build a scale robot of this exact design. Adding the NASA logo to the artwork really puts the cherry on top of the cake:

We have reached the end of the list of advanced space exploration robots. Although there seems to be few advanced robot designs for this industry, space exploration will soon be in such fruition that many more designs like the Nautillus will one day become a reality.

INDUSTRY: Security and Rescue DESCRIPTION: Security and rescue robots are mainly used by police forces and sometimes by the military. Their abilities range from disarming bombs to rescuing lives in danger zones. ERA: Modern Name: Andros Wolverine [Fig 1] Developer: Remotec, Subsidiary of Northrop Grumman; then modified by the Israeli Defense Force

Completed in: 1997 Purpose: Dispose bombs and inspect anything that may be a bomb Mobility Platform: 6 wheeled or tracked vehicle Unique Features/Abilities: 1) It's constructed to withstand anything. It is the IDF workhorse robot that can perform operations in swamps and snow. It is as heavy-duty as security robots get. Seeing as this robot model has been in service for about 16 years, it is obvious that something about its structure is superior. 2) It has a very powerful yet extremely precise pincer arm, which is necessary for neutralizing any explosive device. 3) The tracks that wrap around the wheels can be removed, to adjust to different terrain if necessary. 4) Most variants of the robot have been seen to have a rifle-like attachment. It is actually used to shoot a spike into a suspicious package in case it is indeed explosive. Notes: This wirelessly controlled robot has been used for countless operations on the streets of Israel, where roadside, car, and suicide bombings have become a common security concern. In fact, the concern is now so high, that if a single large object such as a backpack or box is found abandoned in a public domain, the police will immediately evacuate the area, deploy the Wolverine, and inspect the object (Fig 1). I had the hardest time finding any information about this robot, since 99.999% of all the web-pages about it only contain a story about someone having observed it in operation. There was a news report of a suicide bomber failing miserably at his mission, and the robot dragged his seemingly dead body away from the

Fig 1

scene until he started moving (Fig 2). There was even a report of the robot running over a bomber's corpse to insure he was dead (this thing weighs 350kg / 810lbs, Fig 3). My own friends who have been to Israel have all seen this machine at least once, and I was informed that children try to jump on it while security forces shove them off. Upon calling Remotec, I was told that the bare robot, without any controllers or attachments, costs $130,000 and is manufactured on demand. The Wolverine was originally made for rescue missions in mines (Fig 4), but the IDF purchased many of these models and modified them to dispose of bombs with great precision. Israel's military is very well known for taking foreign technology and improving its internal components.

Fig 2

Fig 3 Fig 4

Name: Gemini-Scout Mine Rescue Robot [Fig 5] Developer: Sandia National Laboratories

Completed in: 2010 Purpose: Assist in missions to rescue stranded miners Mobility Platform: Tracked vehicle Unique Features/Abilities [as listed by popular mechanics author Alex Hutchinson, in accordance to Figure 6]: 1) Extrasensory Perception Gas sensors and a thermal camera can detect imperiled miners. 2) Superhuman Strength The 4-foot-long 2-foot-high robot is strong enough to drag a survivor to safety. 3) Impervious to Damage Electronics are housed in waterproof casings to prevent methane gas explosions.

Fig 5

Fig 6

4) Easy to Relate To An Xbox 360 controller makes operation intuitive to users. More Unique Features/Abilities: 5) Gemini-Scout can drive through water that is up to 18 inches deep (Fig 7). The limiting factor is the array of camera accessories on top. 6) The rugged tracks allow the robot to climb stairs with steep inclines (Fig 8). 7) The two halves of the robot are joined by a universal joint (Fig 9). This allows for extreme flexibility while Fig 8 moving over grossly uneven Fig 7 terrain (Fig 10).

Fig 9
8) It uses a dual-frequency radio, which Fig 10 automatically searches for wavelengths with best reception. If the robot goes around a corner, which could potentially terminate radio connection, a fiber optic control cable can be released, which automatically spools out behind it. 9) Once survivors have been found, the robot can act as a communications relay between the rescue team and the survivors. 10) Vacant compartments in the robot can be supplied with oxygen packs, water, medical supplies, or any other essentials that the survivors may need, in case the robot finds them well before the human crew. Notes: As you may have started to notice, some of the robots in this analysis have strong associations with more than one of the categorized industries. Gemini-Scout is no exception; it is a rescue robot meant for the miners. What stands out about this robot though is its ability to detect the gases in its vicinity, and its thermal camera which can see body heat. These features are sure to speed up rescue missions tremendously.


Developer: Virginia Institute of Technology, Robotics and Mechanisms Laboratory [Fig 11]

Still in development
Purpose: Rescue people from fires on navy ships, p Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid Unique Features/Abilities:

Fig 11 1) The leg joints are not motorized, but actuated. The use of linear actuators is an excellent way to boost strength, and this robot is known for its very strong legs.
2) Drive a vehicle 3) Walk through rubble 4) Open a door and enter a building 5) Climb a ladder 6) Use a power tool to break through concrete 7) Locate and close a valve near a leaking pipe 8) Extract and replace components such as a cooling pump

When completed, it should be able to:

Notes: Right now, only a prototype of THOR exists, by the name of ASH (Autonomous Shipboard Humanoid, Fig 12). Figure 11 is simply a computer rendering of what the next variant should look like. Virginia Tech has embarked on a project called SAFFiR, Shipboard Autonomous Fire-Fighting Robot, in response to a challenge Fig 12 issued by DARPA, in which THOR will compete. The challenge is to build an autonomous robot that can perform all the tasks listed in abilities 2 through 8, and the simulated disaster will be aboard the U.S.S. Shadwell, a decommissioned navy ship from the World War II era. The competition is to be held in 2014 and will see other robots similar to THOR. The final variant of THOR has already been designed, as shown in Figure 13.

Fig 13
How cool would it be to be rescued by a robot like that? If you think about it, it's cool simply because it's your shape and size. An interesting question that is being addressed worldwide is, if a robot is made to be used in a human environment, meaning there are objects all around that are meant to be used by humans, should such a robot be designed to look like a human? Well, judging from the requirements DARPA is putting into their challenge, the answer seems very likely to be definitely. Robots like the Wolverine and Gemini-Scout, however, may not need to have humanoid form, because they are not made to operate in areas where its necessary to interact with many man-made objects. Either way, it is good to know that machines are beginning to eliminate the risk human life in hazardous conditions. This is the end of the security/rescue robots section. The final section that follows contains military robots.

INDUSTRY: Military DESCRIPTION: Advanced military robotics serves to perform an enormous variety of tasks, ranging from testing combat gear to replacing soldiers in combat. Since this industry has the greatest fruition in advanced robot designs, it is the longest section of this document. ERA: Modern Name: BigDog [Fig 1] Developer: Boston Dynamics

Completed in: 2008 Purpose: Haul heavy military equipment through any terrain Mobility Platform: Quadruped animal Unique Features/Abilities: 1) BigDog can climb up a 35 degree incline (Fig 2).

Fig 1

Fig 2
2) The legs use springs right above the feet. This mimics car suspension as it absorbs impact (Fig 3). 3) It can withstand a very powerful external disturbance yet maintain its balance. This could be either a strong shove/kick (Fig 4) or a physical change of shape of the ground beneath it (Fig 5).

Fig 3

Fig 4

Fig 5

4) If heavily shoved, the robot will immediately calculate the best way to move its legs so that it does not fall. In this process, the legs can cross over each other but they will never collide (Fig 6). 5) BigDog can traverse any terrain, including the mud of swamps, kneedeep water, and snow (Fig 7).

Fig 6

Fig 7
6) If BigDog ends up slipping over ice, the force sensors in its legs are able to prevent the robot from falling over. On a side note, it is quite amusing to see this happen (Figures 8 and 9).

Fig 8

Fig 9

7) BigDog has some sense of its own momentum. Humans, for example, find this very easy; running and jumping involves using the momentum we've established in previous moments to be capable of air time. BigDog can do the same. It can run with moments of all four feet off the ground (Fig 10), and jump very, very high (Fig 11). Most robots move very slowly because they cannot generate the same momentum proportionally.

Fig 10

Fig 11

8) It's power management system recycles unused energy from every hydraulic movement. Not only are the legs powered by fast-acting hydraulic actuators (Fig 12), but they in turn are powered by a simple device a go-kart engine (Fig 13).

Fig 12
9) Its newest attachment, a robotic arm, has the strength to pick up and throw a cinder block (Fig 14). 10) Notes: BigDog is by far the world's most capable all-terrain machine. It set a world record for travel distance by a walking robot -without stopping or refueling- at an amazing 12.8 miles. It's ability to stay standing no matter what happens to it is probably its most recognized feature, which may lead to other robots having the same computer programming. With the constant progress this robot is going through, it would not be too surprising to see it equipped with weapons soon. Name: PETMAN [Protection Ensemble Test Mannequin, Fig 15] Maker: Boston Dynamics It has a stereo camera, which enables 3D viewing.

Fig 13

Fig 14

Completed in: 2011 Purpose: To test new army gear made to resist chemical warfare Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid Unique Features/Abilities:

Fig 15

1) Its other variant, ATLAS, is able to climb stairs quickly (Fig 16) and walk over/around large obstacles (Fig 17). PETMAN may be able to do the same.

Fig 16

Fig 17

2) PETMAN can move into virtually any pose a human can (Figures 18 and 19). It can also do pushups (Fig 20).

Fig 19 Fig 18
3) Like BigDog, PETMAN can take a shove and recover (Fig 21). 4) Its flexible torso, a key component for anthropomorphic robots, allows PETMAN to walk easier and maintain balance. Notes:

Fig 20

Although this outstandingly human-shaped robot has a very specific purpose, engineers at Boston Dynamics have confirmed that they plan to use the model for more general tasks. As shown in the Figures, Fig 21 PETMAN is able to bend its joints into just about any pose a human can exhibit. This is its most important ability, since it will essentially be used to test advanced clothing that will need to permit the full flexibility a soldier may need. And of course, being a robot, it serves well for it to replace a human life for testing anti-chemical-warfare gear. Boston Dynamics has gone through a couple of prototypes (Figures 22 and 23) before developing the one in Figure 15. They have stated that by 2011 they will have delivered it to the army, with a mechanical head and fully completed hands, but they seem to be behind on

schedule (they are still working on it now, in 2013). Moreover, only a computer model of the final version has been revealed to the public (Fig 24). On a side note, PETMAN or ATLAS may compete in the same rescue-robotics competition as THOR, that DARPA has issued for 2014.

Fig 22 Fig 23

Fig 24

Name: RHex [Fig 25] Developer: Boston Dynamics

Completed in: 2012 Purpose: Go on reconnaissance missions and deliver small payloads in combat, through any terrain Mobility Platform: 6 semi-ring legs Unique Features/Abilities: 1) RHex can traverse a slope with a 60 degree incline. (WOW!)

Fig 25

2) It can crawl over obtuse obstructions such as a log (Fig 26) and rock fields (Fig 27). Like BigDog, it has no problem driving over mud, sand, snow, gravel, etc. It can even climb stairs.

Fig 26

Fig 27

3) The robot can access small tunnels, including culverts, for inspection missions (Figures 28 and 29).

Fig 28

Fig 29

4) If it flips over, it can still run around. It can also use its leg mechanism to flip itself back.

5) It can leap across a ditch up to 30cm wide. 6) Using active pendulum stabilization, it can run on 2 legs (Fig 30). 7) The rest length of the internal leg springs can change autonomously to adjust to the terrain. 8) RHex can carry a modular payload to deliver mission-specific packages (Fig 31). 9) The robot is small and light enough (30 lbs) to be placed in a backpack (Fig 32). 10) Radio control with real-time camera feed has a remote distance of up to a whopping 700 meters.

Fig 30

Fig 31
Notes: RHex is by far one of the most amusing robots to witness in action. No Fig 32 matter where it goes, it never stops moving. If it climbs over an enormous rock but lands upside-down in the process, it just keeps going. At this point in the analysis, it has become clear that companies like Boston Dynamics are working on the all-terrain aspect of mobile robots, and RHex uses an innovative way to combine the speed of wheeled robots with the all-terrain management of legged robots. The result, seen best in Figure 31, was a mobility platform involving C-shaped legs the rotate like wheels. While walking over large rocks, it is noticeable that there are moments when a leg turns backwards for a bit, when the robot realizes that there is no way for the leg to keep rotating forward. Name: Sand Flea [Fig 33] Developer: Boston Dynamics

Completed in: 2012 Purpose: Go on reconnaissance missions in urban areas Mobility Platform: 4 parallel wheels Unique Features/Abilities: 1) The Sand Flea can literally jump 30 feet into the air, using a piston actuation system. Two pegs bring it into the desired launch angle (Fig 34), and then the robot jumps at a desired altitude (Fig 35).

Fig 33

Fig 34

2) During flight, an on-board stabilization system flattens out the robot to be perpendicular to gravity (Fig 35). This allows the live camera feed to show more comprehensible imaging to the wireless controller.

Fig 35 3) Trajectory computations using laser-based ranging help to robot hop with precision through windows or doors, onto tables, up staircases, and onto or off roofs or balconies.
4) The wheels have been specially designed to absorb landing impact. The web-like design resembles that of ATHLETE's wheels (Fig 36). 5) Like RHex, the Sand Flea can be flipped over but still drive. Notes:

Fig 36 If there's anything to learn from the Sand Flea, it's that keeping things small does not necessarily mean keeping things simple. Typically, a metal rectangle on plastic wheels is never anything close to an advanced robot, but Sand Flea might be the only exception. This little 11-pound robot has the power to jump up to 30 feet 25 times per gas fill! Also like RHex, Sand Flea can fit into a backpack and be thrown out into deployment. Both RHex and Sand Flea have been funded by the army's Rapid Equipping Force (REF), an organization meant to provide important items and materials immediately to soldiers in battle.

Name: XOS 2 Exoskeleton 2 [Fig 37] Developer: Raytheon Sarcos

Completed in: 2010 Purpose: Serve to lift heavy weight in military operations, augment the power of a soldier in combat, stand as an alternative for a wheelchairs Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid exosuit Unique Features/Abilities: 1) The suit detects the wearer's slight movements and causes the motors to follow them. The wearer is essentially given more muscle power without feeling it (Fig 38). 2) The suit has no problem lifting 200 pounds repetitively (Fig 39). It can slam through 3 inches of wood in one blow (Fig 40), do pushups (Fig 41), lift heavy munitions (Fig 37) and even load missiles into their bays (Fig 42). This demonstrates superior strength and speed.

Fig 37

Fig 38

Fig 39

Fig 40

Fig 41
3) The wearer need not feel too limited by the suit's actuation speeds. You can still run with it, climb stairs, and even perform the slightest movements when playing soccer (Fig 43). 4) The wearer can let go of the robotic arms at any time to use his own hands. Fig 42 He simply has to grab the handles again and the robotic arms immediately start following his human arms. Notes: XOS 2 is the world's most advanced robotic exoskeleton, and is known as the closest modern machine to resemble Iron Man. The current model needs to be tethered to a power source to function for long periods, and a tethered variant meant for army logistics support is to be ready for distribution by 2015. An untethered variant, which may very well be used in combat, is scheduled for release by 2020. Raytheon Sarcos engineers are trying to develop a backpack to power all the hydraulics. The backpack itself will contain hydraulics that run on fuel, in replacement for the initially planned lithium ion batteries that pose a much greater risk for explosion. The backpack is anticipated to power the XOS for 8 hours.

Fig 43
Name: Snake-Bot [Fig 44] Developer: Technion Completed in: 2009

Purpose: Carry out remote reconnaissance missions, deploy explosives if necessary Mobility Platform: Chain of motorized universal joints Unique Features/Abilities:

1) The Snake-Bot was made to go through small cracks and openings in both natural and artificial environments (Fig 45). This makes it a very stealthy machine, along with its camouflage exterior.

Fig 45
2) The top of the head has a laser camera system that generates a 3D map of its surroundings in 360 degrees. Everywhere a laser hits a reflecting surface, the robot generates a point in the 3D map, eventually creating a point cloud. Other software then connects the points to generate 3D images (Fig 46). 3) Four directional microphones in the robot enable it to detect approaching humans. It measures the time difference of when the same sound reaches different microphones and is then able to find a threat's location and speed, to find out if it has to hide. 4) The programmers, although they may have done this by now, are trying to teach the Snake-Bot how to travel with more fluid movements. The end result should be a snake that can wriggle (Fig 47), corkscrew, side-wind, undulate, and even roll like a log.

Fig 44

Fig 46

Fig 47 5) Every segment of the robot snake is modular. This means that breaking the snake only makes more snakes, since each segment has its own intelligence. Before deployment, explosive segments can be attached to the end, and released whenever a target is

found. The person controlling it remotely (although the robot can move autonomously) can then detonate the bomb. Notes: The Snake-Bot from Technion is by far the strangest military robot out there. Unfortunately Figure 44 is only a computer rendering of what the final version should look like; only video footage of a prototype has been released. By now it may be in use by the IDF, scanning buildings and hiding in forests. The 6-foot long robot weighs 7 kilograms.

ERA: Futuristic Media: Film Name: Amplified Mobility Platform AMP Suit [Fig 48]

Fig 48
Film: Avatar [2009] Designed to exist in: 2154 Designer: Ty Ruben Ellingson of Industrial Light and Magic Purpose: Provide heavy infantry support, move heavy objects Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid exosuit Why it conflicts with modern technology: powering so many joints at once with such strength may take a while to deem feasible. Unique Features/Abilities: 1) The arms are controlled in the exact same manner as Festo's ExoHand. The AMP driver wears gloves that send force feedback if the hands feel something, so as to not

grasp an object too tightly or loosely (Fig 49, holding a gun). Attached to each glove is a ring worn around the wrist, which is then wired into the computer systems (Fig 50). This setup helps control the AMP's arms by analyzing the location of the glove within the driver's cab, since the driver does not wear anything behind the wrist. The cab is also designed to have enough space for all arm movements.

Fig 49

Fig 50

2) The AMP's legs are controlled by foot pedals, which sense the pressure and direction of the driver's very miniscule leg movements. This minimizes human exhaustion during operation, but needs much training to get used to. Wearable exosuits like XOS 2 need full human movement to operate. Since the AMP only receives cues for leg movement from its driver, the on-board computers analyze the forthcoming terrain to maintain balance without the driver's effort. 3) The driver's heads-up-display is a semi-holographic glass pane, showing information of the immediate surroundings and other vital tidbits about the robot (Fig 51).

Fig 51

4) The AMP suit can be equipped with a 3-foot combat knife in a holster, originally meant for clearing dense underbrush (Figures 52 and 53). It can also be equipped with an enormous machine gun with an ammo belt leading to its back (Fig 54). The heads-updisplay helps with the targeting. Certified soldiers can use an AMP alongside on-foot infantry (Fig 55).

Fig 53 Fig 52

Fig 54

Fig 55

5) The AMP can land from a height multiple times its own without taking damage (Fig 56).

Fig 56
6) If the driver is injured or killed, but the AMP remains functional, a walk back feature activates, which brings the robot back to base autonomously. This is of course meant to save the investment of a 4-meter tall metal behemoth. 7) The AMP suit can also be used as a heavy-object-hauler (Fig 57), like the Power Loader from Aliens. 8) As the film takes place on the fictional planet of Pandora, where the air is not breathable by humans, the AMP suit cabins are air-tight and have their own oxygen supply. If the glass cover is breached or ejected, the driver can use the oxygen mask inside the cabin (Fig 58).

Fig 57

Fig 58

9) The driver can use a voice amplifier that works as a hands-free megaphone to speak to others near and far. Notes: The Amplified Mobility Platform in James Cameron's Avatar may be one of the most iconic robot suits ever seen in a film. The industrial design fits perfectly with the designs of the other wheeled and flying vehicles in the movie, having a dark-earth complexion and trapezoidal access hatch. ILM stated in a short documentary that the idea was to make an Apache helicopter on legs. It is very interesting to note that Aliens, also directed by Cameron, had a final fight scene involving an exosuit and a giant creature, just like Avatar. Even the main actress from Aliens acted in Avatar. Name: AMR-D13 Extraterrestrial Exosuit [Fig 59]

Fig 59
Film: District 9 [2009] Designed to exist in: Unknown year of creation; it is alien technology Designer: Greg Broadmore of Weta Workshop Purpose: Fighting in heavy combat Mobility Platform: Bipedal alien exosuit Why it conflicts with modern technology: The computer systems use interactive holographic imaging as a heads-updisplay for the driver, some of the weapons use technology never developed on earth [as far as we know], and it is controlled by a direct neural connection and biological interface. Unique Features/Abilities:

1) Like all the alien technology in District 9, the suit can only be operated by the aliens, or in the case of the film's protagonist, someone with alien DNA. The sensors connect biologically to the user to verify this. 2) Once entered, the suit brings a controller helmet onto the pilot's head. Small pegs quickly drill into the pilot's brain (which is unfortunate for the human protagonist, but not so much for the alien species) and establish a neural connection to control the robot through the mind (Fig 60). 3) Once the helmet accesses the pilot's brain, a flashy heads-up-display pops up that sends constant information to the pilot (Fig 61). 4) The exosuit has two knees on each leg, to match the anatomy of the alien Prawns. The lower knee is inverted (Fig 62, from the book cover of The Art of District 9). Though it adds complexity, the stride lengths can be much longer and have more force than with a single knee. It is interesting to note that the hind legs of camels have the same structure.

Fig 60

Fig 61

Fig 62

5) The arms have a modular frame for mounting alien hand-held rifles (Fig 63).

Fig 63
6) As seen in Figure 63, the pilot sits comfortably in the torso of the exosuit, unlike the AMP where the driver needs to stand and use his legs to control the robot's. As noted earlier the suit connects to the pilot's brain and does not need much physical movement from the pilot to be controlled. 7) The legs have enough power to jump as high as the robot itself (Figures 64 and 65).

Fig 64

Fig 65

8) Each foot has two pegs that burrow into the ground when standing still, like de Martini's Nautillus and possibly Pepera's Construction Mech 02 (Fig 66 vs Fig 67).

Fig 66

Fig 67

9) The lowest segment of the legs uses a hydraulic suspension system to absorb heavy landing impact, like the springs in BigDog's legs. Actuated suspension works much more smoothly as it can be controlled by computer systems whereas a spring is an independent mechanical part (and can expand too quickly sometimes when rebounding). The the hydraulic cylinder in Figures 66 and 67 is part of this system (there is a small difference between the lengths of the actuators in both Figures). When the hydraulics reach maximum length, 3 pegs lock the sliding sections from contracting again, also seen in Figures 66 and 67. 10) The exosuit's gravity gun can pick up nearby objects and launch them as projectiles without ever touching the object, using some hypothetical form of invisible energy. It can even stop a bunch of incoming bullets in their path, gradually clump them up into a ball (imagine a snowball getting larger as it rolls down a hill, Fig 68), and fire all the bullet heads back at multiple targets at once.

Fig 68
11) The top of each shoulder can launch a barrage of vertical-launch missiles (Fig 69), a strong reference to the first mech cartoons ever. 12) The robot's computer systems are very quick-thinking; the arms can catch an explosive rocket in mid air by the mere intention of the pilot. 13) The computer systems can differentiate between friend or foe Fig 69 autonomously, and can tell when a nearby ally is in danger. One scene in the film depicts the suit replaying an audio recording of enemy humans about to kill an innocent Prawn, convincing the reluctant protagonist to save the alien.

14) The alien ship (Fig 69) can send an electromagnetic signal that can communicate with all alien technology below it. The suit can therefore be controlled wirelessly but uses much more autonomy to move around. 15) Like the AMP from Avatar, the AMR-D13 has a built-in megaphone feature to amplify the pilot's voice outside the robot. Notes: The exosuit from District 9, has become THE exosuit of exosuits. If you look up exosuit on Google Images, a huge bulk of all the pictures are of this very robot. You will find stills from the film, images of artwork, toys, and even Lego replicas of this machine. It's performance was so well applauded on the debut of the film that it has earned its rightful place in the robot hall of fame. Even Iron Man does not show up when looking up exosuit. But, ironically... Name: Iron Man [Fig 70] Films: Iron Man, Iron Man 2, The Avengers Designed to exist in: Present day Designer: Tony Stark [ha!] original design by Don Heck and Jack Kirby; live action version designed by Industrial Light and Magic Purpose: Man power augmentation, quick transportation, military combat Mobility Platform: Bipedal humanoid exosuit Why it conflicts with modern technology: Every variant of its power sources are fictional. The suit can also fly using fictional jet propulsion technology that does not combust fuel. The on-board artificial intelligence is also far too advanced from what exists today [as far as we know]. Unique Features/Abilities [from all variants of the suit]:

Fig 70

1) The suit can fly. Repulsor jets under the feet provide overall thrust, while additional jets in each hand stabilize flight along with small panels on the back and legs (Fig 71). The same panels can open at extreme angles to act as emergency brakes (Fig 72).

Fig 71 Fig 72

2) Not only do the hand-jets assist in flight, they can also be used as repulsor rays (Figures 72 and 73). The rays can be activated and deactivated with certain finger motions. The replusor ray energy can also somehow be transferred to the chest if so desired (Fig 74).

Fig 72

Fig 73

Fig 74

3) Most suit variants are loaded with hidden weapons in the alloy panels. These include shoulder mounted anti-personnel guns (Fig 75), anti-tank missiles (Fig 76), defensive flares (Fig 77), and single-use high-intensity heat lasers (Fig 78). The War Machine variant has multiple hand-held rifles mounted to its arms (Fig 79), a laser-guided missile (Fig 80), and a shoulder-mounted M134 rotary machine gun (Fig 79).

Fig 75

Fig 76

Fig 77

Fig 78

Fig 79

Fig 80

4) There are variants of the Iron Man suit that assemble themselves around the pilot for emergency situations. These include the suitcase (Fig 81) and another variant that tracks the pilot and flies to him in a pod (Figures 82 and 83). The other suit variants need to be assembled around the pilot externally, by many specialized robot arms (Fig 84).

Fig 82

Fig 83

Fig 81

Fig 84
5) The helmet has a flashy heads-up-display (HUD) like the one from the District 9 Exosuit, although this one is much more interactive and analytical (Fig 85). Tony Stark's artificial intelligence model, Jarvis, not only resides in the computer systems of his house but also in the Iron Man suit itself. The AI helps Tony when he's operating the suit by conversing, presenting environmental data and Fig 85 friend-or-foe tags in 3D holograms (Fig 86), and even establishing urgent phone calls. During flight the HUD loads up its horizon lock system (Fig 87), which is also used in modern aircraft.

Fig 86

Fig 87

6) The various functions of the suit are independent of one another. This is very useful when the suit takes severe damage, as the motors will still run when the pilot moves his body, even if vital structures like the helmet are broken off. There is a scene where Stark briefly uses a backup arm shield to survive machine gun fire, even after the suit is totaled (Fig 88). 7) One of the suits is used to dive in deep water, implying that it has its own oxygen supply (Fig 89). This is also implied when Stark flies to extreme altitudes for extended periods of time, and into space. 8) Of course, as all cinematic exosuits do, the Iron Man has a built-in megaphone.

Fig 88

Fig 89
Notes: The Iron Man suit is an accurate representation of the ultimate weapon every military wants to have. It has every kind of projectile weapon known to man, from guns to energy weapons to missile launchers, all condensed in a single humanoid exoskeleton. It is basically a soldier, fighter jet, armored tank, submarine, and entertainment phenomenon all in one machine. Unfortunately for military forces, so much technology is probably impossible to condense so tightly, which is what makes the Marvel superhero such a cinematic spectacle. On a side note, a military project involving the construction of such machine would tax the life force out of society (Fig 89).

Fig 89

Name: Cybertronian Transformer [Fig 90] Films: Transformers, Transformers 2, Transformers 3 Designed to exist in: Millions of years ago to present day Designer: Industrial Light and Magic Purpose: Variable [as this is a living alien species] Mobility Platform: Variable Why it conflicts with modern technology: Most of the Fig 90 particles in a Cybertronian are independent of the others, allowing it to modify the shape of its body with extreme ease. Cybertronians also seem to be able to generate metal from nothingness, especially when replenishing their own ammunition. Also, being living machines, they are far more intelligent than humans, and think many times faster than we do, a phenomenon never achieved through modern computers. Unique Features/Abilities [from random Transformers]: 1) Of course, being famous for such ability, Cybertronians can scan a machine (Figures 91 and 92) and allocate the metal in their body so that they can transform between that machine and their robot form (Fig 93). None of their body parts morph in a transformation, they only move someplace else. Some robots can transform into more than one type of vehicle using the same body parts.

Fig 91

Fig 93

Fig 92
2) The Transformers can use weapons either integrated into their bodies (Fig 94) or held externally (Fig 95). Body parts usually move out of the way to let a weapon come out (Figures 96 and 97). Some bodyintegrated weapons can extend without requiring the movement of other parts (Fig 98).

Fig 94

Fig 96 Fig 95

Fig 97
3) Some Transformers divide themselves into separate units entirely when transforming into the alternate form, and then combine together to make the robot Fig 98 form (Fig 99). Some combine into the same alternate form but separate into different robot forms (Figures 100 and 101).

Fig 99

Fig 100

Fig 101

4) Even in their alternate form, certain parts can come out and function as they do in the robot configuration, especially weapons. This ability is used by some Transformers in their stealth force mode (Fig 102). 5) Since the parts of Transformers are very modular, robots can gather parts from other dead robots, to gain extra power (temporarily) or to repair from lost body mass (Fig 103).

Fig 102

Fig 103 6) Some of them have the ability to teleport and even teleport others with them.

Notes: The Transformers live action franchise has always been lauded for its spectacular visual effects, mainly for its amazingly complex and realistic computer-generated robots. They are big, loud, combative, and have unique character. They are famed for the ability to transform between their robot form and another machine, which has brought about a multimillion dollar toy line of figures that do the same. The alternate form of a Transformer is usually called its disguise mode, which is exclusively a vehicle of some sort. Converting between humanoid and vehicle forms provides an excellent balance of speed and maneuverability, a concept that Brave Robotics is striving to make a reality. Media: Concept Art

Fig 104

Name: Heavy Armament Load Bearing H.ARM Suit Mark 3 Designed by: Eliott Johnson Lilly Purpose: Be a force multiplier in battle, scout and secure perimeters Mobility Platform: Bipedal exosuit Biggest challenge it poses to reality: Financial support Unique Features/Abilities: 1) The leg structure is very similar to the legs in the District 9 exosuit, only for a different purpose. In the H.ARM Suit, the pilot's feet rest on the lower knee of each robot leg. This is to gain a height advantage like the Power Loader from Aliens. The Iron Man suit, for instance, must have about the same height as its pilot, but the H.ARM's design overrides this concept but still allows full movement of the pilot's legs. This is in contrast to the AMP suits in Avatar, where the driver can only make slight leg movements since the AMP is so tall. 2) Instead of humanoid arms, both shoulders wield weapons that are interchangeable. The weapons are even controlled with grips and triggers, suggesting that as the pilot stretches his arm, the weapon's joint rotates to help the pilot grasp the handle. 3) Different areas of the machine are used to house various accessories, including a rucksack on the hip, satellite camera system on the back, missiles and grenades on the shoulders, and more. 4) Right in front of the pilot's face is a protruding box, suggesting that inside is a targeting screen very similar to those in fighter jets. Devices like the infrared camera on the left arm's cannon may connect to it. Notes: Eliott Lilly has designed quite a few machines like this one, but the Mark 3 stood out the most because of its leg design and equipment arrangement. As noted, the biggest challenge to make this machine a reality may simply be the financial needs to build it. It looks very robust, has much room on the back for computers and power sources, and is not so impossibly compact like the Iron Man suit. This concept design seems to hint at modern military projects under construction, since the H.ARM Mk3 seems to be pretty realistic for modern technology. Media: Video Game Name: GAB-25M Cakti [Fig 105] Video Game: Lost Planet: Extreme Condition Designed to exist in: Unspecified year; sometime after earth's conditions become too hostile for life Designer: Capcom Purpose: Support in heavy combat, drill through barriers

Fig 105

Mobility Platform: Quadruped spider and tracked vehicle Why it conflicts with modern technology: It uses energy weapons that are complete science fiction [as far as we know], and it runs on a fictional energy source [Thermal Energy liquid] which can somehow be collected by simply touching it. Unique Features/Abilities: 1) As suggested by the track belt in Figure 105, the Cakti can convert into a tank (Fig 106). 2) In tank form, the two drills can extend and help the machine move through heavy barriers, including solid rock (Fig 107). But this can happen even without the drills spinning, like a quick punch. If the pilot causes the drills to spin, the robot will activate small jet thrusters behind it to gain extra speed (Fig 108).

Fig 106

Fig 107
3) Each leg has a thruster under it that allows the robot to jump, and then hover for a few seconds (Fig 109). A few more small thrusters on the feet allow the robot to quickly burst to the side to dodge. 4) The pilot can easily enter and exit through a hatch at the top (Fig 110).

Fig 108

Fig 109 Fig 110

5) In the game's sequel, this machine has the ability to combine with another similar to it, to make a bigger robot. The second robot that attaches on top becomes a heavy turret,

piloted separately from the Cakti that makes up the lower body. The extended forms of the drills are seen much better in this configuration (Fig 111).

Fig 111
Notes: The Cakti is on of the many Vital Suits, or VS's that can be piloted in Lost Planet. Almost all of them stomp on two legs, but the Cakti is the only one that walks on four and also converts into a drilling tank. Although this robot is clearly made for military use, its most distinguishable features can be used for mining. The amazing adaptability between terrain management on legs and speed on tracks is perfect for rocky, underground environments, combined with the enormous rock-crushing drills. The following two video games are the last parts of the advanced design analysis. They have been isolated toward the end because these games are based on an idea that most heavily influenced the conclusion of this research project. I have documented the games generally, not specific robots, because the entirety of the game-play is spent controlling an enormous variety of robots. The concept these games use that I deem extremely valuable is the idea of interchangeable body parts, that is, assembling your robot from a large parts inventory before deploying on a mission. You don't build it to the last detail, but you get to attach large sections together, like the mobility platform, power generators, and weapons.

Video Game: Chromehounds [Fig 112]

Fig 112 Plot occurs in: Unspecified year; after the Cold War has fictionally become a full fledged war
Designers: Isao Saito and Hisao Yamada of From Software Why the game conflicts with modern technology: The game is known for its realism. It does not introduce any fictional technology, although it may take a while for robots to get this big. Innovative features of the game: 1) Players get to assemble their Hound before embarking on a mission. They can choose from various parts of an inventory that grows with every victory. Players can use a preset Hound already prepared for the mission, but if they so desire, a custom Hound can be built in the garage (Fig 113) to better fit the players' combat methods.

Fig 113

2) As the game observes technicality pretty strictly, making a Hound that is oversized or too heavy for its mobility platform is not permitted (Fig 114).

Fig 114
3) Six different kinds of mobility platforms are available, with multiple variants of each kind. The main types are: Bipedal Humanoid (Fig 115):

Fig 115
Bipedal Reverse-Jointed (Fig 116):

Fig 116
Quadruped (Fig 117):

Fig 117
Tracked Tank (Fig 118):

Fig 118
4-Wheeled Tank (Fig 119):

Fig 119
and Hovercraft (Fig 120):

Fig 120
The other main body parts that must be selected are a cockpit and a generator (and more than one generator if so desired), both of which can be oriented in different positions (for example, the generator can be attached under, above, behind, or to the side of the cockpit, and can also be rotated at 90 degree angles before attaching) and both of which can have mounted weapons. 4) Almost all the weapons fit in a hexagonal modular frame, as depicted by the Figures. This makes it much easier to fire multiple weapons simultaneously. A Hound can have

Fig 121
up to 4 groups of weapons, which fire by the same trigger. One weapon from each weapon cluster can be chosen to hold the aiming camera for that group, which must be selected strategically as cameras can get destroyed by enemy fire (Fig 121).

Fig 122

5) The game employs six different roles for Hounds. The Commander (Fig 122) has the authority to give orders to other Hounds, and can gather more information from the battlefield map because of its enormous satellite array. The Heavy Gunner role involves larger Hound variants decked with the biggest cannons. The guns on these Hounds usually have ammunition that falls to the ground quickly, and they require some skill to use accurately. Figure 117 is a typical Heavy Gunner. The Soldier Hound is your basic oversized infantry, wielding weapons that are mid or close range, as in Figures 115 and 116. It commonly has bipedal humanoid legs as in Figure 115. The Scout role is made for securing communications towers, which are scattered across every battlefield in the game (these towers are in the background of Figures 117, 120, and 124). Simply standing next to a tower for a few seconds allows communication between allied units within a certain radius of the tower. If the radii of different towers intersect, the communication field can relay across both circles (Fig 123). A Scout is made for creating this very communications field, and usually has a faster form of mobility to carry out its mission, like wheels or hovercraft.

Fig 123

The Sniper Hound (Fig 124) always uses long range weapons, and usually has bipedal reverse-jointed legs. The parts descriptions in the game menus state that reversed-knee biped legs are the more stable form of mobility for absorbing kickback, as opposed to humanoid legs. Questioning this idea, I contacted my physics professor, and we concluded that this is indeed an advantage because of the Fig 124 following: When a normallegged Hound stands, its knees are usually straight, whereas Hounds with inverted knees stand with bent legs. When a rifle fires, the knees bend to counteract the shift in the Hound's center of mass. Normal legs have a risk of hyperextension of the knees during recoil, but reversed knees only bend the way they should naturally, freely absorbing the kickback from the guns. The role of the Defender is to follow nearby allies and keep them from harm's way. Defender Hounds use close range weapons and also wield powerful cannons, like

the howitzers used on Heavy Gunner Hounds. Figure 113 has a typical Defender Hound. 6) Hounds can be equipped with interesting accessories that can heavily turn the tide battle, such as night vision sensors (Fig 126) and plates of armor (Fig 127, left and right sides). Land mine and night-flare launchers can also be selected.

Fig 126

Fig 127

Chromehounds is by far one of the most realistic yet futuristic mech simulators out there, consisting of industrial robot parts that can be coalesced into the deadliest of war machines. The game represents the epitome of futuristic artillery, having walking platforms as an option for a chassis. The interchangeable parts system that this game uses demonstrates how modularity can be used in heavy industrial equipment, a concept that heavily inspired results of my research. Video Game: Armored Core: For Answer [Fig 128]

Fig 128

Plot occurs in: Unspecified year; in a post-apocalyptic setting where humans can only live 7000 meters above the toxic surface of the earth Designer: Hidetaka Miyazaki of From Software Why the game conflicts with modern technology: The robots have an infinitely-regenerating energy source, with enough power to make the robots fly by jet thrusters, for extended periods of time. Innovative features of the game: 1) Like Chromehounds, Armored Core uses an interchangeable parts system (Fig 129). This time though, the robots are usually fully humanoid, as opposed to the tank-like design of Hounds. Armored Cores usually have humanoid arms with fingered hands to hold two of their weapons, while Hounds only have weapons directly attached to their upper bodies.

Fig 129
2) Armored Cores can fly (Fig 130). There are jet thrusters all around the legs and torso, and the jets are mounted on moving joints to easily allow a change in flight direction. These jets can also be used to hover on the ground at high speed, the usual way of moving on the ground (as opposed to walking with legs or sliding with a hover tank chassis). The hover feature automatically engages when moving over water to avoid sinking (Fig 131).

Fig 130

Fig 131
3) More thrusters on the legs and torso, and also the shoulders, allow Armored Cores to quick boost, which briefly thrust the robot in any direction with extreme force (Fig 132). Quick boosting is very common during combat, as it used to dodge incoming fire or turn 180 degrees in a flash. In fact, most of the mech combat takes place in the air.

Fig 132

4) In an emergency situation where the player must escape or come to a target quickly, the over boost function can be engaged (Fig 133). This causes large jet thrusters to open in the back and launch the mech into high speed flight, straight forward. However, this diminishes shield energy (discussed in feature 6).

Fig 133 5) Since some missions in the game have enormous enemies with very accurate cannons, the Vanguard Overed Boost rocket can be attached to the back of an Armored Core (Figures and 134 135). This allows the player to close in on the massive enemy quickly, so close that enemy cannon fire would damage the enemy itself. Once the rocket is depleted of its fuel, it dismantles completely and falls to pieces.

Fig 135
6) The mechs are guarded by a fictional shield system made of Kojima Particles (which also make up the infinite power Fig 134 source) that lessens the damage taken from enemy fire. Like the power generator, the shield can replenish an infinite amount

of times when depleted. There are three ways it can deplete: incoming fire, overboosting, and using an assault armor attack. Assault armor turns the shield system into a weapon by creating a huge Kojima explosion, damaging everything around the robot (Fig 136).

Fig 136 7) Like Chromehounds, Armored Core has multiple options for mobility platforms. They are:
Bipedal Humanoid, as depicted in the Figures above, Bipedal Reverse-Jointed (Fig 137)

Fig 137
Quadruped (Fig 138)

Fig 138
and Hover Tank (Fig 139)

Fig 139
8) Players can choose to replace humanoid arms with weapon arms. They are basically weapons large enough to replace the humanoid arms, but cannot wield holdable weapons (Fig 140).

Fig 140
9) Not all weapons use projectiles, as an arm-mounted laser sword is also an option. The laser sword only generates when engaged, and makes the entire robot perform a slashing motion while forcing the jet thrusters to provide speed (Fig 141).

Fig 141

10) The back of every Armored Core can have two attachments, each slot having either a weapon or a radar-enhancement device. Rearmounted weapons fold up when not in use to improve weight distribution, and range from cannons to missile launchers to energy lasers. For example, the machine gun on the back of the black robot in Figure 141 is folded up, while the same gun in Figure 139 is seen unfolded Fig 142 and firing. Or, these options can be abandoned altogether to attach an extra pair of huge jet thrusters, for lightning-fast sword attacks (Figures 131 and 142). 11) Most Armored Cores can have shoulder-mounted accessories attached as backup equipment. These can be extra rockets, backup energy units for quick shield regeneration, defensive flares that divert enemy missiles, or electronic counter measures (ECM) that disrupt enemy radar function. 12) Every weapon on a mech is regulated by the auto-aim function in the robot. The accuracy of arm-held weapons is managed by the humanoid arms themselves (so pairs of arms must be chosen strategically), while rear-mounted and shoulder weapons aim using other internal systems. The red target mark in Figure 132 demonstrates the auto-aim feature. Auto-aiming can easily be disengaged to activate manual aiming. 13) To lessen the weight of the robot, any weapon can be purged, a function that disconnects the weapon so that it falls to the ground. Players can set their robot to automatically purge a weapon when it loses all its ammunition during battle. Notes: The robots in Armored Core: For Answer are clearly much more artistic than the industrial robots in Chromehounds. This seems to be largely due to the fact that they fly, and that they have more aerodynamic designs instead of boxy-pipe shapes like the Hounds. An interesting thing to note is that the inferior enemies in Armored Core resemble the robots in Chromehounds (Fig 143), and can be destroyed with very little effort. Armored Cores illustrate the possible machines that could one day dominate militarily, when the energy sources required to power them become small enough.

Fig 143

And now, a few cool snapshots from the game:

This is the end of the military robots section, and the end of the entire advanced design analysis. It is evident, as I have found during the course of my research, that advanced robot designs are much more prevalent with inspiration from the military industry, than for any other industry. In fact, as the robots in this analysis were set to be as unique as possible, the amount robots I listed to be analyzed in the military section that were thrown out were more than those in any other section. It simply seems that artists get much more of a thrill by adding guns to their machines rather than construction tools, but after enough time spent observing trends, it seems that the military wants robotic advancement more than any other industry. The subject of military robotics has many ethical issues revolving around it, and no one knows yet if these issues will be ignored by the time they become necessary to resolve. These issues are heavily centered on unmanned robots, whether they are autonomous or wirelessly controlled. Serious ethical consequences may arise when a machine has the power to choose to kill, but a remote-controlled robot has the chance of getting its systems overridden by the enemy and then shooting at its own allies. Or, these problems can be dropped altogether and make robots controlled by humans inside them, but then the military's biggest reason to make robots is to replace a life with a machine. Now that all these points have been considered, I continue with the next part of this research document: the relevant information learned from my internship at the Materials and Electrochemical Research (MER) Corporation in Tucson, Arizona.

Internship at the Materials and Electrochemical Research (MER) Corporation February 11, 2013 until May 3, 2013
As per the senior research project curriculum for BASIS Tucson North, I interned at a company working on projects relevant to my research. I interned at MER Corp in Tucson, a company very involved in making military-grade materials. They specialize in all kinds of advanced material fabrication and coatings, but more importantly the company is a research powerhouse. Currently there are a few projects going on involving nanotubes and energy conservation, and many more that I haven't been involved with. Before I go into the details of what I did and learned there, I would like to extend a thank you to my father for finding this company and speaking directly to the boss to get me a spot as a volunteer. After an introductory meeting I had at MER before interning there, I got the understanding that I would work on some sort of an assembly line that works with some kind of very delicate material. The job I would get was to set up motors and their control methods to get the machines to function. My mentor for this job would be the chief scientist of MER, Dr. Alexander Moravsky. Meanwhile, I pondered what sort of independent research I would do during this time, and realized that this was the opportunity for me to develop something that I wished to make for my own benefit anyways: a comprehensive analysis of advanced robot designs. Ever since I was a young child, I kept a mental library of all the awesome robots I've ever seen, but about one year before writing this paper, this library began to seem to large to remain undocumented. So what I had in mind was that, since MER works with metal fabrication and military materials, I would learn about what sorts of metals might suit best for robots of the future, and incorporate this information into my analysis. Then I started attending my internship, one week after my senior classes were over. Right away I was shown the room I would be working in most of the time, and it seemed like a great place to set camp (with my laptop and lunch), while working on whatever device I had to make. I began inquiring about what the overall purpose of my work would be, to which Dr. Moravsky answered in great detail. The project I was to help him with was called Disruptive Fibers for Armor. The science behind this project went as follows. MER is able to produce a textile material made of millions of nanotubes. These are very tiny fibers, usually many times shorter than a millimeter, made of structured carbon atoms. In order to split one of their nanotubes, a pressure of about 100 Gigapascals is needed which is 20 times stronger than what is necessary to break steel. However, this property only applies to a single nanotube, as the material itself can be torn like fabric. So why is it that the nanotube fibers only bear such tensile strength within themselves, but cannot boast the same such strength between each other? The answer to this question is the reason this entire project was initiated, and the answer is as follows. When nanotubes are viewed through electron microscopy, they are not completely uniformly arranged. But, if they were theoretically aligned parallel to one another, their arrangement would look like this:

As shown above, the nanotubes barely overlap one another. As it turns out, quite literally, the strength of the textile they are part of is determined mostly by the friction between the nanotubes. So when you tear a nanotube mat or yarn, all you are really doing is splitting the frictional alignment between the nanotubes, without breaking the fibers themselves. This induces the idea of, if somehow possible, nanotubes being aligned like this:

This seems to open doors to a plethora of research. So where do we start? First, we make a string, a very special kind of string that would work best for our needs. Instead of regular nanotubes, we will fabricate what's known as double-wall nanotubes (DWNT), because we have super advanced technology at MER that I don't know anything about, except that it works. The difference between DWNT and regular (single-wall) nanotubes is that DWNT is essentially composed of a tube wrapped around a bigger tube, to double the friction (which is what we're aiming for maximum friction). So now we have the ability to make thread (or bundles) with DWNT, who's cross section looks a lot like this:

However, our nanotubes still barely overlap one another. How do we get them to cover each other's surface (at least almost) completely (like in the image above)? This is where the real genius comes in. If you've ever tried to stretch a cotton ball, you might be familiar with the following phenomenon. When you stretch a cotton ball quickly, it either does a good job of resisting or simply tears in half. However, when you stretch it slowly, it somewhat elongates, and eventually tears apart, but now the two pieces are much longer than before, although the cross-sections have shrunk. Turns out that, when you stretch that cotton ball, though the diameter of the cross section gets smaller, the strength of the material gets exponentially stronger (but still easy to break because the cross section became very small). So if you gathered several stretched cotton balls to create the same-size cross section as a nonstretched one, the combination of stretched balls would be harder to tear than an untouched cotton ball, even though the cross sections of both wads are the same size! This is what happens to nanotubes when to pull them at just the right speed and strength; instead of

breaking bonds with each other, they pull each on other and end up dragging themselves into the brick-like alignment shown above. The friction between each fiber increases as they share more surface area. But then another idea pops into mind: why not also twist one end of the thread, to augment the frictional alignment even further? Before we do all that, the specialized nanotube yarns have to be exposed to certain chemicals in certain ways through an apparatus like this:

Keep in mind how many different variables affect the strength of the yarn: the speed at which you stretch it linearly, and that of rotational stretching, as well as the amount of strength put into both of those motions...then the chemical reactions that take place while stretching, in the glass tubes shown above. All these add up to a new variable, the one that is most feared: the yarn's breaking point. All these variables need to be optimized before mass production, but so far some samples have already been made successfully:

It turns out that, mathematically, the optimized alignment between the nanotubes would wield about the same 100Gpsi in strength that a single DWNT fiber needs to be broken. So far MER has reached about 2 of those 100 Gigapascals. The US Army has requested the production of such material with 6Gpsi of strength, which is apparently all it takes to be higharmor-grade. Unfortunately, the further you stretch a nanotube yarn, the more exponentially difficult it becomes to continue stretching/twisting it. So in order to get such a large amount of force, powerful motors (perhaps with gears to sacrifice speed for strength, as what we need is slowness but high torque) must be installed into our contraption. Ah yes; that was my job, making the devices that get those motors working. I got to build many consoles that controlled what are called stepping (or stepper) motors, special motors whose speeds can be regulated. The stepping motors I worked with had 200 steps, meaning that a 360-degree rotation covers all 200 steps. Because of this, consoles can somewhat program the motor to rotate a variable amount of steps per second. For example, setting it at 100 steps/second means that it would take 2 seconds to turn 360 degrees. Such motors are usually factorygrade and are ubiquitously used in assembly lines all over the world. Here is an example of the work I did:

That console that had the unique ability to control two stepping motors simultaneously, with the exact same speeds but in opposite directions. I made two of them, based off a prototype made earlier at MER. All the other consoles I made controlled only one motor. I made a few for the apparatus with the glass tubing shown above (which was built for experimental purposes), and made a few more for the main contraption that will one day produce vast quantities of the yarn. Here is the incomplete machine that some of my consoles will be installed in:

The motors will go under the larger ladder, and will power a pulley system that gathers the stretched DWNT yarn. The yarn will then be woven into mats, and heat-pressed between sheets of specialized substances, to generate the textile fabric that is also magically bulletproof. However, this is all in effort to prove that the concept works. MER will make its business on this by selling the license to produce the material, rather than mass produce it itself. Companies around the world will spend millions just to get the machines ready to make it, while MER will earn royalty from the production license. On a brief side note, it was found through experiments that the processed yarn is flexible enough to be formed in knots without breaking, whereas threads of other flexible armor like Kevlar would break with such bending:

Dr. Moravsky mentioned that, when this material gets on the market, it could potentially replace all carbon graphite / carbon fiber / reinforced steel (etc.) shielding seen on military vehicles and jets. It may one day be used to cover a commercial jet outer shell with a single piece, as opposed to separate metal panels. It will definitely replace the Kevlar seen in all kinds of equipment, since it has the same properties as Kevlar but with at least twice the quality. It may even be used for everyday clothing, once it becomes mass produced. Okay, so how does this relate to advanced robot designs? To answer that, I must provide some more background information. Currently, the main unit on the battlefield is the human soldier. So let's imagine soldier X, shooting at enemies while having a good chance of being gunned down by them. The military decides, after enough R&D, to replace the soldier with a remote-controlled humanoid robot, Y. Now Y does not know where to go or who to shoot at, so personnel back at base control Y and successfully replace the life of human X with robot Y. However, the enemy gets really smart and hires some hackers to take over control of the robot, and now Y has become an enemy, and since Y is built to be very, very hard to destroy, the enemy wins the battle and even steals Y to make copies of it. The military scratches its head and finds the solution: make robot Z that does not need to be remotecontrolled, and therefore cannot be hacked into. Z does not have any wireless connection with the outside world, and uses artificial intelligence to operate. Suddenly, Z gets shot in the leg and falls over, and can't pick itself back up. The personnel back at base know exactly how to instruct Z to pick itself back up, but Z doesn't take any advice from them since the robot was made to have network isolation. Or, instead, Z possibly endures a data error, and starts processing its allies as foes. Now you have a robot that is shooting at your own men, and you cannot force it to stop, unless you destroy Z, wasting the whole investment. Again, the military scratches its head. They need a human being instead of a robot to be the one choosing to kill or not (an ethical dilemma which is currently getting extreme political attention right now), they need the robot to NOT be controlled remotely, yet they need the soldier to stay out of harm's way from enemy fire. How do you get the best of all three worlds? The answer I have found through my research that addresses this quandary is what is called a robotic exoskeleton, or exosuit. It is basically a full-body piece of robotic clothing that is worn all around the body, and provides augmented muscle power as well as protection from enemy fire. However, astonishingly, no such machine exists that covers the entire body. There do exist several prototypes that do not provide full-body protection, but they still provide extreme strength to the wearer. The best modern example of such machine is the XOS 2 from Ratheon Sarcos: So far, we have only seen fully protective powered exosuits in movies and video games, implying that such machines are already dwelling in the dreams of artists, just waiting for the first one to be made. So what's the holdup? Why is it so difficult to make a fully protective bulletproof robot suit? From my research, I believe the answer is as follows. The most difficult joints to construct in a humanoid robot are the hip and shoulder joints, because humans have more freedom in those joints than anywhere else. All three futuristic exosuits analyzed in the Military Robots section address this issue in unique ways. In Avatar, the AMP suits are large enough so that the human's limbs aren't actually inserted into the arms and legs of the robot, and are instead controlled by foot pedals and data gloves. This is an interesting solution, but this causes the robot to be a bit large and costly:

In District 9, the famous alien-crafted exosuit is controlled by a neural interface that would be extremely difficult to accomplish with modern technology. But, because of this control method, the pilot also does not have to insert his limbs into the arms and legs of the robot, and instead controls them with his mind. However, the hips and shoulders of the exosuit can barely move outward, thus inhibiting complete humanoid flexibility. They seem to rotate primarily on one axis:

The famous Iron Man suit seems to address the hips-and-shoulders problem in an optimal fashion, by actually having the human limbs inside the robot limbs while still covering all flesh completely. The method used to protect the inside area of the hip joints involved the use of some sort of flexible material seen in many other joints, which disappears from view when the joint is flexed to one of its extremities:

The shoulders, however, actually seem to expose the human flesh they are meant to protect, but only underneath:

To further illustrate the difficulties of making a full body exosuit, I have drawn a few sketches that show the mechanical commonalities seen in designs for robots of different sizes. First, I drew out examples of robot legs, mainly to understand the hip joint. The small size refers to human height or shorter, the large height refers to human height or taller, and the exosuit 'size' is just over human height, but wraps around human flesh:

And here are examples of common shoulder mechanisms:

To further explore the mechanisms needed to create a fully protective exosuit, I sketched one myself (but for the purpose of construction and mining, rather than the commonly-attributed military application):

Like the preceding sketches, this exosuit was designed to require minimal computer programming, while still covering the entire surface area of the human underneath. I avoided the complexity seen in suits like the Iron Man variants, since these have an overload of small mechanical parts (even on the inside) that need an intimidating amount of software to work properly:

In my sketch above, the method I used to cover the joints, even during flexing, was to include panels that slide in two directions. One direction was to cover flesh that could potentially be exposed during movement, and the other direction was simply to have the panel move away to avoid colliding with another area of the suit. Here are most of these panels circled in red: However, these panels seem a bit much in terms of the mechanisms necessary to armor the user, and can also add up to significant extra weight. Now it is seen just how useful a light, flexible, bulletproof material would be in this case. And the technology is just around the corner of commercial availability, thanks to the research conducted at MER Corp. Now, the only need for a heavy metallic overlayer is to serve as a motor frame for providing superhuman strength, since it does not have to also serve the purpose of armoring the wearer. We are on the way to developing futuristic exosuits that are actually practical, thanks to this breakthrough in flexible armor technology. This concludes the research conducted that directly relates to my experience at MER. The next section document explains the most significant concept learned over the course of generating the robot analysis, with which I conclude this research project. If you wish to learn more about my experience at MER, please view the following web links to the senior research project blog, where all the senior students in my school who embarked on an SRP wrote about their experiences:

In Conclusion
Although the advanced robot design analysis was meant to be used as a guideline for robots that have yet to be developed, there was one extremely important idea that I learned from it with which I conclude this project. That is the concept of a modular robotic system, robotic parts that are interchangeable by chunks rather than the basic screws and panels. Consider the following reference as an analogy: when you want to change out the parts of your car, you can go to one of thousands of auto shops, because the components in your car have become globally standardized through corporate efforts. You don't need to go buy individual pieces, but rather pre-assembled chunks that fit right into a certain section of the car's framing. This is exactly the methodology needed to make advanced robots more common for consumer availability. The reason advanced robots are so far from reach of consumer usage is because those who develop a certain robot are the only ones that make that its individual chunks. The parts in the machine are not standardized, and therefore anyone who purchases it can only turn back to the same company if repairs are needed. What it will take to see the ever-so-anticipated robotics revolution is simply to negotiate a common method for constructing advanced robot parts, which many companies can utilize and therefore make advanced robots more affordable. The main idea is that when one company needs an advanced robot for its own purposes, it can purchase separate sections which will connect to make a single machine, and then later on it may interchange certain parts to give the same machine an entirely new purpose. For example, NASA scientists may wish to have a robot suited for planetary exploration, while construction men from Caterpillar may want the exact same platform but with different tools. Such a system can be used for several industries, because the connection slots between all the parts would have the exact same mechanisms. If you look back at my exosuit sketch, you will see that I had this very idea in mind, as I drew out several tools that are modular with the hand connections. The modular interface allows the exosuit to have many different roles, while retaining the same platform that wields the tools. The practicality of a modular system becomes most clearly apparent in video games like Chromehounds and Armored Core (see Military section), where players assemble huge war machines before fighting with them against others. The robots are built by the chunk, and since all different forms of the body parts have the same connection slots, the possible variations of custom robots goes to millions. However, as I have shown above, a modular interface is not necessarily constrained to military applications. But, because no such system exists today, we are not seeing the advanced robots that can already be made with modern technology. Somehow, the concept of a modular interface managed to instill itself in the car industry, but this happened because the automobile is such a commonly used piece of technology. When the world begins to exhibit the teamwork necessary to extend this idea into robotics, that will be the start of the robotics revolution we have all been anticipating.

Shortly after completing the design analysis, Boston Dynamics released a new video of PETMAN, in which it is now fully humanoid in shape and even wears a bio-hazard suit:

Thanks to Dr. Tharp from Electrical Engineering at the University of Arizona, I was able to see the Achilles robot firsthand, and recorded a short video of it: The original video shows it walking: Iron Man 3 was released in theaters during the course of making this research project. The most interesting new feature that would have been considered in the analysis (had the movie been released earlier) was the ability of one of Stark's suits to assemble itself around his body, by having the individual chunks (violently) fly onto him via micro jet engines. Pacific Rim will be released shortly after the submission of this project, and although blueprints of the enormous humanoid machines in the film have been released, they were too much to include in the analysis when the other robots already exhibited most of their features. These updates demonstrate the ongoing development of advanced robot designs, which unfortunately means that there will never be a fully up-to-date research paper about such machines. However, it is always helpful to lay down a check point every once in a while, just to see where we're at with these developments.

Special Thanks
I thank Mr. James Kittredge, Senior Research Project Coordinator, for facilitating this project and providing guidance; Mr. Tim Chambers, my Capstone Physics teacher, for being my project adviser and answering the questions I had; Dr. Alexander Moravsky, Chief Scientist at MER Corp for being my internship mentor, the whole BASIS Tucson North staff for teaching my high school classes and thus enabling me to embark on this research project; to my family for letting me sit behind the screen for hours on end, and especially to my father for helping me find a spot as an intern at MER. I am very grateful of you all.

Research Robots:
1. Achilles: Lichtman, Flora. "Walk Like a Man." Popular Science Oct. 2012: 31. Print. Lewis, M. A., and Theresa J. Klein. Achilles: A Robot with Realistic Legs. The Neuromorphic Engineer. INE, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. "Biologically Accurate Robot Walking Legs." YouTube. YouTube, 6 July 2012. Web. 17 Feb. 2013. 2. Asimo: "ASIMO Frequently Asked Questions." Honda, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. Hanlon, Mike. "Twenty Years in the Making - ASIMO the Humanoid Robot." Gizmag, n.d. Web. 19 Feb. 2013. "Honda's All-New ASIMO Running, Jumping." YouTube. YouTube, 10 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Feb. 2013 3. Brave v7.2: Ishida, Kenji. "History of Brave Robotics." BRAVE ROBOTICS. N.p., 2002. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. Ishida, Kenji. "BRAVEROBOTICS 1/12 Scale Transform Robot Version7.2." YouTube. YouTube, 25 Nov. 2012. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. 4. Cheetah: "Boston Dynamics: Dedicated to the Science and Art of How Things Move." Boston Dynamics: Dedicated to the Science and Art of How Things Move. Boston Dynamics, 5 Sept. 2012. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.

5. Festo Humanoid: "Humanoid." Festo Pneumatic & Electric Automation Worldwide. FESTO Robotics, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. "Festo's Extraordinary Robots That Mimic Biology II: Bionic Learning Network." YouTube. YouTube, 26 Nov. 2010. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. "Fluidic Muscle." Festo Pneumatic & Electric Automation Worldwide. FESTO, n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. 6. Festo ExoHand: "ExoHand, A Human-machine Interaction." ExoHand. FESTO, 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. "Festo ExoHand." YouTube. YouTube, 19 Apr. 2012. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. 7. Mahru-III: Guizzo, Erico. "Mahru Humanoid Robot Real-Time Teleoperation." YouTube. IEEE Spectrum, 27 Apr. 2010. Web. 20 Feb. 2013. Guizzo, Eric. "Humanoid Robot Mahru Mimics a Person's Movements in Real Time." IEEE Spectrum. IEEE, 27 Apr. 2010. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. Saenz, Aaron. "Your Body Is the Controller for This Humanoid Robot." Singularity Hub. Singularity University, 8 Mar. 2011. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. "Humanoid Both Arm Object Manipulation." YouTube. YouTube, 1 Mar. 2011. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.! 8. HRP3L-JSK Guizzo, Erico. "Japanese Humanoid Robot Can Keep Its Balance After Getting Kicked." IEEE Spectrum. IEEE, 08 May 2012. Web. 21 Feb. 2013. 9. Sandia Hand: Zax, David. "A Robotic Hand for Bomb Disposal." MIT Technology Review, 22 Aug. 2012. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. "Lifelike, Cost-effective Robotic Sandia Hand Can Disable IEDs." Sandia National Labs News Releases. Sandia National Laboratories, 15 Aug. 2012. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. Ackerman, Evan. "Sandia National Labs Gives Roboticists a Hand." IEEE Spectrum. IEEE, 16 Aug. 2012. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. Roach, John. "Nimble-fingered Robot Could Disarm Bombs, Put Batteries in Flashlight." Online news report. NBC News FutureTech. NBC, n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. 10. Sarcos Robot: Liu, Rue. "SARCOS The Humanoid Robot That Dances And Can Take Some Bullying Around." SlashGear, 21 Apr. 2011. Web. 22 Feb. 2013. Ackerman, Evan. "Sarcos Robot Can Mimic Your Terrible Dancing." IEEE Spectrum. IEEE, 19 Apr. 2011. Web. 22 Feb. 2013.

Domestic Robots:
11. A.R.: "Assistant Robot." Plasticpals. Plastic Pals, 2 Nov. 2010. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. Strange, Adario. "I, Robot Maid: Toyota Ushers in the Era of the Robot Servant." DVICE. DVICE, 27 Oct. 2008. Web. 25 Feb. 2013.

"Meet The Robot Maid, The Future of Technology." YouTube. YouTube, 30 Nov. 2008. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. 12. Twendy-One: "TWENDY-ONE." TWENDY-ONE . Waseda University Sugano Laboratory, 2007. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. Quick, Darren. "Twendy-One Ready to Lend a Robotic Helping Hand to the Elderly." Gizmag, 11 Mar. 2010. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. "TWENDY-ONE Official Video Demonstrations." YouTube. YouTube, 10 Mar. 2010. Web. 25 Feb. 2013. 13. NS-5: I, Robot. Dir. Alex Proyas. Perf. Will Smith. 20th Century Fox, 2004. DVD. "Nestor Class 5." NSwiki. MediaWiki, 14 Aug. 2005. Web. 26 Feb. 2013. "NS-5 - Robot Commercial [I, Robot - Will Smith]." YouTube. YouTube, 07 Apr. 2009. Web. 26 Feb. 2013.

Construction/Mining Robots:
14. Timberjack: Anissimov, Michael. "Plustech Oy Forest Walker." Accelerating Future. Accelerating Future, 28 Apr. 2008. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. "Walking Tractor Timberjack by John Deere - The Old Robot's Web Site." The Old Robots Website. The Old Robots, n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013.

15. Remote Surveying Vehicle RSV "Robot's Sterling Silver Mine Work." BBC News. BBC, 27 Feb. 2008. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. "In the News: Cornwall Students robot Success." University of Exeter: Earth Resources - Geology, Mining and Renewable Energy. University of Exeter, n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2013 16. Caterpillar P-5000: Aliens. Dir. James Cameron. Perf. Sigourny Weaver. Twentieth Century-Fox, 1986. DVD. Hogget, Reuben. "1986 Power Loader from Aliens the Movie." Weblog post.Cyberneticzoo. WordPress, 28 Jan. 2011. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. Sofge, Erik. "A History of Iron Men: Science Fiction's 5 Most Iconic Exoskeletons - Page 4."Popular Mechanics. Hearst Communication, Inc., 8 Apr. 2010. Web. 27 Feb. 2013. 17. GOW 3 Loader: Bleszinski, Cliff. Gears of War 3. 20 Sept. 2011. Video Game. "Mechanical Loader." Gearspedia. Wikia, n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. "Gears of War 3: Walkthrough - Part 6 [Act 1-3: Loader & the Longshot] (GoW3 Gameplay & Commentary)." YouTube. YouTube, 21 Sept. 2011. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. 18 & 19. Paul Pepera Construction Mechs: "Construction Mech Designs by Paul Pepera." Concept Robots. Blogger, 10 Dec. 2012. Web. 28 Feb. 2013. Pepera, Paul. "paul pepera : game art portfolio."Paul Pepera Game Art. 2009. Web. 28 Feb. 2013.

Space Exploration Robots:

20. ATHLETE: Pastor, Rose. "Meet ATHLETE, NASA's Next Robot Moon Walker." Popular Science. Bonnier Corp, 23 Jan. 2013. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. "ATHLETE." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 03 Jan. 2013. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. "ATHLETE Lunar Rover." YouTube. YouTube, 12 Aug. 2007. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. 21. Robonaut 2: "Robonaut." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 25 Feb. 2013. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. "NASA Funds 8 Robotics Projects to Aid Space Exploration.", 17 Sept. 2012. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. Bibby, Joe. "R2 ISS Update." Robonaut. NASA, 1 Oct. 2012. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. Abuelsamid, Sam. "Robonaut 2 Demonstration at Kennedy Space Center." YouTube. YouTube, 18 Feb. 2012. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. 22. Nautillus: De Martini, Fausto. "Submersible Mech." Web log post. Design Works by Fausto De Martini. Blogger, 12 Oct. 2012. Web. 3 Mar. 2013. "Fausto De Martini." Gnomon School of Visual Effects. Gnomon Inc, n.d. Web. 04 Mar. 2013.

Securty/Rescue Robots:
23. Andros Wolverine: "Army of Robots: 5 Greatest Combat Engineering Tools." IDF Blog The Official Blog of the Israel Defense Forces. Isreal Defence Forces, 8 Feb. 2012. Web. 05 Mar. 2013.

Newitz, Analee. "Israeli Bomb Disposal Robot Has a Terrible: Job Cleaning Up After Humans." Io9. Io9, 5 Feb. 2008. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. "In Pictures: Robot Tackles 'suicide Bomber'" BBC News. BBC, 8 May 2002. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. "Product Details: ANDROS Wolverine." FEMA Responder Knowledge Base. FEMA, 5 Mar. 2010. Web. 5 Mar. 2013. "Remotec ANDROS." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Jan. 2013. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. 24. Gemini-Scout: "Sandia Labs Gemini-Scout Robot Likely to Reach Trapped Miners Ahead of Rescuers."Sandia Labs News Releases. Sandia Corporation, 16 Aug. 2011. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. Hambling, David. "Next-Gen Coal Mining Rescue Robot." Popular Mechanics. Hearst Communication, Inc., 23 Aug. 2010. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. Hutchinson, Alex. "The Rugged Robot Built to Rescue Trapped Miners." Popular Mechanics. Hearst Communication, Inc., 30 Nov. 2011. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. "Sandia's Gemini-Scout Mine Rescue Robot." YouTube. YouTube, 17 Aug. 2011. Web. 05 Mar. 2013. 25. THOR: Sofge, Erik. "How to Build a Hero." Popular Science 21 Jan. 2013: 30-37. Print. Ward, Jacob. "Now Live: The February 2013 Issue Of Popular Science Magazine." Popular Science. Bonnier Corp, 15 Jan. 2013. Web. 06 Mar. 2013. "SAFFiR: Shipboard Autonomous Fire-Fighting Robot." RoMeLa RSS. Virginia Institute of Technology, 22 Mar. 2012. Web. 06 Mar. 2013. Mackay, Steven D. "Virginia Tech Takes on Department of Defense Challenge to Build Disaster-

response Robots." Virginia Tech Takes on Department of Defense Challenge to Build Disaster-response Robots. Virginia Institute of Technology, 24 Oct. 2012. Web. 06 Mar. 2013.

Military Robots:
26. BigDog: "BigDog - The Most Advanced Rough-Terrain Robot on Earth." Boston Dynamics. Boston Dynamics, n.d. Web. 06 Mar. 2013. Raibert, Marc, Kevin Blankespoor, Gabriel Nelson, and Rob Playter. "BigDog, the Rough-Terrain Quaduped Robot." Boston Dynamics. Boston Dynamics, n.d. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. "BigDog Overview." Boston Dynamics. Boston Dynamics, 22 Nov. 2008. Web. 6 Mar. 2013. "BigDog." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 03 May 2013. Web. 06 Mar. 2013. "BigDog Overview (Updated March 2010)." YouTube. YouTube, 22 Apr. 2010. Web. 06 Mar. 2013. "Dynamic Robot Manipulation." YouTube. YouTube, 28 Feb. 2013. Web. 06 Mar. 2013. 27. PETMAN: "PETMAN - BigDog Gets a Big Brother." Boston Dynamics. Boston Dynamics, 2012. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. Guizzo, Erico. "Stunning Video of PETMAN Humanoid Robot From Boston Dynamics."IEEE Spectrum. IEEE, 31 Oct. 2011. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "DARPA's Pet-Proto Robot Navigates Obstacles." YouTube. YouTube, 24 Oct. 2012. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "DARPA - AtlasProto Robot Masters Stairs [720p]." YouTube. YouTube, 12 Apr. 2012. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. 28. RHEX Rough Terrain "RHex - Devours Rough Terrain." Boston Dynamics. Boston Dynamics, 2012. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "RHex All-Terrain Robot." Boston Dynamics. Boston Dynamics, 2012. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "Rhex." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 03 July 2013. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "RHex Rough-Terrain Robot." YouTube. YouTube, 27 Mar. 2012. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "Rhex Biped Robot Runs!" YouTube. YouTube, 31 Oct. 2007. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. 29. Sand Flea "SandFlea - Leaps Small Buildings in a Single Bound." Boston Dynamics. Boston Dynamics, 2012. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "SandFlea Jumping Robot." Boston Dynamics. Boston Dynamics, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "Rapid Equipping Force." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 02 Mar. 2013. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "Sand Flea Jumping Robot." YouTube. YouTube, 27 Mar. 2012. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. 30. XOS 2 "Raytheon XOS 2 Exoskeleton, Second-Generation Robotics Suit, United States of America." Net Resources International, n.d. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "Powered Exoskeleton." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 03 Oct. 2013. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "Raytheon XOS 2 Exoskeleton." YouTube. YouTube, 26 Sept. 2010. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. "Raytheon XOS Exoskeleton." YouTube. YouTube, 18 Jan. 2012. Web. 10 Mar. 2013. 31. Snake-Bot Hambling, David. "Invisible Warriors." Popular Science Jan. 2012: 55. Print. Man, Alexandra. "Israel Inst. Of Technology Creates Snake Robots." No Camels Israeli Innovation News. WordPress, 4 Sept. 2011. Web. 11 Mar. 2013. "Israeli Military Testing 'robotic' Snake." YouTube. YouTube, 15 June 2009. Web. 11 Mar. 2013. 32. AMP Suit: Avatar. Dir. James Cameron. Perf. Sam Worthington. 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2009. DVD. "Amplified Mobility Platform." Avatar Wiki. Wikia, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2013. "AMP Suit Knife." Avatar Wiki. Wikia, n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2013. "AMP Suit Design." YouTube. YouTube, 10 Dec. 2009. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. 33. AMR-D13: District 9. Dir. Neill Blomkamp. Perf. Sharlto Copley. Sony, 2009. DVD. Broadmore, Greg. "Greg Broadmore - Gallery 7 - District 9." N.p., 17 Jan. 2010. Web. 12 Mar. 2013. "AMR-D13 Exo-Suit." Science Fiction Database Wiki. Wikia, n.d. Web. 8 May 2013. 34. Iron Man: Iron Man. Dir. Jon Favreau. Perf. Robert Downey, Jr, Terrence Howard, Jeff Bridges, and Gwyneth Paltrow. Paramount Pictures, 2008. DVD.

Iron Man 2. Dir. John Favreau. Perf. Robert Downey, Jr, Gwyneth Paltrow, and Don Cheadle. Paramount Pictures, 2010. DVD. The Avengers. Dir. Joss Whedon. Perf. Robert Downey, Jr, Chris Evans, Mark Ruffalo, Chris Hemsworth, Scarlett Johansson, Jeremy Renner, Jeremy Renner, and Samuel L. Jackson. Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, n.d. DVD. "Iron Man's Armor." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 4 Mar. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2013.'s_armor Delete that ^^ 35. Transformers: Transformers. Dir. Michael Bay. Perf. Shia LaBeouf, Megan Fox, Tyrese Gibson, and Josh Duhamel. Paramount Pictures, 2007. DVD. Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen. Dir. Michael Bay. Perf. Shia LaBeouf, Megan Fox, Tyrese Gibson, and Josh Duhamel. Paramount Pictures, 2009. DVD. Transformers: Dark of the Moon. Dir. Michael Bay. Perf. Shia LaBeouf, Rosie Huntington-Whiteley, Tyrese Gibson, and Josh Duhamel. Paramount Pictures, 2011. Nizzi, Josh. "Josh Nizzi." N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. 36. H.ARM Suit: Lilly, Eliott J. "H.ARM SUIT Complete." Web log post. Blogger, 5 Dec. 2010. Web. 17 Mar. 2013. 37. Lost Planet Cakti: Kenji Oguro. Lost Planet: Extreme Condition. 21 Dec. 2006. Video Game. "Lost Planet: Extreme Condition." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 15 Mar. 2013. Web. 19 Mar. 2013. "GAB-25M." Lost Planet Wikia. Wikia, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. "Vital Suit." Lost Planet Wikia. Wikia, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2013. "Lost Planet Mission 8 Part 1 [Dx10 Max Settings]." YouTube. YouTube, 03 Aug. 2009. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.

"Lost Planet Mission 9 Part 2 [Dx10 Max Settings]." YouTube. YouTube, 04 Aug. 2009. Web. 19 Mar. 2013. [COMBINE BABY!!!] 38. CHROMHOUNDS: From Software. Chromehounds. 11 Jul. 2006. Video Game. "Chromehounds." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 27 Feb. 2013. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. Berardini, Cesar A. "Chromehounds Interview." Team Xbox. IGN Entertainment, 18 Apr. 2006. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. "Chromehounds Images." IGN. IGN Entertainment, 17 July 2006. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. "Guide Part 2." IGN. IGN Entertainment, 22 Mar. 2012. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. 39. Armored Core: From Software. Armored Core: For Answer. 16 Sep. 2008. Video Game. "Armored Core for Answer Images." IGN. IGN Entertainment, 11 Sept. 2008. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. "Armored Core: For Answer." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 1 Mar. 2013. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. "Armored Core." Armored Core Wikia. Wikia, n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. "YYAC." NBGI and From Software, 30 Mar. 2003. Web. 21 Mar. 2013. (Main website used to exchange concept art among the Japanese artists)


Singer, P. W. Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the Twenty-first Century. New York: Penguin, 2009. Print. "Thats Impossible! - Real Terminators." YouTube. History Channel, 11 June 2012. Web. 12 Apr. 2013. Concept ROBOTS. Blogger, 21 Dec. 2008. Web. 14 Mar. 2013.

Images Used were Courtesy of the Following Organizations: