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Faculty Of Civil Engineering

ECM 436 M&E Engineering Lab.

LABORATORY: ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 1.0 INTRODUCTION Electrical distribution is defined as the delivery of power to building premises, on poles or placed underground, from the power plant or substation through feeders and mains. The power system is generally considered to be a combination of two sections: the transmission and the distribution. The difference between the two sections depends on the function of each at that particular time. The transmission and distribution system delivers electricity from the generating site (electric power plant) to residential, commercial, and industrial facilities.

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OBJECTIVES i. ii. To identify the process of electrical distribution system. To determine the specific purpose and function of each electrical equipment / devices such as 33 kV Substation, Transformer, 11 kV Substation, Sub-Switch Board (SSB), Distribution Board (DB), Standby Generator Set, Feeder Pillar, Street Lightning, Compound Lightning and High Mast. iii. iv. To review and discuss all the process of electrical distribution system for the three phase electric power. To prepare the schematic diagram for the electrical distribution system.

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APPARATUS i. ii. Camera Pen and Paper

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Faculty Of Civil Engineering

ECM 436 M&E Engineering Lab.

Figure 1: Electrical Distribution System Sample

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PROCEDURES 1. Firstly, identify the electrical equipment / devices for distribution system. 2. Then, find the function and the usage of the electrical equipment / devices. 3. Sketch the schematic diagram of electrical distribution system. 4. Make a suggestion / recommendation of the electrical equipment / devices that suitable to the electrical distribution system.

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Faculty Of Civil Engineering

ECM 436 M&E Engineering Lab.

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RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Result 1 : Electrical Distribution Devices and its Functions 33kV Substation

Main entrance
Figure 2.1

Back View
Figure 2.2

Functions : 1. It is an electrical substation that acts as a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed form high to low or the reverse using transformers. Transformer

Figure 3

Function: 1. Transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled electrical conductor.

Electrical Wiring

Faculty Of Civil Engineering

ECM 436 M&E Engineering Lab.

2.

It is known in two different types which are known as Step-Up and StepDown. 11kV Substation

Figure 4

Functions: 1. 11kV substation is usually a secondary substations that being stepped down as its receive power at 66/33kV.

Sub-Switch Board (SSB)

Figure 5

Functions: 1. This electric switchboard act as a device that directs electricity from one source to another. It is an assembly of panels, each of which contains switches that allow electricity to be redirected. 2. The role of a switchboard is to divide the main current provided to the switchboard into smaller currents for further distribution and to provide switching, current protection and metering for these various currents. Besides,
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Faculty Of Civil Engineering

ECM 436 M&E Engineering Lab.

switchboards safely distribute power to transformers, panel boards, control equipment, and ultimately to system loads.

Main Distribution Board (DB)

Figure 6

Function: 1. Main Distribution Board or MDB Panel is a main low-voltage electric power which for controlling the main electric power of the building for the incoming power and the outgoing power. Standby Generator Set

Figure 7

Function: 1. A standby generator is a back-up electrical system that operates automatically when there is the power loss or utility outage. 2. The standby generator begins supplying power to the circuits during the outage.

Electrical Wiring

Faculty Of Civil Engineering

ECM 436 M&E Engineering Lab.

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After utility power returns, the automatic transfer switch transfers the electrical load back to the utility and signals the standby generator to shut off. It then returns to standby mode where it awaits the next outage

Feeder Pillar

Figure 8

Function: 1. The function of feeder pillar is to take in a supply of electrical energy from a transformer and distribute it, via fuseways, to a number of outgoing circuits, providing each with a means of protection and control. Street Lighting

Figure 9

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Faculty Of Civil Engineering

ECM 436 M&E Engineering Lab.

Function: 1. A street lighting is a raised source of light on the edge of road or walkway, which turned on or lit at a certain time every night.

Compound Lighting

Figure 10

Function: 1. Compound lighting is a source of light that usually turned on during night at the parking area. High Mast

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Faculty Of Civil Engineering Figure 11.1

ECM 436 M&E Engineering Lab. Figure 11.2

Function: 1. The function of High Mast is to provide safety and guidance of traffic and to provide secure and comfortable surroundings for the travelers. 2. High Mast Lighting plays a vital role in reducing accidents and crimes too.

Result 2: Schematic diagram for power supply system in UiTM Shah Alam

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Faculty Of Civil Engineering

ECM 436 M&E Engineering Lab.

33kV substation

11kV substation

Transformer

Feeder Pillar (415V)

Generator set room

Main switch board

Distribution board

Sub switch board

Figure 12

Electrical Wiring

Faculty Of Civil Engineering

ECM 436 M&E Engineering Lab.

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CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The lab practical is well conducted. As a conclusion, all the electrical supply in UiTM is supplied from a 33kV substation which is located near the Faculty of Hotel & Tourism Management. Through this supply, the voltage is step down by transformers which are located in each building of faculties and the electrical supply distributed to each level of blocks.

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APPENDIX 10

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Faculty Of Civil Engineering

ECM 436 M&E Engineering Lab.

Compound lighting

substations

Transformer room

Standby generator set room

Feeder Pillar

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REFERENCES

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Faculty Of Civil Engineering

ECM 436 M&E Engineering Lab.

J.o Jamaluddin Othman. Mechanical and engineering practice. Uitm Shah Alam, 2012. En.wikipedia.org/wiki/electrical_power_distribution. Electricalinstallationwiringpicture.blogspot.com/2010/04feeder-pillarsingle-line-diagram.html

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