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Lapita Pottery &


Lapita Pottery Small Fijian outrigger from Kabara, Suva

Lapita pottery

Lapita pottery has long been held as the key to Polynesian colonization of the
Eastern Pacific, despite there being no hard evidence to prove it. In fact the deeper
one delves into the archaeology, chronology and gene trees of the Pacific one finds
that there is no connection whatsoever between Polynesian and Lapita culture. The
following article outlines many of these discrepancies. In fact it is quite
embarrassing how poorly the scientists have interpreted the facts.

Lapita pottery is a finely decorated (dentate stamped) coil built, low fired pottery
commonly found in archaeological sites in the Western Pacific. The earliest Lapita
sites are in the Bismark Archipelago and are dated at 3,900 years BP. The Lapita
culture does not predate the arrival of Melanesians, who have lived in New Guinea
and it's surrounding Islands for over 40,000 years. Lapita pottery is commonly
found in coastal locations on the Islands of New Guinea, Vanuatu, Solomons, New
Caledonia, Fiji, Samoa and Tonga. The Lapita people are believed to have spread
eastwards and colonized Fiji, Samoa and Tonga ~3,500 years ago which predates
the arrival of the Polynesian people in the Pacific by 1,300 years. Lapita pottery is
common on most Melanesian islands and is often found associated with Melanesian
deposits, but is not found amongst any Eastern Polynesian archaeological deposits
in Hawai'i, Rapa Nui, Aoteoroa, Tahiti, Tuamotus, Raiatea, Raivavae or Rarotonga
or any other Eastern Polynesian Islands. The archaeological assemblage on
Melanesian Islands shows a gradual progression of design styles which merged
with classic Melanesian designs such as Mangassi and Naviti styles, marking the
end of the Lapita culture in the archaeological record at about 420BC Matthew
Spriggs " The Lapita Cultural Complex". This was over 400 years before
Polynesians arrived in Western Polynesia (Samoa and Tonga).

According to geneticists, Polynesian expansion in the Pacific was rapid. Genetics

clearly shows that the pure strain of Eastern Polynesian genes began expanding
2,200 years ago in isolation from all other Pacific cultures, outlined by Bing Su and
Mark Stoneking in Polynesian Y Chromozome. Their research also shows that
Polynesians finally made contact with Melanesians merely 1,000 years ago. As you
will see from evidence presented here, the Lapita people lived at a different time to
Polynesians, in a different geographical area and were physically, genetically and
culturally different to Polynesians.

Lapita the name

Lapita pottery has been misunderstood from the day it was discovered when an
archaeologist picked up a piece of pottery from the bottom of his pit. Some natives
arriving on the scene exclaimed "Xaapeta!" Which means "He dug a pit!"
Unfortunately the scientist thought the natives were getting excited about the piece
of rubble he was holding in his hand and decided that the exclamation "Xaapeta"
was the name of the culture the pottery represented. Unfortunately he misheard
them and decided the word said was Lapita, and through his "scientific" paper, the
Lapita name has stuck.

Is Lapita Polynesian, Melanesian or ....... ?

Many articles written on Pacific culture have assumed without question that the
Lapita pottery people were Polynesians, resulting in a circular argument asserting
that archaeological relics of the Lapita pottery culture in the Western Pacifc was
clear evidence that Polynesians passed through island Melanesia into the Central
Pacific. To come to this conclusion, one must ignore the fact that; Polynesians
never made pottery, never used shell money and they never buried their dead in
urns - three key characteristics of the lapita culture. The Lapita culture was most
certainly part of the Western Pacific story, and relics of this society can still be
found there, where Lapita style pottery and shell money were still used in
Melanesia until recent times. (Patrick Kirch, Prehistoric Exchange in Western
Melanesia). The archaeological record shows that there is no doubt that Lapita
people co-habited with the Melanesians, not only in the archaeological tool kit of
both cultures, but studies of a Lapita skeleton named 'Mana Man' found in
Moturiki, Fiji shows that his skeleton is distinctly Melanesian. Robert Keith-Reid
states; "The tentative conclusion was that the Lapita style pottery was carried to
Moturiki from the Melanesian Santa Cruz/Reef Islands, 1,000km from Moturiki.
Mana Man is estimated to have been buried between 1000 B.C. and 800 B.C. and
was the second Lapita-age skeleton discovered in the Pacific Islands."

Mana man, Moturiki

John E Tyrrell and Schechter have found a culture in New Guinea on the Sepik
coastline near Aitape that continues the traditional Lapita designs to this day. These
designs represent turtles and go hand in hand with a creation myth whereby they
believe a turtle became the first island for man and woman. This myth parallels
many Native American myths that also assert that the turtle created the first land for
man and woman. In fact North America is known by many Native American
nations as Turtle Island. Melanesian type skulls found in Panama as well as the
distinctly African looking Olmec heads of the Yucatan, suggests that people similar
in appearance to Melanesians may have arrived from America with the turtle
creation myth during Olmec sea trade 3-4,000 years ago. Another possibility is that
this myth may also have arrived when Malaria - Plasmodium vivax arrived in
Melanesia 10,000 years ago. This is also the time of the most rapid rises in sealevel
at the end of the last Ice Age, which caused a massive dislocation of coastal
populations globally. As flooding and the loss of land is the basis of the turtle myth,
this is the most logical scenario. The other possibility is that Native American red
heads arrived in Island Melanesia with the turtle creation myth. Ancestral figures
who were tall with pale skin and red hair are often mentioned in Native American
as well as Pacific legends (see Migrations, Myth and Magic from the Gilbert
Islands by Rosemary Grimble). In fact the answer may be; "all of the above".

Fundamental differences between Lapita

and Polynesian Culture
The most basic difference between the Lapita and Polynesian culture is;
"Ceramics were not manufactured by Polynesian societies at any time in East
Polynesian prehistory. Therefore trying to connect Lapita and plainware
pottery with Polynesians is illogical.” (Anita Smith in; An Archaeology of West
Polynesian Prehistory, 2002). Polynesians also had a totally different tool kit.
Lapita potters used bows and arrows, spears and nets to catch fish. They did not use
fishhooks or harpoon heads, whereas the Polynesian fishing kit consisted of: two
piece fishing hook, trolling lure and harpoon head which interestingly is very
similar to Haida-gwaii artefacts of Canada. Other items unique to Eastern Polynesia
and absent in the Lapita cultural complex identified by Anita Smith are the; two
piece fishhook, trolling lure, harpoon head, whale tooth pendant, reel ornament,
pearl shell breastplate and tattooing needle. These seven items are all commonly
found at Polynesian sites but were not found at any Lapita, plainware or
Melanesian sites. She also identified 5 artefacts (shell beads, shell net sinker, shell
armband/ring, shell adze and polishing/grinding stone) that were not found at any
Polynesian sites. The following table clearly shows a complete absence of these
key Polynesian artefacts from all Melanesian sites (highlighted in red).

This Table from Anita Smiths 'An archaeology of west Polynesian prehistory' shows quite
clearly the complete absence of some key Polynesian artifacts from all Lapita and Plainware
sites. Hardly compelling evidence of a connection between the two cultures.

Other Polynesian artefacts absent in the Lapita culture are the; slingshot, tanged
adze, fishhook pendant, phallic and vagina shaped pestles, catamaran, taniwha and
bottle gourd . The list of differences goes on….
The big man or richest, most charismatic man was head of the village in Melanesia,
wheras Polynesian society was based around a hereditary lineage of chiefs. Lapita
used shells for money, whereas Polynesians used woven mats for payment - similar
to the Kwakuitl who used rugs for payment.

1. Pestle designs from Canada (Haida Gwai'i), Hawai'i, Tahiti. From Thor Heyerdahl's book;
American Indians in the Pacific
2. Maldive money cowries - an ancient currency of the sea traders. Photo; Thor Heyerdahl;
Maldive Mystery
Preparations for a Tongan (Polynesian) wedding ceremony, showing the pile of mats being
The custom of using mats or rugs for currency is shared with the Haida, Kwakuitl and Tlingit
of Canada and Alaska,
but not with Lapita people who used cowrie shells for currency - as did the Harappa, Maldive
and Tamil Nadu cultures.
Money cowries suspected to come from the Maldives have even been found at the Isle Royale
Copper mine in Michigan, suggesting that the Lapita people may have been a branch of a
much larger global sea trade culture who used money cowries for currency - not rugs.
Note in the above picture, the presence of Melanesian genes (frizzy hair) in Polynesian Tonga,
due to cultural contact with Fiji during the last 1,000 years.
Interestingly, Whiti - the Polynesian pronounciation of Fiji, means crossover, or changeover.
Their awareness of this change from
Polynesian to Melanesian society between Samoa/Tonga and Fiji is preserved in the name.
During the last 1,000 years this boundary has clearly become blurred.
Photo; Loisette Marsh.

On many occasions there have been articles that have pointed out that Polynesians
are genetically and physically different to Lapita people, yet this information
continues to be ignored. From the article WHO ARE THESE PEOPLE? Human
skeletal remains from the Pacific region, by Archaeologist Nicola Van Dijk. The
following diagram based on a cluster analysis of mandibular shapes highlighting
the complete absence of a connection between Polynesian and Lapita people.
Van Dijk says;"Polynesians actually show more differences than similarities, and it is these
differences we should concentrate on. It appears fairly clear that the Lapita people were quite
phenotypically distinct (Pietrusewsky 1989, Katayama 1990) from what we idientify as
Polynesian today." Pietrusewsky notes; "Skeletal and dental features which clearly
differentiate the Lapita remains from other Pacific groups include wide low mandible
shapes, small teeth and slender long limb bones."
Van Dijk concludes; In a cluster analysis based on the results of mandibular measurements the
Lapita remains were isolated and furthest removed from Polynesians.

The wide jaw and slender long limb bones are characteristics of the 6-7ft tall, red
haired Caucasians whose skeletons have been found in the Nevada desert, South
America and caves in New Zealand. The Easter Islanders and some families from
Sardinia and Sicily also exhibit the distinctive features of the ancient red haired
It should be pointed out that the wide low jaw is found in some Polynesian people,
but it is always associated with the most Caucasian looking individuals. The
characteristic 9 based pair deletion of Polynesians is unlikely to be found amongst
the following individuals.
As Maori, Marquesan and Rapa Nui legends all speak of some of their ancestors
arriving from South America - not from Melanesia, I find it difficult to connect
these ancient Caucasian features with the Lapita people. They may have come from
the same group of seafarers ~4,000 years ago, and as their mobility was not
restricted by oceanic distance, the possibility that descendants of these people
entered the Pacific from opposite sides at different times is not a difficult concept to

During the history of these people, they have been called a number of names; the
Maurya of India, the Mauri of Africa, the Mauli of Chile, the Maori of New
Zealand and the Moors of Spain. Another common name given to these people are
the Berbers. In Africa today descendants of these people call themselves the
Amazigh or 'Free Men' their language is Tamazight. In America, the Alligewi
people of the Mississippi Mound Building culture are also known as "The Free
Men" - their language is Tallegwi. The common prefix T, denoting 'language', is no
coincidence. These people are part of the Hokan language group of America, all of
which are believed to be descendants of the Berbers.

Genetic Differences
The recent study by Johnathon Friedlaender et al, titled THE GENETIC
STRUCTURE OF PACIFIC ISLANDERS shows that Polynesians have no genetic
relationship to the genetically diverse group collectively called Melanesians, but
instead show strong connection to Native Taiwanese genes. This once again
confirms that Polynesians could not have lived in Melanesia and therefore could
not have been the Lapita people whose archaeological remains show a clear
association with Melanesians for over 1,500 years. Johnathon Friedlaender makes it
quite clear that Polynesians developed in isolation from the Melanesians.
Lapita skull compared to the classic long skull of Nefertiti and another Egyptian skull belived
to be a female called Bakt.
This skull hints at the amount of cross cultural interaction between these people - she has a
classic Polynesian rocker jaw!

Geneticist Lisa Matissoo-Smith successfully extracted DNA from the teeth of the
Teouma skeletons, found in Lapita burial urns, some of which were sitting in the
lotus position. She found that they did not contain any Polynesian or East Asian
genes. To date she has not yet determined whether the DNA is Melanesian or from
a forgotten civilization of Caucasian seafarers.

Lisa Matissoo-Smith in her interview on TV NZ (Tagata Pasifika Lapita special 3

2005) said; "We were able to look to see whether the individual possessed a
particular mutation that we see at a very high frequency in Polynesians. It is a
9based pair mutation of Mitichondrial DNA and we found that the Teouma material
- the first samples that we analysed did not have that mutation, so they did not
look like 98% of the people we see living in Polynesia today."
Lisa promised a paper regarding this information would be published in 2007. This
has not happened, she has been advised to pass the study on to a laboratory in
America ( I smell a rat??). Similar results to hers were ignored from a
different team of geneticists in 1993. DNA Goes Missing in the Polynesian
Triangle. The reason for also quietly sweeping this information under the carpet
remains to be seen.

Further back in time - in 1989, another geneticist (Susan Serjeantson) brought to

the attention of scientists the differences between Eastern Polynesians and the
people of the Western Pacific. Once again this information was quietly ignored;
S.W. Serjeantson “The Colonization of the Pacific – A Genetic Trail 1989 pp
135,162-163,166-7. SW Serjeantson comments with regard to the assumed
Lapita/Polynesian connection; "It seems quite implausible that a group
supposedly evolving within Melanesia could have acquired, by chance, so
many non-Melanesian genes! The following genes set them apart: Polynesians
lack HLA-B27 , wheras it is common amongst Melanesians. HLA-Bw48 is
commonly found in Polynesian populations, but occurs only sporadically in
Melanesia. The only other known population with an appreciable frequency of
HLA-Bw48 is that of the North American Indians or more specifically the Tlingit
(Prince of Wales Island). HLA-B13, B18 and B27 are commonly found throughout
Melanesia. These antigens are sporadic in Western Polynesia and are essentially
absent from the populations of Eastern Polynesia. HLA-A11 and B40 are
significantly associated with each other in Melanesia, but are not linked in
Polynesian Populations, HLA-A11 is linked to HLA-Bw48 in Polynesia, indicating
a different source of origin. Therefore HLA data cannot support the theory of
Polynesian evolution within Melanesia."

When genetically analysing the Polynesian outliers such as Ouvea (of New
Caledonia), the Trobriands and Rotuma, it was hoped that these people would
display more ancient Polynesian genes, indicating these islands were veritable
stepping stones into the Central Pacific. Unfortunately geneticists found that these
people separated from the main Polynesian population of Eastern Polynesia less
than 1,000 years ago. This was in complete agreement to the legends of these
people which stated that their arrival was from Eastern Polynesia about 1,000 years
ago. Some legends described escape from war and family squabbles, others
described storm drift survival voyages (Peter Buck - Vikings of the Sunrise). It was
not just Polynesians who migrated westward. Many Torres Strait people (islands
between New Guinea and Australia) trace their history back to the Melanesians of

Geneticists Bing Su and Mark Stoneking and Susan Serjeantson (“The

Colonization of the Pacific – A Genetic Trail 1989 pp 135,162-163,166-7) all agree
that admixture with Melanesians has only occurred within the last 1,000 years and
makes it completely untenable for Polynesians to have lived amongst Melanesians,
therefore the Lapita people who by the archaeological evidence, lived amongst the
Melanesians for over 1,500 years (1,900BC to 400BC) cannot by any stretch of the
imagination, be the ancestors of the Polynesians.
Archaeological Differences
Amongst the Archaeologists, which can be given credit for bringing to ones
attention the discrepancies in the Lapita/Polynesian misconception are;

Anita Smith in; An Archaeology of West Polynesian Prehistory, 2002

“Although ceramics have been used as the primary material culture correlate for
cultural change in West Polynesia, they are perhaps least suited to identifying
Ancestral Polynesians in the archaeological record. Ceramics were not
manufactured by Polynesian societies at any time in East Polynesian
prehistory. Therefore trying to connect Lapita and plainware pottery with
Polynesians is illogical.”

The following excerpt indicates that Lapita did originate in the heart of Melanesia
(albeit quite suddenly without any formative phase, suggesting the arrival by sea of
some new people with pottery making skills).

Matthew Spriggs, The Lapita Cultural complex, 1985 "The earliest Lapita
pottery found to date is from Elouae in the St Matthais Group, north of New
Ireland . The date of 1900 BC (3,900 years ago), comes from a single hearth
feature associated with Lapita materials. The Elouae site contained obsidian both
from the Admiralties 300 km to the east, and Talasea 430km to the south. Requiring
a significant sea voyage."
This indicates that the Lapita potters were competent sailors and were connected to
an Obsidian trading network. Other researchers have identified Melanesian
obsidian in Borneo, suggestng this trade network encompassed S.E. Asia and

Matthew Spriggs states; "The possibility of cultural continuity between Lapita

Potters and Melanesians has not been given the consideration it deserves. In
most sites there was an overlap of styles with no stratigraphic separation
discernible Continuity is found in pottery temper, importation of obsidian and
in non ceramic artefacts".
"The earliest reliable dates for Lapita outside the Bismarks all occur later than 1500
BC, With most Lapita sites in Vanuatu and the Solomons having a date around 900
BC, With production ceasing around 0BC. Contemporary with the final phases of
Lapita and continuing long afterwards in some areas we find the incised and relief
pottery or Mangaasi style widespread in Melanesia. In Watom, Mangaasi pottery
is found with lapita pottery, made from the same clay and dating to 420 BC".

As there is no genetic link between Melanesians and Polynesians, there is no way

Polynesians shared their clay with the Melanesians for over 1,500 years without
finding themselves in bed with each other. As Lapita pottery is found amongst other
distinctly Melanesian styles of pottery, made of the same clay, it seems that either;
the Lapita culture was Melanesian; or the Lapita people lived amongst the
Melanesians and contributed significantly to Melanesian society.

The above observations by Spriggs clearly indicates that Lapita had its origins
within the Bismark Archipelago, the heart of Melanesia, spread throughout
Melanesia, but then slowly gave way to other styles of pottery as other designs
became more fashionable, with Lapita ceasing production before Polynesians even
entered the Pacific!

T.Hunt, P. Kirch; The Evolution of Island Societies “In Fiji about 0 BC there is a
change from Lapitoid plain ware to paddle impressed ceramics of the Navatu
phase”. On the basis of his analysis of the Yanuca site, he argues for “ continuity in
western Fiji between Lapita and the subsequent Navatu phase .” Once again
confirming a solid connection between Lapita and Melanesian culture.

Anita Smith in; An Archaeology of West Polynesian Prehistory, 2002 - when

comparing Lapita with plainware ceramics in Polynesia: - “There do not appear to
be new or different kinds of evidence associated with plainware ceramics, only the
disappearance of a minor component of material culture and faunal assemblages is
apparent. There is continuity in most aspects of the archaeological record that
appears to mimic post Lapita sequences of Fiji and island Melanesia.”
Therefore plainware ceramics in Samoa appears to be a simplification of the Lapita
cultural complex caused by isolation from the parent Lapita/Melanesian culture.
Anita Smith continues; "Plainware pottery is found on many Polynesian islands
and was thought to be a significant player in the transformation of Lapita society
into a Polynesian cultural complex. Unfortunately no classical Polynesian
artifacts have been found within this plainware assemblage."
Archaeological evidence indicates that plainware pottery ceases abruptly in Samoa
around 0BC, being replaced by classic Polynesian cultural complex. This clearly
indicates a change in ownership of the islands, from the waning Lapita/Melanesian
settlers to a culture that used gourds, 2 piece fishhooks, trolling lures, harpoons,
tattooing needles, tanged adzes and elaborately ground stone pestles.

Chronological Differences
Janet M Davidson in her archaeological digs on Samoa; found an "800 year gap
between the end of the Lapita habitation (1330 BC - 700 BC) and the beginning of
Polynesian habitation of the islands (100 - 300 AD)".
Anita Smith found a similar break in habitation on many of the islands she studied,
clearly separating Lapita culture from Polynesian habitation of the islands.
These two graphs from Anita Smiths 'An archaeology of West Polynesian Prehistory' shows a
definite break in occupation on many Pacific islands between the end of Lapita and the
beginning of Polynesian occupation. As there are significant gaps between the periods of
habitation, I would suggest natural disasters such as Typhoons or Ttsunamis, rather than wars
may have been responsible for the desertion of many of these islands. As the Lapita people
were essentially seafaring coastal dwellers, often living in stilt houses above the water, their
numbers would have been severely depleted if a Tsunami swept across the Pacific.

The above information has been obtained scientifically by scientists and clearly
shows Polynesians had nothing to do with Lapita, yet media releases from the
scientific community still assert that the Polynesians gradually evolved out of the
Lapita people in Melanesia. This is typified by the March 2008 National
Geographic Magazine. How can scientists continue to sweep all the above
information under the carpet and carry on with their contradictory stories of
nonsense and get away with it? I am sure most scientists are well intentioned, but
there seems to be some that are deliberately perverting the search for the truth
either for their own selfish reasons or because they have been instructed to do so by
people with political agendas.
Alternative Possibility for a Polynesian Homeland
For the past 100 years, scientists have been trying to establish the route which
Polynesians used to enter the Central Pacific, which according to geneticists such
as Kayser, Bing Su and Mark Stoneking, their time of arrival was about 2,200 years
ago into an isolated Pacific archepelago where rapid population expansion
occurred, (possibly Hawai'i - Polynesians do assert that their homeland was
Hawai'i - maybe we should have listened to them in the first place). These
geneticists also determined that Polynesians departed from East Asia (Taiwan,
Japan and China) about 6,000 years ago, before Mongoloid expansion in East Asia
5,000 years ago. Linguists also confirm that the time of separation of the
Polynesian language from East Asia was about 6,000 years ago.
The absence of similarities between Polynesian and
Indonesian/Phillippine/Micronesian/Melanesian genes do not suggest that any of
these island Archipelagos were interim homelands for Polynesians during this time.
Their wherabouts for 3,800 years is therefore a mystery, unless of course the West
Coast of America is considered as their interim homeland. There is a great deal of
cultural, artefact and genetic evidence that seems to suggest that this possibility has
not been given the consideration it deserves. For example; Polynesians used
calabashes made from a Native American species of Gourd instead of pottery; they
used mats for trade exchange - similar to native tribes of the Canadian coast; they
made polished tanged adzes, stone pounders, two piece fish hooks and harpoon
heads - none of which have ever been found at Lapita sites, but instead are
characteristic of cultures along the West Coast of Canada and North America. It is
no coincidence that the people of New Zealand and Coastal Canada share the same
unusual custom of rubbing noses together as a form of greeting. Despite this,
Canada has never been seriously considered as an interim homeland for
Polynesians after leaving Taiwan 6,000 years ago. The map below shows the
mtDNA of the Pacific region. It appears that Polynesian females have more in
common with Native Americans than any other group on the Pacific rim.
Notice the dominance of red mt DNA (Haplogroup B) in Polynesian and American genes. The
arrival of Haplogroup B on the West coast of America was 6-8,000 years ago, but in Polynesia
it was only 2,200 years ago, suggesting the direction of colonization. This, along with the fact
that HLA Bw48 is unique only to Polynesia and NW Canada does seem to suggest a point of
origin in America. Furthermore A11 is associated with Bw48 in Polynesians but not in
America, therefore it has been picked up from other Pacific populations since their departure
from the NW Canada population. This clearly shows that the colonization of Polynesia was
from America, not the reverse as some anthropologists have suggested.
In Bryan Sykes book; "Seven Daughters of Eve" he named Haplogroup B, the clan of Ina. He
coined this name from the Polynesian moon Goddess "Ina" also known as Sina in Samoa and
Hina in Tahiti/Hawai'i. Wahine, the word for female is also derived from the word Hina.
Interestingly Inana is also the name for the Mesopotamian moon goddess and Sina is the name
of the Sumerian moon goddess depicted on artefacts from over10,000 years ago, suggesting
that the persistence of culture is much more than anyone ever imagined.

Scientists still cling to a few threads of circumstantial evidence which connect the
Lapita and Polynesian cultures despite the fact that there is not one shred of hard
evidence that connects the two cultures. There have been a plethora of papers
written on Melanesia and Western Polynesia, while Eastern Polynesia and coastal
America has been almost deliberately ignored. Researchers who have attempted to
establish connections between Polynesia and America have been shunned and
ridiculed, often having their funding withdrawn. Without the funding,
comprehensive studies cannot be undertaken, and so, we are kept in the dark
through insufficient and biased research based on old dogmas. This is not the way
of true science, it is the way of egotistical professors trying to uphold their work in
the light of new findings that clearly show that some of the fundamental
assumptions that their lifetime's work was based on, is false.

Here are some examples of what these scientists have come up with when trying to
understand the colonization of the Pacific, by excluding the possibly that the West
coast of America was the stepping stone they were all looking for.

The Slow Train

The slow train theory was used to explain that Polynesians left Taiwan about 6000
years ago and it assumed they took a slow trip through Melanesia making Lapita
pottery before entering the Eastern Pacific.

These scientists assumed that Lapita pottery was left by Polynesians despite no
pottery ever being found amongst Polynesian artefacts. Furthermore, Polynesians
are genetically distant from Melanesians (THE GENETIC STRUCTURE OF
PACIFIC ISLANDERS)- their most recent common ancestor was over 11,500
years ago, since then they have evolved quite separately (Polynesian Y
chromozome). Therefore it is impossible for Polynesians to have been making
pottery on Melanesian islands for over 1,500 years. The major cultural differences
between Melanesians and Polynesians have always been a point of contention with
the slow train theory. Melanesians have what is called a 'Big Man' society (The Big
Man society claims the richest most charismatic man as their chief). This is
completely unrelated to the Polynesian socio-political system who have a class
based society and follow a hereditary lineage of Kings and Queens. The incredible
depth of Polynesian ancestry is best preserved in Hawai'i, where the main ancestral
(Royal) family can be traced back 16,000 years to Lailai (possibly Lili of ancient
Sumerian legend). The stark physical differences of Melanesians with their dark
skin and frizzy hair when compared to Polynesian golden skin and straight hair
casts serious doubt on the Slow Train theory.

The Express Train

This backflip theory, suggested a rapid movement through Melanesia and

Micronesia in order to answer the lack of similarities between Polynesians,
Micronesians and Melanesians.

These scientists have fruitlessly searched for a homeland back in S.E. Asia between
6,000 and 2,000 years ago.
This theory was seriously flawed as Polynesians showed no evidence of contact
Chinese genes (Chinese expansion began from the Hwang Ho river 5,000 years
Shovel shaped incisor gene of S.E. Asia
The Bronze Age
The Iron Age

The Three I's

The three I's model sounded nice. It stood for integrate, innovate and isolate and
suggested that Polynesian society spontaneously emerged out of a few Melanesian
individuals who became isolated from their culture and then creatively reinvented
their society (from a "Big Man" society to a royal hereditary caste society), casting
off their pottery making skills and frizzy hair.

The three I's appears to be a great little teaching tool, describing various aspects of
cultural sharing and reinvention of society, but a long way from the reality of the
Polynesian story.
As said before, genetics shows that first contact between Polynesians and
Melanesians was less than 1,000 years ago, (Polynesian Y chromozome) making a
nonsense of the possibility of a genesis of Polynesian culture from Melanesian

The Entangled Bank

This model epitomises the complete confusion that exists in the academic world
with regard to the issue of trying to connect Lapita archaeology with Polynesian
prehistory. It gives up trying to understand the Polynesian homeland issue and tries
to portray a complex mixing of cultures, with chance isolation of a rare mix of
genes producing the Polynesian people as we know them today. I find the line of
thought in this argument insulting, as it belittles the proud origins of the Polynesian

The Edge of the Unknowable

This paper takes the cake. It was basicly an admission that none of the above
theories made any sense at all.

It seems that the scientists putting forward the above five theories are more
interested in semantics than in a genuine interest in Polynesian culture and their
history. Furthermore most of the work done by scientists represented by the above
theories, was conducted in Melanesia and along the western boundary of Polynesia
without ever visiting Eastern Polynesia. Would you call a person who studied the
history of Turkey to be an authority on English history? I think not.

It appears none of these theorists ever considered comparing their results to the
history held by the Polynesians themselves. From my research, the genetic
evidence concurs very accurately with Polynesian stories of origin. Native histories
cannot be 'conveniently' passed off as mere folklore anymore. I feel a sense of
urgency to collate these stories and compare them to their genetic origins before all
is lost. Village elders are going to the grave with untold information and genetic
purity is also being rapidly diluted with the ease of travel today. It is both these
sources of information that hold the key to the complexity of Polynesian history.

So lets give the people of the Pacific some respect and start with a piece of their

Polynesian Legends compared to Genetics

The following story of trade between Fiji and Samoa depicts the moment of first
contact between Melanesia and Polynesia ~1,000 years ago, opening the gates for
Asian plants and animals to enter Polynesia.

From 'Vikings of the Sunrise' by Sir Peter Buck,

"A Samoan legend tells of first contact with the Fijians; A Samoan voyager visited
Fiji and was feasted on pork. He naturally desired to take pigs back with him to his
own country. The Fijians, however, refused to allow any live pigs to leave their
shores, but they raised no objection to dead pigs being taken as food for the
voyage. The Samoans thereupon procured two very large pigs, which they killed
and dressed. Unknown to their hosts, they stole some young ones and concealed
them in the abdominal cavities of the dressed animals which they covered with
leaves. Carrying the dead pigs on poles, they successfully eluded the vigilance of
the Fijian "customs officers", and so pigs were introduced to Samoa."

Genetics shows that Polynesians first began mixing with Melanesians 1,000 years
ago (Bing Su Polynesian Y chromozome) and (Susan Serjeantson “The
Colonization of the Pacific – A Genetic Trail 1989 pp 135,162-163,166-7)
confirming the truth in the above story.

This legend shows quite clearly that Samoans did not expand out from Fiji with
their pigs, dogs and chickens as is often presumed. The presence of S.E. Asian
plants and animals in Polynesia has often been used as proof that Polynesians
expanded out from S.E. Asia, but this is not the case, it merely indicates that
Polynesians traded with people who had expanded out from S.E. Asia in more
ancient times - that is the Fijians, who arrived on their islands 3,500 years ago
possibly alongside the Lapita people. A closer look at the archaeology of Eastern
Polynesia shows quite clearly that pigs, dogs and chickens were absent from the
archaeological assemblages of all early Eastern Polynesian sites.

Only in recent times has there been diffusion of culture between Polynesia and
Melanesia, most apparent in Tonga and the Lau group of Fiji. In the Lau group,
they make Samoan style round ended houses. King Thakambou, at the time of
Captain Cook, was the first Polynesian style chief who was attempting to unify the
Melanesian tribes of Fiji into a Polynesian style Kingdom. This shows that there
was progression towards assimilation - not the reverse as many scientists would
have us believe.

Photo L. Marsh Ratu Sukuna's bure (Lau Islands 1966) compared to Samoan Fales. Round
ended houses on
platforms were also a characteristic of Mayan houses. Was there trade with Central America
~1,000 years ago?
The Samoan tradition of eating Chilli with Cocoa does suggest a connection both through
introduction of plants
as well as culinary practices.

Here is a legend from Kiribati describing the growth of the Samoan Ancestral tree
up to the Thirteenth Century.
This legend describes the mixing of Polynesians with red haired, pale skinned
people of Samoa. The legend indicates that the Polynesians had already colonized
many of the surrounding islands - including Tonga. This legend debunks the notion
that Samoa was the crucible of Polynesian society as it describes the destruction of
the society that was once there - a society of macabre practices that no society
would be proud to be part of. These people revelled in human sacrifice and
cannibalism. They were not Melanesians, but according to the legend, were red
haired white people who used fear of death as a way of creating an obedient
society. These people were possibly the last of the Lapita people. Here is the

The Growth of the Samoan Ancestor Tree.

From; Migrations, Myth and Magic from the Gilbert Islands by Rosemary

Taranga (Polynesian) lived on the sea, and when he finally decided to settle on
Samoa he was surprised to find Auriaria (tall, red haired people) already there
and they remained the dominant people. From Auriaria and Taranga came the Te-
uribaba lineage who had beliefs against the terrible practices (human sacrifice) of
the Auriaria, but did not gain power. Taburimai was a later lineage. Koura was
another breakaway group but they embraced the ways of the Auriaria . Tabu-ariki,
Riiki, Nei Tevenei and Nei Tituaabine are all more recent lineages that grew out of
this family tree. All these people descended from the Auriaria were known as;
“The Red men, with red hair and pale skin”. The first great kings of Samoa was
‘Batuku, the skull'. He was tall with a very long skull. He was of the Auriaria
lineage. The food of Batuku was the heads of the people killed by his children.
There came a time of boatbuilding and sailing. The children of Batuku joined with
the many people from other islands – the male lineages came from Au-te-venevene,
Au-te-rarangaki, Taburitokia, Kotunga, Kaburoro and Nan-Te-Buaka people. The
female lineages came from Nei Bubuia, Nei Te-wa-matang, Nei Kaekea, Nei Te-wi,
Nei Kiaiai and Nei Kameenono people. These people together began making boats
that could sail great distances in search for food for ‘Batuku the skull', their
ancestor figure. This new society was led by Kaburoro and they built a great boat.
To launch it they slew many men for the rollers.
With this new age of voyaging, their numbers grew as men from other islands came
on board - the Nan Tabera-ni-bou, Nan Te-ata, Nan Te-aababa, Nan Tari-ni-bwe
and Na Uamori. A woman Nei Te-buroburo also joined them.
All these people created the Samoan population under the reign of Te Kaburoro.
Then went Te Kaburoro with its crew, the children of ‘Batuku the skull' to seek the
food of their father. They sailed west to Futuna Island. The people stood on the
beach to welcome them, but the children of ‘Batuku the skull' went ashore to slay
them. They were not prevented because the people of Futuna knew naught of
Over one hundred were slain and from among the dead bodies, the first born and
the bald and bearded ones were chosen as food for Batuku their god. And the
children of Batuku cut off the heads of the dead and used the heads as decoration
on their canoe. They sailed back to Samoa and arrived at the place called Te-
maungi-n-aomata - ‘The putrefaction of men'. Then again the canoe of Kaburoro
went voyaging to find food for their god Batuku-the –skull and they went to Nuku-
maroro Nieue, again the people knew not the art of fighting and many were slain.
The family lineage of Te-Uribaba disapproved of this terrible practice and they
decided to end it. So Te-Uribaba hid under a leaf mat on the boat of Kaburoro on
its next journey of death to Tonga. The people of Tonga were slain but Te-Uribaba
slipped into the sea under the leaf mat and swam ashore to teach them the art of
After that Te-uribaba arose and went to Futuna and Nuku-maroro and he taught
them all the art of war.
A new generation grew up and they were all skilled in fighting.
Finally in the thirteenth century, Chief Savea (Polynesian) led the battle against
the 'Children of Batuku the Skull' (The Red Headed Auriaria) and destroyed
them. Further battles across the Pacific led to the end of this terrible society
based on human sacrifice.

The legend of the wars in the Pacific at this time is confirmed by the numerous
mountain fortresses across the Pacific all dated at around the 13th century. The lack
of respect that Polynesians have for pyramids with names such as Maha'ia'tea
(Many-people-white) is understandable, in the light of the terrible practices of this
former culture based around human sacrifice.
Long skull from Paracas. Was Batuku The Pulemelei Star Pyramid of
Samoa Samoan chief 1940
related to these seafaring people known
to be red heads from South America?
See; American Indians in the Pacific, Thor Heyerdahl.

Samoan princess Samoan Warrior Samoan

Photos from Jane's Oceania
Some Kiribati families still claim descent from these 'Red Men'. An interesting
tradition of these people to this day is for the bride and groom to consumate their
wedding within earshot of the wedding party, whereapon consumation, the mother
of the groom would inspect the bed mat for blood, to ensure the bride was a virgin.
Interestingly this is a tradition still held by many groups descended from the
Berbers (Iran, Palestine, Morocco, Basque and Irish people (remember the marriage
scene in 'Ryan's Daughter'?). This is most certainly not a Polynesian custom and
may also have entered the Pacific via the Lapita people.

Interestingly in Kiribati, skulls of respected elders are removed and polished with
oils and at family gatherings the skull is given a prominent position. It is often
talked to as if it were still alive. It is offered food and cigarettes, and given verbal
respect. Once again suggesting that although the Kiribati people are genetically
Micronesian, the Lapita culture has persisted in these people - minus the head
hunting. This skull worship culture is reflected at the Teouma site, where the
absence of skulls in many of the urns suggests that the skulls were removed for use
in ritualistic skull worship.

The preference for the King to eat the first born and the bald and bearded ones is
reminiscent of a Cannibalistic Indian culture who believed that one would inherit
the qualities, knowledge and wisdom of the ones you eat. Inheriting the qualities of
the first born is very significant if one is living in a mixed society where rhesus
negative (blood group O-) red heads are inter-breeding with people of blood group
A&B, causing complications at birth often resulting in the death of the second child
and mother.

Hawai'ian History
Compare the above legend to the history of Hawai'i .
"In the period of 100 years, 1300-1400 AD, an unknown number of warlike
Tahitians arrived on the peaceful islands of Hawaii. At some point the
warrior/priest Pa`ao came to Hawaii and found that the power of religion was at a
'low ebb'. He was disturbed that the people lived in peace and that the 'kapus' were
few and the ceremonies were easy: that human sacrifices were not practiced, and
cannibalism was unknown; and that the government was more patriarchal than
regal in nature." (Fornander, An Account of the Polynesian Race, Vol.1,p 209) To
him, it seemed that the previous invasions from Tahiti, had failed. There being no
real class distinctions and the newcomers being assimilated into the culture was
with typical Hawaiian Aloha. This could not be tolerated. He went back to Tahiti
and then returned with warriors, priests (Kahuna) and royalty (Ali'i) of much mana
(spiritual power). With this force, he invaded the peaceful land. He killed the priests
of 'Io and changed the attributes of Ku, Lono and Kane, from detesting human
death, to demanding it. He brought bloody stones from a human sacrificial site in
Tahiti and used them to desecrate the primary heiau (temple) of 'Io on the "Big
Island" and then built his luakini (human sacrificial) heiau on top of it. A few of the
priests of `Io escaped to New Zealand, before Pa'ao had the great voyaging canoes
burnt and the Hawaiian navigators put to death. After this, Hawaii had very little
contact with the outside world for the next 100 years.

Pa`ao is credited with, not only the destruction of the peaceful culture of the
Hawaiians and the perversion of the worship of Ku, but with the introduction of
many elemental spirits (like Pele) and the cruel 'kapu' system. This forbade many
things and demanded many more, with any infraction being punishable by death.
The laws were strict and always favored the Kahuna and the Ali`i. With this new
power given to the ruling classes (by manipulating the masses through fear) their
kingdoms became more powerful. Terrible wars erupted as rival chiefdoms
attempted to exert their new found power over their neighbours.
At some point during the eradication of the priests of `Io, one of them prophesied
that 'one day the knowledge of `Io would be restored to the Hawaiian people.' For
600 years the families descended from the priesthood have kept that hope alive,
wondering, will our son be the one?"

This basicly shows that the Hawaiians - the genetic core of Polynesians, were once
a very peaceful, loving people, but their culture was perverted by the people from
the south.

Bella Coola valley (pre Haida) Tiki and petroglyph compared to two Taino petroglyphs from
the Virgin Islands, suggesting the extent of the migrations
of the Tai/Hai culture from East Asia ~6,000-8,000 years ago. 8-10,000 years old Tiki
Petroglyphs similar to this can also be found in China.

Two Maori Tikis compared to Haida Tiki. The tongue signifies wisdom and virility. Hawaiian
ancestral war god Ku, compared to a Yami carving from 'Red Head' Island off Taiwan. The
Polynesian tongue and angry mouth motif appear to be more closely associated with other
cultures on the Pacific rim that have no connection to Melanesian or Lapita culture.

..... and back to Lapita

Images from; OCEANIC EXPLORATIONS Lapita and Western Pacific Settlement.

The depiction of the Ram or Aries on Lapita pottery is intriguing. Is this a statement of who
these people were? The Ram's head design is commmonly found on Lapita pottery - The
Egyptian name for the ram is Ba. Tuku means to give to - as in an offering. Batuku may have
meant "the worshippers of Ba". Aries is also the symbol of the Aryan milk drinkers,
suggesting that a group of red/blonde heads brought their beliefs from the Middle East and
were a different group to the people who came into the Pacific from Turtle Island (America)
bringing with them the story of the great turtle who formed the first land for man and woman.
Micronesian legend has it that there were three different groups of fair skinned people; the
Auriaria, Taburimai and Tituaabine. They all worshipped phallic stone monoliths. The
Auriaria were descended from the parrot billed Turtle -Tabakea- the father of all beings.
It remains to be seen whether the Taburimai or the Tituaabine can be connected to the sheep
One must also understand that the age of Lapita was during the Age of Aries, therefore their
worship of Aries is no surprise. The Age of Aries ended in 1AD with the beginning of the age
of Pisces (birth of Jesus).
White ancestry in many legends of the Pacific has always baffled researchers, yet the pottery
here is speaking loud and clear.

Images from; OCEANIC EXPLORATIONS Lapita and Western Pacific Settlement.

Whichever way you look at it, there is a face, but who were these mouthless long nosed
people? This motif certainly has no resemblance to the gaping mouth and tongue motif of the
East Asians, Native Americans or Polynesians.
Obsidian Axe head, West New Britain Malagan Mask Lapita face with Ra
symbol Bronze Axe Indonesia

The pre lapita artefact from Boku Hill, West New Britain, found by Jim Specht and
documented by Robin Torrence. This artefact is dated between 5,900 and 3,600 BP and is
believed to have been used for ceremony as it is too delicate to be a functional tool. It
suggests that a highly skilled society who used 'valuables' for prestige, once existed in this
area. Photo by Paul Ovenden
Photo by Johnathon Friedlaender
A blonde Melanesian from Lau Is, Malaita. Remnants of these ancient white people of the
Pacific are still visible on some Melanesian islands.
Interestingly, when Caucasians have interbred with Melanesians in the last 200 years the
result is quite different. Hair becomes wavy, is rarely blonde and the skin is usually paler,
suggesting that the Lapita people of 1,500BC were a different type of Caucasian, with a
different balance of dominant genes, resulting in a different appearance of mixed blood

Tolai ancestral masks collected by missionaries in the 1880's

Is the name Tolai derived from the people of Tolan, also know as Tulapin (the lost land of
Turtle Island (Bahamas) in Lakota and Anasazi legends)?
It would make sense that a culture used to living off the ocean would choose to recolonize
other archipelagoes in the tropics after their land disappeared under the waves ~6,000 years

From the variance between the sheep and the turtle worshippers in the Lapita
culture, it seems there may have been a dual origin of Caucasians in the Pacific,
some from the Western Indian Ocean and others from America.
The ancestral mask on the left appears to have an artificially elongated head,
suggesting the practice of infant head deformation common to South American
Mummies. This mask also sports the classic red topknot as seen on Easter Island
statues and also amongst Araucanian ancestral carvings. The Tolai live on a cluster
of islands that are directly down wind and down current from Central America.
Perfectly placed to sieve out wayward voyagers from the opposite side of the
Pacific. This would have been a relatively easy voyage, despite the distance. There
would have been; plentiful fish, high rainfall, no hurricanes, no chance of
hypothermia and no enemy tribes to fight enroute.
On the other hand, an origin from the Western Indian Ocean also carries weight.
The Tolai practice a secret mens' society, similar to Druid/Wizard based cultures in
the Persian Gulf and Egypt, where superstition and fear was used to rule the
masses. Early missionaries were astounded to be greeted with the Masonic
handshake, suggesting a connection to Egyptian culture. This cultural thread goes
further than just New Guinea, the first Europeans to meet the Aborigines of the
Kimberly region were also met with a Masonic handshake. This is near to where
the famous Wandjina paintings of robed figures with pale faces and Phoenician
writing on their foreheads come from, it is also near to where the African Baobab
tree is found - a tree which produces an edible nut that was used for food on
oceanic voyages by ancient mariners. The islands of Melanesia are at the end of the
line for coastal navigators who have island hopped all the way from Western Africa
or the Persian Gulf. Reaching these islands, refugees looking for a new homeland
would have had little choice, but to settle down.

There may be some confusion with regard to the Masonic reference above.
Although the Scots resurrected the Free Mason religion in more recent times, it is
an ancient religion that goes back to the Megalithic era, hence the name Mason
(Stone mason). It was practiced by the Druids of Stonehenge and also by the Druids
or Wizards (wisemen or scientists) of Egypt. The Freemasons and the Armigsah
(Freemen) all share a common history in their 'Mythology'. They all assert they are
descended from the people of Tolan/Tlan or Atlantis. Place names in America that
remember this Golden Age are names such as Azatlan, Atlan, Tulan and Atlanta.
The Masons were one of the the first religions to use magic (tricks of science) and
fear to manipulate and mobilize the masses, so that kings could create great
megalithic monuments, pyramids, places of worship, statues, roads, irrigation
channels and harbours. They were in effect a complete engineering/social
manipulation package. They were great astronomical scientists, and engineers who
used superstition, magic and human sacrifice to strike fear into the hearts of their
followers, so that the efforts of a large number of people could be focussed on the
one project.
A religion similar to the Masons was possibly the driving force behind the building
of the 200 Moai on Rapa nui.
This religion also found its way into the Tolai culture, most likely by trans-Pacific
voyaging as much as 12,000 years ago.
The Tolai culture is also famous for Duk Duks, mysteriously feathered creatures
that have mystical powers. They take part in ceremonies that occur in early May.
These ceremonies have an uncanny resemblance to the Jack in the Green ceremony,
held on May day in Europe. The Duk Duks wield wooden clubs and have the right
to club anyone they feel to be undesirable to the cause. Another May Day ceremony
held in Padstow, Cornwall called Belltane use unusual conical masks that bear a
striking resemblance to the New Guinea conical masks.

Duk Duk Jack in the Green - wielding sticks.

I am not suggesting that Englishmen came and did the Jack in the Green dance in
front of the Tolai, nor that a Scottish mason jumped ship and taught these people a
secret handshake. What I am saying is that Both European and Pacific cultures have
a common link a long long way back in time, possibly in Atlantis 11,500 years ago.
Is it mere coincidence that the natural catastrophe (rapidly rising sea levels which
in turn caused earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanoes) that caused the destruction of
Atlantis 11,500 years ago coincides with the 11,500 year hiatus between
Melanesian and Polynesian culture? The ancient culture of Atlantis was not just
carried on by the Egyptians, but was also was carried on by the red haired
civilization of Tulapin (Terapin/Turtle Island) and were a dominant population in
America until 6,000 years ago. Therefore the further back in time we go, the more
difficult it is to separate cultural characteristics of the Old world and the New world
(Solutrean/Clovis similarities).
Scientists should look more closely at the Tolai culture, as I believe by comparing
them to English pagan rituals, and observing the commonalities between ceremony,
we will see a window into the culture of Atlantis.
1. Teouma skull, displaying the characteristic long skull of early Caucasians
commonly found in America and the Middle East. Could these people also be a relic of the
early Caucasian migration to America seen in Haplotype X2a which originated from the
Persian Gulf.
2. The rim of some Teouma pots were decorated with these unusual birds. Photos by Stuart
3. Burial Urns Tamil Nadu similar to the Lapita urns of Teouma
4. Mayan burial urn - the plot thickens
Harappa burial urn and bird figurine. The common point of origin between these people
begins to fall into place when we notice an unusual haplotype HLA A11,B40, which
predisposes people to contracting Leprosy, is common to both Melanesia and the Indus

The famous Serpentine Korotangi found entwined in the roots of a very old tree is of great
spiritual significance to the Maori.
It is said to have arrived in New Zealand in the Tainui canoe.
The style is reminiscent of Indian carvings of a homing pidgeon.
The age of the carving, or provenance of the rock is yet to be determined.
The Pacific Islands are blessed with a complete absence of any snake species, yet the left hand
image is of an Hawai'i chieftan's necklace, it is symbolic of a Cobra's head. The right hand
image is of a Maori chiefs necklace - a serpents head. Are these cultural shadows of the
Serpent Warriors of Central America, who in turn originated from the Middle East in the
Bronze Age? The Serpent warriors are also the people St Patrick expelled from Ireland. To the
right are signatures of Maori chiefs from the Waitangi treaty. Some of the symbols suggest a
distant connection to the old world, in particular, the Serpent on a staff, the Swastika and the
some signatures reminiscent of King Solomons E symbol.

The Blonde Tolai of Bismarck Archipelago and red heads of Missima Islands could
well be the closest genetic relatives to the Lapita people. Culturally, they may also
have some remnants of the Lapita people. The secret mens society from this same
area has many uncanny similarities to the Druids and Masons of Egypt and
suggests an ancient connection to the Old World, possibly through the Lapita
people. Kiribati legends speak of an ancestral link to the 'Red Men' of Samoa, men
who would raid islands and kill hundreds of victims as offerings to their gods once
back in Samoa. They would pay particular attention to eating the bald and bearded
ones (wise men) and the first born. They believed they would absorb the qualities
of the people they ate. These cannibalistic beliefs can be found in secretive cults
still in existence in India. The only time that the first born becomes significant is if
one is living in a mixed society where rhesus negative (O-) blood is common. As
second born babies would often die or cause the death of the mother at birth. They
observed that first born were healthy and did not cause complications. They had no
idea that it was the antibodies created by the birth of the mixed blood first born to
an O- mother that was causing the problems. This one tradition alone clearly shows
the racial type of the Lapita people - O negative - red/blonde haired, blue eyed
people - a race of people possessing superceded or recessive genes incompatible to
Asian and Melanesian genes. A bit like a computer with old software - updating the
software automatically relegates the old version to the archived gene tree. A worst
case scenario is the updated version causes the old hardware to crash - a bit like the
complications seen in second born babies to O- mothers. The pale skin of these
people forced them to cover up with robes. The Wandjina images of the Kimberlies
show these people in robes with eye holes. This age old tradition of Berbers is
clearly an old fashioned form of sunscreen as their pale skin was not suited to
spending years at sea in the harsh tropical sun.

Yuri Kuchinski notes on Pan Atlantic similarities, that: "In both Europe and the
New World, at the very same time, Megalithic cultures arise around 4500 BC; then
on both continents, at the very same time, copper-using Beaker-inspired cultures
arise in 3000 BC. Next, the Beaker Groups flee from conquest in 1500 BC, as the
cultures of Western Europe are disrupted by Celtic invasions. It is possible that
some of these peoples migrated to America, and their Beaker cultural traits began to
be widespread in North America. This period also marks the beginning of the
Olmec empire. Finally in both Europe and the New World, at the very same time,
Beaker-derived cultures collapse in 700 BC.
At the same time that the Beaker civilization was flourishing on the shores of the
Atlantic, an empire of pottery-making people also spanned the western Pacific from
2000 B.C. to 700 B.C. They made similar pots, with similar designs.
The chronological "coincidences" are too much for chance."

The possibility that the Berber empire stretched into the Pacific becomes even more
real when we find that the Berber Guanches of the Canary Islands off Africa once
made stepped pyramids in a similar manner to the stepped pyramids made from
stones found in Samoa (Star Pyramid/Pulemelei mound) and Tahiti (Maha'iatea).
Polynesian genes amongst these red haired seafarering Gaunches also hint at the
existence of a global seafaring culture lost in the mists of time.
Mahaiatea Pyramid as seen by Captain Cook in Tahiti.(interestingly, Mahaiatea means Many
white people). Compare this to the Pyramids on the Canary islands made by the Gaunches or
Berber seafarers. Nearby, the Cape Verde Islands have an interesting mix of genes, of which
Polynesian genes are common. On this island an ancient culture called Batuku is remembered
in their music and dance. Interestingly, the dance is a sensuous rapid hip swinging routine
characteristic of Samoan and Tahitian dance (as opposed to the slower more graceful dance
found in Hawai'i and New Zealand). In my mind, there is a distinct possibility that this
seafaring culture known in Samoa as Batuku at some time in the distant past, went global.

James L Guthrie remarks; On the basis of stone points, axes, pottery, and other
evidence, Kennedy (1971) connected the Caribbean with other “Pan-Atlantic”
cultures of 3000-1500 B.C. Focusing on pottery, he listed six traits, such as coil-
building, that are typical of Atlantic Europe, Northwest Africa, Middle America, the
Caribbean, and southeastern North America. (Lapita pottery is also red slipped, coil
built, with stamped geometric designs). He said that Southeastern check-stamped
wares (2000 B.C.) are identical to those of Morocco, that the red slip technique
came from northwestern Africa or southern Spain about 2500 B.C.According to
Kennedy, many traits of the European Late Neolithic period derive from
predynastic Egypt, being preserved by Berbers, Maltese, and others, then being
transmitted to the Caribbean, southeastern North America, and eventually to the
Pacific Coast, and out into the Pacific. He called this era “one of the greatest
periods of group mobility or voyaging in man's history. He described the Bell
Beaker people as an aggressive industrial culture exploiting copper, salt, and stone
(obsidian), marked by exceptional mobility by land and sea. Much other evidence
supports this view, especially the findings of Chadwick (1971) and Alcina Franch
Chadwick put such elements of the Beaker complex as stirrup-spout pottery, as
early as 2000 B.C. at Tlatilco (Central Mexico) and Kotosh (Peru), but he also
thought there had been a second Pan-Atlantic wave at about 500 B.C. Alcina's
study of stamp seals led him to conclude that they had reached Middle Canary
The page on the left from America BC by Barry Fell, shows the similarity between
Berber/Libyan/Mauri (North African) text to Maori petroglyphs on the other side of the world.
Same writing -same name (Maori/Mauri) - are we all so stupid that we cannot see a
connection here?
The page on the right shows the similarity between Indus text and Easter Island text. For the
scientist who said this text of the Easter Islanders was mere idle doodlings of the natives
trying to copy Spanish text, I say stop wasting taxpayers money writing bullshit scientific

Petroglyphs in Norway indicate the type of craft around at the time - outrigger
canoes! These ancient 5,000 year old petroglyphs are from a time of global
warming when the N.W. passage was open allowing people from the North Pacific
to travel into the North Atlantic, hence outrigger petroglyphs in Norway, Jomon
Myami pendants in Malta, Asian type skulls in graves in Europe, Asian elements in
the Etruscan culture and 5-6,000 year old East Asian genes in the Canary Islands
and Libya.

This Norwegan petroglyph is of a boat. It clearly depicts two hulls buckled together to form
an outrigger canoe. According to Barry Fell the markings are in archaic Nordic text and says;
'Buckler - thrust out to sea (at launching)'. The writing system using dots is also found in the
Bella Coola Valley on the coast near Vancouver Is, Canada. Was the above petroglyph drawn
by Norwegians or was there an earlier culture of ocean traders who used outrigger canoes
living along these coasts in ancient times? Were these people the red haired Berber/Lapita
culture or Austronesian traders who appear to have ventured to Malta (see Graham Hancock -
Kingdoms of the Ice Age)? I suspect that both cultures traded in this area at different times.

Direction of Colonization
Although the generally accepted entry point of the Lapita people into the Pacific
was via S.E. Asia, one should remember that Lapita pottery appeared 3,900 years
ago on an isolated island in the middle of the Bismark archepelago quite suddenly
with little formative phase. No earlier examples of this potter have ever been found
West of the Bismark Islands. There have been no serious studies as to the actual
origins of the people who brought this style of pottery to Melanesia. These islands
are in the middle of the Southern Equatorial Current, arriving from South/Central
America. Lapita and the African Berber “bell beaker” style of dentate stamped
pottery found in North Africa and Iberia does have similarities. Their culture began
over 5,000 years ago, there was an exodus from Europe about 3,500 years ago and
the culture collapsed totally by 2,700 years ago, the same time that Lapita
disappeared in the Pacific. The Berbers were accomplished mariners well
accustomed at using the rivers of the ocean. They were a mix of African and
European people. It is highly likely that they followed the Southern Equatorial
Current from Panama, into the heart of Melanesia

A Complicated past
Geneticist Lisa Matissoo-Smith has been studying Rattus Exulans as a means of
tracing the movements of Pacific colonizers by the gene tree of a domestic rat
which appears to have stowed away on boats voyaging into the Pacific. To
everyones' surprise it shows a startling movement in the opposite direction to what
was expected.

The graph below shows that Rattus Exulans has a cousin, known as the 'small spiny
rice field rat' on Halmahera - an Indonesian island close to where the famous Bugis
and Toraja seafarers come from. According to the genes extracted from bones of
rats unearthed on numerous islands, the first colonization of these rat colonies was
not in Vanuatu, New Caledonia or Fiji as would be expected, but in New Zealand.
The date of initial colonization of New Zealand was between 2,500 and 2,000 years
ago. From there the species began colonizing islands to the north. The rat must
have stowed away on boats, and did not arrive through more natural means, firstly
because it cannot swim more than 10m without drowning and because ocean
currents flow in the opposite direction to colonization, ruling out the possibility of
it hitching a ride on a floating log. Therefore their dispersal reflects the colonization
pattern of one group of people who undoubtedly contributed to the cultures of the
Pacific. So who were these people?
As you can see from this line of descent diagram, the earliest branch of Rattus in the Pacific is
from New Zealand (NZ34) which arrived between 2,500 and 2,000 years ago. The second
branch is also from New Zealand (NZ 29,30,31,32), with one branch in the Societies. The
third branch finally spreads northwards to the Kermadecs, then back to New Zealand, then
northwards again to the Society Islands, then south again to the Cook Islands and back to New
Zealand. This certainly looks like progressive exploration from New Zealand - not the reverse
as is commonly believed. After this initial period of colonization it appears that voyages to the
Chatham Islands, Fiji, the Marquesas and Hawaii soon followed with numerous back

How could it be that New Zealand was the dispersal point of this rat?
If one looks at the easiest sea route to New Zealand, it is via the Southern Ocean
using favourable winds and currents from The Indian Ocean. Sea trade in the Indian
Ocean has gone on for thousands of years and would be the most logical place of
origin for ships arriving in New Zealand, either accidentally or on purpose. This
southern route from the Indian Ocean into the Pacific would be the most logical
route taken by someone attempting to circumnavigate the world (voyage of Mawi
and Rata) or by someone with a partially disabled ship, from a broken mast or
broken rudder. Sea traders returning from South America via the Cape of Good
Hope would often take advantage of the westerlies in the 30-40 degree lattitudes to
take them across the Indian Ocean before travelling North to India or the Spice
Islands, utilizing the S.E. Trade winds. This route was favoured by the Dutch who
would travel from Rio De Janiero with the Westerlies around the Cape of Good
Hope, then hopefully before hitting Australia, would head north to the Spice
Islands. Semi disabled ships could end up on the dry uninviting West Australian
coast, South Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand and the Chatham Islands.
Confirming this possibility, Phoenician/Egyptian writing has been found in South
Australia and Tasmania and Berber writing has been found in New Zealand and the
Chatham Islands. Pre Maori irrigation channels, the Kaimanawa wall and pre-
Maori circular fortifications near Taranaki along with numerous tall Caucasian
skeletons found in caves throughout New Zealand all suggest the presence of
people in New Zealand before the main colonization period by the Polynesians.
The Kaimanawa wall is buried in volcanic ash from the eruption of Lake Toupu in
180AD, helping to establish a timeframe for this period of colonization and a
possible reason for the demise of these people.
Kaimanua wall New Zealand
Ha amonga a Maui Lapaha, Mua, Tonga
Ancient walls Rapa nui

To help understand the arrival of these megalithic cultures in the Pacific, one needs
to look at Egyptian history which curiously, has a navigator called Mawi (Maui)
who with Captain Rata and a fleet of ships, attempted to circumnavigate the world
in 232 BC under the guidance of scientist Eratosthenes who had calculated the
circumference of the Earth and wanted verification of his results. Barry Fell
identified petroglyphs in the Pacific attributed to Mawi and so was able to trace his
voyage to Chile, Pitcairn Island and New Guinea.

According to Maori legend Maui discovered many islands in the Pacific - in

particular, New Zealand.
Maori legend has it that Rata was on a mission to avenge the killing of his
parents/ancestors. As the Lapita/Obsidian sea traders had suffered an unexplained
demise just prior to the voyage of Maui and Rata, was Captain Rata in search of the
killers of the Lapita people?

If this Egyptian fleet had attempted to circumnavigate the world via the southern
route, logically they would have initially travelled Eastwards to a familiar trading
port in Southern Sumatra to reprovision their ships, taking on board Rattus exulans.
As the N.E. and S.E. Trade winds of the Pacific make it exceedingly difficult to
travel Eastwards, their logical passage would have been to travel south, utilizing
the Easterlies which blow off Australia until they reached the Westerly wind belt.
New Zealand would logically have been their first stop. Petroglyphs by Mawi in
Chile (at about 35 degrees south) found by Barry Fell depicts another important
milestone on his voyage. It appears Maui travelled North once he had touched on
the South American Coastline in search of a passage through to the Atlantic.
Unwilling to venture far enough south to round the formidable Cape Horn, Mawi
must have seen the South American coastline as an insurmountable barrier.
According to petroglyphs on Pitcairn Island, it appears that Mawi returned with the
S.E. Trade winds across the Pacific. Petroglyphs indicate Mawi viewed a Lunar
Eclipse on Pitcairn Island. The celestially aligned Ha'amonga a Maui (The burden
of Maui) suggests a stopover in Tonga Tapu to do some accurate solar observations.
The megalithic stone pyramids of Lapaha nearby also suggest the handiwork of
Egyptian stonemasons, suggesting that they attempted to set up a colony. The early
walls of Rapa Nui (see above) and the Kaimanua wall of New Zealand also suggest
Egyptian stonemasonry technology. Petroglyphs in Irian Jaya's 'cave of the
navigators', marks Mawi's return to familiar waters, where he described the
navigational device - the Tanawa, which he used on the voyage to find longitude. It
is interesting that Polynesians wear the Taniwha to ensure a safe ocean voyage and
successful landfall. Although it is a dragon motif, not an instrument, it is said that
angles and holes on a genuine pendant helped one navigate by the stars.

The most logical route Mawi would have taken in his failed attempt to circumnavigate the

Polynesians also attribute the discovery of Tahiti, Tuamotus, Marquesas and Hawaii
to Maui. These are all places where there is an early appearance of Rattus exulans.
So was the rat brought by Maui, Rata and their fleet of ships? The other possibility
is that the rat was brought by other wayward trading vessels from the Indian Ocean,
but a chance colonization in New Zealand from shipwrecked sailors would hardly
have produced such a rapid and deliberate expansion of this rat northwards into the
rest of Polynesia. As the chronology of the rat matches with Maui's voyage of
232BC, I believe that the rat was brought by a fleet of ships on a tour of discovery
led by navigator Maui and Captain Rata who both appear in the history books of
Egypt and also in the oral history of the Polynesians. With a little more research,
this may hopefully be verified.

It should be pointed out that Mawi and Rata were certainly not the only voyagers
who entered the Pacific realm. The cast iron Tamil Nadu bell found on the North
Island of New Zealand is proof that voyagers had arrived from India either
deliberately or accidentally. The seafaring abilities of the Toraja and Bugis from the
Celebes may have also have had an influence in the Pacific across to South
America judging from similarities in technologies and culture between the Karajia
and Toraja peoples' cliff cemetries. The existence of Ficus Religiosa (Bodhi tree)
amongst ruins in the Marquesas also suggests the extent of attempted colonization
in the Pacific of either Hindu or Buddhist travellers. In Pohnpei, the famous Nan
Madol/Matal ruins suggest that this was an important reprovisioning port for trans-
Pacific traders, the name for provincial governor is Nahn mwarki. In Egyptian
language it is Nam marche, once again suggesting Middle Eastern influences in the
The Chatham Islanders

Among these Moriori people, photographed in 1877, there are three survivors of the 1835
Colonial/Maori invasion.
Hirawanu Tapu (second left, standing), Rohana (second left, sitting) and Tatua (second right,
standing) were adolescents
at the time, and endured over two decades of slavery.
Descendants of survivors include Wari Tutaki (left), Teretiu Rehe (third left, standing),
Rangitapua Horomona Rehe (fourth left, standing), Piripi (far right), Ngakikingi (middle,
sitting) and Te Tene Rehe (next right).
Although this atrocious act of genocide was committed by the Maori, it was the
English Colonials who were inflaming the territorial conflict in New Zealand by
giving favoured tribes guns, so as to give them an unfair advantage over their
enemies. This practice of getting the natives to kill each other, was a standard
practice used by the English in many of their colonies. It was called 'divide and
conquer'. With the Chatham Islands, the English provided guns to a favoured tribe
near Wellington who then massacred an adjacent tribe and took their land. The
English then took the tribe who lost their land to the Chatham Islands and gave
them all the guns they needed to massacre the tribes there. They provided two ships
and guns for 900 men to do the genocidal deed. Only a handful of Chatham
Islanders survived. The photo above is one of the few in existence showing 3 full
blooded individuals from these islands.
It is clear from these photos that these people are of the same racial group as the
Indian Veda, Japanese Ainu, African Anu, Sumatran Batak and Native Australian.
Their profuse beards, wavy hair and strong brow ridges rule out the notion that they
are of Taiwanese/Polynesian or Melanesian blood. Their refusal to fight when faced
with imminent genocide is characteristic of this breed of people who dominated the
planet between 40,000 and 15,000 years ago and may well have inhabited New
Zealand from this early period. Finding archaeological sites to prove an ice age
population in New Zealand, may require digs in 140metres of water or under
hundreds of metres of volcanic ash.

Tinian and Taga Man

Ancient Micronesian megalithic monuments. The ancient art of lime impressed pottery
appears to have it's origins in the Guam/Phillippine area 6,500 years ago. Some believe
descendants of these people became the Lapita people.
Taga man from these islands possessed skull characteristics (occipital superstructures) similar
to Neanderthal skulls, the robusticity of bones also far exceeded those of all other hominids.
One legend states theat Taga man was 10 feet tall! Another legend describes his inability to
have children from his Chamorro wife. These interesting characteristics suggest that Taga man
was a different breed of human - possibly a relic population of homo erectus still living in
isolation in the Pacific conducting a megalithic culture that was then passed on to the
Chamorro people of the area. The Chamorro people are also an ancient group more akin to
Australian Aborigines. They even process Cycads the same way as the Australian Aborigines.
Could Cycads have been a chosen food for these voyagers 40-60,000 years ago? I wonder if
the aboriginal population of Tierra Del Fuego also processed Cycads?
Micronesia and its megalithic culture may possess some very interesting secrets as to the
depth of Pacific prehistory.

Photo by Loisette Marsh

Fijian Legend has it that there were already people living in Fiji when the "Fijians" arrived
under the guidance of Chief Lutunasobasoba (who according to legend, arrived from Lake
Tanganyika, Africa). Did Lutunasobasoba arrive as part of the Lapita culture or was he a
Nubian king?
Relic genes of the original population of Fiji may well still be in the people of central Viti
Levu. The gentleman above is from Nadrou village in the central highlands of Fiji. People of
central Fiji as a general rule are not as tall, have darker skin and have a broader face with
pronounced features common to Negrito groups around the world, suggesting that these
people may have the ancestry of much more ancient people than the Lapita people, more akin
to the highlanders of New Guinea. I believe it highly likely that an ancient population of
Negritos may have inhabited Fiji in a similar manner to the way the Highlanders of New
Guinea escaped the onslaight of coastal invasions by living their lives high up in the
mountains along streams and in impenetrable rainforest. Negritos are survivors from a global
population between 75,000 and 120,000 years ago and can be genetically traced back to the
Pygmies of the Congo with a very identifiable 120,000 year old DNA marker.
In nature, relic plant and animal species from a previous dominant population can often be
found surviving in isolated pockets in the mountains or on isolated islands. This concept can
also be transferred to human populations, where people often go unnoticed by invaders from
the sea. We may or may not find archaeological evidence proving the antiquity of this more
ancient population of Fiji, but hopefully genetics may be more forthcoming in determining the
time of isolation of Fijians in the interior of Viti Levu from other Negrito groups in Africa,
New Guinea, the Phillippines and the Andaman Islands.

Melanesian Kava ceremony. The ritual of drinking Kava, although also seen in Tonga and
some parts of South America.
It reached its peak of ritualism amongst the Fijians, not the Polynesians. Photo L. Marsh.
The harmonious singing of a Fijian Meke is very reminiscent of African culture.
The spiritualism behind the Beqa firewalkers may also give an insight into the complex
evolution of Fijian culture.
Photos by L. Marsh Suva 1964.
According to (Clyde A. Winters), based on archaeology and linguistics, came to the
conclusion that the African Mande were responsible for the rise of the Olmec
empire which was flourishing by 1300 BC.

Many Olmec murals of Central America depict Black Africans, Red haired
Caucasians, and tanned skinned people living side by side, the famous Olmec heads
look distinctly African, suggesting that Africans were the leaders of this culture. It
is highly likely that any Ocean voyages from this area would have comprised a
racial mix of all three groups, but were dominated by Africans.
Lapita pottery originated in a group of islands that happen to be at the end of the
Southern Equatorial current, arriving from Central America, and funnily enough,
these islands comprise an interesting mix of racial types where dark skinned frizzy
haired Melanesians sometimes exhibit red and blonde hair. Blonde hair is found
amongst the Tolai of the Bismark Archepelago and red hair with freckles is found
amongst the people of Missima Island. It is only logical to assume that Lapita
pottery people were a racial mix similar to the founding population of the Olmec.
Proof that trans Oceanic voyaging was happening in ancient times is the existance
right across the Pacific of the African Jack Bean, African bottlegourd, South
American coconut tree and a genetic mix of African and American cotton. These
plants would have been essential for oceanic voyagers. The cotton would have been
used for rope, sails and clothing (the loom did exist over 7,000 years ago and
interestingly is the same design in Peru, Phillippines and Egypt and Mesopotamia)
the jack beans were for food, and the bottlegourd for holding water. The coconut
would have been extremely useful, both for food and water. Cocos island off
Panama, was once covered by a massive plantation of coconut trees and was used
as a reprovisioning stop by Ancient seafarers (Thor Heyerdahl - Early Man and the
Ocean), not only for travel between Ecuador and Mexico, but also for voyages out
into the Pacific. It has also been shown that coconuts cannot survive for more than
one month at sea and the majority of coconut trees in the Pacific have not merely
arrived through natural processes, but have been planted by man specifically for
trans oceanic voyaging as much as 12,000 years ago.

Recent studies have shown a large amount of African genes, amongst the people of
the Amazon River, dating back to about 10,000 years. This is associated with
extensive agricultural earthworks and pottery. Both earthworks and style of pottery
are similar to sites of a similar age in Africa, around areas such as the Niger River
and Lake Chad. Recent linguistic studies have also drawn many similarities with
the Mande language of Africa and some New Guinea dialects, especially in the
New Guinea Highlands. There is even a town named Mende.

Mr Tim Denham of Adelaide University, excavated the Kuk Swamp, in the Upper
Wahgi Valley in the highlands of Papua New Guinea, during 1998 and 1999 and
uncovered circular mounds of earth, dated to 7,000 years ago. They were designed
to aerate soggy soil so that it could be used for planting in areas that were poorly
drained. At a locality nearby there are more advanced and highly planned drainage
canals, covering an extensive area as seen in the aerial photo below that are even
older. Carbon dating of sediments put the channels at over 9,000 years old.
These ancient irrigation canals in the Kuk Swamp. Drainage canals New Zealand, believed to
be pre Maori.

This swamp agriculture, although is of a different style to the parallel rows found in
the upper Amazon, it does suggest that there was a significant world population, all
practicing swamp agriculture 7-10,000 years ago.The style of drainage canals
shown above are very similar to ones found in New Zealand, Central America and
Great Britain. Is there a connection?

The swamp farming used along the Amazon River, recently found by another team
of archaeologists is connected to the African style pottery found in the area by
Roosevelt et al. and could be associated with 8-10,000year old African genes. It
remains to be seen whether a positive connection will be made between postulated
early African voyaging and the very early pottery of the lower Amazon (8000-6000
B.C.) reported by Roosevelt et al. (1991) and Hoopes (1994). The the large pottery
urns are similar to ones found amongst Minoan ruins, used for producing wine.
Hoeppli (1969) identified African parasitic diseases that were present in early
America and was able to distinguish them from those brought later by the slave
(Schwerin 1970; Simmonds 1976; Lathrap 1977). Wendel, Schnabel, and Seelanan
(1995) have now established the identity, through DNA sequences, of a 26 gene
cotton variety on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec comprising 13 genes from Africa and
13 from America. This same species is found on the Canary Islands in the Atlantic
and on many Pacific Islands, presumably a result of early human voyaging. This
blending of genes is thought to have occured over 10,000 years ago. (References
from; James L Guthrie American HLA's).

It appears that early African Agriculturalists have gone further than just the
Amazon River. 10,000 years ago they crossed the Isthmus of Panama and their
adventurous spirit led them into the Pacific Ocean, following the sun, with the wind
behind them and a favourable ocean current, they cruised into the heart of
Melanesia, searching for a big river, they established themselves on mainland New
Guinea up the Wahgi valley. Bringing with them the bottlegourd, jack bean,
Malaria and an advanced agricultural society. They would have assimilated with the
existing population of black frizzy haired pygmies, giving rise to the medium
height highlanders and also making it difficult for geneticists to separate the two
separate origins of these people. The blue-black Solomon Islanders as well as Tolai
and Missimi Island genes could well hold the key to unravelling the technicalities
of these ancient migrations.

It appears there is a lot more to Lapita pottery than scientists have led us to believe.
It appears that Melanesians as well as the Polynesians are the product of a number
of cultures combining to form a richer and more complex society.
The Lakatoi from New Guinea, used for coastal trade. Entertainment is also a big part of this
trading culture, possibly to ensure that visits to foreign villages was a friandly encounter,
insuring that trade went smoothly. Is this a window into the past - of the Lapita culture?
Photos Hiri Moale Website, see Links.

John Harding on a Lakatoi PNG

Outrigger sailing canoes, were the sailing craft of Melanesians and possibly the Lapita people,
they have unequal sized hulls and 'go about' by shunting, keeping the smaller hull to
windward at all times. Polynesians use catamarans, that 'go about' in the normal manner,
without reversing direction. Two totally different sailing technologies. Photo from Vikings of
the Sunrise by Sir Peter Buck

South American connections to the Old

South America was colonized by tall pale skinned bearded people - their ancestral
figure was Viracocha (meaning Thunder Lake) who was possibly the Veda ancestral
figure known as Vajrapani (meaning Thunder water) They are both better known as
'The storm God' Both carry a thunderbolt in their hands and both have connections
to Ra, the sun god. Viracocha is believed to have arrived from NW India in 1500BC
- the time of destruction of Harappa. Vira-cocha was the father of the Peruvian
people known as the Children of the Sun. It is also no coincidence that the Inca
festival Inta Raymi, which celebrates the 'return of the Sun' or winter solstice
festival, has many parallels with Rama the Sun God of India celebrations. Atun and
Ra also go hand in hand in Egyptian mythology, and the name Atun also crops up
in South America as a name for a town and a Lake. Viracocha condemned evil
ways and converted hate to wisdom and tolerance - the same qualities attributed to
the buddhist diety Vajrapani. Other names bely a connection to NW India, Pakistan
and the Persian gulf region. Harappa people reappear as the Charapa, Karachi
people reappear as Karajia, Kuros people of Harappa reappear as Uros and the
Purus of the Indus reappear in Peru as Puruha. The blaustrophedon Harappa script
reappears amongst the Cuna of Panama and is known as the Rongo Rongo tablets
of the Charapa people of Easter Island. The birdman religion of the floating reed
bed people of the Indus and Tigris Rivers arrived in Peru along with Papyrus rafts
and the floating reed bed culture of Lake Titicaca and Easter Island alongside
stories of the arrival of tall white bearded Viracocha and the Uros people.
Bell Beaker pottery with diamond pattern. Kuelap fortress Peru with diamond pattern.

The forts of Charchapoya with diamond motifs were once the home of tall white
'Serpent Warriors' according to Peruvian history, once again confirming a
Caucasian element once existed in South America.
The Karajia clay burial sarcophagus designs have an uncanny similarity to Lapita
pots found underwater off New Guinea and also bear a striking resemblance to flat
faced bearded carvings still obtainable in new Guinea as souvenir items.

Karajia sarcophagus Charchapoya, compared to Tolai carving

A prominent nose is a chief characteristic of the Lapita people

The Lapita pottery on the left certainly has some unusual markings akin to an Egyptian Ankh,
a Celtic cross and even hints of an Indian Swastika. If the cultural origins of this pottery
design came from a culture that was a branch of the Celtic, Egyptian and Indian civilizations,
it would make total sense.
Lapita pottery with Irish 4 leaf clover motif, Egyptian Ankah motif, a classic Celtic
moustache, people with skirts holding hands, and what appears to be two eggs, similar to
Kukul Khan (Chook King) - the Mayan ancestral figure, below. This global seafaring
community certainly did do a lot of cross cultural sharing.
Kukul Khan -Mayan 'Chook King' holding two eggs. Lapita pottery with people hand in hand
as in depiction above. Contemporary Indus pottery
Designs on ancient Karachi Tombs Lapita
Examples of Lapita pottery decoration; a-e; Ambitle Island, f-j; Tongatapu, k,l; Watom Island.
from; Mans Conquest of the Pacific by Peter bellwood.
Lapita pottery,Vanuatu, 1,500BC Early Jomon Jomon pottery

These examples clearly show that Jomon Pottery and Lapita do not have much in
common. Lapita pots are never conical, they are either flat based or rounded. Lapita
pots have geometric shapes, never the graceful swirls of Asian pottery.

Pottery designs from Portugal, 4. New York and 5. New Hampshire.

From 'America B.C'. by Barry Fell.
This type of pottery design was common on the shores of the Atlantic,
evidence of a seafaring culture that spanned the oceans over 3,000 years ago.
Portuguese/Libyan pottery

The designs we see here, must have some very important clues as to the origins of these
people. There seems to be very little research done on comparing Lapita with cultures in the
Indian Ocean and the Atlantic - is this another no go zone for the scientists?

Rurutu Statue
Standing stones St Augustin, Columbia Stone carving, Ra'ivavae
St Augustin, Columbia Ra'ivavae Polynesians
from Rurutu

From the similarities in the above carvings Thor Heyerdahl suggested that a
number of different groups of people entered the Pacific from America at various
times. Descendants of Viracocha (children of the sun) arrived in the Marquesas and
Easter Island around 300AD, with the Charapa people arrived in Easter Island a
few hundred years later bringing the birdman religion and the Rongo Rongo script.
At a similar time, another group arrived in Samoa from Central America, bringing
with them their barbaric customs of human sacrifice and the pyramid building
All this was happening in the South Pacific whilst the Polynesians led an idyllic life
in Hawaii away from all this conflict for nearly 1,000 years until their voyage of
discovery in their own style of catamaran - designed to handle the heavy surf
conditions found in Hawai'i. The boat attributed to discovering Tahiti ('The distant
land') , was Hokulea. This brought the Polynesians into contact with these
southerners who used outrigger canoes, beginning a new age of cultural mixing and
resultant conflicts. To begin with, they knew not the art of warfare and were preyed
apon by the 'red men' who were constantly in search of new sacrificial victims to
appease the gods, but this soon changed and the Polynesians soon became a
formidable force in the South Pacific. Some of what happened they are not proud of
and it will rarely be talked about, needless to say, by about the thirteenth Century
the human sacrifice culture in the Pacific was all but destroyed and peace came
once again to the idyllic isles of Polynesia. This same sort of scenario had already
been enacted in the Old World where the Christian Romans brought to an end the
human sacrificial ways of the Phoenicians in Carthage over 1,000 years earlier. The
Romans were sick of their barbaric ways involving human sacrifices and destroyed
them. Pizzaro, Balboa and Cortez were also appalled at the barbaric ways of
Central and South America and also instigated cultural change - rather more rapidly
than expected. Fortunately for humanity, this age of using fear to build society has
ended (or has it). The age of reason is here, where people are rewarded for their
work and common sense prevails (or does it).

Hopefully by studying the terrible atrocities of the past, we can avoid such barbaric
behaviour in the future. We are meant to be living in a democratic world, where the
people vote for their chosen leaders who are fair and honest, unfortunately this is
happening less and less as greedy heartless people with money are 'buying' and
corrupting governments around the world. The rich are getting greedier and the
lives of the masses are becoming unbearable. As history has been known to repeat
itself on numerous occasions it is not hard to predict the final outcome of the
present world situation. We can look back to the French Revolution and see the
heads of the greedy aristocracy rolling away from the guillotine. Or we can look to
Rapa Nui where the red headed Long Ears worked the Polynesians too hard for too
little reward, resulting in a retaliation that saw an end to the long Ears. The anger
Chief Savea had towards the callous red heads of Samoa and their barbaric ways
may also reflect the demise of the Lapita people 1,000 years earlier. Unfortunately
these people with power fail to realise that it is their greed and heartlessness that is
causing the unrest, not the relic minority cultures of the world who are just trying to
be themselves. People like the Lenca, the Tuareg and the Tibetans are relic
populations from some very important chapters in human history and we should be
protecting these cultures as if they were priceless treasures from our past. These
minority groups are no threat to the mega powers of the world, yet they are feared.
Why? Whatever the twisted reason, these superpowers seem determined to destroy
them. May compassion and tolerance prevail. Let us treasure this deep history of
humanity, stop hiding it's true value and accept the interconnectedness of humanity
through the ages.

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