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PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.

01/EN 1-1
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-1 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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GSM System and Products Overview
SY1 Course
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-2
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-2 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Section 1
Introduction
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-3
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-3 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSS
System
Courses
BSS
System
Courses
BSS System Courses
ARI AdvancedRadio Interface
Description 3days
BS21 BSC 12000andTCU
AdvancedDescription 2days
NE2 BSS OptimizationParameters 3days
NMO Network Monitoringand
Optimization 2days
PR1 S8000BTS Family
AdvancedDescription 2days
PR2 S2000L&Hande-cell BTS
AdvancedDescription 1day
PR3 BSS ProductsOverview 2days
PR4 BSC andTCU3G Advanced
Description 2days
SR11 BSS ReleaseV11Overview 1day
SR12 BSS ReleaseV12Overview 1day
SY2 BSS Dimensioning 2days
BSS Installation & Commissioning
PIC1 BSC &TCUInstallation and
Commissioning. 5days
PIC7 BTS S8000OutdoorI&C 5days
PIC10 BTS S8000Indoor I&C 4days
PIC17 BTS S8000I&C 5days
PIM8 BTS S2000(H&L) I&C andO&M 2days
NSS
System
Courses
NSS System Courses
900 GSMIntelligent Networks Overview 3days
930 GSMDMS Overview 3days
931 GSMNSS Overview 2days
932 GSMDataOverview 1day
935 GSMHLR-PS (ProvisioningServer) 3days
936 GSMBillingMediationDevice(GMBD) 3days
937 OMC-S Overview&Operation 2days
938 GSMGPP-IWF 5days
950 GSMDMS MaintenancePart 1 10days
951 GSMDMS MaintenancePart 2 10days
961 GSM09ReleaseDelta 2days
962 GSM10ReleaseDelta 1day
963 GSM11ReleaseDelta 2days
970 GSM-MSC/VLR Translations 10days
972 GSMHLR ServiceDatafill 5days
974 GSMCCS7Transl. andOperations 5days
Radio and Network Engineering
Courses
RSV1 Radio SiteVerification 1day
RSV2 RSVMeasurement&Post-Processing2days
CNE Cellular Network Engine. Process 1day
RF0 RF Basics 3days
CP1 Cell PlanningFundamentals 2days
CP2 Cell PlanningProject 5days
RSQ1 Radio SurveyandRF Qualification 2days
RSQ2 Radio Measurements 3days
SSE1 SiteSurveyandSiteEngineering 1day
SSE2 SiteSurveyVisitandEngineering
CaseStudies 1day
SSE3 Aerial Verification 2days
NETRF1Network andRF EngineeringCourse 5days
BSS Operation
& Maintenance
Courses
BSS Operation
& Maintenance Courses
OM1/2 BSS OperationandMaintenance10days
OM4 OMC-R Administration 4days
OM5 BSS Databuild 5days
OM6 S8000BTS Local Maintenance 2days
OM7 BSS Performance
MeasurementsTools 2days
OM9 BSS OperationandFault
Handling 4days
OM10 Reconfiguration Tools 3days
OM31 BSC andTCULocal Maintenance3days
OMDV10-12BSS Releasefor V10Experts 3days
OMDV12 BSS Releasefor V11Experts 2days
OM36 BSC, TCUandBTS S8000
Local Maintenance 5days
GSM Training Curriculum
1 - BSS and NSS Courses
System Courses
SY0 GSMGeneral Overview 2days
SY1 GSMSystemandProducts
Overview 5days
SYS GSMSystemOverview 3days
TL1 TelecommunicationsOverview 2days
TL4 ATM Overview 1day
The BSS and NSS training courses are split into several families according to the
different skills required to deal with GSM networks:
System: to acquire general knowledge about GSM, as well as a general overview
of the equipment designed by Nortel Networks.
BSS System: to acquire a general knowledge on BSS system: products,
dimensioning, optimization.
BSS Operation and Maintenance: to be able to operate and maintain a
telecommunication network by fully using the OMC-R facilities and give an in-
depth understanding of the BSS functions and equipment.
NSS System: to acquire knowledge on the operation and maintenance of the
NSS part of the system.
Radio and Network Engineering: to be in charge of cell planning, BSS network
topology, field tests, data fill or BSS parameters optimization.
Installation and Commissioning: to be able to install, cable, and run test on-site
equipment.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-4
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-4 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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RL11 GSM-R SystemandProducts
Overview 5days
RL12 GSM-R deltas withstandardGSM 1day
RL21 GSM-R BSS Optimizationparameters 3days
RL22 GSM-R BSS Optimizationparameters
versus GSM 1day
RL23 GSM-R BSS dimensioning 2days
RL30 GSM-R INOverviewanddatafill 5days
RL31 GSM-R NSS Overview 2days
RL32 GSM-R HLR ServiceDatafill 5days
RL41 GSM-R RF Engineering 5days
RL51 BTS S8002I&C 3days
RL61 BTS S8002local maintenance 2days
RL62 GSM-R performancemeasurements
tools 2days
RL63 BSS O&Mfor GSM-R 10days
RL64 BSS OperationsandFaultHandling
for GSM-R 4days
GSM-R Courses
TL2 FrameRelayOverview 1day
TL3 TCP/IP Overview 2days
GP0 GPRS General Overview 1day
GP1 GPRS Technical Description 3days
GP10 PassportOperationand Maintenance 2days
GP2 PCUSNConfiguration andOperation 1.5day
GP3 SGSNConfiguration andOperation 1.5day
GP4 GGSNConfiguration andOperation 2days
GP5 OMC-DOperation 5days
GPRS Courses
UMTS Courses
UM0 UMTS Introduction 1day
PN1 PicoNODEProductOverview 1day
PN2 PicoNODEOMC Network Operation 5days
PN3 PicoNODEOMC SystemAdministration5days
PN4 PicoNODEBSS Operation 5days
PN5 PicoNODENSS Operation 5days
PN245PicoNODE: FromI&C to O&M 10days
PicoNODE Courses
GSM Training Curriculum
2 - GPRS, UMTS, BSS Tools, GSM-R, and PicoNODE Courses
BSS Tools Courses
CT1000 CT1000Course 8days
CT1000_NRPReconfiguration Procedures 4days
CT3100 CT3100Course 5days
CT3100OJT On thejobtraining 3days
CT7100 GSMNetwork Monitoringand
OptimizationTool (NSS and BSS) 4days
CT7100_B GSMNetwork Monitoringand
OptimizationTool (BSS only) 3days
CT7100_N GSMNetwork Monitoringand
OptimizationTool (NSS only) 2days
CT7100_T GSMNetwork MonitoringTool
(Call Trace/Call PathTrace) 1day
The BSS and NSS training courses are split in several families according to the
different skills required to deal with GSM networks:
GPRS: an overview of this new system and advanced description of new nodes.
UMTS: an overview of this future system.
BSS Tools: to be able to use the new tools.
GSM-R: an overview and advanced description of this new system for railways
companies.
PicoNODE: to be able to operate and manage this new product line (wireless
access in rural or corporate areas).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-5
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-5 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSS Nortel Technical Publications
NORTEL
Operations Manuals
Maintenance
Manuals
Reference
Manuals
OMC-R
Architecture
and
Reference
TCU
BSC
6000/
12000
S4000
Outdoor
BTS
S2000/
S2000E
BTS
S8000/
S8002
BTS
GSM-BSS
Documentation
16
06
S4000/
S4000C
Indoor
BTS
03
22
23
53
63
BSS
Overview
01
BSS Product
Documen-
tation
Overview
00
BSS
Operating
Principles
07
BSS
Operating
User
08
General Information
S2000H/L
BTS
35
34
BSS
Operating
Procedures
Fault Number Description
103
S8000/
S8002
BTS
104
S2000H/L
e-cell
BTS
CT1000/
CT3100
Instal.
Manual
38 118
CT5100
BSS CCM
User
Manual
105
Advanced
Maintenance
Procedures
101
BSC/TCU
36
BSS
Parameters
User Guide
32
OMC-R
Preventive
&Corrective
Maintenance
S4000
Smart
BTS
43
102
S2000/
S2000E
S4000
BTS
ROT
14
BSC
Maintenance
Procedures
TCU
Maintenance
Procedures
Maintenance
Principles
S2000/
S2000E BTS
Maintenance
Procedures
S4000 BTS
Maintenance
Procedures
S8000 BTS
Maintenance
Procedures
TML
(BSC/TCU)
User Manual
50
41
39
42
46
47
48
S2000 H/L BTS
Maintenance
Procedures
49
TML
(BTS)
User Manual
51
S8002 BTS
Maintenance
Procedures
84
29
CT1000
User
Manual
e-cell
BTS
92
e-cell BTS
Maintenance
Manual
90
Whats new
inthe
BSS V12
NTP suite
88
PE/CDC/DD/0004
CD-ROM of
GSM BSS NTPs
PE/CDC/DD/0026
CD-ROM of
BSS Parameters User Guide
CT Tools (optional)
CT3100
Operating
Procedures
54
V11/ V12
O&M
Evolutions
52
60
Call Trace/
Call PathTrace
Analyzer
User Manual
20
CT7100
User
Manual
21
CT7100
Instal.
Manual
The BSS product documentation or BSS Nortel Technical Publication comprises 46
manuals.
Kinds of manuals:
Reference manuals detail each subsystem or equipment in terms of architecture,
hardware and software of its modules and indicate general dimensioning rules.
Maintenance manuals include both preventive and corrective maintenance and
details the various maintenance procedure. The BSS Maintenance Principles
describes the principles of maintenance and gives the list of faults.
Generic site dossiers give a canvas to be used by the network operator, where he
can collect any specific information for a site.
General information:
The BSS Product Documentation Overview (00) is the general manual which
introduces all the manuals of the BSS NTPs and includes the glossary.
The BSS Overview (01) is an overview of the digital cellular network and of its
division into subsystem.
Operating manuals:
The BSS Operating Principles gives the general principles of operation and a
dictionary of GSM parameters and observation counters.
The BSS parameters User Guide aims at describing BSS GSM and Nortel
parameters, formules and engineering issues for algorithms parameters.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-6
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-6 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Section 1: Introduction
Section 2: GSM History
Section 3: Basic Network Overview
Section 4: Services
Section 5: Cellular Principles
Section 6: Radio Interface
Section 7: Architecture, Functions and
Protocols
Section 8: Procedures
Section 9: BTS Functions
Section 10: S2000/4000/S8000 BTS
Families
Section 11: BSC Functions
Section 12: BSC 6000/12000/12000HC
Family
Section 13: TransCoder Unit Functions
Section 14: TCU Physical Presentation
Section 15: NSS Functions
Section 16: NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Section 17: OSS Functions
Section 18: OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Section 19: PicoNODE Family
Section 20: Solutions of Exercises
Section 21: Glossary
GSM System
SY1 Course
Organization
GSM Products
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-7
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-7 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Upon completion of this course, the participant will be able to:
describe the GSM system and its role in wireless communications
worldwide,
quote the GSM network services,
describe the GSM cellular features,
describe the Radio Interface,
describe the steps of the main procedures (call establishment,
location updating, handover, etc.),
describe the functions of NSS (Network Sub System), BSS (Base
station Sub System), OSS (Operation Sub System) and MS (Mobile
Station),
describe the software architecture of the GSM system,
identify and describe the NORTEL NETWORKS GSM products.
Objectives
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-8
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-8 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Section 2
GSM Historie
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-9
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-9 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Provide an introduction to the world of mobile
communications with particular emphasis on
development to digital cellular radio.
After completing this lesson you will be able to:
- Relate the early mobile communication systems.
- Show the benefits of digital radio transmission.
- Relate the development and spread of the GSM standard.
- Indicate the trend for wireless in the next years.
Objectives
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-10
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-10 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Before GSM: Mobile Telephony Milestones
Electric transmission
(Graham Bell)
1st wireless
transmissions
(Marconi)


1st analog cellular
network
1897
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
Digital Technology
(1st digital switch)
1st public mobile
telephone
1876
1946
1970
1982
1992
1st GSM communication
(digital cellular network)
1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
1876: The telephone was introduced to the public at the Centennial Exposition of the United States in
Philadelphia. Alexander Graham Bell was able to transmit speech electrically, in one direction
only, over a copper wire circuit of several hundred feet in length. This speaking telegraphwas
quickly perfected for adequate two-way communication and was offered for business and
residential service the following years. Within a short time there were thousands, then tens of
thousand, and soon hundreds of thousand of paying customers.
End of the 19th century: While the struggle to search for the ways to utilize the copper wire
transmission facility more and more efficiently, a young German scientist named Heinrich Rudolf
Hertz discovered a strange and wonderful phenomenon: from an electric spark there seemed to
emanate invisible waves of force which could be captured at a distant location by a suitably
constructed receiving device. Hertzs own experiments extended only a few yards.
1897: Guglielmo Marconi shows the first wireless transmission over 15 km in Bristol. A few years
later(1901), G. Marconi transmitted these waves overseas, and began to call it Radio.
1946: The first public mobile telephone service was introduced in twenty five American cities. Each
system used a single, high-powered transmitter and large tower in order to cover distances of
over 50 km in a particular market. Nevertheless these early FM push-to-talk telephone systems
of the late 1940s used 120 kHz of RF bandwidth in a half duplex mode (only one person on the
telephone call could talk at a time), even though the actual telephone-grade speech because of
the kHz of baseband spectrum. The large RF bandwidth was needed because of the difficulty in
mass producing tight RF filters and low-noise, front-end receiver amplifiers.
1970: A.Pinet introduced in France the first digital switch.
1982: The first commercial cellular system was turned on in Chicago.
1992: GSM, the first fully digital cellular system, was introduced on in Germany and in France.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-11
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
There are several different types of analog cellular systems:
NMT450 and NMT900: Scandinavia, Benelux, Spain, Austria, France,
Switzerland;
AMPS in more 34 countries: U.S.A., Canada, Argentine, Chile, Indonesia, Brazil,
Australia, Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire);
TACS (Total Access Communication System) in UK Ireland and Italy;
R2000: France;
C450: Germany;
NTT (1979) cellular and J TACS (1988) in J apan.
RTMS: Italy;
The world's first cellular system actually was implemented in 1979 by the Nippon
Telephone and Telegraph company (NTT) in J apan. This system uses 600 FM duplex
channels of 25 kHz in the 800 MHz band.
In Europe, the Nordic Mobile Telephone system (NMT) was developed in 1981 for the
450 MHz band and uses 180 channels of 25 kHz.
The extended European Total Access Cellular System (ETACS) was deployed in
1985 and is virtually identical to the US. AMPS system, except that the smaller
bandwidth channels result in a slight degradation of signal-to-noise ratio and
coverage range.
1-11 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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1981 NMT
The Nordic Solution
Now 18 Millions Subscribers
450 MHz and 900 MHz
NORWAY, DENMARK
FINLAND, SWEDEN,
FRANCE (450 MHz)
1985 TACS in UK
800 and 900 MHz
1979 AMPS
800 MHz
Now 25 Millions
Subscribers
1985
RADIOCOM 2000
FRANCE
400 MHz
900 MHz
Dedicated developments
Japan
NTT cellular (1979)
JTACS (1988)
1986
C.450
GERMANY
450 MHz
Analog Cellular Systems Around the World
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-12
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-12 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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1982: Groupe Spcial Mobile (GSM) created within CEPT
1985: List of recommendations are settled and intensely
supported by the industry.
1987: Initial MoU (Memorandum of Understanding) aside the
drafting of technical specifications was signed by
network operators of 13 countries:
time-scales for the procurement and deployment,
compatibly of numbering and routing plans,
tariff principles and definition of accounting.
1990: The GSM specifications for the 900 MHz are frozen.
Specifications start for the 1800 MHz GSM systems.
GSM stands as
" Global System for Mobile communications"
Development of the GSM Standard
1982: CEPT decides to establish a "Groupe Spcial Mobile" (the initial origin of the Term GSM) in to
develop a set of common standards for a future pan-European Cellular Mobile Network.
1984: Establishment of three Working Parties to define and describe GSM features:
the radio interface,
transmission and signaling protocols,
interfaces and network architecture.
1985, 1986: Discussion and adoption of a list of recommendations to be generated by the Group
Spcial Mobile. A so-called permanent nucleus is established to continuously coordinate the
work, which is intensely supported by industry delegates. Thinking over a radio transmission
prototype.
1987: The first Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) is prepared during mid-1987 and signed by 13
European countries in September 1987. Apart from the drafting of the technical specifications
within the ad-hoc working groups, European public telecommunication operators worthy
recognized the cooperation for commercial and operational aspects. The MoU serves as an
adequate forum for discussion on pure operational matters. Its main purposes is to provide a
framework for all the necessary measures to be taken by the signatories together to ensure the
opening of a commercial service in their respective countries by1991.
The network operators plan the progressive implementation of the networks in each country so
that transport routes between the countries of signatories couldbe brought early into the
coverage of the respective systems.
1988: Validation and trials, especially the radio interface, show that GSM will work.
With the establishment of the European Telecommunication Standards Institute (ETSI), Groupe
Spcial Mobile becomes a technical committee:
GSM is embodied into European Telecommunications Standards,
GSM stands as "Global System for Mobile Communication" grant.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-13
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-13 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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1991: First system trial are running.
1992: Official commercial launch of GSM service in Europe.
1993: - The GSM-MoU has 62 signatories in 39 countries
worldwide. In addition 32 applicants in 19 others
countries.
- GSM network are operational in Europe.
- First commercial services also start outside Europe.
- One million subscribers to GSM networks.
1995: Specification of GSM phase 2 are frozen.
Development of the GSM Standard
1991: First system-trial are running at Telecom 91 exhibition.
The GSM Recommendations comprise:
more than 130 single documents;
include more than 5,000 pages.
The GSM MoU of 1987 was later signed by more operators and amended by
1991 to accept members from non CEPT operators countries thus extend its
scope to spread cooperation agreements with non-signatory bodies.
1993: Aside the GSM-MoU has 62 members (signatories) in 39 countries worldwide;
and in addition 32 potential members (observers, applicants) in 19 other
countries.
GSM networks are operational in Denmark, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland,
Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, United kingdom.
The end of 1993 shows one millions subscribers to GSM networks, however more
than 80% of them are to be found in Germany alone.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-14
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-14 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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12SERIES
OPERATIONAND
MAINTENANCE
01SERIES
GENERAL
02SERIES
SERVICE ASPECTS
03SERIES
NETWORK ASPECTS
04SERIES
MS-BSS INTERFACE AND
PROTOCOLS
05SERIES
PHYSICAL LAYER ONTHE
RADIO PATH.
06SERIES
SPEECHCODING
SPECIFICATIONS
07SERIES
TERMINAL ADAPTERS
FOR MOBILE STATIONS
11SERIES
EQUIPMENT ANDTYPE
APPROVAL SPECIFICATIONS
10SERIES
SERVICE INTERWORKING
09SERIES
NETWORK
INTERWORKING
08SERIES
BSS TO MSC INTERFACES
GSM Specifications
One important question was how far GSM should go in its specification work; that is,
to what degree the system had to be specified so as to be identical in all countries,
and how much could be left to the operators and suppliers to agree upon.
Clearly, without identical air interfaces in all networks, the subscribers are not going to
have free roaming between network. This was considered to be the absolute
minimum degree of standardization, and these equipment were favored. One might
have seen it as advantageous to specify everything in the system, including the
hardware and the mobile station and even other parts of the system. It was agreed
upon that there would be no attempt to specify the system in such detail.
Basically, only the functional interfaces between the majors buildings blocks would be
specified. This approach had several advantages, perhaps the most important of
which is that for each major building block, the principle of functional specifications
offers each operator, and thus the customer, the opportunity to purchase whatever
make of equipment he wants, thus setting the stage for maximum competition
between manufacturers. For instance the fact that an operator has purchased an
exchange from a certain supplier does not force him to go on buying equipment from
the same supplier.
Standardized electrical interfaces as well as protocols are provided for both the fixed
network and subscriber equipment. These include standardized rate adaptations
compatible with conventional ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) definitions.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-15
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-15 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 240 300 MHz
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 GHz
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4
AM Marine
Short Wave - International Broadcast - Amateur
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 30 MHz
CB
26 28
VHF LOW Band FM VHF VHF TV 7-13
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.4 3.0 GHz
UHF UHF TV 14-69 GPS
Cellular GSM1800, GSM1900
Broadcasting
Land-Mobile
Aeronautical
Mobile telephony
Terrestrial Microwave
Satellite
The Application of the Radio Spectrum
In the early years of radio, only the lowest few megahertz of the radio spectrum were
in use and they were used for point to point communications between fixed stations,
mainly ships, and broadcasting. These applications were respectively called the fixed
service, the mobile service and the broadcasting service.
By international agreement, the spectrum then in use was divided into several
frequency bands, different bands being allocated for each service.
This concept of dividing the spectrum between the different links of radio service is
still found to be wise and its application has been extended and elaborated to serve
modern requirements.
The international table of frequency allocations (World Radio communication
Conference 1995) now covers the frequency range 9 kHz to 275 MHz, divided into
hundreds of frequency bands, allocated for 33 different services.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-16
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-16 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Uplink
Downlink
880 890 915
1710 1785
925 935 960 1805 1880
MHz
P-GSM
GSM 1800
GSM 1900
1850 1910
1930 1990
R-GSM
876
921
960
960
915
915
E-GSM
GSM Family Radio Band Spectrum
According to the resolution of the World Radio communication Conference in 1978,
the European Telecom Authorities primarily reserved two frequency bands of twice
25 MHz:
890 MHz to 915 MHz from mobile to the network,
935 MHz to 960 MHz from base stations to the mobiles for use by cellular
systems.
By 1990, a newly allocated band of twice 75 MHz (1710 MHz to 1785 MHz for uplink
and 1805 MHz to 1880 MHz for downlink) was formed for the Digital Communication
System which is a version of GSM suited to the 1800 MHz frequency band. This
application was initiated in the United Kingdom.
Furthermore FCC has granted band of twice 60 MHz (1850 MHz to 1910 MHz for
uplink and 1930 MHz to 1990 MHz for downlink) devoted to GSM networks.
Two new frequency bands are supported:
the Extended GSM 900 band or E-GSM =P-GSM +2x10 MHz,
the Railway GSM 900 band for Railways companies or
R-GSM =E-GSM +2x4 MHz.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-17
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-17 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Digital Advantages
Worldwide market
Open system
Technology low cost
High resistance
to interferences
Transmission data rate
Roaming
$
Transmission Security
Advantages of the GSM standard
GSM Benefits
The features and benefits expected in the GSM were:
superior speech quality (equal to or better than the existing analog cellular
technology),
low terminal and services costs,
a high level of security (confidentiality and fraud prevention),
international roaming (under one subscriber directory number),
support of low power hand-portable terminals,
variety of new services and network facilities.
It was a logical consequence of the prevailing reality that a measure of Inter-working
compatibility with the services offered by other existing telecommunication networks
was sought. In particular, the basis for the services in GSM standard can be found in
the ISDN concept.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-18
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-18 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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GSM Standard Spread: Sales
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
areas/
countries
networks
customers
(millions)
dec 92 7 13 0.25
dec 93 18 34 1.4
dec 94 41 65 4.5
dec 95 67 113 12.5
dec 96 97 189 33
dec 97 105 233 66
dec 99 137 370 220
dec 98 110 240 140
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50
100
150
200
250
300
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Source:
IDC Feb 98
GSM MoU Feb 98
M
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u
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s
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-19
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-19 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Countries without GSM Network(s)
2005: Between 700 million and 1 billion expected.
End 1999: 220 millions of subscribers
370 networks in 137 countries
Development of the GSM Standard
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-20
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-20 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Voice 96%
Data 4%
1998
Voice 30%
2005
Data 70%
Explosive Growth in Wireless Data
Fixed data networks have been growing rapidly for the past 15 years. The PC or work
station attached to a LAN has become the de-facto working environment. LANs
connected to LANs on other sites around the world allow companies to improve
communications and share data. With the advent of the internet people have become
used to using a computer not only for work but for their personal lives or as a source
of entertainment.
Todays wireless networks were designed primarily for voice, with a small data
capability. As more and more people are using data applications, the wireless market
needs to progress to provide data-on the-move and liberate users from the need to
find an ethernet cable or a telephone jack.
The Future
Imagine writing a report on the train on the way home, your secretary rings to say the
boss wants a video conference NOW!.
He comes on line, and tells you the report must be out tonight, with photos of the new
product which you can get from the Web. While still talking to the boss, you connect
to the Web, down load some files, attach them to your report and send it to a defined
group of people. All on the move.
This scenario will require considerable more than the 9.6 kbps or 14.4 kbps offered in
GSM today.
Europes GSM operators currently see 2 to 3% of traffic as data. But enhancements
to GSM, such as HSCSD, EDGE and GPRS will bring high data rates and get the
users used to using data applications from a wireless terminal.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-21
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-21 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Increasing GSM Data Rates
10 sec 1 min 10 min 1 hour 0
UMTS
E/GPRS
ISDN
PSTN
GSM
web
e-mail
photo
web photo
e-mail
web photo
video
clip
report photo
web photo
e-mail
Transmission Time
video
clip
report
video
clip
report
video
clip
report
video
clip
report
GSM today
We can currently use a data terminal attached to an MS to connect to any standard
data service provided by the PSTN, ISDN or PDN networks as long as the network
accepts a data rate of 9.6 kbps and the IWF is equipped.
This includes access to the Web, e-mail, fax etc.. Use of these facilities is generally
limited due to the speed of the communication. Internet use is expensive and slow
due to the limited data rate and the circuit switched nature of the GSM system.
GSM 2+
HSCSD allows 14.4 kbps in one TS as from 1Q99 and multiple timeslots in the future.
It is however, still a circuit switched system which will supply expensive connections
unless the operators pricing schemes are imaginative. It will help those who use data
over GSM today and encourage others to use the services but it does involve a
capacity penalty for the network.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-22
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-22 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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t
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k
b
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s
10 k
100 k
64 k
1 M
2 M
1 k
1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 timeframe
EDGE EDGE
UMTS
GPRS GPRS
alternative: A2
30 min delay
HSCSD HSCSD
in
tra
n
e
t
9.6 9.6
SMS SMS
FTSE-100 i ndex
14.4 14.4
c
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p
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k
e
t
Mobile Data Rate
Explosion in Next 4 Years
Mobile Data Rate
Explosion in Next 4 Years
Mobile Data Technology Evolution
GPRS = General Packet Radio Service
HSCSD = High Speed Circuit Switched Data
EDGE = Enhanced Data rate for Gsm Evolution
UMTS = Uni versal Mobile Telecomunication System
Up to V10* the data services were limited to 9.6 kbps.
A new service has been standardized in ETSI to reach 14.4 kbps user rate (AUIR) on
one TS. This enhancement is a part of a global strategy aimed at offering higher data
rates.
This new data rate is the result of a new channel coding on the radio interface.
The BSS provides two modes:
transparent data service,
non transparent data service, using RLP protocol between MS and IWF.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-23
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-23 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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GPRS GPRS
PLMN PLMN
Corporate
Intranet
General Packet Radio Service
X.25 PSPDN X.25 PSPDN
IP
(Internet/Intranet)
GPRS is the first major revolution in GSM data, providing speeds over 100 kbit/s on a
pseudo-packet switched radio interface and a real packet switched NSS. This will
encourage users to connect to high-speed applications across the wireless network
and optimises the network resources for data transmission.
There are however some limitations and the first implementations will have mobility
constraints. However, it is likely to attract users to internet type services and provides
operators with a natural migration path towards 3G systems.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-24
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Enhanced Data rate for GsmEvolution or EDGE is often referred to in GPRS context
as the combination of the two technologies is seen by some groups in the mobile
industry as an alternative for UMTS. This makes EDGE an alternative for operators
without an UMTS license who wish to offer medium-speed mobile data services.
EDGE is being defined for both GPRS and GSM data services. EDGE is a
redefinition of the GSM modulation and coding scheme from GMSK to 8-PSK. It gives
up to three times higher throughput compared to GSM, using the same bandwidth.
This will enable end-user data rates of maximum 48 kbps per Time Slot for GPRS
and 28.8 kbps per TS for GSM services.
By combining multiple TSs as with GPRS, data rates of 384 kbps can be achieved.
1-24 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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14,4
43,2
170
300
380
384
2000
1 10 100 1000 10000
GSM
HSCSD
GPRS
EDGE
UMTS
packet
circuit
speed kbps
log scale
GPRS and EDGE
New highly spectrum-efficient modulation for higher bit rates
GMSK modulation replaced with 8-Phase Shift Keying: throughput x 3
Applicable to both HSCSD and GPRS
Rates expected to reach 300 kbps (E-HSCSD) and 380 kbps (E-GPRS)
Enhanced Data rate for Gsm Evolution
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-25
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-25 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
Wireless office - Business
Tele conference
Sales order placement
Files transfer
Intranet services
Travel - Car Centric Application
Video and graphic oriented navigation tool
Traffic intelligent information system
Emergency services
Location based yellow pages
Entertainment / Education / Personal Communication
Video/music on demand
Interactive games / Tele-tourism
Virtual school
Video telephony
alternative: A2
30 min delay
UMTS, or more precisely IMT2000, will at first provide a capacity advantage for
wireless data networks that become overcrowded. But it has to provide more than
that. The higher data rates will allow applications such as video and multimedia to be
a real option from a wireless terminal. And, the more open architecture will provide a
service environment allowing a wide range of services to be developed by operators
and service specialists. Total global roaming is one of the objectives of the
specifications.
UMTS will take over from GSM 2+systems to provide higher capacity and data rates.
This will allow new applications to be developed but will require new terminals. The
most obvious scenario is for existing GSM operators to migrate through GSM 2+to
GSM/UMTS hybrid networks.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-26
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-26 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Section 3
Basic Network Overview
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-27
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-27 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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After completing this lesson you will be able to:
List the 3 sub-systems of a GSM system and their interfaces.
List the different equipment in each GSM sub-system.
Objectives
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-28
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-28 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Traffic
Signaling
bla bla bla...
RING !
riiiiing
Network
Traffic/Signaling
The network can carry two types of information:
Traffic: it concerns all the user to user information. It can be voice as well as
data.
Signaling: the network also requires to carry information for its own working.
Their purposes are numerous: traffic data routing, maintenance, security... These
data are usually not visible from users point of view.
There exists several signaling types:
PTS (Per-Trunk Signaling): signaling and voice component are transmitted on
the same facility. PTS requires the voice component to be completely built, even
if the call cant be completed.
CCS (Common Channel Signaling): two separate paths are used for information
transfer (one for traffic, another for all-related signaling information). Thus, CCS
allows the voice component to be built separately which allows resources to be
saved. For instance, no voice facilities would be assigned to the call if the dialed
number is busy.
GSM works with CCS(#7)
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-29
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-29 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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. BSC MSC
BTS
OMC-R OMC-S
MS
BSS BSS
NSS NSS
OSS
PSTN PSTN
Network Overview
A GSM system is basically designed as a combination of three major subsystems:
the Network SubSystem (NSS), the radio subsystem called the Base station
SubSystem(BSS), and the Operation SubSystem(OSS).
The Network SubSystem(NSS) includes the equipment and functions related to end-
to-end-calls, management of subscribers, mobility, and interfaces with the fixed
network (PSTN). It is built on the switch of the system called Mobile-services
Switching Center (MSC).
The Base station SubSystem(BSS) includes the equipment and functions related to
the management of the connection on the radio path. It mainly consists of Base
Transceiver Stations (BTS) communicating with the Mobile Station (MS) and one
Base Station Controller (BSC) managing the flow of information between the BTSs
and the MSC.
The Operation SubSystem (OSS) mainly contains Operation and Maintenance
Center for NSS (OMC-S) and Operation and Maintenance Center devoted to the BSS
(OMC-R). It is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC
(BTSs are not connected to the OSS).
Any mobile network or PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network) is related to a public
fixed network, commonly to the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-30
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-30 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
+
G S M
Global GSM Mobility
Card
The Smart Card to use
SIM Card
+
Battery Handset
battery
2W
jmhfod
kgdjipj
f153454
Mobile Station
=
Mobile Station
The Mobile Station (MS) is composed of three parts:
the handset includes the radio equipment (receiver-transmitter) and the Man-
Machine Interface (MMI),
the SIM card (Subscriber Identity Module-card): this smart card allows the
identification of any subscriber (not only of his equipment) by the network. In
particular, he can borrow any mobile without changing anything from the network
point of view since he keeps the same SIM-card,
the battery.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-31
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-31 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
G S M
Global GSM Mobility
Card
The Smart Card to use
+
SIM-Card
Handset
Subscriber knows
- Called party number = MS-ISDN
- PIN
Contains:
- IMSI
=
Calling line
0609225831
SIM-Card and GSM Mobile Equipment
The GSM committee has introduced an important powerful innovation by using a
Smart Card in conjunction with a mobile telephone. Thus GSM subscribers are
provided with a Subscriber Identity Module card (SIM-Card) with its unique
identification at the very beginning of the service.
The subscriber is identified within the system when he inserts the SIM-Card in the
mobile equipment and switches it on. This provide a considerable amount of flexibility
to the subscribers since they can use any GSM-specified mobile equipment.
With the SIM-Card the idea of "personal communication" is already realized: the user
only needs to take his smart card on a trip. You can rent a mobile equipment unit at
the destination, even in other country, and insert your own SIM-Card. Any call you
make will be charged to your home GSM account. Also the GSM system is able to
reach you at the mobile unit you are currently using.
The Mobile Station (MS) includes radio equipment and the man machine interface
(MMI) that a subscriber needs in order to access the services provided by the GSM
network.
Mobile Stations can be installed in vehicles or can be portable or hand-held stations.
The mobile station includes provisions for data communication as well as voice.
Mobile Stations transmit and receive messages to and from the GSM over the air
interface to establish and continue connection through the system.
Each mobile station has an International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) that is
permanently stored in the mobile unit. Upon request, the MS sends this number over
the signaling channel to the network. The IMEI is used to identify mobile units that
are reported stolen or operating incorrectly.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-32
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-32 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
25 mm
15 mm
Microchip with stored
user information
Credit Card Size
Permanent data:
- Unique mobile subscriber identity
through IMSI number,
- Authentication parameter Ki,
- Authentication algorithm A3,
- Generating encryption key Kc
algorithm A8.
Removable data:
- Temporary Mobile Subscriber Number,
- Location Area Identification.
SIM-Card
G S M
Global GSM Mobility
Card
The Smart Card to use
The SIM-Card Functions
The SIM-Card is a removable smart card, the size of a credit card, and contains an
integrated circuit chip with a microprocessor, random access memory, and read-only
memory.
Many MSs use the SIM-Card which can be snapped out of the credit card SIM, if
required.
When a mobile users want to make a call, they insert their SIM-Card and provide
their Personal Identity Number (PIN), which is compared with a PIN stored within the
SIM-CARD.
The PIN can also be permanently bypassed by the subscribers if authorized by the
service provider. Disabling the PIN code simplifies the call setup but reduces the
protection of the user's account in the event of a stolen SIM-CARD.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-33
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-33 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Nature
International Mobile Subscriber Identity
Conformity with E212
Mobile Station -
Integrated Services Digital Network Nb
Similar to ISDN,
Conformity with E164/E213
Nb. digits
3 2 max 10 1 to 3 2 to 4 total max 15
* This code does not identify a geographical area
but an operator
MS - ISDN
Format
MCC MNC
MSIN
H1 H2 x x x ......... x x x
CC NDC
SN
M1 M2 x x x x x x x x
Meaning
Mobile
Country
Code
Mobile
Network
Code
Mobile Subscriber
Ident. Nb
H1 H2 = Identity of HLR
within the home PLMN
Country
Code
(where
subscription
has been made)
National
Destination
Code *
Mobile Subscriber
(national definition)
M1 M2 = nbr of logical HLR
IMSI
National Significant Mobile Number
Identify a PLMN
worldwide
Identify the subscriber
of a PLMN
Subscriber Identification
The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the primary identification of
the subscriber within the GSM network and is permanently assigned to him.
The Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MSISDN) is the number that the calling
party dials in order to reach the GSM subscriber. It is used by the land networks to
route calls toward an appropriate GSM network. MSISDN is stored in HLR.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-34
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-34 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Type Approval
Code
TAC FAC SNR
SP
Final Assembly
Code
Serial number (SPare)
T
Y
P
E
A
P
P
R
O
V
E
D
Mobile Identification
Stored inside the Mobile Equipment.
Used to replace IMSI or TMSI when both are unavailable (example: Emergency calls
without SIM-Card) or when required by the network (for maintenance).
Can be used for EIR database updating (when existing):
TAC =6 digits describing the type of equipment,
FAC =2 digits for identification of the factory,
SNR =6 digits for the serial number of the device.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-35
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-35 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Revision level (Phase 1, 2, 2+)
RF power
Encryption algorithm (A5/1,A5/2)
Frequency (900/1800/1900)
Short message
Classmark
Class
GSM
900
GSM
1800
GSM
1900
Power classes
1
2
3
4
5
8 W*
5 W
2 W**
0.8 W
1 W**
0.25 W
4 W
1 W**
0.25 W
4 W
* Typical value for car mounted
** Typical value for handheld
MS Classmark
The type of MS must be given to the NSS at the beginning of each new connection,
because this type can change between calls. The subscriber may insert this SIM-
Card into another Mobile Equipment (ME).
The classmark of each MS can contain up to five parameters:
revision level,
RF power capability,
encryption algorithm: A5/1, A5/2,
frequency capability: P-GSM (2 x 25 MHz), E-GSM (2 x 35 MHz), R-GSM
(2 x 4 MHz), GSM 1800, GSM 1900,
short message capability.
This classmark is sent when the system establishes the radio link between MS and
the Base Transceivers Stations.
The power class information is the maximum power the MS is able to transmit and is
used by the network for several procedures: selection, power control, handover.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-36
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-36 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Pocket
Hands-free
Data
Booster
2 W 5 W
2 W 8 W
Fax Organizer
PC
Dual-band
900-1800
900-1900
Java
Trends in Mobile Station
Trends for MS are:
Hands-free (2 W +booster 5 W).
Increasing autonomy:
- idle mode: 40 hours to 140 hours,
- communication mode: 4 hours to 15 hours,
Supplementary features (e.g. display of calling number).
Additional features (e.g. voice recognition).
Connection with terminals for data transmission:
- Modem on PCMCIA board for Laptop PC.
- Modem integrated.
Dual-band terminal (GSM 900/1800 MHz).
Radio organizer (Nokia 9000).
Versatile terminal (under J AVA softwares): fax, internet, pager, organizer.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-37
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The Base Station SubSystem (BSS) is a set of equipment (aerials, transceivers and
a controller) that is viewed by the Mobile Switching Center through a single A
interface as being the entity responsible for communicating with mobile telephones
or Mobile Stations (MSs) in a certain area.
The radio equipment of a BSS may be composed of one or more cells, such a BSS
may contain one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs).
The interface between the BSC and the BTSs is called an Abis interface.
The BSS includes two types of equipment:
the Base Transceiver Station (BTS functionally includes also the TRAU) in
contact with the mobile stations through the radio interface,
the BSC, the latter being in contact with the Mobile Switching Center.
A BSS contains only one Base Station Controller (BSC).
The function split is basically between a transmission equipment, the BTS, and the
BSC.
1-37 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
TCU
BSC
OMC-R
MSC
Radio
Interface
A Interface
Ater Interface
Abis Interface
NSS
BSS
OMN Interface
Public Telephone Network
MS
MS
S2000H&L
BTS
S8000
Indoor
BTS
S8000
Outdoor
BTS
Sun
StorEdge A5000
Radio
Interface
BSS Architecture
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-38
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-38 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
NSS Architecture
MSC
MSC
BSC
BSC
AuC EIR
VLR
HLR
PSTN
BSCs of a same area are connected to a switch. In a GSM system this switch is
called MSC (Mobile Switching Center). MSCs are connected to each others.
Usually, each MSC is associated to four databases.
The Visitor Location Register (VLR) memorizes information about the subscribers
physically present in a geographic area. If a subscriber leaves this area, this
information is stored in the VLR of another MSC.
Each Home Location Register (HLR) is related to a precise number of subscribers.
The information present in a subscribers HLR are quite similar to these contained in
the VLR of the area where he is but, here, this information is static. Thus the VLR
stands for a copy of the HLR more easily available (the VLR and the MS are in the
same area). They are always linked, since the HLR memorizes the identity number of
the VLR where it can find its subscriber.
Authentication Center (AuC): Radio channel use sets a problem of communication
safety. In particular operators have to pay attention to the fraudulent resources use.
Therefore the network is provided with a system of user authentication.
The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a list of all the Mobile Equipment: it contains
valid and invalid mobile equipment.
When a communication comes from the PSTN to a given subscriber, it enters the
network in the MSC that contains the subscribers HLR. This MSC is called GMSC
(Gateway MSC).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-39
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-39 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
1- How many sizes of SIM-Card are there?
2- What is an IMSI? a MSISDN? an IMEI?
4- Is it possible for a given subscriber to have several MSISDN?
3- What is a PIN code?
Check Your Learning
1- How many sizes of SIM-Card are there?
2- What is an IMSI? a MSISDN? an IMEI?
3- What is a PIN code?
4- Is it possible for a given subscriber to have several MSISDN?
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-40
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-40 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Services
Section 4
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-41
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-41 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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After completing this section you will be able to:
Relate the services that can be offered to GSM subscribers
This section explores the services that are provided
in a GSM network.
Objectives
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-42
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Teleservices cover regular telephony, emergency calls, voice messaging, and short
messages handling.
The most important service provided by GSM users is telephony which enables bi-
directional speech calls to be placed between GSM users and any telephone
subscriber who is reachable through the general telephony network.
Fixed telephone subscribers worldwide as well as mobile network subscribers or
subscribers of specific networks connected to a public telephone network can be
reached.
Before either Mobile Originated or Mobile Terminated calls can be established, the
mobile telephone must be switched on and registered into the system.
1-42 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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"
.
Hello
1
Speaking
Speaking
1
Originated
call
Terminated
call
Hello
Teleservices
1 - Telephony
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-43
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
To place an emergency call enter 112 followed by SEND. Additional means to place
such call are also allowed by a dedicated button.
The Mobile Telephone supports the initiation of an emergency call without a SIM
present in it, regardless of the call being accepted or not by the network.
Note that calls to national emergency services may be standard for the country of the
serving GSM network (number 17 to call the police in France, number 911 to make
an emergency call in U.S.A.).
However, with the exception of code "112", these are not treated within the GSM
network as "teleservice emergency call" and would require a valid IMSI.
1-43 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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"
.
G S M
Global GSM Mobility
Card
The Smart Card to use
Do not require a SIM-Card
while " 112" is invoked
Emergency
112
Teleservices
2 - Emergency Call
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-44
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The cell broadcast enables an Information Provider to submit short messages for
broadcasting to a specified area within the GSM network.
The cell broadcast service has the following features:
The cell broadcast message is sent (on control channels) in a limited area,
defined by the originator of the message, by agreement with the GSM Operator.
The mobile telephone only receive the broadcast message in idle mode.
The short message function running in the mobile is able not to store broadcast
messages which are not wanted or which have already been received.
The mobile telephone does not send acknowledgment.
The GSM network continuously sends cell broadcast messages so that all such
messages are sent in turn, an then repeated. On the other hand, the cycle time is
short enough for important messages to be received by travelers (subscribers)
moving through a group of cells.
The maximum length of each cell broadcast message will be 93 characters and
GSM specifications allows up to 15 of these 93 character messages treated as
segment of a longer message.
1-44 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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"
.
GSM Network
m
e
s
s
a
g
e
B
m
e
s
s
a
g
e
B
m
e
s
s
a
g
e
B
m
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s
s
a
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e

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m
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A
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a
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A
m
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s
s
a
g
e

A
m
e
s
s
a
g
e
A
Information
Provider B
Information
Provider A
Teleservices
3 - Short Message Cell Broadcast
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-45
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-45 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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"
.
SMS-MO/ PP
Radio
PLMN
SMS-MT/ PP
Radio
PLMN
Copyright 1996NorthernTelecom
Teleservices
4 - Short Message Service
SMS-SC
Short Message Service (SMS) allows the point to point transmission of a short
message to/from MS, using their IMSI.
A short message is an alphanumeric string that can be up to 160 characters long
(140 octets).
Two different types of short message are defined:
short message MT/PP (Mobile Terminated / Point to Point),
short message MO/PP (Mobile Originated / Point to Point).
Point to point messages may be sent or received when the MS is engaged on a call
(voice or data), or in idle mode.
However, messages which overlap the boundary of such a call, or during a handover,
may be lost, in which case they will be sent again.
Messages may be input to the SC from a fixed network customer by means of a
suitable telecommunication service either from the fixed network or from a mobile
network customer.
An acknowledgment indicates that the GSM Network has successfully transferred the
message to the mobile telephone or the SC.
Optionally, the SC may offer final delivery notification to the originator. This delivery
report indicates whether this particular message has been correctly received at the
receiving station or not, to the extent that the SC is able to establish this.
It does not indicate whether the message has been read. If the delivery report is
negative, it includes the failure cause. The delivery report is sent to the originator, if
reachable, as soon as the information is available.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-46
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-46 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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"
.
Alternate Speech and Fax:
Automatic fax:
Teleservices
5 - Fax
Fax transmissions are possible via a PLMN only with a Fax-group3 (14.4 kbps).
Two modes are available:
manual mode allows to switch alternatively from voice transmission to fax
transmission,
automatic mode allows to send and receive a fax without any human
intervention; however, voice transmission is impossible in this mode.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-47
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Connections can be made with a suitable data/fax kit adaptation either to other
Mobile Station or to other data users on circuit-switched (PSTN).
The slide gives an example of a suitable data/fax kit and a computer that are directly
connected to the MS.
In the case of making a Fax-call to a PSTN subscriber, the GSM network
automatically selects the suitable modem for the link to the similar modem at the
remote end.
1-47 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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"
.
Teleservices
voice
Teleservices
Fax G3, SMS
Cable that
bears data
Embodied
bearer
treatments for
radio transmission
Data / Fax
kit adaptation
Teleservices
6 - User's Data Call Features
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-48
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Another service derived from telephony is voice messaging. Many operators offer it
as a basic feature.
It enables a voice message to be stored for later retrieval by the mobile recipient,
either because he was not reachable at time of the call or because the calling party
choose to access the voice mailbox of the GSM subscriber directly.
1-48 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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"
.
Voice
message
server
Please leave
a message
after the tone
GSM
network
1
Busy
Voice mail
box
Forward
to voice
mail box
Warming up...
You have
3 voices
messages...
Retrieving the voice
messages
Teleservices
7 - Voice Messaging
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-49
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Calling line identification presentation (CLIP) provides the ability to indicate the
ISDN number of the calling party with possible additional address information to the
called party. This identity is provided to the called subscriber before answering, thus
enabling him to make the decision of whether to take the call or not.
Calling line identification restriction (CLIR) enables the calling party not to send
any address information to the called party.
Connected line identification presentation (CoLP) provides the GSM caller with
the phone number he has reached.
Connected line identification restriction (CoLR) enables the called party not to
send its phone number to the calling party.
Calling Name Presentation (CNAP) provides the calling party name instead of the
ISDN number. However, this service is not yet specified by GSM recommendations.
1-49 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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"
.
Calling line
0609225831
Cnted line
0609173957
Calling Line Identification
presentation (CLIP)
restriction (CLIR)
Connected Line Identification
presentation (CoLP)
restriction (CoLR)
Calling Name Presentation
(CNAP)
Calling Party
CoLP
CLIR
Called Party
CLIP
CoLR
Supplementary Services
1 - Line Identification
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-50
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Call forwarding unconditional (CFU) allows a called mobile subscriber to have the
network send all incoming calls, which are addressed to the called mobile
subscribers directory number, to another directory number.
Call forwarding on mobile subscriber busy (CFB): allows a called mobile
subscriber to have the network send the incoming calls, which are addressed to the
called mobile subscribers directory number and which meet mobile subscriber busy,
definition to another directory number.
Call forwarding on no reply (CFNRy) allows an called mobile subscriber to have
the network send the incoming calls, which are addressed to the subscribers
directory number and which meet no reply, to another directory number.
Call forwarding on MS not reachable (CFNRc) provides for a mobile subscriber to
have the network send all incoming calls, which are addressed to the called mobile
directory number and meet the not reachable definition, to another directory number.
1-50 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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"
.
unconditional (CFU)
on busy (CFB)
on no reply (CFNRy)
on not reachable (CFNRc)
1 2
Supplementary Services
2 - Call Transfer and Call Forwarding
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-51
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Call waiting (CW): provides a mobile subscriber with the possibility of being notified
of an incoming call while his mobile telephone is in the busy state. Subsequently, the
user can either answer, reject, or ignore the incoming call. Both the call waiting and
call hold (described further) options are the same as those offered by the PSTN.
Call Hold (HOLD): allows a served mobile subscriber to interrupt communication on
an existing call and then subsequently, if desired, to reestablish communication.
Multi party service (MPTY):
This Supplementary Service provides a mobile subscriber with the ability to have
a multi-connection call, in other words a simultaneous communication with more
than one party.
A precondition for the multi-party service is that the served mobile subscriber is in
control of one active call and one call on hold, both calls having been answered.
In this situation the served mobile subscriber can request the network to begin
the multiParty service.
Once a multiParty call is active, remote parties may be added, disconnected or
separated (i.e.. removed from the multiParty call but remain connected to the
served mobile subscriber).
The maximum number of remote parties is 5.
1-51 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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"
.
1 2
HOLD
1 2
WAIT
1
2
Multi Party:
1
2
Max = 5 persons
Waiting / Hold:
Supplementary Services
3 - Waiting / Hold and Multi Party
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-52
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Barring of all outgoing call (BAOC): makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to
prevent all outgoing calls.
Barring outgoing international calls (BOIC): allows a mobile subscriber to prevent
all attempted outgoing calls.
BOIC except those directed to the home PLMN country (BOIC-exHC)
Barring of all incoming international (BAIC).
Barring of all incoming calls when roaming outside the home GSM network
country (BIC-Roam): makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all
incoming calls that would otherwise be terminated at his directory number. This only
applies to the case when the mobile subscriber roams outside his home GSM
network.
1-52 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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"
.
z Outgoing (BAOC)
z Outgoing international (BOIC)
z Outgoing international
except home PLMN country (BOIC-exHC)
z Incoming (BAIC)
z Incoming when roaming outside
(BIC-Roam)
Supplementary Services
4 - Call Barring
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-53
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Completion of calls to busy subscribers (CCBS): allows a calling mobile
subscriber who encounters a busy called subscriber to be notified by the system
operator when the busy called subscriber becomes free and have the operator re-
initiate the call if the caller so desires.
This feature has to be supported by both the originating and the terminating
networks.
1-53 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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"
.
2
Speaking
1
1
HELLO
Unable to place
a call.
Reinitiate
the call
SPEAKING
BUSY
...
Speaking
Call is
established
1
This call in state
Idle
Ring !
Ring !
NEW!
Supplementary Services
5 - Call Completion (CCBS)
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-54
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Advice of charge Information (AoCI): informs the user of the real-time information
on progress of the cost of the call.
Advice of charge Charging (AoCC): the mobile may be a money-operated mobile
telephone or a standard mobile station that can display the charging information and
can accept either coins or charge a credit-card.
1-54 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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"
. information on progress
of the cost of the call
Completion of call
need charging
Insert a
SIM credit Card
Advice of Charge Information (AoCI)
Advice of Charge Charging (AoCC)
Supplementary Services
6 - Advice of Charge
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-55
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-55 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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"
.
The aim of the CAMEL (Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced
Logic) is to provide GSM network operators with the ability to create specific
services in their home network, and export these services to their subscribers
when roaming outside the home network.
CAMEL introduces the ability to provide location dependent IN type of services
to mobiles subscribers.
Intelligent Network Services
IN and CAMEL
Main IN Services:
Personal Number
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
Sponsored Cell & Call
Prepaid Calling
Location Inquiry
Geo Zone
The Intelligent Network or IN is a switching network concept.
Its idea is to make GSM services system an open system; that is to say new services
modules can always be added on the previous system without changing its
architecture.
Basic call processing is performed by the switch and when it recognizes that a call
requires an IN service, this service processing is provided by another entity, located
either in the same site or in a remote site.
This concept allows to implement numerous new services such as:
Personal Number: gives the GSM subscribers more control over incoming calls,
Virtual Private Network: a set of corporate services that enables similar functions
to those of private network, among a group of GSM subscribers,
Sponsored Cell and Call: allows a third party, as sponsor, to play announcement
at the beginning of the call,
Prepaid Calling: allows subscriber to pay in advance for the calls they will make.
To communicate between Intelligent Network platforms, GSM specifications define
CAMEL (Customized Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic).
The aim of the CAMEL is to provide network operators with the ability to create
specific services in their home network, and export these services to their subscribers
when roaming outside the home network.
CAMEL introduces the ability to provide location dependent IN type of services to
mobiles subscribers: Location Enquiry and Geo Zone.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-56
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-56 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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"
.
IN Services: Virtual Private Network
C
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p
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rig
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1
9
9
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Copyright 1996NorthernTelecom
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Copyright 1996NorthernTelecom
Copyright 1996NorthernTelecom
C
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Corporate Numbering Plan
Lower rate for on-net calls
Closed User Group
Wireline Access
Speed Dialing
Location & Time
dependant routing
Location & Time
dependant screening
50 c/min
25 c/min
25 c/min
25 c/min
924 63256
Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a set of corporate services that enables private
network like features among a group of GSM subscribers and wireline users; thus,
corporations can distribute GSM phones to their employees, providing them with
many of the services that they use on their existing corporate network:
Private Numbering Plan: subscribers can reach all members of the corporate private
network, GSM as well as wireline, by dialing their usual internal number instead of the
longer, harder to remember, public number.
Off Net Calling: subscribers are allowed to call public numbers that are outside the
corporate private network.
Forced On Net Calling: when a subscriber makes a call to a member of the corporate
private network using their public number (he must also be provisioned with Off Net
Calling), the feature recognizes the call as a private call and treats it as such
(appropriate billing, etc.).
White (/Black) List Screening: subscribers with White (/ Black) List, can only (/ can not)
place calls to numbers listed on it.
Geographic Routing: specific numbers can be configured to route calls differently
depending on the location of the caller.
Time Screening (/ Routing): some specific numbers can be configured to restrict access
(/ to route calls differently) depending on the time of the day, day of the week, day of the
year or whether the day is a statutory holiday.
Privileged Routing: specific numbers can be configured to route calls differently
depending on the identity of the caller.
Closer user group (CUG): provides the possibility for a group of subscribers, connected
to the GSM network and or to the PSTN/ISDN, to communicate only among themselves
or receive external calls; emergency calls still are available.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-57
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-57 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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IN Services: Prepaid Calling
Account status
enquiry and
notification
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Your account
balance
is $ 24.50
C
opyright
1996 N
orthern T
elecom
L
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ts
$
0
.5
0
N
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is
$
2
4
.5
0
Flexible features for easy
service packaging
Multiple Tariff Plans
Tariffs using fixed charge, CC, NC, distance, time & day, roaming
charges...
Possible language selection by subscriber
Bulk account loading for easy provisioning
Multiple recharging options
Copyright 1996NorthernTelecom
RANK1ONE
5542 1139 1464 228 99494
6/91 6/99
VALIDDATES
SCOOBY DOO
Prepaid Calling enables subscribers to control their phone call expenditure, by
deciding how much to spend and limiting themselves to that amount if required.
Subscribers pay in advance for their calls and get their calls released when the
balance becomes null; thus, subscribers get a cost-control (useful for rental
companies, hotels, special events, parents wanting to give mobiles to their children).
With Prepaid Calling, subscribers are able to:
make and receive calls (service is totally transparent to the subscriber during
normal use),
be notified of a low balance or a pending expiry date (if the threshold is reached,
the subscriber can be notified by warning tones before the call is taken down),
use Voice Mail,
query the status of their account at any time from any phone and recharge their
account.
The subscriber can also be informed of his account balance and of the cost of his last
call, at the end of each call, via a short message.
Additionally, the Operator can apply different rates to calls and manage the life of
prepaid subscriptions.
Nortels prepaid solution currently supports all major recharging options, for increased
service usage and enhanced customer satisfaction:
automatically, by vouchers (e.g. scratch card),
automatically, by credit card,
manually (through Customer Services), by any means of payment.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-58
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-58 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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IN Services: Sponsored Cell & Call
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Today, up to 50 % off
on handbags !
Sponsors can also change their
announcements on the phone
...made from
specified
locations
at predefined
times of day
Sponsors can
target specific
customers
by sponsoring
some of their
calls...
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Your next two minute calling
is brought to you free todayby
The leather Shop located on
first level of the Central
Shopping Centre.
Come and visit us
Today, up to 50 % off on
handbags !
Calls fromthis
location are
sponsored.
Todaybuyone
dinner at Bellinis on
Keith Street, near the
cinemas, and get one
free!
Service can be offered via access
code or through subscription
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Sponsored Cell & Call allows a third party (the sponsor) to play a promotional
announcement at the beginning of a call and for this service, pays for part of the
ongoing call.
The main features of Sponsored Cell & Call are:
Choice to sponsor the call & choice of sponsor based on one or more of the following:
the calling party location,
the calling party profile (age ...),
time of day, day of week,
destination (emergency, freephone ...).
Sponsor can change his announcement on the phone.
User can specify certain destinations as not sponsored.
User can have the choice of having his call sponsored or not.
User can cut through the announcement, but the call is not sponsored.
User can be prevented from cutting through the announcement.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-59
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-59 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Promotional
Informations:
call #15
IN Services: Location Inquiry
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Possible customization of announcement
directly by the advertiser
Todays special at
The Anchor is Maine
lobster soup
Be the first ten caller and
get a free cocktail !
The closest restaurants are:
The WindJ ammer
on 132 Flinton Street
Sea food
Phone 55 1968
press 1 to connect
The Palace
on 11 Bourke Street
Chinese food
Phone 55 0407
press 2 to connect
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Copyright 1996NorthernTelecom
Cell dependent information
Direct connection to advertisers
The closest restaurants are:
The Tower, Tower Hill,
Phone 56 4589,
Press 1 to connect
The Anchor
St Catherine Dock
Phonce 56 2548
Press 2 to connect
Location Inquiry provides GSM subscribers with information on where to locate
useful services in their current vicinity.
It enables easy connection to any service they are interested in and wish to talk to.
However, while GSM subscribers are out of the office or away from home, they do not
have access to this information easily e.g. yellow pages, guides.
Most of time, they may be even more reliant on this information because they often
are in a foreign environment, e.g. in another part of town or out of town.
The Location Inquiry service brings in a third party known as the Advertiserwho
seeks to sell their products/services using the operators network.
Location Inquiry may also list services such as hospitals, doctors, pharmacies, etc.
and be promoted as a personal security service.
The main features of Location Inquiry are:
location dependent information based on subscribers cell,
possible customization of the announcement by the advertiser (special offer of
the day ...).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-60
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-60 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Different rates applied to calls made from specific locations
Copyright 1996NorthernTelecom
50 c/min 10 c/min 15 c/min
Specific rates applied to calls made from Home/Office zone
Home Zone Office Zone
Wide Area
Cellular
C opyright
1996
N orthern
T elecom
Multiple zones can be defined
Notification of current
zone before call set-up:
when in home/office zone
and/or
when out of zones
Copyright 1996NorthernTelecom
This call is being
made outside of your
home zone.
Wait to complete it or
hang-up now.
IN Services: Geo Zone
1 - Outgoing Calls
The main features of the outgoing side of Geo Zone are:
zone dependent tariffing of outgoing calls:
- up to 4 zones per subscriber,
- each zone has its own tariff,
information on the current zone available to the subscriber via:
- announcement or tones at the beginning of the call,
- optionally by a display on the mobile (in which case it must support it, which
means specific development on the handset).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-61
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1-61 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Fixed network service with built-in mobility
Notification of current
zone before incoming
call is connected:
when in home/office zone
and/or
when out of zones
Copyright 1996NorthernTelecom
You are going to be
charged 5 c/min for
this call.
Wait to accept it or
hang-up now.
IN Services: Geo Zone
2 - Incoming Calls
With Notification
When you are at home,
you are called directly
When you are away from home,
you decide if the call is routed to:
OR
Copyright 1996NorthernTelecom
Your Caller pays
fixed line rate
You pay nothing
Your Caller pays
fixed line rate
You pay nothing
Your Caller pays
fixed line rate
You pay the
forwarding leg
Voice mail
Calling the fixed number
Copyright 1996 Northern Telecom
The main features of the incoming side of Geo Zone are:
routing of incoming calls according to the subscribers location:
- if the subscriber is in his Geo Zone, the call is routed to his mobile handset,
thus he does not have to pay anything,
- if the subscriber is out of his Geo Zone, the call can be either routed to his
voice-mail, or to his mobile handset; in the last case the subscriber pays for
the forwarding leg,
information on the current zone available to the subscriber, when receiving a call
via:
- announcement or tones before the call is connected.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-62
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1- What are the three categories of services defined in GSM?
2- What are the two types of short messages?
3- What are the two required pieces of equipment for data exchanges in GSM (one in
the MS, the other in the MSC)?
4- What are the user data rates which were selected for GSM?
1-62 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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1- What are the three categories of services defined in GSM?
2- What are the two types of short messages?
3- What are the two required pieces of equipment for data exchanges in
GSM (one in the MS, the other in the MSC)?
4- What are the user data rates which were selected for GSM?
Check Your Learning
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 1-63
Introduction
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5- What is the CLIP supplementary service?
6- What is the CoLP supplementary service?
7- What is the MPTY supplementary service?
8- What is the call forwarding supplementary services?
1-63 Introduction PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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5- What is the CLIP supplementary service?
6- What is the CoLP supplementary service?
7- What is the MPTY supplementary service?
8- What is the call forwarding supplementary services?
Check Your Learning (continue)
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-1
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-1 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Section 5
Cellular Principles
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-2
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-2 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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After completing this lesson you will be able to:
Explain what a radio cell is
List the various types of cells
Explain what a clutter is
Have basic notions on Link Budget
Explain what an Erlang is
Explain what a frequency reuse pattern is
Have basic notions on Link Budget
Provide an introduction to the concept
of cellular radio networks.
Objectives
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-3
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-3 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Radio Design
The first step in designing a GSM cellular network consists in dimensioning the cells
which are the basic elements of the system.
The size of the cell is dependant on several parameters and must be determined on
a case per case basis at the implementation stage, even if the preliminary design
stage takes few cell models.
Both technical and economical aspects influence the design.
The first layer of the above drawing indicates that before implementing a network, an
operator will list and use his locations as much as possible, for economical reasons.
As a result the given position and height of the location will influence the range of the
cell. The exact situation and height of the pole and antennas can also be determined
or imposed by the microwave links.
The marketing requirements are translated into coverage areas with their associated
quality of service and traffic needs.
The operator is given a limited number of radio channels which leads to limited
resources in a given cell, depending on the chosen frequency reuse policy.
It appears then that a cell is determined by two factors: one is radio range depending
on antenna height, environment, quality of service and the other is traffic or
subscribers per cell.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-4
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The Erlang B formula used to compute the resource number is quite complicated:
A good approximate result can be obtained by using the following formula:
N = A + kA
1/2
where:
N is the number of resources needed to provide A Erlangs with the Br,
Blocking Rate expressed in 10 at power -k: Br =10
-k
For Erlang C, the concept of blocking rate is no more used. The calls instead of
being rejected, when no resource is available, are held for a given time, queuing is
used. That is to say, the user has a probability of waiting more than a given time
before getting the line.
As an example, using the first formula, 117 resources provide 100 Erlangs at 1%
blocking rate. If the approximate formula is used, 117 become 120.
When queuing is implemented, 1% blocking is converted into 1% probability of
waiting more than 0.1 second or 1probability of waiting more than 0.38 second.
Generally the values used for a mobile subscriber are in the 20 to 50 mErl range at
1% to 5% blocking rate.
N!
A
...
1!
A
1
N!
A
Br
N
N
+ + +
=
5-4 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Average number of busy channels
during the period of observation
(usually, the peak hour).
Erlang B:
At some time some users can need the resource simultaneously:
the use of the resource is associated with a blocking rate.
Erlang C:
When users request the resource at the same time, instead of rejecting the extra calls,
users are requested to wait some time before getting the line.
Example:
One user speaking on the phone for three minutes out of one hour will need:
3/60 = .05 ERLANG or 50 mErl
Erlang is the unit of statistical resource use.
Erlang Concept
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-5
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
This table and the two following ones are look-up tables for dimensioning the
number of radio resources necessary to cope with the traffic for a given site
(omnisectorial:Ox, bisectorial: Sxx, or trisectorial: Sxxx site).
X represents the number of transceivers in a given cell, the indicated Erlangs are
for the entire site.
These tables are a summary of the detailed dimensioning method, using a
standard traffic model with 28% of Erlang traffic dedicated to signaling.
For other traffic model or blocking rate, these tables are no more valid and
computations must be redone using the Erlang B formula for traffic channels on one
way and signaling channels on the other.
These tables are only to illustrate the Erlang law with a given subscriber profile and
with Nortel equipment, they have not to be used as generic ones.
We need to define TCH blocking rate and SDCCH blocking rate for both traffic and
signaling.
5-5 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Dimensioning Look-up Tables
Blocking Rate; Ratio and Abis Interfaces: Omni Sites
PCM E1 (31 TS) / PCM T1 (24 TS)
Blocking factor = 2.0%
8 TRX/LAPD
* Combined BCCH
1 17 1 1
LAPD
Total
PCM /TS
DTI
boards
PCM/E1
DTI
boards
PCM/T1
1 3 1 1
1 5 1 1
1 7 1 1
1 9 1 1
1 11 1 1
1 13 1 1
1 15 1 1
O 8 48.7 6.1 59 1 4
TRX Erlangs E/TRX TCH BCCH SDCCH/8
O 1 2.93 2.9 7 1* 0
O 2 8.2 4.1 14 1 1
O 3 14 4.7 21 1 2
O 4 21 5.3 29 1 2
O 5 27.3 5.4 36 1 3
O 6 34.7 5.8 44 1 3
O 7 42.1 6 52 1 3
EXAMPLE - NORTEL PRODUCT SPECIFIC
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-6
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-6 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Dimensioning Look-up Tables
Blocking Rate; Radio and Abis Interfaces: Bisectorial Sites
PCM E1 (31 TS)/PCM T1 (24 TS)
Blocking Rate = 2.0%
8TRX / LAPD
TRX Erlangs E/TRX TCH BCCH SDCCH/8
LAPD TS
number
Total PCM
Time slots
E1 PCM T1 PCM
S 11 5.86 2.93 14 2x1* 2x0 1 5 1 1
S 22 16.4 4.1 28 2x1 2x1 1 9 1 1
S 33 28 4.7 42 2x1 2x2 1 13 1 1
S 44 42 5.3 58 2x1 2x2 1 17 1 1
S 55 54.6 5.5 72 2x1 2x3 2 22 1 1
S 66 69.4 5.8 88 2x1 2x3 2 26 1 2
S 77 84.2 6.0 104 2x1 2x3 2 30 1 2
S 88 97.4 6.1 118 2x1 2x4 2 34 2 2
* Combined BCCH
EXAMPLE - NORTEL PRODUCT SPECIFIC
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-7
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
These tables give immediately the number of TRX and PCM time slots on Abis
interface.
Case of omni-directional sites (one cell) or multi-sectorial sites (several cells):
Starting with total offered traffic in Erlangs as input data in the table, on the
same line are given: TRX number, LAPD number, total PCM time slots number,
PCM board number.
Note:
LAPD for multi-sectorial sites:
One or several LAPD time slots are dedicated per sector, instead of grouping
the LAPD time slots on the site.
Exception for low medium traffic multi-sectorial sites: signaling is grouped as
indicated in tables, to save LAPD time slots.
Note:
Check that TRX number is in compliance with:
Total number of radio channels (TCH +BCCH +SDCCH/8) (number of TRX)
x 8.
Check BTS load constraint (BCF dimensioning rules).
Note:
Sxyz (x y z)
For dimensioning, consider Sxyz as three omni-directional: Ox, Oy, Oz.
5-7 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Dimensioning Look-up Tables
Blocking Rate; Radio and Abis Interfaces: Trisectorial Sites
* Combined BCCH
PCM E1 (31 TS) / PCM T1 (24 TS)
Blocking factor = 2.0%
8 TRX/LAPD
TRX Erlangs E/TRX TCH BCCH SDCCH/8 LAPD
Total
PCM /TS
DTI
boards
PCM/E1
DTI
boards
PCM/T1
S 111 8.79 2.93 21 3 x 1* 3 x 0 1 7 1 1
S 222 24.6 4.1 42 3 x 1 3 x 1 1 13 1 1
S 333 42 4.7 63 3 x 1 3 x 2 3 21 1 1
S 444 63 5.3 87 3 x 1 3 x 2 3 27 1 2
S 555 81.9 5.5 108 3 x 1 3 x 3 3 33 2 2
S 666 104.1 5.8 132 3 x 1 3 x 3 3 39 2 2
S 777 126.3 6.0 156 3 x 1 3 x 3 3 45 2 2
S 888 146.1 6.1 177 3 x 1 3 x 4 3 51 2 3
EXAMPLE - NORTEL PRODUCT SPECIFIC
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-8
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-8 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Example of Field Strength Variation for GSM 1800
-100
-90
-80
-70
-60
-50
-40
-30
-20
-10
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000
Distance (m)
F
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(
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Measurement
Free Space
Zoom on
Short Term Fading
Long Term Fading
2 m
/2
Fading
Information exchanged between MS and BTS is transported by means of radio
waves which are attenuated, reflected or diffracted, on their path.
The received signal is the sum of different signals resulting from these effects,
sometimes constructive, sometimes destructive.
Free-space loss is calculated using the following formula:
Loss (dB) =32.4 +20*log(d) +20*log(f) where d is the distance between BTS and
MS expressed in km and f the frequency expressed in MHz.
In practice, the radio waves are not in free-space propagation conditions and the
term depending on distance can vary from 20*log(d) for free space to 40*log(d) for
very dense urban, depending on the environment.
Practical expressions of path loss are given here, depending on frequency and
environment. They come from several measurements, are statistical and represent
the mean variation to which short term and long term fading have to be added:
Rural (BTS antenna at 100 m) Urban (BTS antenna at 50 m)
GSM 900 90.7 +31.8log(d) 123.3 +33.7log(d)
Rural (BTS antenna at 60 m) Urban (BTS antenna at 50 m)
GSM 1800 100.1 +33.3log(d) 133.2 +33.8log(d)
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-9
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-9 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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TRAFFIC
LIMITED
AREA
(10000
subscriber
per km
2
)
COVERAGE
LIMITED
AREA
(-75 dBm
at cell edge)
COVERAGE
LIMITED
AREA
(-70 dBm
at cell edge)
Coverage or Traffic Limitations
At the advent of GSM, subscribers were very few, and the radio resources available
in each cell were sufficient to cope with the call requests.
As subscriber numbers grew, some dense urban cells became congested, and the
need of extra radio resources appeared. The solution was to add extra sites to
provide extra channels even if the radio coverage was good enough. This is called
cell splitting.
For radio coverage, the use of a link budget calculation sheet is necessary. The size
of the cell in this case is determined by the signal strength necessary at the edge of
the cell.
For capacity limited areas, the BTS manages a given maximum number of
subscribers. To determine the number of sites necessary to provide the service is
simply to divide the amount of subscribers located in the area by the number of
subscribers managed by one site.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-10
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-10 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Cell Sectorization
TRI
OMNI
BI
Three types of site coverage are shown, on the same scale: omni, bi and tri.
Each site is equipped with optimum antennas.
Sectorization provides higher cell range thus allowing reduction of number of sites
and easier frequency reuse.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-11
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-11 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Omnidirectional Site Antennas
These pictures show one omni antenna as well as an omni site with space diversity.
On the right are printed the vertical radiation patterns with no electrical tilt (top) and
with electrical tilt (bottom).
Mechanical tilt is not used on omni antennas.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-12
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-12 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Bi and Trisectorial Site Antennas
These two pictures illustrate bi and trisector sites with space diversity.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-13
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-13 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Three Dimensions Antenna Pattern
An easier way to understand antenna radiation pattern is to display it in three
dimensions with the relative radiated power (from maximum gain).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-14
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-14 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Clutters
Radio waves behave differently depending on the environment, and the radio range
can vary from few hundred meters to several kilometers.
It is then important to classify the different types of environment included in the area
to be provided with GSM service.
As an example the map presented above shows a city and its surroundings,
classified into fourteen types of environment or clutters.
A link budget is established for each clutter, defining a specific cell size.
Example of Dense Urban clutter
Areas within urban perimeter. This includes dense urban
areas with dense development where built-up features do
not appear distinct from each other. It also includes built-up
features of the downtown district with heights below 40 m.
Example of Mean Urban clutter
Areas with urban perimeter. The mean urban clutter should
have mean street density with no pattern, the major streets
are visible, the built-up features appear distinct from each
other. Some small vegetation could be included. Average
height is below 40 m.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-15
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-15 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Parameters
Frequency
Base Height
Mobile Height
Environment
1800 MHz
40.0 m
1,5 m
Urban
RX TX
Mobile
Antenna Gain
-2 dB
Cable Loss
0 dB
Output Power
Sensiti vity
-100 dBm
30 dBm
Antenna Gain (65)
Jumper Loss
Feeder Loss
Sensiti vity
-110 dBm
18 dBi
3 dB
Options
Rx Diversity Gain: 5 dB
Overlapping Margi n: 0 dB
Penetration Factor
Body Loss 3 dB
15 dB
Outdoor Minimum Field
95%: -80 dBm
Coverage Range
95%: 810 m
0.5 dB
Base Station
Max TX Output Power
RXm RXd
44.8 dBm
Coupling system
Tx l oss
4.5 dB
Link Budget Presentation
The purpose of the link budget calculation is to determine the range of the cell
with given equipment and quality of service in a specific environment.
First of all the technical characteristics of the BTS and the MS are taken into
account: output power and input sensitivity as well as the feeder losses and
antenna gain on the BTS side and body losses and antenna gain on the MS
side.
Secondly, quality of service is specified using various elements: percentage of
area covered inside the cell (ex: 95%), indoor penetration losses (ex: 18 dB),
overlapping margin (ex: 3 dB).
Thirdly, environment is specified (ex: urban) with antennas height, for both BTS
and MS.
Radio wave propagation losses are dependent on frequency (GSM 900 or 1800), and
environment. This is taken into account in the link budget.
The above diagram illustrates all the elements used in the link budget for determining
the maximum path loss for the radio waves, from BTS to MS (downlink) and from MS
to BTS (uplink).
The worst case or lowest path loss allowed will be used to calculate the cell range in
the specified conditions.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-16
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-16 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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LINK BUDGET V4.1
CONTRACT: BIDON
ENVIRONMENT: DENSE URBAN
SITETYPE: S8000IN/OUTDOOR H2D
INDOOR Ref: /GDC/IRC/97/????
LINKBUDGETCALCULATION
BTS MS
TX PA OUTPUT POWER: 30.00W ( max30.00W ) 1.00W
"" 44.8dBm 30.0dBm
COMBINER LOSSES: 4.9dB None
SPECIFICTX CABLELOSSES: 0.0dB None
RX SENSITIVITY: -110.0dBm -100.0dBm
ANTENNA GAIN (ISO.): 18.0dBi -2.0dBi
COMMON CABLELOSSES: 3.5dB 0.0dB
BODY LOSSES: None 3.0dB
RX DIVERSITY GAIN: 5.0dB
OVERLAPPINGMARGIN: 0.0dB
IN CAR PENETRATION FACTOR: 0.0dB
INDOOR PENETRATION FACTOR: 15.0dB
OPERATINGFREQUENCY: 1800MHz
EQUIVALENT E.I.R.P: 54.4dBm
TOTAL UPLINK BUDGET: 139.5dB
TOTAL DOWNLINK BUDGET: 134.4dB
WORST LINK BUDGET: 134.4dB
OUTDOOR MINIMUM FIELD: -80.0dBm (62.3dBV/m)
ST231 - HATAMACROCELLULARPROPAGATIONMODEL(1.5 GHz - 2G
SITEANTENNA HEIGHT: 40.0m
PROPAGATIONCOEFFICIENT: 34.41
PATHLOSSAT 1Km: 134.5dB
MAX SUB. ENVIRONMENT CORRECTION: -11.9dB
MAX RURAL ENVIRONMENT CORRECTION: -31.9dB
SELECTEDENVIRONMENT CORRECTION: 3.0dB
SELECTEDENVIRONMENT STANDARDDEVIAT 7.0dB
REQUIREDOUTDOORQUALITY AT -80dBm: 50%
SHADOWMARGIN: 0.0dB
MAXIMUM COVERAGERANGE: 0.81km
OMNID. EQUIVALENT HEXAGONAREA: 1.706km2
OMNID. AVERAGESITESEPARATION: 1.40km
TRISECTOREQUIVALENT 3HEXAG. AREA: 1.280km2
TRISECTORAVERAGESITESEPARATION: 1.22km
PREDICTION TOOLPARAMETERS
FOR INTERNALUSEONLY
SITEEIRP: 54.4dBm
DESIGNMINIMUM FIELD: -80.0dBm
MODEL ERRORSTANDARDDEVIATION: 8.0dB
REQUIREDDESIGNOUTDOORQUAL AT -80.0dB 50%( corresp. margin-6.7dB)
PREDICTIONMARGIN: 9.0dB ( resultingqual. 95.3%)
PRED. THRESHOLD: -71.0dBm
Link Budget Calculation
The link budget tool is an Excel calculation sheet using the COST-231-HATA (for
1800 Mhz) or HATA (for 900 Mhz) propagation model to determine the cell range
and area for a given set of site parameters, quality of service and environment.
These aspects are detailed in the GSM 03.30 recommendation where various link
budgets are presented as well as the different propagation models.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-17
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-17 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
1
Diversity
Example of two received signals from two antennas spaced by around twenty
wavelengths.
Similar curves could be obtained with signals coming from two antennas with
different polarization for example one at +45 and another at -45.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-18
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-18 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Diversity
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
1
A simple explanation of diversity is for example to say that at every instant, the
best signal is kept: dark curve.
This illustrates that the averaged signal has increased significantly.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-19
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-19 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Theoretical Cells
All areas to be provided with GSM service are characterized and classified.
For areas where traffic is the limiting factor, the site number is just resulting from
the division of number of subscribers in the area by the maximum subscribers
managed by one site.
For each clutter where coverage is the limiting factor, one link budget is
established giving a theoretical size of the corresponding cell with which the area
is paved.
This step gives a first estimation of the number and type of sites needed to reach
the marketing goals.
Before deployment, Cell Planning has to be performed carefully to determine the
exact site positions and practical coverage, taking into account the existing and
friendly sites.
This is performed with the help of a planning tool which inputs are terrain database
with clutters, sites characteristics and EIRP and signal strength coming from the
link budgets.
The final step is to deliver a list and characteristics of sites after frequency
planning is performed.
This process is iterative until theoretical site positions match to practical ones.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-20
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1710 - 1990 MHz Antenna
22.8 dBi gain
Horizontal diagram
29 -3 dB aperture
5-20 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Calculated Coverage (Bisectorial Site)
1 cell 1 site
0
180
150
120
90
60
30
270
300
330
210
240
180
150
120
90
60
30
270
300
330
210
240
0
0 dB
-10 dB
-20 dB
-30 dB
Vertical diagram
5.5 -3 dB aperture
For antenna detailed aspects :
see RF0 (RF basics) course
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-21
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-21 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Calculated Coverage (Trisectorial Site)
1 Cell
1 site
1710 - 1990 MHz Antenna
18.8 dBi gain
Horizontal diagram
63 -3 dB aperture
0
180
150
120
90
60
30
270
300
330
210
240
-10 dB
-20 dB
-30 dB
180
150
120
90
60
30
270
300
330
210
240
0
0 dB
-10 dB
-20 dB
-30 dB
Vertical diagram
7 -3 dB aperture
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-22
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-22 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Accurate Terrain Database
To illustrate the coverage closer to reality, a more precise terrain database
(2 to 5 m) is necessary as shown above (5m) .
As common sense would say, for modeling, more the model is close to reality,
more the results are accurate.
Building height is an important parameter for macro cellular design, the three
dimensions terrain databases are then a good investment for the design of the
network as well as for monitoring and optimizing.
Typically, a big building or a wide street close to the site will have an important
impact: shadow or line of sight propagation which can lead to high interference
level in some locations.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-23
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-23 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Calculated Cell Coverage (Trisectorial Site)
This coverage map coming from a trisectorial site, illustrates the statistical
representation. It more obviously appears that an hexagon is not sufficient to
represent a cell.
Some areas can be provided with coverage very far away from the average range of
the cell in line of sight conditions which can cause interference.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-24
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-24 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Calculated Network Coverage
After having determined the sites, their characteristics (position, type, antenna
type and height, EIRP) they are loaded into a prediction tool as well as the terrain
database (heights, clutters,vectors).
The tool calculates the path loss and generates a coverage map showing the
signal strength in every point.
Several iterations are necessary to reach the final coverage which will be definitive
only after the design of the frequency planning.
This coverage map is statistical as being the result of a calculation over clutter
which are statistically specified.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-25
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-25 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Assumptions 1
- Antenna Height = 25 m
Area to cover : 100 km
- Quality of coverage = 95 %
165 sites
(0.6 Km)
- Indoor Penetration = 15 dB
Assumptions 2
- Antenna Height = 20 m
- Quality of coverage = 98 %
410 sites
(0.25 Km)
- Indoor Penetration = 18 dB
Site Calculation
The two examples indicated here are to show the influence of a small change on
three dimensioning parameters. More information is available in the tables below:
Number of sites Coverage range Worst Link Budget Covered area
135 dB
125 dB
72 % 52 % 190 %
129 dB 93 % 88 % 114 %
130 dB 100 % 100 % 100 %
131 dB 107 % 114 % 88 %
132 % 190 % 52 %
Number of sites Coverage range Antenna height Covered area
20 m
100 % 100 % 100 %
25 m 109 % 119 % 84 %
30 m 117 % 137 % 73%
40 m 132 % 174 %
57%
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 100
200 300 400 500 600 700
Number of sites (100 taken as reference)
R
a
d
i
o
Q
o
C
(
%
)
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-26
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-26 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Quality of Service
Operator Dependent Formula
(NORTEL VALUE)
QoS QoS= 100 - [ P
1
(50) x Call Drop Ratio +
P
2
(10) x Call Establishment Failure Ratio +
P
3
(10) x Traffic Channel allocation Failure Ratio +
P
4
(10) x Signaling Channel allocation Failure Ratio +
P
5
(10) x Incoming intra BSC Hand Over Failure Ratio +
P
6
(10) x Incoming inter BSC Hand Over Failure Ratio ]
To build a GSM network, quality of coverage and interference level are the main
criteria, but when the network is implemented the end user quality perception is
different.
This quality is appreciated trough the ability to make a call, to maintain it with good
voice quality while moving without being cut off.
From the OMC-R metrics, the operator can translate the subscriber perception of
its network through a mathematical expression including several measurable ratios:
Call Drop,
Establishment Failure,
TCH and SDCCH allocation failure,
Handover failure.
P
1
+P
2
+P
3
+P
4
+P
5
+P
6
=100
Nortel commonly used values:
P
1
=50
P
2
=P
3
=P
4
=P
5
=P
6
=10
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-27
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-27 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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P
1
2
P
Calculated Cell Coverage
To be able to make a GSM call, the first condition is to get sufficient signal strength.
But this is not enough, this signal must be understandable by the mobile which
means not to receive two similar signals from two different BTS using the same
frequency.
As an example points P or P on the picture may receive good signal from sites 1 and
2, but depending on the relative levels and frequencies, the communication can be
performed successfully or not.
Interference can occur at the MS side where two or more BTSs having the same
frequency are received with similar levels. Similarly at the BTS side when two
mobiles communicating with two different BTS can be received by one with similar
levels.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-28
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-28 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Interfering signal
Wanted signal
Power
Power
Frequency
Frequency
combined
signal
Power
Frequency
f1
f1
f1
The two signals are
superimposed
Cochannel Interference
Cochannel interference occurs when two signals are being transmitted by two
different cells on the same frequency and both are received by the same telephone
mobile.
The two signals are then superimposed, interfering with one another and creating a
signal that cannot be recognized.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-29
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-29 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
C (0 dB)
I
c
(-9dB)
I
a1
(+9dB)
I
a2
(+41dB)
F1 + 200 kHz + 400 kHz
Interferer Limits
FREQUENCY AXIS
LEVEL AXIS
GSM specifications state that system and equipment must operate with specific
ratios of carrier to interferer:
C/Ic or useful signal over interfering signal at same frequency may be as low
as 9 dB,
C/Ia1 or useful signal over interfering signal at 200 kHz may be as low as
-9 dB,
C/Ia2 or useful signal over interfering signal at 400 kHz may be as low as
-41 dB,
C/Ia3 or useful signal over interfering signal at 600 kHz may be as low as
-49 dB.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-30
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-30 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Frequency
Group A1
Frequency
Group A1
Other
frequencies
Other
frequencies
Reuse distance D
R
Wanted signal
Interfering signal
R
The Frequency Reuse Distance
C = "useful" signal
I = Interfere signal
= Constant depending on the environment type.
Ex: down-town =4
rural =2.

=
R
D
6
1
I
C
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-31
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-31 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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B4
A4 B3
C4
B2
B1 A2
C2
C3
A1
C1
A1
A3
4*3 Reuse
Pattern
of 12 cells
Distance of
frequency reuse
Trisectorial
Site
A1
C1
B1
A3
A2
C2 B2
C3 B3 A4
A1
C4
B4
C1
B1 A2
B2 C2
A3
A3 C2 B2
C1
B1
A2
C3
B3 A4
C4 B4
C3 B3 A4
B4
C4
A4
B4
A2
B2
A4
B4
A2
B2
C3
C1
C3
C1
Frequency Reuse Pattern
Channels are reused at regular distance intervals. The mechanismthat governs this
process is called frequency planning.
The slide shows an example of N =12 frequency plan where the available
frequencies of a GSM network are placed.
This set of 12 cells is called a frequency reuse pattern and is generally used for
BCCH frequency plan.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-32
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-32 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Frequency Plan
A practical example of 4*3 reuse frequency pattern is displayed here, one color
represents a frequency group.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-33
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-33 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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High sensiti vity to
interference
Requires " secured"
Frequency reuse pattern
High isolation from
interferences
A few Frequencies
intensi vel y reused
MACRO - CELL:
antenna radiating above roofs
---> Wide Coverage ( 35 km)
MICRO-CELL:
Antenna below the roofs
---> small coverage
PICO-CELL:
Antenna inside building
---> Very small coverage
EXTENDED - CELL:
macro cell with system coverage
extension ( 120 km) for coasts...
CONCENTRIC - CELL:
macro cell with system coverage
limitation inside another macro
Different Types of Cells
As capacity needs increase, various solutions have to be implemented to provide
local extra capacity.
Micro cells provide coverage to one or several streets as well as indoor coverage
improvement.
Pico cells provide specific service in given buildings, shopping malls, conference
halls
Concentric cells allow provision of extra capacity close to the site by adding TRXs
with system limitations reducing their coverage range.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-34
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-34 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
(Microcell Site) Calculated Cell Coverage
Macro cells are used to provide coverage, but as traffic demand increases, radio
resources being limited, the operator is obliged to densify the network that is to
say add extra sites. There is a limit in using more and more macro cells (problems
to find sites) and one solution is to add micro cells to provide capacity locally.
The above coverage map shows the area covered with this kind of micro cell
which shape has nothing compared to an hexagon.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-35
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-35 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Macrocell
Antenna
Microcell
Antenna
Umbrella cell
Macrocell
Microcell
Fast speed
vehicle
Slow speed
vehicle after
direction change
Pedestrian
cell 2
cell 1
Cell Layering
2 layers
model
Micro-cells can be seen as an efficient design for mobile network to improve:
indoor propagation,
network capacity.
The actual solution consists in creating a two layers model:
macro-cell or umbrella cell layer dedicated in priority to fast speed users,
micro-cells layer, dedicated to slow speed mobile (pedestrian, traffic jam).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-36
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
100 Erlangs are provided by a trisectorial site with six TRX per cell
60 Erlangs are provided by a trisectorial site with four TRX per cell
100 Erlangs are provided by a trisectorial site with two TRX per cell
5-36 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Exercise
100
100
100
20
60 100
100
60 60
20
20
20
20
20
20
60
40
20
20
Considering this radio coverage, could you identify the topology of the
different areas?
Figures indicates Base Stations
Erlang capacity
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-37
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-37 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Solution: Topology of Different Areas
100
100
100
20
60 100
100
60 60
20
20
20
20
20
20
60
40
20
20
Town
Rural
Suburb
Highway
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 5-38
Cellular Principles
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
5-38 Cellular Principles PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Frequency Reuse Pattern
Exercise
B4
A4 B3
C4
B2
B1 A2
C2
C3
C1
A1
A3
B3
B2
B1 A2
C2
C3
C1
A1
A3
This exercise depicts the advantages of the frequency reuse pattern assuming the
following data for bandwidth, and number of cells, over the same service area to be
covered.
Assumptions:
Operator bandwidth: 9.6 MHz (48 freq.).
36 cells (12 tri-sectorial sites).
Channel spacing: 200 kHz.
TDMA: 8 channels per carrier.
Questions:
What are the number of channels available within this area for these two cases:
1 case: reuse pattern =12 cells?
2 case: reuse pattern =9 cells?
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-1
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-1 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Section 6
Radio Interface
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-2
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-2 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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After completing this lesson you will be able to:
Explain the purposes of the radio interface
Show how GSM organizes its radio channels
Identify the physical channels and the logical channels
Relate basic steps that GSM must perform for the successful
transmission over the radio interface
Explain how GSM use its logical channels at call setup
Provides an introduction to the Radio Interface
Objectives
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-3
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-3 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS-1 BTS-2
Speech and user's data
Signaling
BTS
Functions of the Radio Interface
The radio interface in the GSM system is responsible for maintaining communication
between the fixed network and mobile subscribers.
The radio interface serves two major functions in the GSM system.
To transport user information, both speech and data:
- Bi-directional speech transmission at rate of 13 kbps (full rate).
- Bi-directional data transmission: 300, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 bps.
To exchange signaling messages between the mobile station and the network
(e.g. call in progress indication and preparation and execution of handovers).
Signaling by preemption over the existing communication.
- Signaling over a dedicated channel.
The transmission resource used to fulfill this radio need is the channel.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-4
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-4 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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890 MHz 915 MHz 935 MHz 960 MHz
Uplink Downlink
Example:
Channel 48
0 124 channel # 0 124 channel #
Frequency Frequency
Duplex spacing = 45 MHz
Frequency band spectrum = 2 x 25 MHz
Channel spacing = 200 kHz
BTS
GSM Uses Paired Radio Channels
Case of GSM 900
A pair of channels are used for full duplex communications. Thus GSM uses both the
uplink and the downlink bands of a given spectrum.
In other words, a channel refers to a pair of frequencies used for a cellular radio talk
path. One is used for cell site to mobile transmission while the other is used for mobile
to cell site transmission.
GSM signal requires channels spacing of 200 kHz.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-5
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The carrier frequency is designated by the absolute radio frequency channel
number (ARFCN). If we call Fl(n) the frequency value of the carrier ARFCN n in
the lower band, and Fu(n) the corresponding frequency value in the upper band,
we have:
P-GSM 900 Fl(n) =890 +0.2*n 1 n 124 Fu(n) =Fl(n) +45
E-GSM 900 Fl(n) =890 +0.2*n 0 n 124 Fu(n) =Fl(n) +45
Fl(n) =890 +0.2*(n-1024) 975 n 1023
R-GSM 900 Fl(n) =890 +0.2*n 0 n 124 Fu(n) =Fl(n) +45
Fl(n) =890 +0.2*(n-1024) 955 n 1023
DCS 1800 Fl(n) =1710.2 +0.2*(n-512) 512 n 885 Fu(n) =Fl(n) +95
Frequencies are in MHz
6-5 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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GSM systems Uplink Downlink Band Duplex Duplex
Spacing channels
P-GSM 900 890-915 935-960 2x25 45 124
E-GSM 900 880-915 925-960 2x35 45 174
R-GSM 900 876-915 921-960 2x39 45 194
GSM 1800 1710-1785 1805-1880 2x75 95 374
GSM 1900 1850-1910 1930-1990 2x60 80 299
GSM Band Allocations (MHz)
P-GSM 900 Fl(n) =890 +0.2*n 1 n 124 Fu(n) =Fl(n) +45
E-GSM 900 Fl(n) =890 +0.2*n 0 n 124 Fu(n) =Fl(n) +45
Fl(n) =890 +0.2*(n-1024) 975 n 1023
R-GSM 900 Fl(n) =890 +0.2*n 0 n 124 Fu(n) =Fl(n) +45
Fl(n) =890 +0.2*(n-1024) 955 n 1023
GSM 1800 Fl(n) =1710.2 +0.2*(n-512) 512 n 885 Fu(n) =Fl(n) +95
ARFCN =n
Frequencies are in MHz
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-6
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-6 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Time
4.615 ms
TDMA frame
Physical channel # 2 = recurrence of time-slot # 2
TDMA frame
0 9.23 ms
Time-slot
(frames repeat continuously)
TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
GSM Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
Frame and Physical Channels
A frame (TDMA), 8 successive Time-Slots (TS), has a duration of 60/13 ms or
4.615385 ms.
A TS, has a duration of 15/26 ms or 0.576923 ms.
A physical channel is made of the recurrence of the same TS taken from successive
frames.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-7
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-7 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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MS2
// //
ARFCN
0
1
123
FDMA
BTS
0
TDMAs
TS
7
n
n-1
n+1
MS3
MS1
time
Physical Channel
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-8
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-8 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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GSM Delays Uplink TDMA Frames
Downlink TDMA
T T T T T T T T
R T MS1
R T
MS2
Down
link
Up
link
Fixed transmit
delay of three
time-slots
R R R R R R R R
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
The start of the uplink TDMA
is delayed of three time-slots
BTS side
MSs side
BTS
TDMA Frame (4.615 ms)
The start of an uplink TDMA frame is delayed with respect to downlink by a fixed
period of three timeslots. Why? Staggering TDMA frames allows the same timeslot
number (TN) to be used in both the down and uplink while avoiding the
requirement for mobile to transmit and receive simultaneously.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-9
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-9 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Propagation Delays
MS2
MS1 d
1
>>d
2
d
2
BTS Frame reference
MSs transmit
Propagation Delay
p
TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS6 TS5 TS7
Bits Overlapping
On the radio path, propagation delays can not be ignored. Indeed, 1 km
corresponds to a propagation delay of 3.33 s (compare to a bit period of 48/13
= 3.7 s).
But the BTS receives continuously, and has its own scheduling. The mobile
station must balance itself the propagation delay, in order to avoid overlapping in
the frame receipted by the BTS.
That is why the system takes into account these timing delays and orders the
mobile station to transmit with an anticipation called the Timing Advance.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-10
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-10 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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TX BTS CAN WHAT GSM HOW WHEN WHAT
RX BTS yes the ms-i sdn
RX MS1 CAN
TX MS1 yes
RX MS2 WHAT
TX MS2 the
RX MS3 GSM
TX MS3 ms-i sdn
RX MS4 HOW
TX MS4
RX MS5 WHEN
TX MS5
RX MS6 WHAT
TX MS6
RX MS7
TX MS7
RX MS8
TX MS8
PROPAGATION DELAY
D
D
+3TS
TA
Propagation Delay
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-11
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-11 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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TX BTS CAN WHAT GSM HOW WHEN WHAT
RX BTS ms-isdn
RX MS1 CAN
TX MS1
RX MS2 WHAT
TX MS2
RX MS3 GSM
TX MS3 ms-isdn
RX MS4 HOW
TX MS4
RX MS5 WHEN
TX MS5
RX MS6 WHAT
TX MS6
RX MS7
TX MS7
RX MS8
TX MS8
yes
the
PROPAGATION DELAY
D
D
+3TS - TA
yes the
TIMING ADVANCE =2 * PROPAGATION DELAY
Timing Advance
On their path, radio waves propagate at light
speed : 3*10
8
m/s.
1 km corresponds to a propagation delay of
3.33 s
(compare to a bit period of 48/13 s = 3.69
s).
Timing Advance is exchanged between BTS
and MS through a number (from 0 to 63),
one unit represents one bit duration : 48/13
s, maximum value for Timing Advance is
63 or 63*48/13 s.
Timing Advance being twice the
propagation delay between BTS and MS,
this maximumvalue corresponds to
[(63*48*10
-6
)/(13*2)]*3*10
8
or 34 892
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-12
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-12 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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TDMA frame TDMA frame
Voice transmitted over the physical channel #2
defines a logical traffic channel
Information (e.g. to set up a call) transmitted over
the physical channel #1 defines a logical control channel
TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
(frames repeat continuously)
TS TS TS TS TS TS TS TS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Logical Channels
Traffic and Control Channels
...
...
The specific type of information carried on a physical channel are known as a
logical channel. Logical channels can be split into two main categories:
Traffic channels full rate (TCH/ F) and half rate (TCH/ H) which carry users
data and speech.
Signaling channels, also known as control channel.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-13
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-13 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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From Physical Channel to Logical Channels
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Time Slot
TDMA Frame
= 4.615 ms
... ...
different
message
types
=
different
logical
channels
LOGICAL
CHANNELS
TCH
FCCH
SCH
FACCH
SACCH
SDCCH
CBCH
AGCH
PCH
BCCH
RACH
...
...
Logical
channels
multiplexing
MESSAGE TYPE
TS = 577 s
Physical Channel
Logical Channel
Logical Channel
A Physical Channel (a TS, defined by a fixed position (0-7) on a given TDMA
frame) is used to broadcast messages containing different kinds of information:
traffic messages for speech and data,
signalling messages for different procedures and supplementary services,
synchronization messages for synchronization between the mobile station and
the BTS,
measurements messages for uplink report of the downlink measurements,
control messages to manage the access to the network.
All these kinds of messages are classified and separated in Logical Channels.
Depending on the quantity of information to transmit and on their consistency,
several logical channels may be grouped into one physical channel, in order to
occupy its successive Time Slots as much as possible (optimization of the
resources number by maximizing the occupancy time of each).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-14
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-14 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC
BTS
BSS
MSC
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Full rate TCH carries:
speech (13 kbps)
users data (300 bps up to14.4 kbps)
Half rate TCH carries:
users data (300 bps up to 4.8 kbps)
Traffic Channels (TCHs)
Traffic Channels (TCH) are intended to carry either encoded speech or user data both
in the up and downlink directions in a point to point communication.
There are two type of Traffic Channels (TCHs) that are differentiated by their traffic
rates as follows:
A full rate TCH that carries information (speech and data) at a gross rate of
22.8 kbps. The raw data rate for each TCH is 13 kbps for speech.
A half rate TCH (TCH / H) carries information (encoded speech or data) at half of
the full rate channel with a gross rate of 11.4 kbps.
The allowed combining of user data rate with full and half rate are as follows:
Full rate speech (TCH /F).
Half rate speech (TCH /H), not available at the present time.
14.4 kbps full rate data (TCH / F14.4).
9.6 kbps full rate data (TCH / F9.6).
4.8 kbps full rate data (TCH / F4.8).
2.4 kbps full rate data (TCH / F2.4).
4.8 kbps half rate data (TCH / H4.8).
2.4 kbps half rate data (TCH / H2.4).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-15
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-15 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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GSM Channels
Control Channels
Traffic Channels
(TCHs)
Full
rate
Half
rate
Dedicated Control
Channels
(DCCHs)
Slow Fast
Downlink
Broadcast
Channels
(BCHs)
Common Control
Channels
(CCCHs)
Downlink Uplink
TCH /F TCH /H FCCH SCH BCCH PCH CBCH RACH AGCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH
Traffic Multiframing Signaling Multiframing Traffic Multiframing
(down uplink)
Control Channels
Control channels are intended to carry signaling or synchronization data. Three are defined: Broadcast
Channels (BCHs), Common Control Channels (CCCHs), Dedicated Control Channels (DCCHs).
Broadcast channels are point to multipoint unidirectional (downlink) control channels from the the fixed
subsystem to the mobile telephone.
First, BCHs include a Frequency Control Channel (FCCH) that allows an MS to accurately tune
to a Base Transceiver Station (BTS).
Then BCHs contain the Synchronization Channel (SCH), which provide TDMA frame oriented
synchronization data to a MS.
Last, BCHs include the Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) intended to broadcast a variety of
information to MSs, including cues necessary for the MS to register in the network.
Common Control Channels (CCCHs) are point to multipoint channels that is primarily intended to carry
signaling information for access handling functions. The CCCHs include:
Paging Channel (PCH), which is down channel used to page (call terminating) MSs.
Access Grant Channel (AGCH) that is a downlink channel used to assign a MS to a specific
Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH).
Cell Broadcast Channel (CBCH), which is down channel used to broadcast miscellaneous short
messages to the MSs.
Random Access Control Channel (RACH) is an uplink channel which allows MS to initiate a call.
Dedicated Control Channels are point to point, bi-directional control channel. Two types of DCCHs are
used:
Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channels (SDCCH) whose allocation is not linked to the
assignment of a traffic channel (TCH). It bears information about authentication, location updates,
and assignment to traffic channels (TCHs).
Otherwise, Associated Control Channels are linked to the allocation of a traffic channel (TCH). The
Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) or burst stealing is a control channel obtained by
preemptive dynamic multiplexing on a TCH. The Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH),
also know as a continue data stream, is allocated together with a TCH or a SDCCH.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-16
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
AGCH : Access Grant CHannel PCH : Paging CHannel
BCCH : Broadcast Control CHannel RACH : Random Access CHannel
CBCH : Common Broadcast CHannel SACCH : Slow Associated Control CHannel
CCCH : Common Control CHannel SCH : Signaling CHannel
FACCH : Fast Associated Control CHannel SDCCH : Stand-alone Dedicated Control
CHannel
FCCH : Frequency Control CHannel TCH : Traffic CHannel
6-16 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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FACCH
BTS
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TS
Frequency correction
Synchronization
Broadcast control
Access request
Subscriber paging
Answer to Access request
Dedicated Signaling
Sys InFo 5, 6 + SMS
Traffic (speech data)
Associated Signaling
MS
Traffic (speech-data)
Associated Signaling
Radio Measurement + SMS
Dedicated Signaling
Broadcast info
Access request
Subscriber paging
Answer to Access request
M.S. Pre-synchronization
Broadcast info
FCCH
SCH
BCCH
PCH
AGCH
CBCH
SDCCH
SACCH
TCH
TCH
FACCH
SDCCH
SACCH
FCCH
SCH
BCCH
RACH
PCH
AGCH
RACH
CBCH
The Logical Channels on Radio Interface
Three groups of logical channels:
1. Traffic channels (TCH), and associated channels (FACCH, SACCH):
Number computed fromErlang B law, starting from offered traffic, according to
the traffic model.
2. Dedicated signaling channels (SDCCH, SACCH, CBCH):
Number computed fromErlang B law, using figures given by the traffic model.
The CBCH is optionally used; when activated, it uses permanently one SDCCH
resource.
3. Common channels (CCCH), BCCH and synchronization channels (FCCH, SCH)
Theoretical studies on message exchanges on radio interface have shown that
one common channel is sufficient, whatever the offered traffic on CELL.
BCCH combined: common channel pattern for small capacity cells (O1):
- Signaling channels SDCCH/SACCH are included in same frame as common
channels:
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-17
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-17 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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FACCH MESSAGES
Connection establishment from
SDCCH to TCH
End validation of a SDCCH-TCH
commutation
Characteristics of the future used BS
after handover
Connection establishment to BS after
handover
Validation of an handover
SACCH MESSAGES
System Information 5, 5
bis
, 5
ter
and 6
(connected mode)
Measures:
- power level of the communication
- quality level of the communication
- level on the beacon frequency of
the neighboring cells
Timing Advance
Power Control
TCH MESSAGES
Full rate speech at 13 kbit/s
Half rate speech at 6.5 kbit/s
Full rate data at 9.6, 4.8, or 2.4 kbit/s
Half rate data at 4.8 or 2.4 kbit/s
Handover Access message (uplink)
SDCCH MESSAGES
Request for a SDCCH assignment
Request for the end of channel
assignment
Order of commutation from SDCCH to
TCH
Logical Channel Description (1/2)
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-18
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-18 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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CBCH MESSAGES
Specific information
For example:
- weather
- road information
FCCH MESSAGES
no message is sent (all bits 0)
BCCH MESSAGES
System Information type 1, 2, 2
bis
,
2
ter
, 3, 4, 7, 8
(idle mode)
SCH MESSAGES
Frame Number
Base Station Identity Code (BSIC)
AGCH MESSAGES
For dedicated channel assignment:
-frequency number
-slot number
-frequency hopping description
-Timing Advance (1
st
estimation)
-MS identification
PCH MESSAGES
messages containing a mobile
identity for a call, a short message
or an authentication
RACH MESSAGES
Service request:
- emergency call
- answer to an incoming call
- outgoing call
- short message
- call re-establishment
- inscription
Logical Channel Description (2/2)
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-19
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-19 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
0 1 2 3 4 21 22 23 24 25 0 1 2 3 4 46 47 48 49 50
26 traffic frames = 120 ms
51 control frame = 235.38 ms
1 Hyperframe = 2,715,648 frames= 3h 28 min. 53 s 760 ms
0 1 2 3 5 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 4
1326
frames
0 1 2 3
46 47 48 49 50 0 1 3 4 2
22 23 25 24
TS
0
TS
1
TS
2
TS
3
TS
5
TS
6
TS
7
TS
0
TS
1
TS
2
TS
3
TS
4
TS
5
TS
6
TS
7
TS
0
TS
1
TS
2
TS
3
TS
4
TS
5
TS
6
TS
7
TS
4
TS
0
TS
1
TS
2
TS
3
TS
4
TS
5
TS
6
TS
7
TS
0
TS
1
TS
2
TS
3
TS
4
TS
5
TS
6
TS
7
Frame
4.615 ms
Traffic channel
Control channel
51 x 26 traffic frames = 6.12 s
26 x 51 control frames = 6.12 s
Traffic and Control Multi-Framing
Introducing to Multi Framing
Higher order frames, called traffic multiframes, consist of 26 TDMA frames and have a
duration of 120 ms (26 x 4.615 ms). This 26 DTMA multiframe carries Traffic Channels
(TCHs), Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH), and Fast Associated Control Channel
(FACCH).
Similarly, a 51-frame multiframe, called a control multiframe, has a duration of 235.365 ms
(51 x 4.615 ms) and supports Common Control Channels (CCCHs), Broadcast Channels
(BCHs) and Stand Alone Control Channels (SDCCHs).
One Superframe consists of 51 traffic multiframes or 26 control multiframes, in other words
contains 51 x 26 TDMA frames with a total duration of 6.12 seconds (51 x 120 ms).
The highest order frame is called a hyperframe and consists of 2,048 superframes, or
2,715,648 frames (2048 x 51 x 21). The time duration of the hyperframe is 3 hrs, 28 min., and
52.76 sec (2,715,648 x 4.615 ms). This long period of hyperframe is called the GSM time.
Thus to organize the information transmitted on each carrier, GSM defines several time
intervals ranging from 0.9 s (exactly the time duration of a quarter of one bit) to a hyperframe
interval of more than three hours (GSM time).
As we have just seen, the cycle of a multiframe and superframe is different for speech and
control channels.
This arrangement enables a receiver to decode all the control channels along with the traffic
channel (TCHs) because of the timing of the traffic multiframe always moving in relation to the
control channel multi frame. Otherwise, if two multiframes were exact multiples of each other,
the control channel time slot would be permanently masked by the TCH time slot activities.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-20
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-20 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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26 frames = 120 ms
Full Rate - Downlink & Uplink
time
26 frames = 120 ms
T
0
A
0
T
0
T
0
T
0
T
0
T
0
T
0
T
0
T
0
T
0
T
0
T
0
T
1
T
1
T
1
T
1
T
1
T
1
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1
T
1
T
1
T
1
T
1
T
1
A
1
time
Half Rate - Downlink & Uplink
T : TCH A : SACCH : IDLE
T
i
: TCH
sub-channel n i
A
i
: SACCH
sub-channel n i
T A T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T
Traffic Channels Combination
Logical Channel Mapping (1/5)
Full rate speech transmission
When a Mobile Station is in communication mode, speech is coded every 20 ms in
blocks. These blocks are coded in 8 half-bursts, whose information quantity is
equivalent to 4 entire bursts.
Then, one burst has to be delivered every 5 ms. But in reality a burst is transmitted
every 4.615 ms.
So, in 26 frames lasting 120 ms, 24 bursts are used for speech transmission. One free
burst is used for SACCH. The other one is an idle burst. During this burst, the mobile
is not idle, but it uses this time to monitor the neighboring cells frequencies.
Half rate speech transmission (not often used because of lower quality)
When the half rate speech transmission is in use, the 26 frames of a given time slot
can be separated between two users, since only 12 coded speech bursts are used per
user.
So, in 26 frames lasting 120 ms, the odd burst numbers are restricted to one user, and
the other numbers are for the other one. SACCH bursts are in the 13
th
and 26
th
positions. In this case, the monitoring is more frequent.
Full rate speech: 13 kbit/s Half rate speech: 5.6 kbit/s
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-21
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-21 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
A : SACCH D : SDCCH
: IDLE
51 frames = 235 ms
A
1
A
2
A
3
A
0
D
7
D
6
D
5
D
4
D
3
D
2
D
1
D
0
A
5
A
6
A
7
A
4
D
7
D
6
D
5
D
4
D
3
D
2
D
1
D
0
time
Downlink
51 frames = 235 ms
A
5
A
6
A
7
A
0
A
4
D
7
D
6
D
5
D
4
D
3
D
2
D
1
D
0
D
7
D
6
D
5
D
4
D
3
D
2
D
1
D
0
A
1
A
2
A
3
time
Uplink
Dedicated Signaling Channels Combination
Logical Channel Mapping (2/5)
The dedicated channels are combined into two multiframes of 51 frames. In the uplink
and the downlink directions, the configuration is almost the same one, only shifted by
15 frames.
The dedicated channels combination broadcasts a group of 8 SDCCH frames (2
groups of 4 consecutive SDCCH frames), each of them is associated to 4 consecutive
SACCH frames. Each different group is used by a different dedicated communication.
The multiframe configuration is shown on the above figure.
So 8 users can use the same physical channel simultaneously, and the different
communications associated to their SACCH signaling are spread on a cycle of 102
frames (2 51-multiframes). In such a multiplexing cycle, 6 frames are unused (idle TS).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-22
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-22 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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time
BTS
MS
: IDLE
B : BCCH S : SCH F: FCCH : PCH/AGCH
C
Physical Channel
ARFCN (n) TS (s)
FCCH
SCH BCCH
PCH/AGCH
Logical Channels
Multiframe
m+1
Multiframe
m-1
C B FS
Multiframe m
51 frames =235.38 ms
C C FS C C FS C C FS C C C B FS FS
Frames repeat continuously
Physical Channel and Logical Channels
Common Channels Combination
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-23
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-23 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
51 frames = 235 ms
C C F S C C F S C C F S C C C B F S F S
Downlink
time
51 frames = 235 ms
R R R RR R R RR R R RR R R R R R R RR R R RR R R RR R R R R R R R R R RR R R RR R R RR R R R
Uplink
time
B : BCCH S
: SCH
F
: FCCH
: IDLE
: AGCH
/PCH
C R : RACH
Common Channels Combination
Logical Channel Mapping (3/5)
Downlink way
The downlink direction is used to combine FCCH, SCH, BCCH, PCH and AGCH:
FCCH and SCH are always transmitted consecutively (SCH always follows
FCCH). Over 51 frames, the pairs are located at the 0-1, 10-11, 20-21, 30-31 and
40-41 positions.
BCCH uses 4 frames per multiframe (Frame Number 2 to 5) and sometimes 4
other frames (6 to 9) for BCCH ext (see p. 2-22).
PCH and AGCH form the CCCH blocks (9 groups of 4 frames). They can have
different configurations, depending on the cell capacity and are dynamically
defined in SI Type 3 (management of these channels).
The 51th frame is unused.
Uplink way
The uplink direction is reserved for RACH. The configuration is simple: all the 51
frames broadcast RACH messages. So all the mobile station can request a dedicated
resource to access the network on each TS 0 of a specific TDMA frame in the cell.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-24
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-24 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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A
3
A
2
A
1
D
3
D
2
D
3
D
2
D
1
D
1
D
0
D
0
FS FS FS C C C FS B FS
FS FS FS C C C FS B FS
51 frames = 235 ms
A
0
time
Downlink
R R
R R D
2
D
2
D
1
D
1
D
0
D
0
A
1
A
3
A
0
A
2
R
R
R
R
D
3
D
3
51 frames = 235 ms
time
Uplink
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
A : SACCH
D : SDCCH : IDLE B : BCCH S : SCH F : FCCH
: AGCH
/PCH
C R : RACH
BCCH Combined
Logical Channel Mapping (4/5)
In the case of a low capacity cell, it is possible to combine on the same physical
channel some dedicated channels with some common control channels.
Their configuration is done on 2x51 frames and is indicated in the SI type 3.
This combination contains all the channels of dedicated and common combinations:
FCCH, SCH, BCCH, PCH, AGCH, SDCCH, SACCH and RACH.
Downlink way
From a common control combination, FCCH, SCH and BCCH keep their configuration
(FCCH+SCH: 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40; BCCH: 2 to 5) for both multiframes.
PCH and AGCH are still dynamically configured but only on the bursts: 6-9 (except
when extended BCCH are used), 12-15 and 16-19, for both multiframes.
On the bursts left, 4 blocks of 4 SDCCH TSs, each of them associated with a SACCH
block of 4 TSs, and one idle TS at the end of each multiframe. Each different group is
used by a different sub-channel.
Uplink way
On 102 frames, 27 RACH frames are kept and the other ones are replaced by 4 blocks
of 4 SDCCH TSs, each of them associated with a block of 4 SACCH TSs.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-25
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-25 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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C C F S C C F S C C F S C C C B F S F S F S
0 1 12 25 0 1 12 25
0 1 10 20 30 40 50 0 1
Downlink message
Uplink message
Neighboring BTS
(downlink)
Measurement Window
T A T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T A T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T
Why 26 and 51 Frames per Multiframe?
Mobile activity
Rx Tx Rx Rx Tx Rx Rx Tx
(n) (n)
During a communication, the Mobile Station has to listen to the beacon frequency of
the neighboring cells (which list is provided to the MS through SACCH) in order to get
pre-synchronized with the neighboring sites.
This pre-synchronization is useful for an eventual handover, so that the mobile station
can access the assigned channel.
The MS can decode beacon frequency information only during the idle window of the
TCH multiframe. Indeed, during data exchanges, the mobile has not enough time to
decode information between receipt, broadcast (3 TSs later), and new receipt (5 TSs
later), since it has to change the frequency and to process some data.
However, between transmission and reception (4 TSs), the MS is able to perform level
measurement on a neighboring cell.
But the MS must find time to decode the synchronization information broadcasted on
SCH of the neighboring cells and read and decode BCCH information for new cells.
For this, the MS uses the idle TS (TS 26 on the traffic multiframe) that provides a
larger observation window and processing time.
Since 26 and 51 have no common divider and 26*2=51+1, the idle slot of the TCH
multiframe shifts forward a frame in the 51-multiframe: 0, 26, 1, 27, 2,...
We are sure that the MS has been able to pre-synchronize with a neighboring site
(FCCH+SCH decoding) after at most 11 successive decoding at the idle TS level.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-26
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-26 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Speech
Source
decoding
Channel
decoding
De-interleaving
Burst deformatting
Deciphering
Demodulation
equalization
Speech
Digitizing and
source coding
Channel
coding
Modulation
Ciphering
Burst formatting
Interleaving
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Transmission
Step 5
Step 6
Diversity
From Speech to Radio Transmission
From speech to radio signal, several operations are performed. The reverse
transformations are performed on the receiver side.
Main operations are the following:
Digitizing: Speech blocks are first digitized to obtain digital blocks: 20ms speech =260 bits.
Source coding uses low bit rate code for air interface.
Channel coding uses codes enabling detection and correction of signals errors. The result is a
flow of code words (456 bits long).
Interleaving and burst formatting spread the bits of several code words to expand data of the
same block in different bursts. The results is a succession of blocks, one block for each channel
burst.
Ciphering modifies the contents of these block through a "secret recipe" known only by the mobile
telephone and the Base Transceiver Station, thus protecting data from eavesdropping.
Modulation transforms the binary signal into an analog signal at the right frequency and moment
using Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK).
Transmission amplifies and radiates the resulting signal as radio waves via an antenna.
Diversity are different techniques used to provide the reception quality.
Demodulation: From the radio waves captured by the antenna, the portion of the received signal
which is of interest to the receiver is demodulated.
Deciphering reverses the encryption "secret recipe".
Burst de-formatting and de-interleaving puts the bits of the different burst back in order to rebuild
the code words.
Channel Decoding reconstructs the source information from the output of the demodulator using
added redundancy to detect or correct possible errors.
Speech decoding operates as suitable filters receiving the voice parameters, then performs them
out analog speech.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-27
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-27 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Codec Type Mean Opinion Score Rate (kb/s)
(MOS)
PCM A law 4.25 64
GSM EFR 4.2 12.2
CDMA 13 4.2 13
D-AMPS 4 8
GSM FR 3.8 13
CDMA 8 3.4 8
Quality MOS Listening Effort Required
Excellent 5 Complete relaxation possible, no effort.
Good 4 Attention necessary, no appreciable effort.
Fair 3 Moderate effort.
Poor 2 Considerable effort.
Bad 1 No meaning understood with feasible effort.
Speech Quality - Source Coding
Since each telecommunication system has its own intrinsic characteristics and
limitations, specific voice CODECs have been designed for each system with the
objective of achieving the best trade-off between voice quality, robustness to errors
and network capacity. As a result, the voice quality differ fromone system to another.
The advent of new speech compression codecs for wireless systems has provoked
intense interest in comparisons of subjective voice quality over these codecs.
Estimates of subjective quality are typically given as Mean Opinion Scores (MOS)
obtained from listening tests.
Voice quality is a subjective parameter. By asking a group of normal telephone
listeners to rate the quality of telephone speech samples, we can obtain an estimate of
the quality that would be achieved on various types of connections.
In particular, we use subjective listening tests to characterize the voice quality of
speech compression codecs used in wireless and other systems where bandwidth
efficiency is at a premium, because there are no objective measures that can estimate
voice quality effectively.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-28
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-28 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
C
20 ms 20 ms
A
A
8
A
7
A
6
A
5
B
4
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3
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2
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1
B
8
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7
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6
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5
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2
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1
57 bits
Information
1 1
CRL CRL
3 3
Tail Tail
26 bits
Training
8 Bursts
8 Sub blocks
of 57 bits
Source coding
Channel coding
Interleaving
Normal
burst
20 ms
B
456 bits A 456 bits B 456 bits C
57 bits
Information
A8
B4
A7
B3
A6
B2
A5
B1
B8
C4
B7
C3
B6
C2
B5
C1
Speech blocks
260 bits 260 bits
260 bits
Channel Processing
Overview
After having transformed speech blocks (20 ms) into digital blocks, channel coding
adds redundancy.
The purpose of channel coding is to improve poor transmission quality due to
disturbances such as noise, interference, or multipath propagation (resulting from the
reflections of the transmitted signal from buildings, etc.).
Channel coding consist in adding, some redundant information, to the source data
calculated from this source information:
Convolutional codes and block codes: for correction purposes.
Fire code: detection and correction of burstyerrors.
Parity code: error detection.
Each channel has its own coding and interleaving scheme.
A common structure of 456 coded bit is interleaved and mapped onto bursts.
The blocks are interleaved and spread into segments which are combined with flags
and a training sequence to build up the burst.
Ciphering is applied to these burst and the resulting data is used to modulate the
carriers.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-29
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-29 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... ... 452 453 454 455
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15



448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455
5
7

R
o
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s
Divide 456 bits in 8 sub-blocks
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7 6 5 4 0 1 2 3
reordering
&
partitioning
out
diagonal
interleaving
456
coded bits
burst
b0 b1 b56
b1 b56 b0
bit
interleaving
Interleaving: TCH Full Rate
After channel coding, speech coded information (TCH Full rate) are classified into
456 bits blocks. See how they are spread into bursts.
These 456 bits are reordered into a 8 x 57 array, line by line. The initially close bits are
separated. The array is split into 8 columns of 57 bits. In this way, each 57 bits block
contains bits which were all distant each other.
Each 57 bits block shall be grouped with another one in order to create a burst which
contains 114 information bits. Each of the 4 first blocks is grouped with each of the 4
last blocks of the previous segment. In the same way, each of the 4 last blocks is
grouped with each of the 4 first blocks of the next segment.
In a burst, containing 2 57 bits blocks, it is possible to increase bit spreading. The first
block uses the even positions and the second one uses the odd positions inside the
burst. The proximity of initially successive bits are now destroyed.
Each speech block of 456 bits (20 ms) is so spread over 8 bursts.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-30
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-30 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Guard
1 57 1 26 57
156.25 bits
0.577 ms
1 frame:
4.615 ms
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
3 3 8.25
Normal Burst
S S DATA DATA
Guard
Band
Training
sequence
Burst
148 bits
Burst Formatting
A basic unit of measure in transmission on a radio path is a burst, a series of 114
modulated bits of information. Bursts have a finite duration and occupy a finite part of
the radio spectrum. Bursts are sent in time and frequency windows called slots.
The normal burst shown in this slide is made of:
Tail bits: three "0" bits at the beginning and end to help avoid loss of synchronization.
Information: speech, data, and signaling.
A training sequence: a list of bits known by the receiver allowing it to demodulate the
burst.
Stealing flags (S): indicate if information is either user's data (includes speech) or
signaling data for call in state.
A guard band: bits where nothing is transmitted to allow for overlap due to the variable
distance from the mobile telephone to the Base Transceiver Station. This is necessary if
the timing advance is not exactly right.
Normal Burst bears traffic channels, its associated channel (slow and fast), Stand Alone,
and the broadcast Control Channels (BCCHs).
Other burst are defined with regard to their time-amplitude profile:
Access burst: used in the uplink direction during initial phase of transmission when
propagation delay (timing advance) between the mobile telephone is not yet known. The
training sequence and tail are longer than those of a normal burst to increase the
probability of demodulation success.
Frequency correction burst: to enable the mobile telephone to find and demodulate a
synchronization burst to the same cell.
Synchronization burst: time synchronization of the mobile station, the first burst a mobile
telephone needs to be able to demodulate.
Dummy burst: dummy sequence to replace data if there is nothing to transmit, for
example, Broadcast Control Channel filling.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-31
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-31 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Synchronization Burst
(SCH)
Tail Data Extended Training Sequence Data Tail
156.25 bits (0.577 ms)
3 bits 39 encrypted bits 64 synchronization bits 39 bits 3 bits 8.25 bits
Guard
Period
Frequency Correction Burst
(FCCH)
Tail Data Tail
156.25 bits (0.577 ms)
3 bits 142 fixed bits (0) 3 bits 8.25 bits
Guard
Period
Burst Formats
Frequency correction burst
A frequency correction burst contains 142 fixed bits for the frequency correction and 3
tail bits at the beginning and the end. The guard period corresponds to a transmission
time of 8.25 bits.
It is used on FCCH in order to enable the mobile to find and demodulate a
synchronization burst in the same cell. Its structure is simple, since its bits are all equal
to 0 (no information is transmitted). When this burst is modulated, the result is a pure
sine wave at the carrier frequency plus 1625/24 Hz due to the modulation. This
frequency is in fact the information carried by this burst. It provides the frequency
needed to understand the following bursts of the same physical channel.
Synchronization burst
A synchronization burst contains 64 bits for the training sequence, twice 39 for the
information, 3 tail bits at the beginning and the end. The guard period corresponds to a
transmission time of 8.25 bits.
It is used on SCH, in the downlink direction, for time synchronization of the mobile
station. It is the first burst a mobile needs to be able to demodulate. It is the reason
why its training sequence is longer than the one of other bursts.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-32
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-32 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Access Burst
Tail
Training
Sequence
Guard Period Tail
156.25 bits (0.577 ms)
8 bits 36 encrypted bits 68.25 bits 3 bits 41 synch bits
Data
Dummy Burst
Tail Dummy Sequence Training Sequence Dummy Sequence Tail
3 bits 58 mixed bits 28 midamble bits 58 mixed bits 3 bits 8.25 bits
Guard
Period
156.25 bits (0.577 ms)
156.25 bits (0.577 ms)
1 3 bits 57 encrypted bits 1 26 bits 57 encrypted bits 3 bits 8.25 bits
Tail Data Training Sequence Data Tail Guard
Period
Normal Burst
Burst Formats
Normal burst
A normal burst contains 26 bits for the training sequence, plus 2 times 58 bits for
information. More precisely, there are twice 57 information bits and two stealing flags,
which indicate if information is traffic or signaling. There are also out three tail bits, and
8.25 bits for the guard period.
Dummy burst
The dummy burst structure is the same as for the normal burst. But information bits
are replaced by mixed bits: this burst is used to replace data if there is nothing to
transmit. It is the case for BCCH and TCH filling when they are transmitted on the
beacon frequency.
Access burst
An access burst contains 41 bits for the training sequence, 36 bits for the information,
8 and 3 tail bits at respectively the beginning and the end of the burst. The guard
period is of 68.25 bits.
It is used on RACH, in the uplink direction, during initial phase of transmission when
the propagation delay between the mobile station and the BTS is not yet known. The
training tail sequences are longer than those of a normal burst to increase the
probability of demodulation success.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-33
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-33 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Plain data: 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0.....
Ciphering sequence: 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0.....
XOR:
Ciphered data (transmitted): 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0.....
Ciphered sequence: 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0.....
XOR:
Recovered data: 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0.....
Data S S Data
Burst to be
transmitted
Data S S Data
Training
sequence
Received
burst
Ciphering
Ciphering, or encryption, is a procedure that provides additional security for the
subscriber. Ciphering is not a channel coding. It is performed after the encoding and
interleaving of different channel and is done independently of whether the channel is a
signaling channel or a traffic channel. Ciphering is only done on the two data
segments.
Thus ciphering is achieved by performing an exclusive OR (XOR) operation between a
pseudo-random bit sequence (which was computed through A5 algorithm by the
ciphering key allowed to user for a call and the burst number) and the 114 useful bits
of a normal burst.
Deciphering, in turn, applies exactly the same operation, since XOR twice with the
same data leads back to the original value.
Last, it is worth noting that the whole specification of the encryption algorithm (A5) is
distributed under conditions by the Association of European Operators which have
signed the GSM Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). GSM uses two A5 types of
algorithm:
Encryption algorithm A5-1 which contains European and United States technical
software that could not directly or indirectly exported to any either embargoed or
restricted country.
Encryption algorithm A5-2 which contains software that do not require license or
approval.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-34
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-34 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Bit 0
Bit 1
phase shift + 90
phase shift - 90
Modulation
GMSK Modulation
I = sin (t + )
Q = cos (t + )
GMSK
Modulator
Carrier
Frequency
GMSK
Signal
Q
+ 90
'0'
'1' - 90
I
GSM modulation GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying) is a constant envelope
modulation scheme.
This choice has been mainly made to avoid specific need of linear amplifier.
GMSK relies on MSK scheme using Gaussian low pass filtering.
MSK
MSK is a continuous phase shift. It allows the RF vector to rotate during one bit period
on a circle (constant amplitude) from one phase state to the other:
phase shift =+90 when bit b =0,
phase shift =- 90 when bit b =1,
As a result, the phase shift of +90 or -90 during one bit period by MSK is equivalent
to a frequency shift so MSK also can be seen as FSK (Frequency Shift Keying).
MSK has steady phase transitions however with a dip at any bit change caused by
rapid change of the frequency (+/- Df). This leads to a very broad RF spectrum.
Gaussian filter
The data signal is base band filtered by a Gaussian filter to obtain GMSK modulation.
The phase transition does not have dips any more and the bandwidth of the spectrum
has considerably decreased.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-35
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-35 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Gaussian Minimum Shifk Keying
0 +200 kHz +400 kHz +600 kHz
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-36
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-36 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
To transmitter
Microphone
From receiver Hearpiece
Voice Activity
Detection
speech
encoder
Comfort
noise
function
speech
decoder
Discontinuous Transmission Features
Digital to
Analog
Converter
Analog to
Digital
Converter
Pauses in normal speech occur at a rate that makes speech appear to have about 50
per cent activity. This means that a telephony channel is only used for speech
transmission about half the time a speaker is using the phone.
Since transmit time is further reduced when Discontinuous transmission (DTX) is used,
the power consumption of hand-held terminals is reduced, which gives users the
option of fitting their terminal with smaller batteries. Furthermore these functions tend
to reduce interference in adjacent cells and to mobile station close to the base
transmitters when suspending radio transmission when the coder detects a speech
pause.
The GSM speech coder features this with:
Voice Activity Detection (VAD) that determines the presence or absence of speech
at the microphone. Note this function has to work well even when there is high
level of background noise, such as in a car.
Confort Noise function: The total absence of sound in the ear piece would annoy
the user at the receiving end of a radio channel and the handset appears to be
dead. Thus the users tend to speak too loudly when there is total silence in the ear
piece. There needs to be a minimum of conventional background noise present
during pause. This is accomplished by transmitting silent descriptor (SID) frames
at a rather slow rate of once every 480 ms. Then upon receiving this SID frame,
the receiving speech decoder has to fake an existing wireline connection by
generating some background noise.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-37
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-37 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
1- Why does GSM use paired radio channels?
2- How many time-slots does a GSM TDMA contain?
3- What is a GSM physical channel?
4- Why does GSM delay the uplink TDMA frame?
Check Your Learning
1- Why does GSM use paired radio channels?
2- How many time-slots does a GSM TDMA contain?
3- What is a GSM physical channel?
4- Why does GSM delay the uplink TDMA frame?
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 6-38
Radio Interface
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6-38 Radio Interface PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
6- What does a traffic channel carry?
5- What are the logical channels?
7- Why does GSM use the channel coding?
8- Why does GSM use the interleaving?
Check Your Learning (continue)
5- What are the logical channels?
6- What does a traffic channel carry?
7- Why does GSM use the channel coding?
8- Why does GSM use the interleaving?
7-1
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-1 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Section 7
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
7-2
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-2 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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. After completing this lesson you will be able to:
List the 3 sub-systems of a GSM system and their interfaces;
List the different equipment in each GSM sub-system;
Indicate functions for each equipment;
List the interfaces in each sub-system, indicate if it is standard or not
and identify the main protocol used on it.
Objectives
7-3
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-3 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Switch
To another
exchange
service area
To another
exchange
service area
Exchange
service area
PSTN
To another PSTN
To another PSTN
Basic Elements of a Cellular System
Today's wireless communications systems are based on a composite wireless and
wired system as shown in this slide where the wireless segment of the
communication system is shown as a cluster of seven hexagonal cells.
Each cell is essentially a radio communication center where a mobile subscriber
establishes a call with a land telephone through the switch and the Public Switching
Telephone Network (PSTN).
This composite platform enables us to communicate with anyone at any time, from
anywhere within the service area.
Switch and PSTN are essentially multiple points serving as system intelligence.
7-4
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-4 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Operation
Sub-
System
Network and
Switching
Sub-system
BTS
Cell 1
Cell 2
Cell 3
BTS
Base
Station
Sub-system
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
ISDN, PSDN
MS
Um (radio)
interface
OMN interface (X.25)
BSS
HLR-AUC
Signaling System No.7 SS7
OMC-S OMC-R
BSC
EIR
TRAU
GMSC
VLR
A-interface
Abis Interface
Architecture of a GSM System
MSC
VLR
A GSM system is basically designed as a combination of three major sub-systems:
the Network and Switching Sub-system (NSS), the radio sub-system called the Base
Station Sub-system (BSS), and the Operation Sub-System (OSS).
The Network and Switching Sub-system includes the equipment and functions
related to end-to-end-calls, management of subscribers, mobility, and interfaces with
the fixed network (PSTN).
In particular, the NSS consist of Mobile Switching Centers (MSC), Visitor Location
Registers (VLR), Home Location Registers (HLR), Authentication Center (AUC), and
Equipment Identity Register (EIR).
The Base Station Sub-system includes the equipment and functions related to the
management of the connection on the radio path.
It mainly consists of one Base Station Controller (BSC), and several Base
Transceiver Stations (BTSs), linked by the Abis interface.
An optional equipment, the Transcoder / Rate Adapter Unit (TRAU) so called
TransCoder Unit (TCU) within Nortel BSS products, is designed to reduce the
amount of PCM links.
The Operation Sub-System is connected to all equipment in the switching system
and to the BSC. OSS mainly contains Operation and Maintenance Center for NSS
(OMC-S) and Operation and Maintenance Center devoted to the Radio subsystem
(OMC-R).
In order to ensure that network operators will have several sources of cellular
infrastructure equipment, GSM decided to specify:
the radio interface (or air interface or Um interface), between the BTS and the MS,
the A interface, between the NSS and the BSS.
7-5
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-5 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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TCU
BSC
OMC-R
MSC
Radio
Interface
A Interface
Ater Interface
Abis Interface
NSS
BSS
OMN Interface
Public Telephone Network
MS
MS
S2000H&L
BTS
S8000
Indoor
BTS
S8000
Outdoor
BTS
Sun
StorEdge A5000
Radio
Interface
BSS Architecture
The Base Station Sub-system (BSS) is a set of equipment (aerials, transceivers
and a controller) that is viewed by the Mobile Switching Center through a single A
interface as being the entity responsible for communicating with mobile telephones
(MSs) in a certain area.
The radio equipment of a BSS may be composed of one or more cells, such a BSS
may contain one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTSs).
The interface between the BSC and the BTSs is called an Abis interface.
The BSS includes two types of equipment:
the Base Transceiver Station (BTS functionally includes also the TRAU) in
contact with the Mobile Stations through the radio interface,
the BSC, the latter being in contact with the Mobile Switching Center.
A BSS contains only one Base Station Controller (BSC).
7-6
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-6 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Transmission coupler
Reception coupler
Antenna
COUPLING SYSTEM
BCF
(Base Common Functions)
BSC
TRX
(Transceiver-Receiver)
Abis
interface
- Encodes, encrypts, modulates,
feeds the RF signal to the antenna
- Decrypts and equalizes the signal
then demodulates
- Mobile call detection
- Uplink channel measurements
- Timing advance
- Frequency hopping
- Multiplexes speech and user's data channels to BSC.
- Multiplexes signaling channels to BSC.
D
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- Interface between Antennas
and TRXs of each cell
BTS
BTS General Architecture and Functions
As stated, the primary responsibility of the BTS is to transmit and receive radio
signals from a mobile unit over the air interface Um.
To perform this function completely, the signals are encoded, encrypted, multiplexed,
modulated, and then fed to the antenna system at the cell site.
In order to keep the mobile synchronized, BTS transmits frequency and time
synchronization signal over a devoted channel called a Frequency Correction
Channel.
Functions performed by a BTS are:
encodes, encrypts, multiplexes, modulates and feeds the RF signals to the
antenna,
time and frequency synchronization signals transmitted from BTS,
voice communication through a full rate or half rate (enable) speech channel,
the received signal from the MS is equalized, decoded, and decrypted before
demodulation,
timing advance computation,
uplink radio channel measurements,
mobile random access detection,
Frequency Hopping management.
7-7
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-7 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS
Abis interface
A interface
- Radio Resource management
for its BTSs
- Intercell hand-over
- Allocation of channels for
communication
- Reallocation of frequencies
among BTSs
- Time and frequency
synchronization to BTSs
- Controls frequency hopping
O&M
To Network
SubSystem
PCM
controller
PCM
controller
Processing
Unit
Switching
matrix
BSC
X.25
controller
BSC General Architecture and Functions
BSC architecture mainly involves a processor unit, a switching matrix, and trunk
control units (PCM and X.25).
Note that through the Processing Unit and the X.25 controller, the BSC downloads
new software releases from the O&M Center. In turn, all data of interest to the O&M
is buffered and forwarded to the O&M Center when being asked or transmitted
periodically.
The Base Station Controller (BSC) is connected to the Mobile Switching Center on
one side and to the BTSs on the other.
Functions performed by a BSC are:
performs the Radio Resource (RR, explained below) management for the cells
under its control. It assign and release frequencies for all MSs in its own area,
performs the Intercell hand-over for MSs moving between BTSs in its control,
reallocates frequencies to the BTSs in its area to meet locally heavy demands
during peak hours or on special events,
controls the power transmission of both BTSs and MSs in its area,
provides the time and frequency synchronization reference signals, broadcast for
each BTS.
7-8
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-8 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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External PCM
Interface
BSC MSC
Transcoder
Transcoder
Controller
Ater
interface
A
interface
E1 trunk
up to 120 user's
channels
T1 trunk
up to 92 user's
and
control channels
Converts the 13 kbps GSM speech frame either
into a 64 kbps T1 PCM -law or into an E1 PCM A-law
E1 trunk = up to
31 user's channels
T1 trunk = up to
24 user's channels
Routes the users' data stream
to suitable Inter-working function
TRAU
TRAU Architecture and Functions
Depending on the relative cost of transmission plan, there is some benefit in having
the Transcoder/ Rate adapter Unit (TRAU) at the Mobile Switching Center (MSC)
location.
Moreover, in that case, the TRAU is still considered functionally as a part of the Base
Station SubSystem(BSS).
The TRAU is a device that takes 13 kbps speech (or data) multiplexes and two of
them, to convert into standard 64 kbps data:
within the BTS, the 13 kbps speech (or data) are brought up to level of 16 kbps
by inserting additional synchronizing data to make up the difference between a
13 kbps speech or lower data rate,
the TRAU converts the 13 kbps speech into 64 kbps T1 -law or E1 A-law PCM
time slots,
furthermore the TRAU routes the users' data stream to a suitable device that
inter-works with the recipient modem.
It is worth noting that:
four traffic channels are multiplexed on a 64 kbps PCM circuit at the Ater
interface,
one T1 trunk carries up to 92 traffic and control channels,
one E1 trunk carries up to 120 traffic and control channels.
7-9
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-9 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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MSC
AUC
GMSC
BSS
Other GSM,
PSTN, ISDN
G-interface
IWF IWF
Site 2
C-interface
A-interface
A-interface
B-interface
B-interface
E
F
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F
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D D
BSS
Other GSM,
PSTN, ISDN
E-interface
Site 1
NSS Architecture
VLR
HLR
VLR
EIR
SMS-SC
Billing
Server
Billing
Server
The distributed architecture of the Network and Switching Sub-system is organized with
MSCs, servers and data bases, linked by interfaces normalized (B to G).
There are two types of MSC to provide switching services to a defined part of the PLMN:
MSC, used to establish traffic channels and to switch signaling messages between
PLMN entities and other GSM networks or fixed networks,
Gateway MSC (GMSC), is a specialized MSC managing the central data base HLR,
containing permanent and dynamic subscriber data.
All the information requested by the different functions is stored in four types of data bases
connected to (or included in) the MSCs:
HLR or Home Location Register: permanent data specific to each subscriber, including
service profile, location and billing options,
VLR or Visitor Location Register: in order to minimize access to the HLR, MSC uses
this data base, which contains working data for subscribers moving within its coverage
area (LAs),
Network security and access control are provided by the Authentication Center (AUC)
and by the Equipment Identity Register (EIR):
- AUC: to ensure that only authorized users have access to the network,
- EIR: to maintain lists of stolen, faulty and valid equipment identities.
NSS includes also specific equipment such as:
Inter-Working Functions (IWF): to provide the different bearer services offered by the
network,
Short Message Services-Service Center (SMS-SC): used to store and forward point to
point short messages,
Billing Server.
These equipment or software elements are running applications more or less operator
dependent.
7-10
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-10 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Subscriber
Management
Center
HLR
Permanent records
- MSISDN
- IMSI
- Subscriber's service provi sion
Temporary records
- VLR address
- Ciphering items
(Kc, Sres, Rand)
Home Location Register
The Home Location Register (HLR) is a database that holds information upon the
subscribers. It performs the following functions:
Handling of permanent subscribers data:
- Identification: IMSI, MSISDN.
- Subscription information: related services options (Teleservices, Bearer
Services and Supplementary Services).
- Service limitations (e.g. roaming limitation).
Handling of temporary subscribers data:
- Current VLR address where the subscriber roams.
- Provide VLR with 5 ciphering items.
Dialogue with the AUC database (see next slide).
7-11
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-11 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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AUC
Security
A3, A8 algorithms
Ki
5
SRES, Kc, RAND
RAND
AUC provides
Ciphering Triplets
IMSI
HLR Request
Authentication Center
The Authentication Center (AUC) is a database that contains the secret
authentication key Ki of each subscriber and generates security related parameters
to protect the network operator and subscribers against fraud.
The same Ki is to be found in the subscribers SIM card and is used to generate
these ciphering items named triplets:
a RANDomnumber RAND,
a Signature RESponse SRES, using A3 algorithm,
a ciphering Key Kc, using A8 algorithm and computed each time authentication
is performed.
Software keys Kc and SRES are never passed over the air interface.
The two algorithms A3 and A8 are operator dependent.
For security reason AUC has often an internal interface with the HLR. However this
is a choice of implementation, it is up to HLR to start security algorithms located in
AUC.
7-12
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-12 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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VLR
Permanent records
- IMSI
- Subscribers service provi sion
Temporary records
- Ciphering items
(Kc, Sres, Rand)
- LAI - TMSI
LA1
LA4
LA2
LA3
Visitor Location Register
When a mobile station enters the LA borders, it signals its arrival to the MSC that
stores its identity in the Visitor Location Register (VLR).
The information necessary to manage the MS is contained in the HLR and is
transferred to the VLR so that it can be easily retrieved if so required.
The Location Registration procedure allows the subscriber data to follow the
movements of the MS. For such reason the data contained in the VLR and in the
HLR are more or less the same. Nevertheless, the data are present in the VLR only
as long as the MS is registered in the area related to that VLR.
The VLR supports a mobile paging, and tracking subsystem in the local area where
the mobile is presently roaming.
The detailed functions of VLR are as follows:
Works with the HLR and AUC on authentication.
Relays cipher key from HLR to BSS for encryption and decryption.
Controls allocation of the new TMSI numbers that can be periodically changed to
secure a subscriber's identity.
Supports paging (incoming calls).
Tracks the state of all mobile in its area.
7-13
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-13 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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EIR
Black list
(barred ME)
Gray list
(faulty ME)
White list
(valid ME)
Mobile
Equipment
IMEI
Equipment Identity Register
The Equipment Identity Register (EIR) is a database that performs a screening
function within the network. It keeps track of all valid and invalid Mobile Equipment
by storing their International Mobile Equipment Identities (IMEI). Data for the
Equipment Identity Register are provided by:
Manufacturers of Mobile Equipment which provide complete lists of IMEI for the
Mobile Stations that they produce.
Other network operators which provide lists of malfunctioning Mobile Equipment.
Police organizations which provide lists of stolen Mobile Equipment.
The Equipment Identity Register actually maintains three lists of International Mobile
Equipment Identities:
The black list contains a list of all Mobile Equipment (ME) that are barred from
using the network (e.g.: stolen).
The white list contains a list of all the serial numbers of International Mobile
Equipment Identities that have been allocated in the Global System for Mobile
Communications countries.
The gray list contains a list of faulty Mobile Equipment. This equipment will be
logged but not barred.
The GSM Recommendations state that the service providers should decide how
often they wish to check the validity of the Mobile Equipment with the EIR.
7-14
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-14 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Mobile
Switching
Center
IWF
MS
BSS
PSTN
DTE
Land-DTE
Rate
adaptation
DTE
signaling
Modem
Modem
Data +
DTE signals
InterWorking Function
Because of GSM providing a wide range of data services to its subscribers, GSM
interfaces with the various public and private data networks currently available. It is
the aim of the Inter-Working Function (IWF) to provide this interfacing capability.
Networks to which IWF presently provides interface as follows:
PSTN,
ISDN,
Circuit-switched public data networks (CSPDN),
Packet-switched public data networks (PSPDN).
It provides the subscriber with access to data rate and protocol conversion facilities
so that data can be transmitted between GSM Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and
a land line DTE (the recipient).
Furthermore it allocates a suitable modem from its modem bank when required. This
is the case when a GSM DTE, a Fax machine, exchange data with a land Fax
machine which works over analog modem (V32).
The IWF also provides direct connect interfaces for customer-provided equipment
such as X.25 PADs.
Different protocol conversion may be required for signaling and traffic messages.
This includes data rate adaptation and the addition of signaling bits reformatting.
The IWF is a part of the Mobile Switching Center.
7-15
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
When the mobile is connectedto the PSTN, an Echo Canceler (EC) is required at the MSC-
PSTN interface to reduce the effect of the GSM delay.
GSMintroduces a round-trip delay (which results of speech encoding, decoding, and signal
processing) of the order of 180 ms. Normally this delay would not be an annoying factor to
the mobile, except when communicating with PSTN as it requires a two wires to four-wire
transformer in the circuit.
This transformer is required at the toll office because the standard loop is a two wire circuit.
Some of energy at its four-wire receive side re-transmittedto the mobile causes the echo,
which does not affect the land subscriber but is annoying factor to the mobile.
Note that during a normal PSTN call, no echo is apparent because the delay is too short and
the land user is unable to distinguish between the echo and the normal telephone side
tones.
7-15 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Echo Canceler
Mobile
Switching
Center
Base
Station
SubSystem
Echo
Canceler
Switch
Land telephone
4w to 2w
transformer
GSM network
4 wire circuit
PSTN
Local
loop
Talker Echo
Two wire circuit
4 wire
circuit
T
a
l
k
e
r
E
c
h
o
4 wire
circuit
(PCM)
7-16
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The OSI Reference model
The OSI model defines seven layers of peerprotocol where each layer
communicates with its corresponding layer using the lower level layers as a
transmission medium. For communications between the two end points of a call
(person to person or modem to modemetc) each successive layer adds its protocol
message to the information to be sent. At level 1 this collective data is transmitted
over the physical medium. At the receiving end, these protocol messages are
interpreted at the appropriate layers and stripped off with the remainder of the
information being passed up to the next layer until all of the protocol messages have
been removed and the original information arrives at its destination.
Levels 1 to 4 of the model are concerned with the reliable end to end transport of
information across the network and layers 5 to 7 are application protocols concerned
with the exchange of information between the end users.
Layer 7 (Application Layer)
This the topmost layer interfaces directly with the user programs which it supports.
Examples of functions are the support of distributed databases, computing and
operating systems.
Layer 6 (Presentation Layer)
This layer governs the rules about how the information is to be presented and
exchanged in common language. Examples of the functions of this layer include
translations, text compression, file transfer and terminal handling.
7-16 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
OSI Reference Model
Layer Description
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Physical
Data Link
Network
Transport
Session
Presentation
Application
Cablesand interfaces
Point-to-point transfer
Selects necessaryservices
Data conversion function
Administration
End-to-end reliability
End-to-end routing
7-17
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-17 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
NSS
BSC BTS
MS
MM
BSSAP
SCCP
MTP3
MTP2
T
C
A
P
M
A
P
PCM
CM
MM
MTP3
MTP2
SCCP
PCM E1/T1 PCM
SCCP
MTP3
MTP2
D
T
A
P
R
R
O & M
R
S
M
L
A
P
D
RSM
O & M
RADIO RADIO
RR
I
S
U
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/
T
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CM
Um
Interface
Abis
Interface
A-Interface
BSSAP
MTP1
RR
B
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A
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P
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m
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A
P
D
m
RR
D
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A
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B
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S
M
A
P
Protocol Model
Connection Management (CM) and Mobility Management (MM) messages are
transparent to the BSS, they are delivered at end-to-end users (MS and NSS) by the
relaying of underlaying protocols (LAPDm, LAPD, SS7).
To establish a connection with the MS, CM must require MM, which in turn requires
RR to open the radio connection.
The RR procedures handles set-up, re-establishment, handover, TCH mode modify
and release of calls.
The MM procedures provides registration, location and authentication of MS.
The CM procedures provides:
Supplementary Services (SS).
Call Control (CC).
Short Message Service (SMS).
7-18
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-18 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Connection Management
Connection Management
Mobility Management
Mobility Management
Radio Resource Management
Radio Resource Management
Multiplexing
RACH BCCH
PCH
AGCH
SDCCH FACCH SACCH
TC0 TC11 SACCH TC13 TC24 IDLE
(example)
Level 3
Level 2 = LAPDm
Logical Channels
Level 1
Physical Channels
Radio Interface
Protocols Involved
This Interface located between MS and BTS (also called the Radio interface) has
these features:
Totally normalized.
Full inter-operability between Mobile Stations and infrastructure from different
manufacturers.
Organized in 3 levels:
Level 1 physical support:
- Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) frame and FDMA.
- Logical channel multiplexing.
Level 2 LAPDmProtocol (modified from LAPD):
- No flag.
- No error retransmission mechanism due to real time constraints (window =
1).
Level 3 Radio interface layer (RIL3) Protocol involves three sub-layers:
- Radio Resource Management (RR): paging, power control, ciphering
execution, handover.
- Mobility Management (MM): security, location, IMSI attach/detach.
- Connection Management (CM): Call Control (CC), Supplementary Services
(SS) Short Message Services (SMS), Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF)
facilities.
7-19
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-19 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Speech 1 TS = 4 channels
LAPD
Radio
O&M
P
C
M
P
C
M
Data
300, 1200, 1200/75, 2400,
4800, 9600, 14400 bit/s
Abis Interface
1 - Presentation
Message exchanges between the BTS and the BSC:
Traffic exchanges.
Signaling exchanges for call set up and BTS operation and maintenance.
Physical access between BTS and BSC: PCM digital links at 2.048 Mbit/s (E1) or
1.544 Mbit/s (T1), carrying 32 or 24 timeslots at 64 kbit/s.
Speech:
Conveyed in timeslots at 4 x 16 kbit/s (remote transcoders).
Data:
Conveyed in timeslots at 4 x 16 kbit/s.
The initial user rate, which may be 300, 1200, 1200/75, 2400, 4800 9600 or
14400 bit/s is adjusted to 16 kbit/s.
7-20
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-20 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
RSMO&M
RSL OML
RSMO&M
O&M
Level 1 layer
RSL OML
TRX
BCF
Level 3
layer
LAPD
Level 2
layer
BTS side
BSC side
RSL = Radio Signaling
Link
OML = Operation and
Maintenance
Link
RSM = Radio Subsystem
Management
O&M = Operation and
Maintenance
Abis Interface
2 - Protocols
This interface located between BTS and BSC has these features:
Partly normalized.
No inter-operability (currently) proprietary.
Organized in 3 levels:
Level 1 PCM transmission (E1 or T1):
- Speech coded at 16 kbit/s and sub-multiplexed in 64 kbit/s time slots.
- Data which rate is adapted and synchronized.
Level 2 LAPD protocol: Standard HDLC procedure:
- RSL =Radio Signaling Link.
- OML =Operation and Maintenance Link.
Level 3 application protocols:
- RSM =Radio Subsystem Management.
- O&M =Operation and Maintenance procedure.
7-21
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-21 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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FCS : Frame Check Sequence
F : Flag
SAPI : Service Access Point Identifier
TEI : Terminal Equipment Identifier
0 to 260 octets
FCS Control Address F
N (R) N (S)
TEI SAPI
Information F
0 to 21 octets
Control Address
N (R) N (S) SAPI
information
LAPD
LAPDm
Start of
frame
End of
frame
LAPD and LAPDm Frames
For each BSC and related BTS terminal port (TEI), three types of links may be
activated depending on the SAPI parameter value:
The Radio Signaling Link:
Radio resource management procedures SAPI =0.
Short messages, point to point SAPI =3.
The Operation and Maintenance Link: O&M procedures SAPI =62.
LAPD messages:
downlink:
- OML: software download, channel configuration,
- RSL: paging, HO command,
uplink: OML notification (event report), and RSL channel requirement.
LAPDmframes are derived from LAPD frames:
no flags for synchronization,
without TEI and FCS,
with shorter address,
with shorter control field.
7-22
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-22 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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LAPD
SS7
Speech 1 TS = 4 channels
Data
300, 1200, 1200/75, 2400,
4800, 9600, 14400 bit/s
O&M
Ater Interface
1 - Presentation
X.25
Purpose
Handling messages between BSC and TCU (TransCoder Unit).
Characteristics
Physical access at 1.544 Mbit/s or 2.048 Mbit/s (24 or 32 time slots at 64 kbit/s)
carrying:
Reserved signaling channels according to CCITT No. 7 (CCS7).
Speech and data channels (16 kbit/s).
BSC - TCU signaling link (LAPD).
O&M data to OMC-R (X.25) via MSC (through the Network only).
Ater interface links carry up to:
120 communications (E1).
92 communications (T1).
7-23
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-23 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Ater Interface
2 - Traffic Channel and Signaling Links
Ater interface A interface
LAPD TS 1
SS7 TS
X.25 TS 2 *
SS7 TS
X.25 TS 2 *
BSC
PCM link
PCM link
* if used
O&M
Speech TS Speech TS
Transcoding
Data TS Data TS
Rate
Adaptation
TCU
MSC
OMC
Signaling messages are carried on specific timeslots (TS):
LAPD signaling TS between the BSC and the TCU.
SS7 TS between the BSC and the MSC.
X.25 TS 2 reserved for specific configurations.
TS 1 carries LAPD protocol and is reserved for management messages between the
BSC and the TCU. It is used by the BSC for:
TCU monitoring (mixer, PCM interface, transcoder and control units, LAPD
signalingterminal, etc.).
TCU configuration (BSC-TCU signaling link, A-interface PCM, semaphore
channels, A-interface circuits, synchronization and transcoding functions).
TCU initialization.
TCU software downloading.
A and Ater interfaces management.
Synchronization management.
Transcoding management.
SS7 TS is intended for BSC-MSC link and is dedicated for BSSAP messages
transportation.
TS 2 is reserved if the O&M data are transmitted to the OMC-R via a PCM links TS,
managed by the A-interface.
Signaling messages on the LAPD TS 1 are processed only by the TCU. SS7 TS and
TS 2, if they are reserved, are switched by the TCU but remain transparent to it.
7-24
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-24 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Speech/Data 1 TS = 1 channel
SS7
BSS NSS
X.25
A Interface
1 - Presentation
Message exchanges between the MSC and the BSS (TCU):
Users traffic transport (speech +data).
Signaling transport.
Physical access BSS MSC: PCM digital links.
Users traffic transport
Each time slot corresponds to a traffic channel on the radio interface.
The 64 kbit/s speech rate adjustment (A-law or -law) and the 64 kbit/s data rate
adaptation are performed at the TCU.
Signaling transport
CCITT signaling system 7 (SS7).
Two parts:
The Message Transfer Part (MTP).
The Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP).
7-25
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-25 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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4
1
2
3
Layer
Signaling Connection
Control Part (SCCP)
Base Station
Subsystem
Application
Part
(BSSAP)
DTAP BSSMAP
User
Part
Transaction
Capabilities
Application
Part (TCAP)
Mobile
Application
Part
(MAP)
Message
Transfer
Part
(MTP)
Network
(ISUP)
ISDN
Link
Physical
GSM CCS7 Protocol Model
7-26
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-26 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
To other users
of the SCCP
and MTP
To other
processes
within the BSS
To air
interface
transmission
equipment
Physical layer
MTP
BSS
SCCP
A-interface
BSS
MAP
NSS
MTP
SCCP
Other applications,
(eg call control)
Distribution
function
DTAP
BSS
MAP
DTAP
DTAP: Direct Transfer Application Part
BSSMAP: BSS Management Application Part
BSS: Base Station Subsystem
MSC: Mobile services Switching Centre
SCCP: Signaling Connection Control Part
MTP: Message Transfer Part
Distribution
function
A Interface
2 - Protocols
This Interface located between TRAU and MSC has these features:
Totally normalized to allowmultivendor equipment.
Full interoperability in most cases and after testing.
Based on CCS7 protocol (either ETSI or ANSI).
The MTP layers (2 to 3) provide the basic transport system for all CCS7 signaling messages
and are responsible for signaling network management and signaling message handling:
Level 1: defines the physical characteristics for a 64 kbit/s signaling data link.
Level 2: ensures secure signaling link by providing error detection and correction,
signaling link alignment and error monitoring.
Level 3: ensures that signaling messages are routed through the network in correct
sequence and without loss or duplication even in case of link failure.
So, MTP finds the destination signaling point and SCCP will deliver the message.
The SCCP addressing allows routing to the application within the same network (through the
address) or to an external network (through Global translations) using class 0 for connection
mode and class 2 for connection oriented mode.
A distribution function is added on top of the SCCP to discriminate the BSSMAP from DTAP.
The BSSAP is a GSM CCS7 protocol and handles signaling involving MS, the BSS and the
MSC. The BSSAP is divided into two parts:
The BSSMAP which consists of messages to be processed either by MSC or BSC
(RR).
The DTAP which consists of messages to be transmitted transparently regarding the
BSS (MM, CM).
7-27
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-27 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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ISUP TUP DUP
MTP
GMSC Toll offices
Application layer
Message transfer
Physical layer
ISUP TUP DUP
MTP
PSTN/ISDN/PSDN Interface
Interface between MSC and:
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).
Integrated Service Data Network (ISDN).
Packet Switched public Data Network (PSDN).
Normalization:
Country dependent.
Inter-operability after local adaptations.
The User part is built on services of the MTP to provide connectionless signaling for
setting up, monitoring and clearing down the voice or data trunks of GSM CCS7 calls
at the PSTN interface taking into consideration that it is connection-oriented at the A
interface due to SCCP functions.
The User part transports signaling messages associated with the connection
between two users in a network.
It supplies the trunk signaling capabilities which enable network-wide feature
transparency for some network services.
There are three main families of user part protocol depending on the application:
The Telephone User Part (TUP) interface with PSTN network.
The ISDN User Part (ISUP), interface with ISDN network.
The Data User Part (DUP), interface with PAD on PSDN network.
7-28
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-28 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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GPRS/
NSS
BSS BSS
GSM/
NSS
PSTN/ISDN
Internet
or Intranets
SGSN
GGSN
PCU
New standard for efficient data packet routing and transport to and
from Packet Data Networks.
Service offering includes:
direct IP connectivity
Point-to-Point or Point-to-Multipoint
Add-on to GSM, using existing BSS infrastructure
General Packet Radio Service
General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet radio access technique based on
GSM radio to transfer data in an efficient manner optimizing the use of network
resources. It provides packet radio access to external Packet Data Networks, for
instance to the Internet.
It offers direct IP connectivity, in a Point-To-Point (PTP) or Point-To-Multipoint (PTM)
data transmission mode.
GPRS is an add-on to existing GSM networks, i.e., it makes use of the existing GSM
radio infrastructure.
With Nortels GPRS core nodes, Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and Gateway
GPRS Support Node (GGSN), the upfront investment for operators for initial
deployment of GPRS services is limited.
Nortel is currently developing the building blocks of GPRS, including:
Packet Control Unit Support Node (PCUSN),
Serving Gprs Support Node (SGSN),
Gateway Gprs Support Node (GGSN).
PCUSN and SGSN entities are hosted both on Nortel Magellan Passport, and GGSN
on Contivity Extranet Switch 4500.
7-29
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-29 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
1- What are the three components of a GSM system?
2- What does a BSS consist of?
3- What are the external interfaces and the internal interfaces of a
BSS?
4- What are the main functions of a BTS?
Check Your Learning
1- What are the three components of a GSM system?
2- What does a BSS consist of?
3- What are the external interfaces and the internal interfaces of a BSS?
4- What are the main functions of a BTS?
7-30
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-30 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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8- What are the main function of a MSC?
7- What does the NSS contain?
6- What are the main functions of the BSC?
5- Which technique does help saving links between BTS and BSC?
Check Your Learning (continue)
5- Which technique does help saving links between BTS and BSC?
6- What are the main functions of the BSC?
7- What does the NSS contain?
8- What are the main function of a MSC?
7-31
Architecture, Functions and Protocols
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
7-31 Architecture, Functions and Protocols PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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. 10- What is the role of the VLR?
9- What is the role of the HLR?
13- What is the Mobile Application Part?
12- What is the layer 2 protocol involved in the Abis interface?
11- What are the three entities of layer 3 involved in the radio
interface?
Check Your Learning (continue)
9- What is the role of the HLR?
10- What is the role of the VLR?
11- What are the three entities of layer 3 involved in the radio interface?
12- What is the layer 2 protocol involved in the Abis interface?
13- What is the Mobile Application Part?
8-1
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-1 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Section 8
Procedures
8-2
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-2 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Learning the basic procedures, the main call procedures,
mobility and roaming features that GSM operates.
After completing this lesson you will be able to:
List the GSM procedures that can be activated
from MS switch-on until MS switch-off
Explain the main procedures: cell selection, location update,
call set-up, call release, handover
Objectives
8-3
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-3 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
1- Descriptors that GSM uses.
2- GSM s actors
3 - Procedures:
Cell selection
Immediate Assignment
Location updates
- Registration
- Intra-VLR and Inter-VLR
- IMSI attach/detach
Authentication
Ciphering
Mobile Originating call
Mobile Terminating call
- Paging
- End to end
Call release
- MS initiated
- PSTN initiated
Handovers
Contents
8-4
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-4 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Mobile
Country
Code
3 digits
Mobile
Network
Code
2/3 digits
Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (MSIN)
8 digits: H1 H2 X X X X X X
Location Area Code
LAC
Temporary Mobile
Subscriber Identity
4 octets
G S M
Global GSM Mobility
Card
The Smart Card to use
MCC
=
208 (France)
234 (G-B)
MNC
=
01 (FTM)
10 (SFR)
20 (Bytel)
Descriptors Stored in SIM-Card
IMSI = 15 digits max
NMSI
LAI
Mobile
Country
Code
3 digits
Mobile
Network
Code
2/3 digits
These descriptors are used in different phases of call setup:
International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) is the proprietary identifier of
the mobile subscriber within the GSM network and is permanently assigned to
him; it consists of MCC, MNC and MSIN:
- Mobile Country Code (3 digits) is allocated to the operator country,
- Mobile Network Code (2 or 3 digits) is allocated to each operator,
- Mobile Subscriber Identification Number (8 digits) is allocated by the
GSM network (HLR).
GSM network can assign a Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) to
identify the mobile on a local basis (within VLR), allocated to visiting mobile
subscribers and correlated with IMSI.
Location Area Identity (LAI) defines a part of a MSC/VLR service area in which
a MS can move freely without updating location; it consists of MCC, MNC and
LAC.
National Mobile Subscriber Identity (NMSI) consists of the MNC and the
MSIN.
8-5
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-5 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Country
Code
CC
National
Destination
Code
Subscriber Number (SN)
Roaming Number (RN)
HO-number
Must be dialed to
make a call to
mobile subscriber
Is a PSTN-like
number to track
the MS which
hands over to
another MSC during
call-in-state
Is a PSTN-like
number used to
reach a roaming
MS
CC = 33 (France)
NDC = 607, 608, 604 (FTM)
= 609, 603 (SFR)
= 660, 661, 618 (Bytel)
Descriptors Stored in the Network
M1 M2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Country
Code
CC
National
Destination
Code
Country
Code
CC
National
Destination
Code
MS-ISDN
MSRN
The Mobile Subscriber ISDN Number (MS-ISDN) is the number that the calling
party dials in order to reach the GSM subscriber. It is used by the land networks to
route calls toward an appropriate GSM network. MSISDN is stored in HLR.
The Mobile Subscriber Roaming Number (MSRN) is allocated on a temporary
basis when the MS roams into another numbering area. Thus the MSRN shall have
the same structure as international ISDN number in the area in which it is allocated.
Visited MSC allocates a MSRN upon the VLR request which in turn was requested
by the HLR. Upon reception of the MSRN, HLR sends it to the GMSC, which can
now route the call to the MSC/VLR exchange where the called subscriber is currently
registered.
HO number is used for inter-MSC Handovers, to establish a circuit from the serving
MSC to the new MSC.
8-6
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-6 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Type Approval
Code
TAC FAC SNR
SP
Final Assembly
Code
Serial NumbeR (SPare)
T
Y
P
E
A
P
P
R
O
V
E
D
IMEI enables the operator to check
the Mobile Equipment Identity
at call setup and make sure
that no stolen or unauthorized MS
is used in the GSM network
Descriptor Embodied in the MS
Stored inside the Mobile Equipment.
Used instead of IMSI or TMSI when both are unavailable (example: Emergency calls
without SIM card) or when required by the network (for maintenance).
Can be used for EIR database updating (when it exists):
TAC =6 digits describing the type of equipment.
FAC =2 digits for identification of the factory.
SNR =6 digits for the serial number of the device.
IMEI may be temporary stored within MSC/VLR to minimize signaling within the
Network.
8-7
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-7 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Public
Switched
Telephone
Network
BTS
BSS
BSC
GSM s Actors
Fixed subscriber
Mobile subscriber
AUC
HLR
VLR
MSC
NSS
These are the GSM actors that are involved in the following procedures.
8-8
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-8 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
BTS-2
BTS-1
This cell
BTS-3
BTS-4
BTS-5
1
1
1
1
2
3
4
5
Purpose: get synchronization
with the GSM network
prior establishing any communication.
F
C
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H
S
C
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B
C
C
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Cell Selection
1
1- MS scans the whole spectrum and stores the strongest level carriers (30 in GSM
900, 40 otherwise).
2- MS tunes to the frequency correction channel (FCCH) of the strongest carrier
(BTS-1).
3- MS reads data from the synchronization channel (SCH).
4- MS reads data from broadcast channel (BCCH).
5- MS camps on this BCCH if it is suitable for the MS; otherwise it tries selection on
the next strongest beacon carrier.
8-9
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-9 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Immediate Assignment
MS BSC MSC
CMSERVICE REQUEST
SDCCH or TCH
6
CHANNEL REQUEST
RACH
1
BTS
CHANNEL REQUIRED
2
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
3
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
AGCH
5
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
COMMAND
5
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
ACK.
4
Immediate
Assignment
LOCATIONUPDAT. REQU.
SDCCH or TCH
6
OR
The Immediate Assignment procedure is always initiated by the MS and may be
triggered by a Paging Request or by a Mobile Originating Service request.
Procedure
1- The MS sends a CHANNEL REQUEST message (RACH).
2- The BTS decodes this message and indicates it to BSC through CHANNEL
REQUIRED message.
3- The BSC asks BTS to activate a dedicated channel: SDCCH or TCH (if no
SDCCH available).
4- Acknowledgement by BTS
5- The BSC sends an IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message to the
MS (via the BTS); the MS has to seize the indicated dedicated channel
including these values: initial Timing Advance and initial maximum transmission
power.
6- Then the MS can request a service on the dedicated channel through:
SERVICE REQUEST message including the access reason (call setup,
paging etc.),
LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message for location.
8-10
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-10 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
LAI
HLR
IMSI
VLR id
TMSI
IMSI
TMSI
Release
VLR
IMSI
TMSI
LAI
MSC
BTS
BSS
BSC
Registration: the Very First Location Update
2
3
5
1
2
6
1
2
3
5
6
4
3
TMSI
5
1- Channel allocation (Connection request procedure):
the MS sends (on RACH) a CHANNEL REQUEST message,
the network responds with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT (on dedicated
channel).
2- The MS sends to BSS a LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message with IMSI.
3- The VLR triggers and monitors the Authentication procedure and can also activate
Ciphering procedure.
4- The VLR stores the LA of the MS and informs the HLR which:
stores VLR identity,
downloads the subscriber profile, if the MS is allowed to roam.
5- The VLR may assign a TMSI and sends it to the MS in the LOCATION
UPDATING ACCEPT message.
6- The MSC releases the connection.
8-11
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-11 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
VLR
IMSI
TMSI
LAI
1 1
2
3
4
new TMSI
TMSI + old LAI
2
3
4
2
3
TMSI
New TMSI
New LAI
MSC
BTS
BSS
BSC
Intra-VLR Location Update
IMSI not Required
1- Channel allocation (Connection request procedure).
2- The MS sends to the BSS a LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message (with
TMSI and old LAI), relayed to the VLR through the MSC.
3- The VLR stores the new Location Area Identity, then if required assigns a new
TMSI and responds to the MS with LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT message.
4- The MSC releases the connection.
8-12
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-12 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
New LAI
newTMSI
TMSI + old LAI
TMSI
New TMSI
MSC
BSS
BTS
BSC
Inter-VLR Location Update
1
1
2
5
7
2
5
7
2
IMSI,TMSI
LAI
New VLR
IMSI, TMSI
Old LAI
Old VLR
RAND, SRES,
Kc
HLR
new
VLR id
subscriber
data
3
4
6
6
5
IMSI not Required
RAND, SRES,
Kc
1- Channel allocation (connection request procedure).
2- The MS sends to BSS a LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST message, (with
TMSI +old LAI) relayed to the VLR through MSC.
3- The new VLR asks the old VLR for MS identity and ciphering items.
4- The old VLR backs new VLR IMSI, RAND, SRES, Kc.
5- The new VLR assigns a TMSI and sends it to the MS over a LOCATION
UPDATING ACCEPT message (with cipher mode if required).
6- The new VLR informs the HLR which sends subscriber data and asks the old VLR
to erase the previous MS data.
7- The MSC releases connection.
8-13
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-13 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
MSC BTS
BSS
BSC
IMSI Attach
VLR
3
4
5
4
6
1
CHANNEL
REQUEST
2
IMMEDIATE
ASSIGNMENT
LOCATION UPDATING
REQUEST (IMSI Attach)
3
5
LOCATION UPDATING
ACCEPT (LAC, TMSI)
4
Authentication
Procedure
The IMSI attach procedure is used (if required by the network), to indicate the IMSI
as active in the network and is performed by using the Location updating procedure.
Procedure
1- MS requests (on RACH) a dedicated channel with CHANNEL REQUEST
message using a random number.
2- BSS assigns a dedicated channel (on AGCH) with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
message using this random number.
3- MS sends (over this dedicated channel) a LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST
message including its identity and the IMSI Attach cause.
4- Authentication procedure (if required by the network).
5- MSC responds by sending a LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT message.
6- In the VLR, a flag is set to indicate that the subscriber is active.
This procedure is used only if the update status is updated and if the stored LAI is
the same as the one which is actually broadcast on the BCCH of the current serving
cell.
8-14
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-14 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
IMSI Detach
MSC
BTS
BSS
BSC
VLR
1
CHANNEL
REQUEST
2
IMMEDIATE
ASSIGNMENT
IMSI DETach
INDication
3
4
CHANNEL
RELEASE
IMSI DETach
INDication
3
The IMSI detach procedure may be invoked by a MS:
if the MS is switched off,
if the SIM card is detached.
Procedure
1- MS requests (on RACH) a dedicated channel with CHANNEL REQUEST
message.
2- BSS assigns a dedicated channel (on AGCH) with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
message.
3- The MS sends IMSI DETach INDication message to the VLR.
4- The VLR sets a flag to indicate that this MS is no longer available; no paging
will be done to that MS until IMSI ATTach occurs.
8-15
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-15 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Authentication
1 - Principle
= ?
NSS
RAND = RANDom number
SRES = Signed RESponse
Kc = Ciphering Key
Ki = Identification Key
RAND
Kc
RAND (128 bits)
SIM card
G S M
Global GSM Mobility
Card
The Smart Card to use
A8
A3
Ki Ki
A3
A8
MS
AUC
(A3 and A8)
(RAND, SRES, Kc)
SRES
SRESm
(32 bits)
SRESm
CIPHER
MODE
Ki (128 bits)
Ki (128 bits)
A3
A8
A3
A8
BSS
OK
Radio
Interface
Kc
Purpose: authentication of the subscriber, to prevent access of unregistered users:
Authentication is performed by requiring from an algorithm A3 the correct
answer to a random number input.
Eavesdropping recording of signaling is inefficient since there is never twice the
same request.
A3 algorithm is operator-dependent.
Principle
The NSS transmits a non-predictable number RAND to the MS.
The SIM card and the NSS compute the signature SRESm, using algorithm A3,
from the RAND and a secret key Ki.
The MS transmits its signature SRESm to the NSS.
The NSS tests the two SRES for validity.
Each time authentication A3 algorithm runs, concurrently A8 algorithm is used to
produce a ciphering key Kc.
8-16
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-16 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
A3
Ki
RAND
SRESm
Purpose:
Avoid logging of lost,
stolen or
forgery SIM-Cards.
5
Triplets
3
AUC
(A3 and A8)
(RAND, SRES, Kc)
HLR
MSC
BTS
BSS
BSC
RAND
4
SRESm
6
1
1
4
6
4
RAND
6
SRESm
Authentication
2 - Procedure
7
Ciphering
Command
7
CIPHER
MODE
3
2
VLR
SRESm = SRES ?
S
R
E
S
m
6
7
4
R
A
N
D
Procedure
1- The VLR sends a Map Send Parameters message to the HLR which relays
this message to the AUC.
2- The AUC then generates some RAND numbers and applies algorithms A3 and
A8 to provide the authenticated signature SRES and the cipher key Kc.
3- The AUC returns the triplets (RAND, SRES, Kc) to HLR which relays them to
the VLR.
4- The VLR now sends a Map Authenticate message to the MSC which in turn
sends to the MS an AUTHENTICATION REQUEST message containing Rand;
the Kc is also sent but stops at the BTS.
5- The SIM-Card calculates the required response SRESm, using RAND,
algorithm A3 and authentication key Ki.
6- The MS returns SRESm to VLR in AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE.
7- VLR checks SRES = SRESm, then sends to the MSC a MM Service accept
message; otherwise VLR denies access: the MS will receive an
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST.
* The operator can modify the period of activation through parameters: for example,
he can authenticate every five requests (for each subscriber).
8-17
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-17 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Ciphered
data
MS BTS
Radio
interface
Frame Number
(22 bits)
Kc (64 bits)
+
Kc (64 bits)
Ciphering
1 - Principle
+
+
+
: exclusive-or
+
A5 A5
Frame Number
(22 bits)
Block
(114bits)
Data to transmit
Recei ved data Data to transmit
Recei ved data
Block
(114bits)
Block
(114bits)
Block
(114bits)
Radio path ciphering, in particular ciphering of all subscriber information, aims to
prevent third party tapping (eavesdropping).
What is encrypted?:
Signaling (Subscriber Id.).
Speech or data.
The encryption of signaling and user speech or data, is performed at the MS as well
as at the BTS (symmetric encryption) using the same Kc and the A5 algorithm.
Each time a Mobile Station is authenticated, this MS and the Network also compute
the ciphering key Kc (algorithm A8) with the same inputs RAND and Ki as for the
SRES (algorithm A3). The Frame Number FN of the current TDMA frame (within a
hyperframe) is another input for the A5 besides the Kc.
The output of Encryption algorithm A5 is a ciphering sequence of 114 bits. Exclusive
OR operation is applied between data to be ciphered and the ciphering sequence in
order to produce either ciphered or deciphered data.
Algorithm A5 is not operator dependent to achieve international roaming between
any Mobile Station and BSS infrastructure whatever the operator.Two types of
ciphering algorithms are available: A5/1 et A5/2, but only one ciphering algorithm A5
is supported at a time in a BTS.
The BSC checks the availability of the A5 algorithms in the MS. If the BSS does not
support the same ciphering algorithm as the MS, the calls will be unencrypted.
The ciphering BSS capability is an O&M parameter defined for all the BTS of the
BSC.
8-18
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-18 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
BTS
BSS
BSC
VLR
(Rand, SRES, Kc)
A5
Kc
TDMA#
+
A8
Ki
Rand
Kc
MSC
Kc
Kc
2
Ciphered
data
5
Ciphering
2 - Procedure
SET CIPHER MODE
(Kc)
1
3
CIPHER MODE COMMAND
4
CIPHER MODE COMPLETE
CIPHER MODE
COMPLETE
6
Purpose: avoid communication to be tapped.
.C=]>4]E4)
O>-.>
-.> Eg_O
Ciphering is normally required for all user transactions over the RF link when the
subscriber has been authenticated by the system. It is worth noting that this is an
optional feature and it is dependent of the operator.
Procedure
1- Ciphering begins with the VLR sending the MSC a SET CIPHER MODE (MAP
message) containing the value of Kc.
2- The MSC sends the ciphering key to the BSS (actually the BTS) in a CIPHER
MODE COMMAND (BSSMAP message).
3- The BSS in turn sends an CIPHERING MODE COMMAND (RR message) to
the MS.
4- The MS switches to encrypted transmission and reception, then sends back to
BSS an CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE (RR message).
5- After the BSS receives this message, it switches to encrypted transmission and
reception for subsequent burst.
6- The BSS then sends a CIPHER MODE COMPLETE (BSSMAP message) to
the MSC.
8-19
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-19 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
FT
GREAT BRETAIN FRANCE GERMANY
Telephone
network
Terminating
MSC
BSC
BTS
BSS
VLR
Gateway
MSC
HLR
Outgoing call
8-20
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-20 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
ACM = Address Complete Message
ANM = ANswer Message
IAM = Initial Address Message
MS
BSS MSC
CHANNEL REQUEST
1
PSTN
CMSERVICE REQUEST
2
CMSERVICE REQUEST
2
CALL PROCEEDING
7 CALL PROCEEDING
7
Assignment procedure 7
IAM
6
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
2
ACM
8
VLR
Ring
ANM
10
ALERTING
9
SETUP (basic) or
EMERGENCY
4
SETUP
4
CONNECT
11
CONNECT ACKnowledge
11
Authentication procedure 3
Ciphering procedure 3
5
Dialing
Ringing
Path
Established
Ringing
Mobile Originating Call
Sending
Number
1- The MS originates the call by sending a CHANNEL REQUEST message (on
RACH).
2- Immediate assignment: channel allocation with TCH / FACCH or SDCCH.
3- The VLR launches authentication (if required) and completes ciphering.
4- The MS initiates call establishment by sending a SETUP message (called
party number) to the MSC.
5- The MSC in turn checks mobile subscriber capabilities with VLR for desired
service.
6- If it agrees, the MSC relays the called number over an ISUP Initial Address
Message.
7- The MSC also sends a CALL PROCEEDING message to the MS (assigning
TCH / FACCH EA in case of Early Assignment).
8- Recipient PSTN switch rings the land telephone and returns an ISUP Address
Complete Message to the MSC.
9- Upon receiving this message, the MSC alerts the MS with an ALERTING
message.
10- Called party goes off hook, thus PSTN sends to the MSC an ISUP ANswer
Message. MSC then connects MS (assigning a TCH in case of OACSU).
11- Call is accepted (CONNECT/CONNECT ACK) and the conversation starts.
In case of Emergency MO Call, the SETUP message (basic call) is replaced by the
EMERGENCY one.
8-21
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-21 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
FT
GREAT BRETAIN FRANCE GERMANY
Telephone
network
Terminating
MSC
BSC
BTS
BSS
VLR
Gateway
MSC
HLR
Incoming Call
8-22
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-22 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
BSC1
BSC2
BSC3
PSTN
LA1
LA2
BTS11
BTS21
BTS22
BTS31
BTS12
BTS23
4
3
5
1
HLR
MSC/
VLR
GMSC
2
5
6
6
Mobile Terminating Call
1 - Paging Principle
Main difference with MO Call procedure is the Paging of the Mobile Station.
When the MS is in Idle mode, the network do not knows the cell but only the Location
Area where the MS is located.
Since RR sessions are only established at the initiative of the MS, the role of the
Paging procedure is to trigger that operation.
Principle
1- A call from the fixed network (PSTN) is switched to the Gateway MSC (GMSC).
2- The GMSC reads in the HLR the identity of the MSC/VLR (or Visitor MSC)
handling the Location Area of the Mobile Station.
3- The GMSC routes the call to the VMSC.
4- The VMSC reads the LA where the MS is located, into its VLR.
5- The VMSC sends instructions to one or several BSC (BSC1 and BSC2) to
page the MS in the different cells of LA1.
6- BSC1 and BSC2 page the MS in the BTSs of the Location Area LA1. (BTS11,
BTS12, BTS21).
GMSC and VMSC are software functions.
Use of MSRN =only case of GSM where a circuit is established before is answered.
8-23
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-23 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Home PLMN
GMSC
HLR
Routing
Information
(MSRN)
6
Mobile Terminating Call
2 - Detailed Paging Procedure
IAM : Initial Address Message
MSISDN : Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital network Number
MSRN : Mobile Station Roaming Number
IMSI : International Mobile Subscriber Identity
GMSC : Gateway MSC
VMSC : Visitor MSC
TMSI : Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
PN
International
SS7
ISDN
Visitor PLMN
VMSC
VLR
BSS
IAM (MSRN)
7
IAM
(MSISDN)
2
Send
Routing
Information
(MSISDN)
3
Provide Roaming Number
(IMSI)
4
PAGE
(TMSI + LA)
9
Send info
to I/C
(MSRN)
8
Roaming Number
(MSRN)
5
PAGING
REQUEST
(TMSI + LA)
10
PAGING
REQUEST
(TMSI)
11
MSISDN
1
Procedure
1- The caller subscriber access the ISDN by dialing the called MS-ISDN number.
2- Transmission of MS-ISDN number to GMSC through IAM (Initial Address
Message).
3- Transmission of MS-ISDN number to HLR through SRI (Send Routing
Information).
4- The HLR interrogates the VLR (Visitor MSC) that is currently serving the user.
5- The VLR returns a routing number (MSRN) to the HLR, which passes it back
to the GMSC.
6- The MSRN is transmitted to GMSC (address of appropriate VMSC).
7- The GMSC calls VMSC through IAM (with MSRN).
8- The MSC asks VLR to establish where the called party is located.
9- The VLR gives location information (LA) to MSC with PAGE message.
10- The VMSC alerts with PAGING REQUEST message, all BSCs in charge of
cells belonging to this LA.
11- All the BTS page the MS over PCH; depending upon the paging type
message, up to four different TMSI may be contained in the page command.
There are three types of PAGING REQUEST message:
Type 1: sent on the PCH to up two MSs, to trigger channel by these; MSs are
identified by their TMSI or IMSI.
Type 2: sent on the PCH to two or three MS; two of the MS are identified by
their TMSI while the third is identified either by its IMSI or its TMSI.
Type 3: sent on the PCH to four MS which are identified by their TMSIs.
8-24
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-24 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Mobile Terminating Call
3 - End to End Procedure
MS BSS VMSC
CHANNEL REQUEST
(LAC, Cell ID)
5
PSTN
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
(SDCCHor TCH)
6
PAGING REQUEST
4
PAGING REQUEST
(TMSI or IMSI, LA)
3
GMSC
IAM
(MSISDN)
1
IAM
(MSRN)
2
CMSERVICE REQUEST
(PagingResponse)
7 PAGING RESPONSE
(TMSI or IMSI, LA)
7
Authentication procedure 8
Ciphering procedure 9
AddressCompleteMessage
11
ANswerMessage
12
Setup, Assignment, Alerting 10
CONNECT
12
Dialing
Ringing
Path
Established
Procedure
1- PSTN sends an IAM (with the MSISDN) to the GMSC.
2- GMSC sends an IAM (with the MSRN) to the VMSC.
3- The VMSC sends a PAGING REQUEST MM message to the BSS.
4- The BSS sends a PAGING REQUEST (with IMSI or TMSI) to the MS.
5- The MS must request a channel (CHANNEL REQUEST message with paging
cause) over the RACH, within 0.5 second.
6- The BSS complies and assigns (on AGCH) a dedicated channel to the MS
with IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT message.
7- The MS sends a PAGING RESPONSE to the VMSC via the BSS.
8/9- Authentication and Ciphering procedures (if required).
10- Setup, Assignment, Alerting procedures (see MS Originating Call).
11- Alerting is sent to PSTN with an ACM (ISUP message).
12- CONNECT and ANM messages are sent to the PSTN: call is completed.
8-25
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-25 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Telephone
network
FRANCE GERMANY
FT
Terminating
MSC
BSC
BTS
BSS
VLR
HLR
Tromboning effect
Gateway
MSC
8-26
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-26 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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MS BSS MSC
Call in progress 1
RELEASE COMPLETE
4
PSTN
DISCONNECT
2 DISCONNECT
2
RELEASE
3
RELEASE
3
RF Channel Release
procedure 8
Release
5
RELEASE INDICATION
7
CHANNEL RELEASE
6
Release
tone
9
Call Release
1 - Mobile Initiated
Call release can be initiated by either the PSTN user or the mobile user.
BSC is responsible for BSS resources, MSC is responsible for NSS and PSTN
connection.
Procedure
1- Call is currently in progress.
2- The MS initiates the release of a call by sending a DISCONNECT message to
the MSC.
3- The MSC returns to the MS a RELEASE message.
4- The MS acknowledges with a RELEASE COMPLETE message.
5- The MSC can send the Release message to the PSTN without waiting for the
RELEASE COMPLETE MM message from the MS.
6- The BSC requests the MS to return to Idle mode with CHANNEL RELEASE
message.
7- The BTS informs the BSC with RELEASE INDICATION that signaling link is
disconnected.
8- BSC requests BTS to de-activate RF Channel (TCH): Channel Release.
9- The PSTN informs the land terminal with appropriate tone.
Abnormal termination is monitored by a set of timers (operator configurable) to
ensure resources are not unused/unavailable.
8-27
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-27 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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PSTN
On hook
Purpose:
informs the mobile
then releases radio
and network resources.
REL
RLC
MSC
BTS
BSS
BSC
1
1
1
1
2
3 3
4
5
5
4
6
2
Call Release
2 - PSTN Initiated
Procedure
1- The call is in progress.
2- The release process starts with an ISUP Release message from the land
network.
3- Upon receiving this message, the MSC initiates the release of the call by
sending a DISCONNECT message to the MS.
4- MS replies by sending a RELEASE CHANNEL message to the MSC.
5/6- MSC in turn, backs to the MS a RELEASE COMPLETE message and sends
to the PSTN a Release Complete message.
8-28
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-28 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
Quality
Signal strength
Lack of resources:
Directed Retry
Rescue
Prevention
Distance
Power budget
Micro cellular
environment
Maintenance
Reasons for Handover
Decision criteria
Bad quality.
Weak signal strength.
Cell boundaries (Distance).
Power budget (optimization).
Traffic constraints.
8-29
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-29 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Mobility and Handover
Draw the five types of handover.
Draw the five types of handover.
MSC-A MSC-B
BTS
A1
BTS
A2
BTS
B1
BTS
C1
BSC-B
BSC-A
BSC-C
8-30
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-30 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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MSC-A MSC-B
BTS
A1
BTS
A2
BTS
B1
BTS
C1
BSC-B
BSC-A
BSC-C
1
2 3
4
5
Mobility and Handover
The Five Types of Handover
1- Intra-Cell HO
2- Intra-BTS HO
3- Intra-BSC HO
4- Inter-BSC HO
5- Inter-MSC HO
1- Intra-Cell Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on the same cell,
under the same BTS.
2- Intra-BTS Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on a different cell,
under the control of the same BTS.
3- Intra-BSC Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on a different cell,
under the control of a different BTS of the same BSC.
4- Inter-BSC Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on a different cell,
under the control of a different BSC of the same MSC.
5- Inter-MSC Handover: the MS is handed over to another channel on different cell,
under another MSC of the same PLMN.
8-31
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-31 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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BTS-1
BTS-2
Cell 1
Cell 2
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MSC
BSC
Handover Preparation
To avoid losing a call in progress, when the Mobile Station leaves the radio coverage
of the cell in charge.
Procedure: Three steps:
Handover decision (based on measurements results).
Choice of the target cell.
Handover execution.
Handover topology
Intra BTS (intra and inter cell).
Inter BSC.
Inter MSC including (subsequent).
Microcellular environment.
8-32
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-32 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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BSS 1
MSC
BSS 2
ACK
Parameters
(criteria threshold) Uplink
Measurement
Handover
Request
Handover
Required
Handover decision Handover execution
Handover
Algorithm
External External
Handover
Command
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Radio Resource Management
Handover
OMC-R
To avoid losing a call in progress when the Mobile Station leaves the radio coverage
of the cell in charge.
Procedure: Three steps:
Handover decision (based on measurements results).
Choice of the target cell.
Handover execution.
Handover topology:
Intra BTS (intra and inter cell).
Inter BSC.
Inter MSC including (subsequent).
Microcellular environment.
Synchronous handover.
Handover on SDCCH.
8-33
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-33 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS-1
BTS-2
Cell 1
Cell 2
Decision criteria:
- bad quality,
- weak signal strength,
- cell boundaries,
- etc.
L
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6
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MSC BSC
Handover Decision
Handover is initiated by the network based on radio subsystem criteria (RF level,
quality, distance) as well as network directed criteria (current traffic loading per cell,
maintenance requests, etc.).
In order to determine if a handover is required, due to RF criteria, the MS shall take
radio measurements from neighboring cells; these measurements are reported to the
serving cell on a regular basis.
8-34
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-34 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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BTS-1
BTS-2
Cell 1
Cell 2
H
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MSC
BSC
Handover Execution
8-35
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-35 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Intra-BSC Handover
BTS1 MS BTS2 BSC MSC
CHANNEL ACTIVATE ACK
3
CHANNEL ACTIVATE
2
HO COMMAND
5
HO DETECTION
7
HO COMMAND
4
RF CHANNEL RELEASE
13
HO COMPLETE
12
ESTABLISHINDICATION
9
HO COMPLETE
11
HandOver COMPLETE
10
HO INDICATION
1
PHYSICAL INFO **
8
** onl y if Handover asynchronous
* this message may be repeated up to 4 times
HO ACCESS *
6
RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK
14
HO
Execution
HO
Initiation
HO
Acknowledg.
1- The BTS1 triggers HandOver by sending a HandOver INDICATION message to
the BSC.
2- The BSC allocates if available a new channel from the BTS2.
3- The BTS2 establishes this channel, and responds to the BSC.
4/5- The BSC sends a HandOver COMMAND to the MS (on the FACCH) via the
BTS1, assigning a new channel, its characteristics, the power level to use, the
frequency hopping set, the Timing Advance TA if possible, and whether to use
synchronous or asynchronous HO.
6a- In synchronous mode, MS sends to the BTS2 in successive multiframe slots
(on the FACCH) four HandOver ACCESS messages. It then activates the new
channel in both directions.
6b- In asynchronous mode, MS starts sending to the BTS2 a continuous stream of
HandOver ACCESS messages, by sending access bursts on TCH until it
receives the TA to apply.
8- In asynchronous mode, MS receives the TA.
10/11- In both cases, MS replies with a HandOver COMPLETE message to the BSC
over the new FACCH.
13/14- BSC in turn directs BTS1 to release the previous channel by sending a RF
CHANNEL RELEASE message with ACKnowledgment from the BTS1.
8-36
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-36 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Inter-BSC Handover
MS BTS1 BTS2 BSC1 BSC2
HO COMMAND
9
8
HO COMMAND
HO REQUEST ACK
6
HO REQUEST
3
CHANNEL ACTIVATE
4
HO REQUIRED
2
1
HO INDICATION
HO ACCESS *
10
* this message may be repeated up to 4 times
PHYSICAL INFO
13
MSC
16
HO COMPLETE
17
HO COMPLETE
CLEAR COMMAND
18
RF CHANNEL RELEASE
19
CLEAR COMPLETE
21
15
HandOver COMPLETE
11
HO DETECTION
20
RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK
5
CHANNEL ACTIVATE ACK
ESTABLISHINDICATION
14
HO COMMAND
7
HO DETECTION
12
HO
Initiation
HO
Execution
HO
Acknowledg.
A communication is established between the mobile subscriber and another user.
The Mobile Station moves towards another cell (BTS1 to BTS2).
The MSC controls the call, the mobility management and the radio resources, before,
during and after the HO.
1- The BTS1 triggers HO by sending a HandOver INDICATION message to the
BSC1.
2/3- The BSC1 makes a channel allocation request to the BSC2, via the MSC;
HANDOVER REQUIRED shall contain a list of cells, or a single cell, to which
the MS can be handed over.
4/6- The BSC2 allocates a channel if available, and responds to the MSC.
7/9- The MSC requests the MS (via BSC1 and BTS1) to connect to the BTS2.
10- The MS requests a radio resource to BTS2: HO ACCESS.
11/12- The BTS2 informs the MSC that it accept the handover.
13- The BTS2 establishes the connection with the MS.
14- The BTS2 orders the BSC2 that the radio link with the MS is established.
15- The MSC switches the call to the MS, (via BSC2 and BTS2) and the MS
acknowledges with HO COMPLETE.
16/17- The BTS2 (via BSC2) informs the MSC that the connection is successful.
18- The MSC informs the BSC1 to release radio resource with BTS1: CLEAR
COMMAND.
19/21- The BSC1 releases BTS1 radio resource: RF CHANNEL RELEASE.
8-37
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-37 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
BSC 3
Terrestrial link
BSC 2
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
MSC 2
MSC 1
2
Inter-MSC Handover
PSTN
BSC 1
1
3
3
1a
1b
2a
2b
3a
3b
A communication is established between the mobile subscriber and another user.
The Mobile Station moves towards another cell (BTS 2b to BTS 3a).
The BTS 2b sends an HANDOVER INDICATION to BSC2 which informs MSC1.
The MSC1 sends a Transfer Request to MSC2.
The MSC2 requests the BSC3 to allocate a traffic channel (TCH).
The MSC2 informs the MSC1 that the channel has been successfully allocated.
The MSC1 requests the BSC2 to hand over the call.
The BSC2 requests the MS, via BTS 2b, to connect via BSC3 to BTS 3a.
The MS establishes a connection with BTS 3a via BSC3.
The BSC3 informs the MSC2 that the connection is successful.
The MSC1 is informed too, via MSC2.
The MSC1 switches the call to MSC2.
The MSC2 routes the call to the MS, via BSC3 and BTS 3a.
The MSC1 releases BSC2 radio resources.
8-38
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
a- Voice channel goes through: MS <->BSC-A <->MSC-A <->telephone network and land
telephone
- BSC-A sends MSC-A an Handover Required(1).
- MSC-A embodies this message into a Map-PerformHOmessage, then sends it to
MSC-B (2).
- In case of Radio Resource available within BSC-B, MSC-B assign an HO number
(like MSRN) and backs it to MSC-A (3).
- MSC-A performs an ISUP connect to MSC-B and sends an HO Commandto the
MS (4).
- MS complies with an HO completemessage to BSC-B which is relayed to MSC-A
through MSC-B in order to release Radio Resource on MSC-A side (5).
b- Voice channel goes through: MS <->BSC-B <->MSC-B <->MSC-A <->telephone
network and land telephone.
- NowMS reaches boundary of MSC-C.
- BSC-B sends a HO requiredto MSC-B which relays it to MSC-A with an Map
Perform Subsequent Handover message (6).
- MSC-A sends a MAP performHOto MSC-C (7).
- MSC-C assign an HO number andreturns it to MSC-A (8).
- Handover is performedand MSC-A release the ISUP connection fromMSC-B (9).
c- Voice channel now goes through: MS <->BSC-C <->MSC-C <->MSC-A <->telephone
network and land telephone. MSC-A is called the Anchor MSC.
8-38 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Inter-MSC Handover
MSC-A
MSC-B MSC-C
BTS
BTS
BTS
a
b
c
a
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b
1
5
b
9
6
7
8
3
2
4
5
4
c
6
9
PSTN
BSC-A
BSC-B
BSC-C
8-39
Procedures
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
8-39 Procedures PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Exercise
Cite the GSM procedures successively involved in the following situations
(the IMSI Attach/Detach function is enabled).
Indicate the radio channels types used in every procedure.
1- Switch-on the MS and move in Idle mode fromone LA to an other one.
2- Establish a call andmove in communication fromone cell to an other.
3- MS in Idle mode. Reception of a Short Message.
4- Switch-off the MS.
9-1
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-1 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
Base Transceiver Station Functions
Section 9
9-2
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-2 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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After completing this lesson you will be able to :
Cite the main functions of a BTS;
Cite the three functional parts of one BTS and their role;
Indicate the three different connection modes of a BTS and their
benefits/drawbacks;
Describe the BCF module;
Describe the TRX;
Describe the coupling system.
Objectives
9-3
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-3 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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TCU
BSC
OMC-R
MSC
Radio
Interface
A Interface
Ater Interface
Abis Interface
NSS
BSS
OMN Interface
Public Telephone Network
MS
MS
S2000H&L
BTS
S8000
Indoor
BTS
S8000
Outdoor
BTS
Sun
StorEdge A5000
Radio
Interface
BSS Architecture
The BSS radio subsystem contains the following units:
one Base Station Controller (BSC),
one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTS),
one to seven remote transcoders, in one or more transcoder unit (TCU)
cabinets, preferably located on the MSC premises.
These different units are linked together through specific BSS interfaces:
each BTS is linked to the BSC by an Abis interface,
the TCUs are linked to the BSC by an Ater interface,
the A interface links the BSC/TCU pair to the MSC.
9-4
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Information transmission:
Speech.
Data.
Short messages.
Features at the radio interface
Signal processing:
- Modulation/demodulation, equalization.
- Ciphering/deciphering.
- Coding/decoding, interleaving/de-interleaving.
Frequency hopping.
Coupling system:
- Space diversity (reception diversity).
Layer 1 management:
- Radio measurements preprocessing
- Handover.
- Power control.
- Call clearing.
9-4 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Traffic
Speech
Data
Short messages
Transmission
Reception
AMESSAGESIS
PENDING.PLEASE
CONTACTNBR
45258765
Features at the radio interface
Signal processing
Coding Ciphering
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
4
D
5
D
6
D
7
D
8
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
4
D
5
D
6
D
7
D
8
Demodulation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Interleaving
Modulation
Coupling system
Frequency
hopping
Power
Control
Handover
L1M (Call sustaining)
Call clearing
GMSK
Q
+ 90
1 0
- 90
I
00
2
10
4
01
7
11
3
00
2
10
4
01
7
11
3
Measurement
preprocessing
Capabilities of a BTS
9-5
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Links and sites optimization
Management of multicell sites.
Drop & insert techniques.
Remote transcoders (optimization of A and Abis interface dimensioning).
LAPD signaling channels concentration.
Defense
The core functions of the BTS are duplicated against failures thank to duplication
of some modules.
9-5 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Defense
Synchro
A
Synchro
B
Multi-cell
site
(Full multi-drop)
Drop and Insert techniques
LAPD
LAPD
LAPD
concentration
LAPD
Links optimization
Links and Sites optimization
COM
1
COM
2
COM
3
COM
4 Time Slot
PCM
Control and
Switching
Unit A
Control and
Switching
Unit B
DSC
DSC
DSC DSC
+
n+1 redundancy
Automatic reconfiguration
Duplication
Capabilities of a BTS (continue)
9-6
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-6 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Antenna
COUPLING SYSTEM
TRX
(Transceiver Equipment)
BCF
(Base Common Functions)
BSC
Abis interface
Radio
Interface
MS
Functional Architecture
The Base Transceiver Station BTS can be split into three functional parts or entities:
one Base Common Functions module (BCF): performing all common functions
of the site,
coupling system (one per cell),
one or several transceivers TRX (one per TDMA frame).
These different entities are housed into one or several cabinets, their number
depends on radio channels to be implemented, the type of BTS, and the structure of
the site: single-cell or multi-cell.
9-7
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
A BTS consists of one or more cabinets:
the cabinet that contains the BCF (plus TRXs and coupling systems) is called
Base cabinet,
the other cabinet (containing TRXs and coupling systems) is called Extension
cabinet.
9-7 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC
TRX n
TRX n-1
TRX 2
TRX 1
TRX n
TRX n-1
TRX 2
TRX 1
TRX n
TRX n-1
TRX 2
TRX 1
BCF
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BTS (site)
Extension cabinets Base cabinet
Generic Architecture
9-8
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-8 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Self-defense
Switch A
Synchro
A
Synchro
B
GSM time
Signaling
concentration
Alarms management
Fans
Power
suppl y
Tempe-
rature
Audible
alarm
Warning
Abis interface
management
BSC
BTS
Out of order
In service
Operation and Maintenance
Switch B
BCF
BCF purpose is:
Abis interface management.
GSM time distribution.
External Alarms.
Operation & Maintenance.
Self defense by redundancy of its main units.
Signaling concentration/ de-concentration.
The BCF manages the information for a site whatever the configuration of this one
(Omni or sectorial).
9-9
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-9 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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TX
TRX
FP
(Frame Processor)
BCF
PA
TRX
RX
Generic Architecture
Coupling
system
The TRX is the heart of the BTS.
One TRX is the equipment managing one TDMA, that s to say eight physical
channels.
It includes four functional parts: TX, RX, FP and PA.
The first generation (S4000,S2000E):
FP =five boards,
RX =one module,
TX +PA =one module.
The second generation (S8000, S2000H&L):
RX +TX +FP =one module,
PA =one module.
The third generation (e-cell): TRX =one module.
9-10
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-10 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Modul.
Synchro
(GMSK)
Low power
Amplifiers
and IF
Transpos.
PA
RF
Transpos.
RF
Transpos.
Odd TS
Even TS
TX
Logic IF
RF Frame
Processor
BCF
Transmission Chain
FH bus
Coupling
system
The transmitter (TX or DRX Radio +PA) handles the following functions:
Conversion of the bit stream (I and Q) to be transmitted into an Intermediate
Frequency (analogue) GMSK signal.
Transposition of the GMSK signals onto the frequency band:
- GSM 900: 935-960 MHz,
- GSM 1800 (DCS): 1805-1880 MHz,
- GSM 1900 (PCS): 1930-1990 MHz,
frequency hopping management, according to the coupling mode: hybrid or
cavity,
final amplification of the radio signal (PA of the TX or PA module) according to
the level of each TS.
Two transposers are necessary: when the first synthesizer processes an even TS,
the other changes the frequency of its local oscillator in order to be able to process
the odd TS.
This architecture is particularly necessary when Frequency Hopping is used with
hybrid coupler.
9-11
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-11 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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RX or
DRX Radio
Di versity Path
Main Path
A
A
Amplifi-
cation
even TS
odd TS
Frequency
Transposition
A/D Conversion
Amplifi-
cation
even TS
odd TS
Frequency
Transposition
A/D Conversion
Coupling
system
Frame
Processor
Main
Diversity
Reception Chain
According to the type of BTS the receivers we have:
One RX module within the S2000E and S4000.
The RX part of the DRX Radio board (DRX module) within the S8000.
Each receiver operates one radio TDMA frame and handles the following
functions:
Filtering of the RF signal coming from the RX multi-coupler (splitter) to limit
the noise level in the mixer.
Pre-amplification of the filtered signals from the frequency band (GSM 900,
GSM 1800, GSM 1900).
To allow the Frequency Hopping (at the Time Slot level), the frequency
transposition needs two identical stages (one for odd TS and one for even TS)
thus avoid overlap delay when changing the frequency.
On the other hand, whenever diversity reception is used, the second path
provides the Frame Processor with the samples and the scale factors from the
other antenna.
Therefore the system can process the diversity using the MaximumRatio
Combiner algorithm.
9-12
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-12 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Coupling System
TX Coupler
(Hybrid or Cavity)
RX Splitter
RX1 RX2 RX3
Four TRX
TX2 TX1 TX3 TX4 RX4
Duplexer
- 1dB
- 1 dB
TX
Downlink
RX
Uplink
RX band
filter
TX band
filter
Duplex
shift
There are two kinds of transmission couplers but only one is used in the same
BTS:
Hybrid couplers.
Cavity couplers.
Hybrid combiner is a broad band coupler enabling the combining of two RF signals
generated by two transmitters in one signal, with a high flexibility in frequency
management.
The minimum frequency separation required between TX connected to one coupler
is 200 kHz.
The receive coupling is achieved by means of two components:
the pre-amplifier Low Noise Amplifier or LNA,
the RX Splitter.
Reception multicoupling or RX Splitter is aimed at pre-amplifying the signal received
from the duplexer, and splitting it into several outputs to drive the receivers. For
diversity purpose, the RX Splitters are duplicated on the diversity receive path.
The duplexer allows the connection of the transmission and reception paths onto a
single antenna.
This device mainly consists of two pass band filters tuned on receive and transmit
frequency bands.
The frequency bands (and the duplex shift) depend on the system: GSM 900, GSM
1800 or GSM 1900.
It is now generally integrated in the coupler (hybrid or cavity).
9-13
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-13 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Ai r
interface
Abis
interface
STAR
Connection
CHAIN
Connection
LOOP
Connection
(single multi-drop)
MS (full multi-drop)
B
S
C
BTS Connection Modes
The BTS provides the interface between the fixed network and the MS.
Abis interface connects the BTS to its BSC:
PCM links at 2.048 Mbit/s (E1) or 1.544 Mbit/s (T1).
Star, chain or loop connections.
Radio interface allows communication with MS, depending on the kind of network:
GSM 900.
GSM 1800.
GSM 1900.
9-14
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-14 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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S2000/ S4000/ S8000 BTS Families
Section 10
9-15
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-15 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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For each BTS product covered during this lesson you should be able
to:
Cite at least two main features;
Indicate the maximum configuration;
Indicate how the implementation is done for the three functional
entities: Coupling system, TRX and BCF.
Objectives
9-16
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-16 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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S8006
Coverage Solution
Coverage
Capacity
S8002
S8000
S8000 Outdoor
S8000
Indoor
e-cell
S2000H
S2000L
S2000E
S4000
For each type of environment Nortel offers a cost effective and adapted solution:
the S4000 and S2000H, for sparsely populated areas such as rural or highway
areas,
the S4000 and S8000 for suburban and urban areas,
the S8002 for railways companies,
the S8006 for street installation,
the S2000L or the e-cell for outdoor micro-cells and indoor areas with leaky
cables.
9-17
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-17 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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DRX Based BTS Family
S8000 Outdoor
S8000 Indoor
S8002 Outdoor
S8006 Outdoor
S2000H Outdoor/Indoor
S2000L Outdoor/Indoor
9-18
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-18 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS S8000 Outdoor
1 - Overview
Fully Integrated self contained cell-site:
8 TRXs (DRX + PA) in a Single Cabinet
Rectifiers, battery back up, cooling and
heating
220 Vac main (or 2 x 110 Vac live)
Optimized ratio size versus capacity:
Floorspace: 2 sqm (ie 0.25 m
2
/TX)
Footprint: 0.88 sqm
Cabinet size: 160 x 135 x 65 cm
Pedestal size: 15 (or 26) x 135 x 112 cm
PA TX Power: 30 W
RX sensitivity: - 110 dBm
Operating temperature range:
- 40 C to + 50 C
Weight:
Fully equipped = 415 kg (915 lb)
Empty = 140 kg (310 lb)
The S8000 Outdoor BTS benefits from the technological and functional
developments of the entire product range including the SMART technology
incorporated into the BTS.
This BTS offers a set of features enhancing the Quality of Service and the spectrum
efficiency of the network, such as:
a standard -110 dBm guaranteed receive sensitivity at the BTS antenna
connector (diversity not included), thus providing a better trade-off between
coverage and speech quality,
a typical -117 dBm (with diversity),
full power control range (static and dynamic).
9-19
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-19 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS S8000 Outdoor
2 - Cabinet Arrangement
RF Combiners
Shelf
Power
Amplifiers
Shelf
RECAL board
OEM
Compartment BCF/CBCF Rack
DRX Shelf
RX Splitters
AC Mains box
(Power Suppl y)
AC/DC
Converters
DC Power Suppl y Control
Battery
Climatic Unit
( DACS)
Battery Switch
F type
Converters
Main AC InterCOnnection
Compact BCF module
COMbiners
InterCOnnection
The main compartment is divided into two parts: left and right.
The left part includes the RF devices located on three main shelves:
OEM (to custom),
Power Amplifiers (up to eight), and alarm board ALCO or RECAL (with CBCF),
RF combiners (up to six H2D or three H4D) and F type converters (up to two).
The right part includes:
BCF or CBCF module,
DRX modules (up to eight),
RX splitters (up to six),
Power Supplies modules: AC/DC converters and DC control board,
Main AC Power Supply module.
9-20
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-20 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BCF Module (First Version)
Shelf Physical Description
Power
Supply
CoMmanD
Power
Supply
Converters
48 V DC / 5 V DC
CSWM DSC DSC CSWM GTW GTW PCMI SYNC SYNC
CSWM
DSC GTW PCMI SYNC
PCMI PCMI DSC DSC
Maximum configuration is the following for a stand alone S8000 BTS operating in
duplex mode:
2 CSWM boards (switch and O&M functions),
2 GTW boards (Gateway for S4000/S8000 adaptations),
3 PCMI boards (Abis interface),
4 DSC boards (concentration),
2 SYNC boards,
3 DC-DC power converters from -48 V,
1 PSCMD board (Power Supply CoMmanD).
This BCF is housed in a single shelf (with its own back panel), whose size is the
following: height =270 mm (6 U), width =520 mm, depth =300 mm.
9-21
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-21 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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CMCF
boards
CPCMI
board
BCFICO board
300 mm
100 mm
Compact BCF Module (Second Version)
1 - Physical view
The CBCF (Compact BCF) is composed of two parts:
the CBCF module: one per site,
the RECAL board (REmote Control Alarm): one per cabinet.
The CBCF module is composed of a back plane CBP (Compact Back Plane) and six
boards:
one BCFICO board (BCF InterCOnnection),
three CPCMI boards (Compact PCM Interface),
two CMCF boards (Compact Main Common Function).
These six boards can be removed from the module.
9-22
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-22 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Enhanced Performances
Quick installation into both S8000 Indoor and Outdoor cabinets.
BCF
CBCF
Compact BCF Module (Second Version)
2 - Benefits
The CBCF module manages:
Abis PCMs interfacing,
signaling (LAPD) Concentration and Routing functions,
BTS synchronization.
The RECAL board is in charge of collecting and managing internal and external
alarms, inside main and extension cabinets.
This new BCF provides all features of the actual BCF (2G) with several
improvements: duplex, upgrade...
9-23
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-23 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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S8000 TRX
BCF
DRX
DRX Radio DRX Logic
Coupling
System
TRX
PA
Frame Processor
(AMNU + DCU8)
TX Dri ver
RX Main
RX Di versity
TX
Logic
The DRX is the module of the S8000/8002/8006 and S2000H&L BTSs, which
includes:
the Frame Processor,
the receiver RX,
the TX driver,
the power supply.
The necessary amplification for transmission is achieved by a separate Power
Amplifier (PA).
The use of DRX by separating the TX Power Amplifier (PA) from the rest of the
transmit chain, allows the concept of different transmission power classes
(S2000H&L).
9-24
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-24 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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S8000 Coupling
Combiner
Type
Insertion
Loss
Dp - 1 dB
H2D - 4.5 dB
H4D - 8 dB
2 antennas per cell
5 - 8 TRX
H4D
PA
5
PA
6
PA
7
PA
8
H4D
PA
1
PA
2
PA
3
PA
4
LNA
Splitter Splitter
LNA
Splitter Splitter
Main Div.
Duplex.
1 TRX
Duplex.
PA
1
LNA LNA
Splitter Splitter
H2D
LNA LNA
PA
3
4 TRX
H2D
PA
1
PA
2
Splitter Splitter
PA
4
Main Div.
H2D
LNA LNA
PA
3
3 TRX
H2D
PA
1
PA
2
Splitter Splitter
Main
Div.
Main Div.
Duplex.
2 TRX
Duplex.
PA
1
LNA LNA
Splitter Splitter
PA
2
Main Div.
In the S8000 the different coupling devices are integrated in the RF combiner
module.
There are two kinds of Hybrid transmission couplers:
two ways couplers (one stage =-3.5 dB),
four ways couplers (two stage =-7 dB).
There are three kinds of RF Combiners:
Hybrid couplers 2 ways and Duplexer (H2D): up to 2 TRXs (4 TRXs per cell),
Hybrid couplers 4 ways and Duplexer (H4D): up to 4 TRXs (8 TRXs per cell),
Duplexer only (Dp): 1 TRX (2 TRXs per cell).
Reception multicoupling is aimed at pre-amplifying the signal received from the
duplexer, and splitting it into several outputs to drive the DRX receivers.
The receive coupling is achieved by means of two components:
the LNA Splitter, inserted into the RF Combiner,
the RX Splitter: located into a specific shelf, below the DRX shelf.
9-25
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The S8000 Indoor BTS can be housed in one to three cabinets.
The number of cabinets depends on the required capacity:
For a capacity not exceeding 8 TRXs, only one cabinet is required.
For capacities of over 8 TRXs, one or two additional cabinets are required.
This Indoor BTS is designed to be operational when the external ambient air
temperature is in a range of 0 C to +45 C.
When switched on, it operates in an external ambient air temperature range of
-5 C to +45 C, with a relative humidity level of 5% to 95%.
9-25 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS S8000 Indoor
Physical presentation
Compact packaging:
8 TRXs (DRX + PA) in each cabinet
Compact BCF integrated in the first cabinet
Optimized ratio size versus capacity:
Floorspace: 2 x 0.90 m
2
Cabinet size = 170 x 75 x 45 cm (72 l / TRX)
Power Supply: - 48 V DC
PA TX Power: 30 W
RX sensitivity: - 110 dBm
Extended operating temperature range:
- 5 C to + 45 C
Cabinet weight:
Fully equipped = 250 kg
Empty (pre-cabled) = 110 kg
9-26
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-26 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Exercise
Draw a Coupling system for a S8000 BTS O2 and a O3
9-27
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-27 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS S8002
1 - Overview
Designed for railways applications
(outdoor)
PA TX Power: 45 dBm
RX sensitivity: - 110 dBm
Standard configuration: O2
Dimensions:
Height: 140 cm
Width : 100 cm
Depth : 54 cm
Operating temperature range:
- 40 C to + 50 C
Weight: 240 kg
Battery back-up: 2 hours
User compartment: 6 U
The S8002 BTS is an optimized O2 product designed for railways applications.
Initially dedicated to the Railways companies in R-GSM band, it shall be possible to
provide the S8002 in other frequency bands.
Technical requirements:
standard O2 configuration for outdoor deployment,
environmental performances equal or better than current S8000,
re-using common S8000 equipment: CBCF, DRX, PA, RX splitter, rectifiers,
user compartment (6 U).
External temperature: -40 C to +50 C; Internal temperature: +5 C to +60 C
Coupling: duplexer only
Output power: 45 dBm
Receive sensitivity: -110 dBm
Battery backup: two hours
Cooling system by forced ventilation
All external cables shall be connected from below.
9-28
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PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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9-28 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS S8002
2 - Description
Cooling system CDACS
C-AC Main
Duplexers
Power Amplifiers
F type
Power Supply
DRX modules
User compartment
6 U
RECAL board
CBCF
Rectifiers
RX Splitters
S8000 equipment:
Compact BCF,
RECAL board,
DRX module (R-GSM),
Power Amplifier,
RF Combiner,
RX splitter,
rectifiers.
Specific S8002 equipment:
Outdoor cabinet,
CDACS cooling system,
DRX-Combiner interconnection board,
C-AC Mains (230 V AC 50/60 Hz),
PA-type F converter interconnection module,
cabling.
9-29
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-29 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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S8006 Street Deployable
1 - Overview
Additional coverage (streets,
roads, highways, roof tops indoor)
Configurations:
standard: O6 and S222
optional: S42 and S33
PA TX Power: 45 dBm
RX sensitivity: - 110 dBm
Operating temperature range:
- 40 C to + 50 C
Power Supply: 220 V AC
Dimensions:
Height: 130 cm
Width: 130 cm
Depth: 50 cm
Weight: 350 kg
New fromV10.4
Same modules as in S8000
The S8006 BTS is a six TRXs product designed for installation along streets and
roads without asking for building permits.
Initially dedicated to the GSM 1800 band (V10.4), it shall be possible to provide the
S8006 in other frequency bands.
Technical requirements:
O6, S222, S33 and S42 configurations for outdoor deployment,
environmental performances equal or better than current S8000,
diversity radio path in standard,
re-using common S8000 equipment: CBCF, DRX, PA, RX splitter, rectifiers.
External temperature:
standard: - 20 C to +35 C,
optional: - 33 C to +45 C.
Internal temperature: +5 C to +60 C
Coupling: duplexer only and hybrid duplexer
Output power =45 dBm
Receive sensitivity =- 110 dBm
Powered by 230 V AC
Cooling system by forced ventilation
All external cables shall be connected from below.
9-30
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-30 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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1
0 2
3
CM
CF
CM
CF
CPC
M
IE1
CPC
M
IE1
PCU
Cooling system
DACS
C-AC Main Box
DRX modules
CBCF
Rectifiers
RX Splitters
Power
interconnection
(CBCF, RECAL, User)
Power
Controller
Unit
S8006 Street Deployable
2 - Description
RF Combiners
Power Amplifiers
F type
Power Supply
RECAL board
C-PA interconnection
(PA, RECAL,
F power supply)
COMbiners
InterCOnnection
The S8006 BTS re-uses as much as possible S8000 BTS components.
S8000 equipment:
Compact BCF,
RECAL board,
DRX module,
Power Amplifier,
RF Combiner,
RX splitter,
rectifiers 220 V AC to -48 V DC (MITRA type only),
converters - 48 V to -15 V/+15 V for LNA splitters (F type).
Specific S8006 equipment:
Outdoor cabinet,
CDACS cooling system,
Main ICO (digital interconnection board between DRX, PA, CBCF, RECAL and
Duplexers),
C-AC Mains box (230 V AC 50/60 Hz),
POWER ICO board (48 V distribution for CBCF, User rack and RECAL board),
C-PA ICO module (PA-type F converters interconnection),
cabling.
9-31
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PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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9-31 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Fully Integrated self contained cell-site
2 TRX (DRX+PA) in the Main Cabinet
Rectifiers, battery back up, heating
220 V/110 V AC main or - 48 V DC (Indoor)
Lightning protection and battery backup
Common package for Indoor and Outdoor
Front access for easy maintenance
PA TX Power: 2.5 W
RX Sensitivity: - 104 dBm
Operating temperature range:
- 40 C to + 50 C
no fans, natural convection
Weight =23 kg max for each part
Optional internal antennas
BTS S2000L (Low Power)
Physical Overview
This product is specially designed for micro-cellular application.
It can be installed inside a building or outside and can be easily wall mounted by a
single man.
The S2000L BTS is optimized for microcell applications where cell sizes are
generally small thereby requiring lower transmit power capability. The applications
can range from small cells inside buildings for coverage improvement to outdoor
microcells for traffic capacity enhancement.
Some examples of S2000L applications are:
Situated in building coverage for offices or entire floors.
Shopping centers.
Train stations and airports.
Pedestrian tunnels and metro platforms.
Underlay microcells in hierarchical multi-layer networks.
To meet this wide range of application needs the S2000L is equipped with powerful
multilayer handover algorithms and features for micro-cellular applications.
9-32
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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Front
Main Module
Low Power
RF Module
I & C
Terminal
Ant 1 Ant 2
S2000
IN SERVICE
DRX
modules
SBCF
and
PSU
modules
Power
Suppl y
Unit
SBCF
I&C Terminal
Mounting Plate
DRX
Modules
Front Cover
Lock
Cable Cover
Hinge
BTS S2000L (Low Power)
Base Unit
The Base unit of the S2000L is composed of:
the Main module,
the Low Power Radio Frequency or LPRF module.
These two modules are attached to the mounting plate and protected by the two
parts front cover.
The cable cover is supported at the bottom of the mounting plate with two hinges
and on the cosmetic panel with a lock.
The mounting plate provides a security barrier by limiting access to the rear, and
acts as a sun shield for the rear and sides of housing.
The Main module incorporates all the electronics common to the High and Low
power S2000 BTS, creating a modular design for the BTS.
This module comprises:
the Small Base Common Functions or SBCF module,
one or two DRX modules,
the Power Supply Unit,
the Connector Field,
the I&C terminal.
The connector field provides connection to the rest of the BTS, as well as
connections to extension module and to the external Battery and Interface Module or
customer interface, via T1 or E1 connections, alarms and AC/DC power.
9-33
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-33 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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2 TRXs capacity
O1 (or O1E/1900), O2, S11, expandable to O4
PA TX power: 20 W (masthead)
RX sensitivity: -109.5 dBm
Remoteable masthead RF Module
Base Unit located for easy access
HPRF Module remoteable to 100 m
Up to 60 dBm EIRP
Maximizes coverage
Operating temperature range: - 40 C to + 50 C
Battery and Interface Module (optional)
with battery backup and lightning protection
Base Unit: 74 x 54 x 20 cm - 34 kg
HPRF Module: 74 x 27 x 31 cm - 19.5 kg
Power Supply: AC 230 V, 50/60 Hz
DC 48 V (battery back-up)
BTS S2000H (High Power)
The S2000H, with high power output transmission is ideally suited for use to provide
macrocell coverage from locations where suitable sites for larger BTSs cannot be
found.
Because of the remotely High Power RF Module (HPRF) architecture it is a
particularly powerful BTS platform for providing highway coverage while minimizing
the roll-out time.
Some other application examples for the S2000H include the following:
Rural and low traffic suburban areas.
In-building and metro tunnel coverage where high power is required to drive long
feeders.
The HPRF unit is connected to the Base Unit through a Data/DC Power cable and
RF cables. Each Data/DC Power Cable supports up to two HPRF Modules.
The same BTS package may be deployed both in indoor and outdoor environments.
The S2000H uses passive air convection cooling. This eliminates the need for
mechanical cooling fans and their associated noise issues.
9-34
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-34 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Enhanced Packaging
HP RF Module and Base Unit
The Main and HP RF modules are merged into one package, eliminating internal
cabling and internal assembling.
Faster I&C phase (40% less time).
Size and weight are lower: only one cabinet version (height =65 cm).
External D-Sub technology connectors are replaced by circular connectors for
external cables: AC, Abis/Alarms and DC.
Components suppressed:
SBCF and UVGA heatsink,
RF jumpers.
The ground bar is now integrated into the cabinet,
This new packaging insures backward/forward installation compatibility with First one
and allows these features:
extension unit, to obtain O4 configuration,
DC main -48 V.
9-35
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-35 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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High Power RF Module
Heatsinks
Heat Pipes
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Front panel
Cable cover
Hinge
Lock
Mounting
plate
The High Power RF module consists of one Power Amplifier PA, one Low Noise
Amplifier LNA and a Duplexer, plus optional devices: an extra LNA and a RX filter
(such as the RX path of the duplexer) for supporting a single transceiver with receive
diversity.
The High Power RF module is located remotely, up to 100 m cable from the Main
module.
The PA module makes use of Heat Pipe technology to efficially transfer heat away
from hot areas in the design of the heatsink.
Operating Temperature: -40 C to +50 C.
Two types of HPRF Modules are available. A Single-Rx HPRF is used in
configurations with 2 TRXs per cell, and a Dual-Rx HPRF is used in configurations
with 1 TRX per cell such as O1 and S11.
The Single-Rx HPRF consists of 1 PA, 1 LNA and duplexer coupling. Each
HPRF Module is connected to 1 external antenna. Diversity reception is
inherently provided because there are two TRX per cell.
The Dual-Rx HPRF consists of 1 PA, 2 LNAs, duplexer coupling and an extra
receive filter. Each HPRF Module is connected to 2 external antennas to provide
reception diversity.
9-36
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-36 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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S8000 Down-link
Exercise: Draw the downlink speech path through the S8000 modules.
Control,
Signal.Concentr.
Synchronization
Management
CMCF
CBCF
Private
PCM bus
Switching
CMCF
CPCMI
CPCMI
CPCMI
PCM
Interface
DRX
DRX Radio
DRX Logic
Coupling
System
PA
TX Driver
RX Main
RX Diversity
TX
Logic
CTRL_PA
RECAL
Alarms
Concentration
To/
from
BSC
Frame
Processor
COMICO
COMbiner InterCOnection
S
p
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RF
Combiner
9-37
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-37 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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S8000 Up-link
Exercise: Draw the uplink speech path through the S8000 BTS modules.
Control,
Signal.Concentr.
Synchronization
Management
CMCF
CBCF
Private
PCM bus
Switching
CMCF
CPCMI
CPCMI
CPCMI
PCM
Interface
DRX
DRX Radio
DRX Logic
Coupling
System
PA
TX Driver
RX Main
RX Diversity
TX
Logic
CTRL_PA
RECAL
Alarms
Concentration
To/
from
BSC
Frame
Processor
S
p
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RF
Combiner
COMICO
COMbiner InterCOnection
9-38
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-38 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS e-cell
9-39
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-39 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS e-cell
1 - Overview
Fully configured (Smart card configurable)
Easy deployment & maintenance
Compact outdoor cabinet:
62 x 26 x 19 cm (31 liters)
19 kg (29 kg with PSU and battery)
Power Supply: - 48 V DC or 110/220 V AC
TX Power: 1 W guaranteed (2 W max)
RX sensitivity: -104 dBm (GSM),
Integrated radio site including optional:
Battery, Lightning protection, PSU,
EDGE hardware compliant
Capacity: 2 TRXs per cabinet, extendible to
4 TRXs:
Omni O4 in 2 cabinets
Dualband O2_2
Temperature range: - 40 C to + 50 C
Integrated antenna (optional)
New fromV12
This new e-cell BTS is a small, compact BTS designed for outdoor micro-cellular
applications and in-building deployment.
The typical configuration is an O2, extendible to O4 using an extension cabinet.
The e-cell is easy to install and maintain and can be pole or wall mounted, hence
reducing operating and site costs.
Main characteristics:
TX power: 1 W guaranteed (2 W max),
RX sensitivity =- 104 dBm,
perfectly quiet (no fan),
four external protected alarms,
This BTS is fully compatible with existing Nortel GSM product line.
9-40
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-40 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS e-cell
2 - Radio Cabinet: Block Diagram
Hybrid
coupler
Duplexer
PA PA
Radio board
(pRDRX)
Logic board
(pLDRX)
Converters and
interfaces
(PSL)
Antenna
- 48 V DC
External
PCM
Pri vate
PCM
External
Connections
LNA-
splitter
Radio
modules
External
interface
(pPCM)
LED
Ethernet.
Smart card
LPA
Radio
Cabinet
Except the miscellaneous functions, all functional equipment is located inside a
standalone box so called Radio cabinet.
Electronic devices are made of three different subsets:
radio board which deals with Intermediate Frequency and Radio Frequency low
power signals,
logic boards which deals with digital signals,
radio modules which deal with other RF signals: LPAs, LNA-diplexer, antenna.
A new electronic unit, able to process two TDMAs and the BCF function, is
composed of two boards:
pLDRX or Logic board,
pRDRX or Radio board.
9-41
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-41 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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S2000E/S4000 Family
S4000 Indoor
S4000 Outdoor
S4000 Smart Outdoor
S2000E Indoor/Outdoor
9-42
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-42 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS S4000 Indoor
1 - Overview
High capacity - Dense traffic
Small footprint (0.045 m
2
per TRX)
4 TRXs modularity
Up to 24 TRXs / site (8 Omni, S3-888)
Multiple coupling options:
Duplexer
Integrated hybrid couplers and duplexer
Remote Tunable Cavities
PA TX power: 35 W (900), 30 W (1800), 20 W
(1900)
Cabinet dimensions: 220 x 60 x 30 cm
The S4000 Indoor BTS consists of one or more cabinets, depending on the number
of radio channels to be implemented and the structure of the site: single-cell
(omnidirectional) or multi-cell (sectorial).
Two types of cabinet are available:
Base: omni/sect 1 (one per site) which serves either omnidirectional functions or
master sectorial functions.
Extension: omni, sector 2, sector 3, which serve slave sectorial functions and
extension for sector capacity.
BCF modules are only in the base cabinet:
Redundant CSW modules (CSW1 +CSW2), DTI and DCC boards housed in the
CSU shelf.
Redundant SYN boards.
There is one ALAT board per cabinet.
Up to four FP modules (one MNU and four DCU) are housed in the same shelf.
The different parts of a TRX module are vertically grouped: FP module, receiver Rx,
power supply PSU and transmitter Tx.
A S4000 Indoor BTS can be composed of up to six cabinets.
This configuration is reachable only in multisectorial sites, (3 or 6).
For omnisectorial site, the maximal configuration consists of two cabinets (O8 with
cavity coupling).
9-43
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
A S4000 Indoor BTS can be composed of up to six cabinets.
This configuration is reachable only in multisectorial sites, (3 or 6).
For omnisectorial site, the maximal configuration consists of two cabinets (O8 with
cavity coupling).
9-43 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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TX coupler
S
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N
A
L
A
T
RX -
SPLITTER
RX RX RX RX
FP FP FP FP
P
S
/
C
C
CSU RACK
RX RX RX RX
FP FP FP FP
ANTENNA 1
TX1 to TX4
+ MAIN RX
RX RX RX RX
FP FP FP FP
RX RX RX RX
FP FP FP FP
RX RX RX RX
FP FP FP FP
RX RX RX RX
FP FP FP FP
cell
1
cell
2
cell
3
TX coupler TX coupler TX coupler TX coupler TX coupler
RX -
SPLITTER
DIVERSITY
Extension cabinets
Base cabinet
ANTENNA 2
TX5 - 8
+ DIVERSITY RX
ANTENNA 1
TX1 to TX4
+ MAIN RX
ANTENNA 2
TX5 - 8
+ DIVERSITY RX
ANTENNA 1
TX1 to TX4
+ MAIN RX
ANTENNA 2
TX5 - 8
+ DIVERSITY RX
TX
PS/
TRX
TX TX TX
PS/
TRX
PS/
TRX
PS/
TRX
TX
PS/
TRX
TX TX TX
PS/
TRX
PS/
TRX
PS/
TRX
TX
PS/
TRX
TX TX TX
PS/
TRX
PS/
TRX
PS/
TRX
TX
PS/
TRX
TX TX TX
PS/
TRX
PS/
TRX
PS/
TRX
TX
PS/
TRX
TX TX TX
PS/
TRX
PS/
TRX
PS/
TRX
TX
PS/
TRX
TX TX TX
PS/
TRX
PS/
TRX
PS/
TRX
P
S
/
C
C
S
Y
N
P
S
/C
C
P
S
/C
C
A
L
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RX -
SPLITTER
RX -
SPLITTER
DIVERSITY
P
S
/C
C
P
S
/C
C
A
L
A
T
RX -
SPLITTER
RX -
SPLITTER
DIVERSITY
P
S
/C
C
P
S
/C
C
A
L
A
T
RX -
SPLITTER
RX -
SPLITTER
DIVERSITY
P
S
/C
C
P
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/C
C
A
L
A
T
RX -
SPLITTER
RX -
SPLITTER
DIVERSITY
P
S
/C
C
P
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/C
C
A
L
A
T
RX -
SPLITTER
RX -
SPLITTER
DIVERSITY
BTS S4000 Indoor
2 - Example of Trisectorial Site (6S888)
9-44
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-44 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Medium capacity
Compact outdoor cabinet:
1.42 x 1.53 x 0.52 m
390 kg
Integrated radio site including:
Rectifiers, 2 Batteries, Heat exchanger
Optional integrated microwave terminal
Capacity:
Base cabinet: 3 TRXs
Extension cabinet: 4 TRXs
Possible configurations:
Omni 3 TRXs or up to 3 sectors, 1 TRX
per sector (S111) in base Cabinet
7 TRXs in 2 Cabinets S223
PA TX Power: 25 W (900), 20 W (1800/1900)
RX sensitivity: - 107 dBm
Operating temperature range: - 33 C to + 45 C
BTS S4000 Outdoor
1 - Overview
S4000 Outdoor is an outdoor BTS which supports up to three cells configurations:
Omnidirectional BTS with one to three TRX in a single cabinet.
Bisectorial BTS with one or two TRX in two cabinets.
Three sectorial BTS with up to three (Base) or four (Extension) TRX in two
cabinets.
S4000 Outdoor is made up of two cabinets back to wall installable and fully
equipped.
Temperature range: -33 C to +45 C.
9-45
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Base cabinet contains BCF with:
Duplicated switching module (CSW1 +CSW2).
Two boards DCC (1+1).
Two boards DTI (1+1 or drop and insert configuration).
One board ALATO (Power supplies, rectifiers, cooling unit, temperature, smoke,
low battery, open door alarms).
Two boards SYNO (duplicated).
Up to three TRXs.
Each extension cabinet contains:
Up to four TRXs.
Specific boards and equipment are:
ALATO: internal alarms for Base cabinet and for Extension cabinet.
SYNC (1+1).
RX-Splitter (2 x 4): dual splitter two paths.
RX-Splitter (4 +1): mono splitter (four outputs and one extension which is not
used).
Coupling devices (Duplexer or 2 Tx Hybrid combiners with duplexer) (H2D).
9-45 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Base Cabinet
Extension Cabinet
BTS
REC1
FILLING PLATE
FP FP
REC2
RECTIFIER RECTIFIER
RXD RXD
TX
D
C
U
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C
U
M
N
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
M
N
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
PS/A
Cooling unit
DUPLEXER
OR
HYBRID
DUPLEXER
DUPLEXER
OR
HYBRID
DUPLEXER
SPLITTER
FILLING PLATE
FP FP
RXD RXD
TX
D
C
U
D
C
U
M
N
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
M
N
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
PS/A
Cooling unit
SPLITTER SPLITTER SPLITTER
FILLING PLATE
PS/A PS/A
TX TX
Filling Plate
CSUC
REC1
FILLING PLATE
RXD RXD
TX
D
C
U
D
C
U
M
N
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
M
N
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
FP FP FP
D
C
U
D
C
U
M
N
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
D
C
U
BTS
PS/A
REC2
Cooling unit Cooling unit
TX
PS/B
RECTIFIER RECTIFIER
PS/A
PS/B
FILLING PLATE
RADIO LINK EQUIPMENT
RLE
S
Y
N
O
S
Y
N
O
A
L
A
T
O
D
C
C
D
C
C
C
S
W
1
C
S
W
2
C
S
W
2
C
S
W
1
D
T
I
D
T
I
DUPLEXER
OR
HYBRID
DUPLEXER
DUPLEXER
OR
HYBRID
DUPLEXER
SPLITTER SPLITTER
DUPLEXER
OR
HYBRID
DUPLEXER
DUPLEXER
OR
HYBRID
DUPLEXER
RXD
PS/A
DUPLEXER
OR
HYBRID
DUPLEXER
SPLITTER
Up to 6 meters
because of
synchro
TX
BTS S4000 Outdoor
2 - Example of S322 Configuration
9-46
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-46 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS S2000E Indoor/Outdoor
1 - Overview
Rapid & low cost coverage at low capacity
Additional coverage (tunnels, highways,
indoor)
1 TRX per cabinet up to 2 TRXs with
extension cabinet
High RF Power:
GSM 900: 25 W
GSM 1800/1900: 20 W
Dimensions: 78 x 63 x 30 cm
Weight: 50 kg including mounting elements
Easy maintenance & repair
(same modules as in S4000)
Outdoor version
The S2000E is an evolution of the S4000 Indoor BTS with only one TRX per cabinet,
designed for indoor installation, such as microcell or tunnel coverage and outdoor
installation.
Cabinet is of compact dimensions and of low mass
(0.775 m x 0.625 m x 0.3 m and 50 kg including mounting elements).
It has low acoustic noise output.
It provides wall or floor mounting.
It uses the standard modules, but:
new modules have been designed: specific synchronization (SYNO) and alarm
concentration (ALATO) boards are used,
CSW module (control and switching matrix boards) is not duplicated,
new Power Supply unit AC and fan units,
the RX-Splitter is a dual one with one RF input and two outputs,
two DTI boards allows Drop and Insert functionality: ten S2000E (Micro) BTS on
a single PCM link.
2 TRXs configurations (2 cabinets) are available.
A retrofit procedure allows to expand already installed S2000E Indoor Base cabinet
with Extension cabinet.
9-47
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-47 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Base Cabinet Extension Cabinet
Up to 1.5 meters
AC DISTRIBUTION
M7 M6 M5 M4 M3 M1
FHout PCM0 O&M PCM1 Abis
TX
RF out
TX
ANT
RX
DCU DCU MNU DCU DCU
cooling unit
GSM
Power
supply
12V/5A
Power
supply
-12V/2.5A
5V/12A
Power
supply
24V/5A
Power
supply
5V/32A
DUPLEXER
RX
RX-
Splitter
A
L
A
T
O
M7 M6 M5 M4 M3 M1
FH out PCM0 O&M PCM1 Abi s
RX-
Splitter
Power
supply
12V/5A
DTI
RF out
TX
TX
ANT
DUPLEXER
RX
DTI DCC DCU DCU MNU DCU DCU
13MHz
SYNO
RX
cooling unit
GSM
Power
supply
-12V/2.5A
5V/12A
Power
supply
24V/5A
Power
supply
5V/32A
A
L
A
T
O
AC DISTRIBUTION
C
S
W
1
C
S
W
2
BTS S2000E Indoor/Outdoor
2 - Two Cabinets Configuration
Indoor S2000E
The Indoor S2000E BTS can be wall mounted. It allows an easy installation with a fully-
equipped and tested package.
In the 1 TRX configuration, all connections (electrical and RF cables, Abis and alarm
connectors) are made at the bottom of the cabinet.
In the 2 TRXs configuration, addition inter-cabinet cabling is required. The BTS Bus
extensions are made through the top of the cabinets.
The use of receive diversity requires two inter-cabinet RF cables for carrying the main
and diversity signals.
Cable covers (2 per cabinet) are provided for protecting the inter-cabinet and external
cable entries.
The two cabinets may be separated by a distance of up to 1.5 meters measured
between adjacent edges of the cabinets.
Outdoor S2000E
The Outdoor S2000E cabinet provides the internal modules with environmental,
electromagnetic and physical protection. This makes it suitable for outdoor deployment.
It uses the same modules as the Indoor S2000E BTS, which eliminates the need to
provide separate sets of spares for maintenance purposes.
Each Outdoor S2000E BTS consists of a radio equipment cabinet plus an
environmental control system. The environmental control system is comprised of
heaters, fans, heat exchangers, an electronic control unit and a DC power supply unit
(PSU).
The Outdoor S2000E BTS can be wall-, pole- or mast-mounted, via an "H" frame,
similar to what is used for the indoor version. When mounted side-by-side, an inter-
cabinet spacing of 30 cm is required. The maximum inter-cabinet spacing is up to
1.15 meters depending on the mounting and cabling arrangement.
9-48
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-48 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Dual-Band Configurations
Integrated BSS with dual band S8000 BTS
BTS manage cells of the two bands
Share common functions (BCF)
Same footprint
Reduced handover duration
MSC
BSC 1
900/1800
BSC 2
900/1800
BTS
900
BTS
900
BTS
900
BTS
1800
BTS
900
BTS
900/1800
BTS
900/1800
BTS
900/1800
OMC-R
Dual band S8000 BTS are BTS in which the same BCF manages the two bands.
The currently supported combination, concerns P-GSM (GSM 900 Primary) and
GSM 1800 bands.
It is possible to manage mono band and dual band cabinets.
Advantages of this configuration are:
important place gain, for example:
- for a BTS S444_444, 3 cabinets are sufficient,
- 4 cabinets are necessary for the association (equivalent in capacity) of a
BTS S444 900 and a BTS S444 1800,
possibility to make synchronous handover between the two frequency bands,
reduction of transmission costs on the Abis interface:
- a S444 900 and a S444 1800 require 3 LAPD each on the
Abis interface =6 LAPD in total,
- a S444_444 requires only 3 LAPD in total.
9-49
Base Transceiver Station Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
9-49 Base Transceiver Station Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS Configuration Table
Maximum Configurations and Transmit Power
Nominal power at TX (PA) output
O1E = O1 Extendible with two DRX
2O2_2 = dual band 900_1800
6S161616 = From V14
20 W 20 W
20 W
S4000
Indoor
S4000
Outdoor
S4000
Smart
S2000E
Indoor
S2000E
Outdoor
S8000
Outdoor
2O8
2S323
3S444
6S888
2O8
3S444
6S888
2O8
3S444
O3
2S222
2S34
O3
2S222
2S34
O3
2S222
2S34
1S111
2S222
25 W
O1
2O2
O1
2O2
20 W
25 W
2O2
2O2
2O2
20 W
20 / 30 W
25 / 35 W
1800
1900
900
O8
2O16
S44
S422
3S888
6S161616
30 W
S2000L S2000H
O2
2O4
2O2_2
2.5 W
O2
2O4
2O2_2
2.5 W
O2
2.5 W
Band
BTS
type
S8000
Indoor
O1
2O2
20 W
O8
2O16
S44
S422
3S888
6S161616
30 W
O8
2O16
S44
S422
3S888
6S161616
30 W
O8
2O16
S44
S422
3S888
6S161616
30 W
O8
2O16
S44
S422
3S888
6S161616
30 W
20 W
20 W
20 W
O1E
O2
2O4
2O2_2
S11
2S22
2S2_2
O1E
O2
S11
25 W
20 W
20 W
e-cell
O2
2O4
2O2_2
1 W
O2
2O4
2O2_2
1 W
O2
2O4
1 W
S8002
Outdoor
O2
30 W
O8
2O16
S44
S422
3S888
6S161616
30 W
S8006
Outdoor
O6
S42
S33
S222
30 W
O1E
O2
2O4
2O2_2
S11
2S22
2S2_2
Each type of BTS product consists of one or several TRX modules and one BCF
module housed in one or more cabinets.
The name of the BTS, such as 3S444, means:
3 =three cabinets per site,
S =Sectorial (O =Omnidirectional),
444 =three sectors of four TRXs each.
When more than one cabinet is necessary, the first cabinet, so called Base cabinet
houses the BCF entity.
The typical TX power depends on the type of BTS, the frequency band and the
coupling:
S4000 Indoor: 35 W (900), 30 W (1800) or 20 W (1900).
S4000 Outdoor and S2000E: 25 W (900) or 20 W (1800 and 1900),
S8000 Outdoor and Indoor, S8002, and S8006: 30 W,
S2000L: 2.5 W, and S2000H: 20 W,
e-cell: 1 W.
11-1
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-1 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Section 11
Base Station Controller Functions
11-2
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-2 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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After completing this lesson you will be able to:
Show the generic architecture of the BSC.
Relate the functions that BSC performs.
Objectives
11-3
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-3 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC in the GSM Network
TCU
BSC
OMC-R
MSC
Radio
Interface
A Interface
Ater Interface
Abis Interface
NSS
BSS
OMN Interface
Public Telephone Network
MS
MS
S2000H&L
BTS
S8000
Indoor
BTS
S8000
Outdoor
BTS
Sun
StorEdge A5000
Radio
Interface
The BSS radio subsystem contains the following units:
one Base Station Controller (BSC),
one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTS),
one to seven remote transcoders, in one or more transcoder unit (TCU) cabinets,
preferably located on the MSC premises.
These different units are linked together through specific BSS interfaces:
each BTS is linked to the BSC by an Abis interface,
the TCUs are linked to the BSC by an Ater interface,
the A interface links the BSC/TCU pair to the MSC.
11-4
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The basic functions of the BSC are the followings:
radio call processing:
- set-up/release of terrestrial & radio links,
- channel switching between MSC and BTS,
radio resources management:
- radio access processing,
- radio channel allocation (traffic and signaling),
- radio channel operational states monitoring,
traffic concentration management for reducing of transmission costs which allows
to concentrate and reduce the number of links by using the "chain" (drop and
insert) or "loop" configuration instead of the "star" configuration,
Short Message Service - Cell Broadcast management:
- broadcasts short messages defined at OMC-R towards target cell.
11-4 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Radio
Resources
Management
Routing
Radio Call Processing
MSC
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC Functions
1 - Basic Functions
Traffic Concentration
CAUTION: CRASH
ONE12HIGHWAY
SMS-CB
Management
11-5
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-5 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC Self- Defence
Control and
Switching
Chain B
Passive
Control and
Switching
Chain A
Active
Observation
BTS and TCU Management
Supervision
Data +
Software
OMC-R Interface Management
X.25
BSC Functions
2 - O&M Functions
Shut down
Start up
The main O&M functions of the BSC are the following:
OSS Interface management which consists of:
- the link management with OMC-R,
- providing the services requested by the OMC-R,
- storing the BSS configuration data: software storage and distribution among
the various entities of BSS,
BTS and TCU management:
- initialization,
- configuration and reconfiguration,
- software downloading,
- supervision,
- observations,
BSC self-defence through redundancy and restart mechanisms.
11-6
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-6 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Signaling in the BSS
BTS BSC TCU
MSC
OMC-R
X.25
LAPD
OML
LAPD
RSL
LAPD
OML
CCS7
Abis Ater A
Signaling messages are exchanged between the different Network entities:
LAPD-OML between BTS and BSC,
LAPD-OML between BSC and TCU,
LAPD-RSL between BTS and BSC,
CCS7 messages between BSC and MSC are switched by the TCU, but remain
transparent to it.
11-7
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-7 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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To BTSs
To TCU
and MSC
To OMC-R
PCM
Controller
PCM
Controller
Central Processing Unit
Switching
Matrix Traffic
TS
BTS
Signaling
TS
TCU
Signaling
TS
Traffic
TS
BTS
Signaling
TCU
Signaling
Control
bus
X.25
Controller
X.25
BSC
=
Processors
Hard
Disk
MSC
Signaling
MSC
Signaling
TS
Generic Architecture of the BSC
The generic BSC architecture mainly consists of a switching matrix, a processing unit,
and trunk controllers (PCM and X.25).
The BSC performs Radio Resource through switching matrix, and trunk controllers.
Here the main functions are to establish and release radio resource in response to
mobiles and MSC requests, and also the intra-BSC handover of the mobiles.
Three types of signaling can be transported on the Ater interface:
the LAPD signaling for the control of the remote transcoders TCU,
the CCITT #7 signaling with the MSC,
the X.25 signaling with the OMC-R.
The BSC downloads new software releases from the OMC-R throughout the X.25
interface. Previous software code and other parameters fromBTSs are backed up in
the hard disk of the BSC.
11-8
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The BSC can be connected to the Radio Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC-R)
through an X.25 packet data network (1) or through the A interface (2).
When connecting the BSC to the OMC-R via the A interface, an X.25 packet switch
with multiple PCM and RS 449 ports has to be used.
In both types of connections the X.25 connection with the OMC-R is duplicated for
redundancy.
11-8 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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X.25 Network
MSC
TCU
TCU
Ater Interface
OMC-R
Server
Or
BSC
X.25 Switch
DPN 100
X.25
Modem
X.25
Modem
X.25
Modem
X.25
Modem
OMN
Interface
A Interface
BSC OMC-R Connection Options
11-9
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-9 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC 6000/12000/12000HC Family
Section 12
11-10
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-10 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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After completing this lesson you will be able to:
Draw the two BSC cabinets and the main modules they contain;
Indicate the essential differences between BSC 12000 and BSC
6000 and its consequences;
Explain how the maximum number of radio sites can be
reached.
Objectives
11-11
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-11 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Control
Cabinet
Equipment
Cabinet
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC
BSC always consists of two cabinets equipped :
the Control cabinet,
the Equipment cabinet.
Each cabinet is equipped according to the needed capacity.
The Control cabinet contains the processing core which manages the overall BSC
operations, including the equipment cabinet operations, and insures the
communication with the Radio Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC-R).
There are two identical processing cores, running in duplex mode (active/standby).
The Equipment cabinet contains:
the switching matrix,
several interface modules,
the PCM links interfaces.
There are two identical switching matrix, running in duplex mode (active/standby).
11-12
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-12 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Dimensions and weight
Height: 200 cm (67 ap.)
Width: 78 cm (27 ap.)
Depth: 60 cm (2 ap.)
Weight: < 270 kg (595 lbs)
Point loading: maximum 100 kg/cm
2
(1.420 lbs per square inch)
Power supply
- 48 V / - 60 V (tolerance from - 40 V to - 72 V)
Operating temperature: - 5 C, + 45 C
Consumption
Control cabinet: 1 kW (max 2 kW), 35 A
Equipment cabinet: 220 W (max 550 W), 10 A
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC
Characteristics
Above are the dimensions and weight given for Control or Equipment fully-equipped
cabinets.
The maximum power consumption is given for a fully-equipped BSC with maximum
ratings of board consumptions.
The designated current is the fuse value protecting the cabinet.
11-13
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-13 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Control
Cabinet
Equipment
Cabinet
Switching
Unit A
MPU
B
MPU
A
PCM
Interface
BTS Signaling
Concentration
Switching
Unit B
PCM
Interface
Chain
B
Main Processing Unit
CPU: OMU, MPU, BIFP
Disk: MMU/MMU_IDE
Protocol:
SS7: CCS7,
LAPD: SICD,
X.25: SICX, SLS/SLS2
BSCB
TSCB,
RCB, ALA
DDTI
DDTI
SWC,
MSW-SWE
+ ECI
BSC 6000/12000/12000HC
Cabinets Organization
RCB
A
RCB
B
Chain
A
The BSC is composed of two types of boards:
control boards for management,
equipment boards for external interfaces and switching units.
For safety and defense reasons:
control chains (MPUA and B) are duplicated and operate normally in the duplex
mode (active/hot standby mode),
one switching unit (SWU A or B) is dedicated to one MPU (A or B).
Common equipment boards (DDTI, ALA, BSCB, TSCB) work with the active chain.
External PCM links may be type E1 or T1.
The Main Processing Unit (MPU) is composed of: CPU-OMU, CPU-MPU, CPU-BIFP,
SUP/SUP2, MMU/MMU_IDE, SICX, CCS7, SLS/SLS2, and SICD/SICD8V.
The Equipment Unit is composed of: ECI, ALA, DDTI, RCB, TSCB, BSCB.
The SWitching Unit is composed of: SWC, MSW, SWE.
11-14
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The processing chain or MPU is duplicated for reliability and operates in matched pairs
(MPU-A and MPU-B). Each of these units includes:
an Operation and Management Unit (CPU-OMU) for O&M control,
a Main Processing Unit board (CPU-MPU) for switching control,
one or two Base Interface Front-end Processor (CPU-BIFP) for BTSs control,
a Mass Memory Unit (MMU/MMU_IDE),
a X25 interface Controller (SICX),
a LAPD interface Controller (SICD/SICD8V),
a CCITT SS7 interface controller(s) (CCS7),
a SUPervision board (SUP/SUP2),
Serial Link Switching unit (SLS/SLS2).
The Equipment cabinet shelves contain:
a duplicated Equipment Cabinet Interface unit (ECI),
an external ALArmregrouping board (ALA),
Dual Digital Trunk Interfaces boards (DDTI),
TCU Signaling link Concentration Boards (TSCB),
BTS Signaling link Concentration Boards (BSCB).
The SWitching Unit or SWU is duplicated for reliability and accommodates:
a Switching Control board (SWC),
one or two Main SWitching boards (MSW),
one or two SWitching Extension boards (SWE) controlling 16 additional links,
duplicated Rate Converter Boards (RCB).
11-14 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Functional Architecture
BSC 12000HC
O
&
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/
A

b
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BTS
C
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N
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External Loops
Inter SUP
Ethernet
Chain status(MPU Status)
External Alarms
ALA
BTS LAPD
Concentration BSCB
O&Mand
Synchro ECI
MPUA
Chain A
Switching Control
CPU-MPU
Supervision
SUP2
BTSs Control
CPU-BIFP
SS7
CCS7
SWitching Unit
2 Mb <->64kb
RCB
Chain B
Switch
Control
SWC
Switching Matrix
MSW
V11/TTL SWE
TCU/MSC
PCMInterface
DDTI
To/From OMC-R
OMN Link
Switch SLS2
Hard Disk
MMU-IDE
LAPD
SICD8V
X.25
SICX
O&MControl
CPU-OMU
TCU LAPD
Concentration TSCB
O
&
M
/
B

b
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TCU/MSC
To OMC-R
Multibus II
11-15
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The BSC equipment is held in two cabinets:
The Control cabinet contains the processing unit that directs the overall BSC
operations, including the equipment cabinet operations and insures the
communications with the OMC-R.
The Equipment cabinet contains the switching matrix, different interface modules
and the equipment for the management of the PCM links. Duplication or
redundancy of the boards ensures service continuity in the event of a failure.
The BSC 6000/12000 exists in five different basic configurations, depending on the number
of SICD/SICD8V boards.
11-15 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Physical Layout
Control Cabinet Equipment Cabinet
MPUA-
shelf
PCM
shelf
EQPD1
Mixed
shelf
EQP1
Switching
matrix
shelf
SWG
BSCB
shelf
EQPT
MPUB-
shelf
PCM
shelf
EQPD0
M
M
U
C
C
S
7
C
P
U
-
O
M
U
C
P
U
-
B
IF
P
S
IC
X
S
L
S
S
U
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C
C
S
7
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
C
P
U
-
M
P
U
C
P
U
-
B
IF
P
C
C
S
7
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
M
M
U
C
C
S
7
C
P
U
-
O
M
U
C
P
U
-
B
IF
P
S
IC
X
S
L
S
S
U
P
C
C
S
7
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
C
P
U
-
M
P
U
C
P
U
-
B
IF
P
C
C
S
7
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
S
IC
D
Power
supplies
+5 V / - 100 A
+12 V / -4 A
- 12 V / - 3 A
PSUC
Ethernet
Connector
Power
supplies
+5 V / - 100 A
+12 V / -4 A
- 12 V / - 3 A
PSUC
Fans
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
D
D
T
I
A
L
A
R
C
B
T
S
C
B
S
W
E
S
W
C
E
C
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
R
C
B
R
C
B
R
C
B
R
C
B
R
C
B
R
C
B
T
S
C
B
R
C
B
R
C
B
R
C
B
M
S
W
M
S
W
S
W
E
E
C
I
S
W
C
S
W
E
M
S
W
M
S
W
S
W
E
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
5 V
12 A
B
S
C
B
B
S
C
B
B
S
C
B
B
S
C
B
B
S
C
B
B
S
C
B
B
S
C
B
B
S
C
B
B
S
C
B
B
S
C
B
B
S
C
B
B
S
C
B
D
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T
I
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D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
D
T
I
D
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I
D
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T
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T
I
Boards Layout
Fans
11-16
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
In the duplex operating mode, the software and data are loaded onto both processing
chains. The active processor directs the BSC activities and the passive processor is
updated by the active one.
Furthermore the hard disks of the two BSC processing chains are mirrored.
The passive processor is updated by the active one each time a call reaches or
leaves a stable state. Stable calls are recovered when there is a failure on the active
chain and the passive chain turns active.
The standby chain performs the operations needed to ensure the lowest impact on
traffic handling in case of switch over:
maintaining active/standby data integrity on its disk,
running tests to detect standby components faults,
sending its operational status to the active side to determine which chain is in the
best condition.
Moreover, the standby chain receives from the active one all the information needed
to sustain calls in case of switch-over (radio channel information, terrestrial and
SCCP circuit used, ...).
An audit is performed upon operator request on both chains to ensure disk data
integrity. The audit is performed on the active side and the data consistency on the
passive is ensured by the mirror mechanism.
A switch-over is performed in case of major hardware or software anomaly. The
switch-over condition is detected by the supervision entity and initiated by the SUP
board after comparison with the other chain.
11-16 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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To/From OMC-R
O&M/A bus
O&M/B bus
To/From TCU/MSC To/From BTS
C
O
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E
Q
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External Loops
Inter SUP
Ethernet
TSCB DDTI ALA BSCB
Internal PCM/A Internal PCM/B
SLS2 MMU
IDE
ECI A
MPUA
Chain A
CPU-
MPU
SUP2
SICD
8V
SICX
CPU-
BIFP
CCS7
CPU-
OMU
V11 64 kb/s
SWC
MSW-SWE
RCB
Multibus II
SLS2 MMU
IDE
ECI B
MPUB
Chain B
CPU-
MPU
SUP2
SICD
8V
SICX
CPU-
BIFP
CCS7
CPU-
OMU
V11 64 kb/s
SWC
MSW-SWE
RCB
Multibus II
MPU
Status
MPU
Status
MPU
Status
Chain status(MPU Status)
Duplex Operation
12000HC Architecture
11-17
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Although the BSC 6000 can be equipped with the new CPU-MPU and CPU-BIFP
within the V8 release, the BSC 12000 mandatory comes with these enhanced
boards.
The BSC 12000 also comes with a new SICD8V boards along. This board features
eight LAPD input-ports.
The SICD8V is able to handle up to 64 TRX-signaling.
According to the Nortel traffic model, the BSC 1205 (delivered with 5 SICD8V boards)
reaches 1200 Erlangs and a 48000 BHCA (Busy Hour Call Attempts) throughput.
The BSC 6000 can be upgraded to a BSC 12000 on site.
11-17 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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CPU /MPU CPU /BIFP
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Up to:
1200 Erlangs
48000 BHCAs
320 TDMA
Flash EPROM
=
Fast Restart
=
Processor
Pentium 120
=
Processor
Pentium 75
LAPD
Management
SICD8V
Up to 64 TRXs
Only for
BSC 12000
Mandatory
for BSC 12000
BSC 12000
12000 Versus 6000
11-18
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-18 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC 6000/12000/12000HC
BSC Family Life
12000
HC 100 = NO
CPU 120 (or 133)
12000HC
HC 100 = YES
CPU 120
12000HC
HC 100 = YES
CPU 133
6000
CPU 66
6000
CPU 120
V9
V9
V11
V11
V11
V11
V11
V11
The BSC product line consists of the BSC 6000 and the BSC 12000 products.
These two products are based on the same platform, making it possible to upgrade a
BSC 6000 to a BSC 12000 in the field.
Both the 6000 and the 12000 exist in five configurations to match the specific
capacity required on the BSC site.
The production of the BSC 2000 stopped in 1994 with the V5 release, and is no
longer supported after the V9 release.
The production of the BSC 6000 has stopped in December 1998. The product
hardware and software will be maintained after this date but will no longer be
supported after the V14 release.
For potential unforeseen BSC extensions after March 1999, an upgrade to BSC
12000 can be offered: only a few boards have to be changed and all of them are
proposed as upgrade kits.
The BSC 12000HC (High Capacity) is the name of the BSC12000 equipped with the
new HC100 kit (from V11.3).
The BSC 12000 has CPU120 or CPU133 boards without mixing:
from release V10, the CPU133 will replace the CPU120 after the end of
production with same performance and capacity,
for release V11, the CPU133 can replace the CPU120 only for 12000HC.
11-19
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-19 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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GPRS Support
12000
GPRS
12000HC
GPRS
6000
GPRS
V12 only
From V12
GPRS
GPRS is not supported on BSC 6000.
GPRS shall be supported in V12 on a BSC12000 (i.e. the HC100 kit is not
mandatory), but there can be a high risk for future releases due to the limited RAM
memory of the CPU66SE.
GPRS in V14 will require both HC100 kit and either:
CPU120 with memory extension,
CPU133.
For releases beyond V14, the HC100 is mandatory.
11-20
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-20 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC 12000 Upgrade to BSC 12000HC
CPU-OMU: CPU 133 IE
disk interface change: SCSI to IDE
more processing capability: x2 or 3
MMU: MMU-IDE disk interface change
SUP: SUP2: more processing power
SLS: SLS2 improved defense mechanism
IDE = Integrated Disk Electronic
CPU-MPU and CPU-BIFP = CPU133
more processing capability
standardization of boards inside the BSC
+
Optional
BSC 12000 capacity is limited by its processing capability and different traffic profiles
require different processing capability. The purpose of the upgrade kit HC100 is to
increase the performance of the BSC, in order to support some hard call profiles.
This High Capacity kit available for the BSC 12000, contains per chain:
a new CPU-OMU board, based on Pentium 133 MHz: CPU133IE,
a new MMU board with IDE disk: MMU-IDE,
a new SUP board: SUP2,
a new SLS board: SLS2.
A new optional CPU-MPU/BIFP board, more powerful, is available: CPU133
(CPU133IE without IDE and Ethernet interfaces).
If the CPU120 are kept, those boards must be upgraded with RAM from 16 Mb to 32
Mb. In other terms, RAM extension will be systematically associated to HC100 kit
option only if CPU133 is not ordered.
All HC100 kits must be changed at the same time. No dialogue is possible between
two chains equipped with different CPU-OMU board.
A new partitioning of BSC disk is needed.
From V11.3, all new BSC 12000 are delivered including the HC100 kit: 12000HC.
11-21
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The entry data are classified according to their weight in BSC dimensioning
procedure:
1. Number of LAPD channels.
2. Number of TRX.
3. Number of external PCM.
4. Then, the other data: number of BTS (number of sites), and of cells.
The different limits to be taken into account within the provisioning model are
classified into hardware, software and load.
Main hardware limits come from:
Number of SICD boards (there is a direct relationship between this limit and the
number of radio sites).
Number of DDTI boards.
Number of CCS7 boards.
Main software limits are given by:
Number of cells, number of TRX, number of TCU.
Main load limits are:
The number of TRXs per SICD board: up to 16 TRXs can be managed by a
SICD board (6000) and up to 64 TRXs by a SICD8V board (12000/12000HC).
The number of TRXs per LAPD port.
11-21 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Nbr of BTS
Hardware
limits
BSC
model
BSC
product
range
Nbr of Cells
Nbr of PCM/site
Nbr of LAPD channels
Nbr of TRX
Software
limits
Load
limits
BSC Provisioning
11-22
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-22 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC 12000 product portfolio 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205
BSC type 1 2 3 4 5
Maximum sites (with BSCB) 28 60 92 124 138
Maximum number of TDMA 64 128 192 256 320
Numb. of LAPD ports 8 16 24 32 40
Number of PCM (E1 or T1) 48 48 48 48 48
CCS7 links 2 4 4 4 6
TCU (with E1) 12 12 12 12 12
TCU (with T1) 14 14 14 14 14
BSC 12000 Product Configuration
11-23
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
From BSC type 3 (606) to type 5 (610), a CPU-BIFP board is still added but the
CCS7 board is added in BSC type 2 and another in type 5 to raise the capacity of
1200 E.
11-23 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC 12000 Configuration
1 - Control Cabinet
BSC 12000 product portfolio 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205
BSC type 1 2 3 4 5
CPU-OMU 1 1 1 1 1
CPU-MPU 1 1 1 1 1
CPU-BIFP 1 1 2 2 2
SICX 1 1 1 1 1
SICD8V 1 2 3 4 5
SS7 1 2 2 2 3
SUP/SUP2 1 1 1 1 1
MMU/MMU-IDE 1 1 1 1 1
SLS/SLS2 1 1 1 1 1
x 2
11-24
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
In BSC 12000, two MSW and two SWE are provided for each type. This allows to use
BSCB boards directly from type 1. The number of DDTI boards no longer depends on
the BSC type (24 boards are provided).
11-24 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC 12000 Configuration
2 - Equipment Cabinet
BSC 12000 product portfolio 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205
BSC type 1 2 3 4 5
Switching shelf (SWG)
SWC 1 1 1 1 1
MSW 2 2 2 2 2
SWE 2 2 2 2 2
ECI 1 1 1 1 1
RCB 1 2 3 4 5
TSCB 2 2 2 2 2
BSCB 12 12 12 12 12
DDTI 10/24 10/24 10/24 10/24 10/24
ALA 1 1 1 1 1
x 2
11-25
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-25 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC 6000/12000/12000HC
Capacity Comparison
BSC product 610 610 1205 1205HC
CPU MPU/BIFP type CPU66 CPU120 CPU120 CPU133
Nortel standard (Erlangs) 600 600 1200 1200
Nortel standard (BHCA) 24000 24000 48000 48000
High mobility (Erlangs) 360 600 700 1200
High mobility (BHCA) 13650 24000 26000 48000
Short call duration (Erlangs) 240 440 640 1100
Short call duration (BHCA) 23000 42000 60750 107000
Capacity is the capability of the BSC to handle subscriber activities such as:
calls,
location updates,
handovers.
The capacity of the BSC is limited by two types of bottlenecks:
the real-time capacity limit of certain BSC processor boards such as SUP (i.e.
OMU-SUP-SWC), SICD/SICD8V, BSCB and CPU-MPU/BIFP,
the connectivity limit such as the configurable number of TRX; PCMs depending
on the BTS configuration and of the BTS load.
As Erlang values describes resource utilization, the BSC capacity can not only be
described in terms of Erlang but must be associated to a subscriber profile.
To reach its optimal capacity the BSC 12000HC (with HC100 kit) needs also the
Capacity improvement package (mandatory patch):
software optimization of OMU-SUP-SWC slave mechanism, BSC-TMG contexts
and BSC-SCCP contexts,
firmware optimization: new PROM for SWC, BSCB and TSCB boards.
These capacities are given regardless of the Quality of Service.
To maintain the BSC robustness during traffic overload periods, the overload control
mechanism, by filtering messages, can reduce the QoS.
11-26
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-26 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Exercise
1 - Indication Path in Case of TCU Warning
O
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External Loops
Inter SUP
Ethernet
Chain status(MPU Status)
External Alarms
ALA
BTS LAPD
Concentration BSCB
O&Mand
Synchro ECI
MPUA
Chain A
Switching Control
CPU-MPU
Supervision
SUP2
BTSs Control
CPU-BIFP
SS7
CCS7
SWitching Unit
2Mb <->64kb
RCB
Multibus II
Chain B
Switch
Control
SWC
Switching Matrix
MSW
V11/TTL SWE
TCU/MSC
PCMInterface
DDTI
To/From OMC-R
OMNLink
Switch SLS2
Hard Disk
MMU-IDE
LAPD
SICD8V
X.25
SICX
O&MControl
CPU-OMU
TCU LAPD
Concentration TSCB
O
&
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/
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s
TCU/MSC
PCMInterface
DDTI
To OMC-R
OMNLink
Switch SLS2
LAPD
SICD8V
X.25
SICX
Hard Disk
MMU-IDE
O&MControl
CPU-OMU
TCU LAPD
Concentration TSCB
Draw the indication path when the TCU is warning.
11-27
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-27 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Exercise
1 - Indication Path in Case of TCU Warning
O
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C
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N
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External Loops
Inter SUP
Ethernet
Chain status(MPU Status)
External Alarms
ALA
BTS LAPD
Concentration BSCB
O&Mand
Synchro ECI
MPUA
Chain A
Switching Control
CPU-MPU
Supervision
SUP2
BTSs Control
CPU-BIFP
SS7
CCS7
SWitching Unit
2Mb <->64kb
RCB
Multibus II
Chain B
Switch
Control
SWC
Switching Matrix
MSW
V11/TTL SWE
TCU/MSC
PCMInterface
DDTI
To/From OMC-R
OMNLink
Switch SLS2
Hard Disk
MMU-IDE
LAPD
SICD8V
X.25
SICX
O&MControl
CPU-OMU
TCU LAPD
Concentration TSCB
O
&
M
/
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s
TCU/MSC
PCMInterface
DDTI
LAPD
SICD8V
X.25
SICX
Hard Disk
MMU-IDE
O&MControl
CPU-OMU
TCU LAPD
Concentration TSCB
PCMInterface
DDTI
To OMC
Draw the indication path when the TCU is warning.
11-28
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-28 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Exercise
2 - Signaling Path When Call Is Setting Up
O
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External Loops
Inter SUP
Ethernet
Chain status(MPU Status)
External Alarms
ALA
O&Mand
Synchro ECI
MPUA
Chain A
Switching Control
CPU-MPU
Supervision
SUP2
BTSs Control
CPU-BIFP
SS7
CCS7
SWitching Unit
2Mb <->64kb
RCB
Multibus II
Chain B
Switch
Control
SWC
Switching Matrix
MSW
V11/TTL SWE
TCU/MSC
To/From OMC-R
OMNLink
Switch SLS2
Hard Disk
MMU-IDE
LAPD
SICD8V
X.25
SICX
O&MControl
CPU-OMU
TCU LAPD
Concentration TSCB
O
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/
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TCU/MSC
LAPD
SICD8V
SS7
CCS7
Switching Control
CPU-MPU
BTSs Control
CPU-BIFP
BTS LAPD
Concentration BSCB
BTS LAPD
Concentration BSCB
BTS
PCMInterface
DDTI
PCMInterface
DDTI
PCMInterface
DDTI
Draw the indication path when the TCU is warning.
11-29
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-29 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Exercise
3 - Speech Path When Call-in-state
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C
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External Loops
Inter SUP
Ethernet
Chain status(MPU Status)
External Alarms
ALA
O&Mand
Synchro ECI
MPUA
Chain A
Switching Control
CPU-MPU
Supervision
SUP2
BTSs Control
CPU-BIFP
SS7
CCS7
SWitching Unit
2Mb <->64kb
RCB
Multibus II
Chain B
Switch
Control
SWC
Switching Matrix
MSW
V11/TTL SWE
TCU/MSC
To/From OMC-R
OMNLink
Switch SLS2
Hard Disk
MMU-IDE
LAPD
SICD8V
X.25
SICX
O&MControl
CPU-OMU
TCU LAPD
Concentration TSCB
O
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/
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b
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s
TCU/MSC
BTS LAPD
Concentration BSCB
BTS
PCMInterface
DDTI
PCMInterface
DDTI
PCMInterface
DDTI
Draw the indication path when the TCU is warning.
11-30
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
First, the signaling base load of a site is one LAPD from a maximum of 8 TRXs with
the BCF signaling along.
Second, 11 BSCB boards (located is the BSC Equipment cabinet) can concentrate
up to 4 input -ports x 3 out-ports x 11 boards =132 sites.
Third, 10 SICD boards (located in the Control cabinet of the BSC 6000) provide 40
input signaling ports. In turn, 5 SICD8V (BSC 12000) boards provide 40 input-ports (5
x 8 input-ports) too.
Fourth, 11 BSCB boards provide 3 x 11=33 output-ports.
Thus there are 7 SICD input-ports free out of either the SICD or the SICD8V. One
input-port of either SICD or SICD8V must be assigned to the LAPD stream from the
TSCB board. The six remainder input-ports on the SICDs can be directly assigned to
other sites (#133, #134, #135, #136, #137, #138).
We conclude that the BSC 6000 and the BSC12000 can handle 132+6=138 sites.
11-30 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BTS (BCF)
DCC
or
DSC
8 TRXs
+ BCF
BSC Equipment cabinet BSC Control cabinet
BSCB
SICD
1
10
1
11
Site #1
1
4
1
2
3
138 sites
TSCB
Heres a BSC 6000
#137
#138
Number of Sites That a BSC Can Handle
11-31
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1- What main functions does the BSC perform?
2- What does the SICD/SIC8V board perform?
3- What does the CCS7 board perform?
4- What do the BSCB and the TSCB boards perform?
11-31 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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1- What main functions does the BSC perform?
2- What does the SICD/SICD8V board perform?
3- What does the CCS7 board perform?
4- What do the BSCB and TSCB boards perform?
Check Your Learning
11-32
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
6- Where are located the O&M functions in the BSC?
7- How can we distinguish a BSC 6000 from a BSC 12000?
8- How many BTSs and TRX can handle a BSC 12000 model 1205?
11-32 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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6- Where are located the O&M functions in the BSC?
8- How many BTSs and TRX can handle a BSC 12000 model 1205?
7- How can we distinguish a BSC 6000 from a BSC 12000?
Check Your Learning
11-33
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-33 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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TransCoder Unit: Functional Description
Section 13
11-34
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-34 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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After completing this lesson you will be able to:
Relate what must perform the TCU;
Identify benefit having remote TCUs.
Objectives
11-35
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-35 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC
BTS
BSS
MSC
Converts the GSM speech frames into
PSTN / ISDN A-Law or -Law speech.
Adapts the users data frames from BSS
to V110 ISDN 64 kbps ISDN format.
1 2
A
Interface
TCU is the Nortel name for the Transcoder Rate Adapter Unit
Ater
Interface
TCU
TCU Functions
TCU (TransCoder Units) are designed to reduce the amount of PCM links needed to
convey radio speech and data channels between BTS, BSC and MSC.
The concept of remote transcoders permit to convey 4 multiplexed channels at
16 kbit/s onto a single 64 kbit/s PCM channel.
Multiplexing is implemented within the BTS, thus the number of PCM links needed on
the Abis interface is reduced.
The TCU enables code conversion of 16 kbit/s channels from the BSC into 64 kbit/s
channels for MSC in both directions.
TCU is the product designation of Nortel for the TRAU (Transcoder and Rate Adapter
Unit) specified in the GSM recommendations.
11-36
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-36 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Four PCM time-slots between BTS and MSC when TCU is close to the BTSs.
One PCM time-slot between BTSs and MSC when TCU is close to the MSC.
= Save three PCM time-slots !
TS 1
TS 1
TS 2 TS 3 TS 4
BTS
TCU
TCU
BTS MSC
MSC
Benefit Having Remote TCUs
The TCU has been designed to be collocated with the MSC in order to save PCM
resources between the BSCs and the MSC.
The speech and data traffic (full-rate, enhanced full-rate or 14.4 kbps data rate) will be
transported into circuits at 16 kbit/s until it reaches the TCU allowing four traffic
channels to be carried at 64 kbit/s by each PCM Time-Slot .
Without remote TCU:
Poor use of experience transmission resource.
Transmission of information in a time slot of 64 kbps.
Limitation of the number of speech channels.
With TCU located at the MSC premises:
Multiplexing of 4 speech channels into one time slot.
Optimization of the physical resources.
Capacities on Abis and Ater interfaces multiplied per four.
11-37
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-37 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Ater interface A interface
LAPD TS 1
SS7 TS
X.25 TS 2 *
SS7 TS
X.25 TS 2 * BSC
MSC
OMC
PCM link
PCM link
* if used
O&M
Speech TS Speech TS
MSC Transcoding
Functional Detail
Time Slot Processing
Data TS Data TS
MSC
Rate
Adaptation
LAPD time slot is used for internal TCU purpose to the BSC.
SS7 and X.25 time slots are simply switched through the switching matrix without
transcoding process.
Speech blocks are transcoded by vocal transcoders.
Data blocks are rate adapted by V110/PCM converters.
11-38
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-38 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Signaling on the BTS - TCU Interface
PSTN
A interface
OMC
Ater Interface
TCU
MSC
NSS
BSC
BTS
BSS
The Mobile informs the MSC of the supported transcoders
The MSC in turn sends this information to the BSC
The BSC establishes the links from the Mobile to the TCU
The BTS controls the TCU transcoders using in-band signalisation
The communication starts
13 kbps + 3 kbps of remote control
(Half-rate, full-rate, DTX or not DTX, SID)
The 16 kbit/s bit stream contains the encoded speech (13 kbit/s) and in-band
signalisation to allow the control of the remote transcoders by the BTS.
In-band signalisation allows the transcoders to know what kind of information is
received and then what type of adaptation it must apply both for the uplink and the
downlink transmission.
Each block conveyed between the BTS and the remote transcoders contains 316 bits:
260 for speech,
35 for frame synchronization,
5 for discrimination between speech and data, full rate and half rate,
6 for time alignment,
1 for Bad Frame Indicator (uplink),
1 for DTX mode.
11-39
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-39 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC
BTS
GSM speech
decoder
Speech handler
and DTX
To MSC
TCU
Frame
Processor
Speech
handler
13 bit linear
to
8 bit A or Law
Speech blocks
(260 bits/20 ms)
Speech on the BTS-TCU Interface
The speech is carried between BTS and TCU using blocks of 260 bits/20 ms
(=13 kbps).
TCU converts the 13 kbps speech blocks into 64 kbps T1 (-law) or E1 (A-law) PCM
time slots.
Furthermore, the Frame Processor of the BTS warns the TCU whether a speech frame
is generated correctly or not (Bad Frame Indicator).
The speech transcoder also need to be told whether transmission in the uplink is on
DTX mode or not.
In turn, the TCU informs the BTS whenever it generates SID (SIlent Descriptor) frames.
11-40
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-40 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSC
BTS
RAA
64 Kbps
DTX handling
To MSC
TCU
RA1 / RA1
RAA
TAF
RA0: asynchronous -> synchronous
RA1: Air Interface V110 frame
RA1: ISDN V110 8 or 16 kbps frame
RAA: BSS (Abi s-Ater) V110 frame.
RA2: ISDN V110 64 kbps frame
Abis Ater A
FEC
RA2
RA0
Frame
processor
FEC
RA1
Users Data Rate Treatment
RA0 function perform asynchronous to synchronous conversion by providing start and
stop bit when necessary.
RA1 features the synchronous users data stream into special GSM frame V110 shape
(36 bits every 10 ms, 60 bits every either 5 ms or 10 ms).
FEC, in turn, performs the channel coding.
RA1 brings up the users data into either 8 or 16 kbps V110 frame (every 10 ms or
5 ms).
RAA convert the V110 CCITT frame of 80 bits to an TRAU (said TCU in Nortels
products) frame format in order to transmit four channel over an 64 kbps PCM link. This
frame contains 72 bits because of one does not take care of the V110 frame-flag-start-
byte when transmitting over the BSS.
RA2 output an 80 bits V110 frame into a 64 kbps DS0 link.
11-41
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-41 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Check Your Learning
1- What are the two functions of the TCU?
2- What is the benefit having remote TCUs?
3- Why do we need rate adaptation of users data?
4- How many TDTI boards do we need per TCU? Why?
1- What are the two functions of the TCU?
2- What is the benefit having remote TCUs?
3- Why do we need rate adaptation of users data?
4- How many TDTI boards do we need per TCU? Why?
11-42
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-42 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Section 14
TCU: Physical Presentation
11-43
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-43 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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After completing this lesson you will be able to:
List the different boards of a TCU shelf;
Briefly explain their role.
Objectives
11-44
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-44 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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TCB 0
TCB
TCB 1
TCB
TCB 2
TCB
3
TCB4
TCB5
TCB6
TCB
7
TCB
0
TDTI
1
TDTI
2
TDTI
PCM bus (2048 kb/s)
O&M Bus (9600 b/s asynchronous)
BSC
MSC
0, 2, 3, 4 1
Control
TUC
64 kbps
switching
matrix
E1
8
TCB9
TCB
T1
Hardware Layout
Each TCU module (one per shelf) is composed of three kinds of boards.
Transcoder Unit Controller or TUC board:
O&M processor,
Provision of a Switching Matrix of 16 x 16 PCM:
insert/extract 64 kbit/s LAPD channel (link to BSC), SS7 (links to MSC) and X.25
(link to OMC-R).
Either TransCoder Board TCB 1:
speech coding/decoding for 12 full rate traffic channels,
data rate adaptation (RAA RA2),
includes 6 Digital Signal Processors (processing two channel each), and a general
purpose processor.
Or TransCoder Board TCB2:
supports FR and the newvocoder for Enhanced Full Rate EFR,
12 DSP per board instead of 6,
40 Mips per call instead of 20 Mips,
automatic switching between vocoders.
Transcoder Digital Trunk Interface or TDTI board:
similar to BSC DDTI,
each board manages 2 external PCM links.
11-45
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Board Board Number Internal PCM Number
TUC 0 0 to 15
TDTI 0 1 (BSC) & 2
TDTI 1 3 & 4
TDTI 2 5
TCB or TCB2 0 6
TCB or TCB2 1 7
TCB or TCB2 2 8
TCB or TCB2 3 9
TCB or TCB2 4 10
TCB or TCB2 5 11
TCB or TCB2 6 12
TCB or TCB2 7 13
TCB or TCB2 8 14
TCB or TCB2 9 15
11-45 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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TUC
Switching
matrix
PCM 1
PCM0 for
internal use
TDTI 0
1/2
PCM 6 to PCM 15
BSC
PCM 5
TDTI 2
PCM 3
TDTI 1
MSC
TCB1/
TCB2
1
10
PCM 4
PCM 2 0
1
2
3
4
TDTI 0
2/2
External Communications
Internal PCM Link Allocation in the TCU
Each TCU is linked to one Ater PCM to the BSC and up to four PCMA to the MSC.
11-46
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-46 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Fans
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- Up to 120 speech channels when
using PCM E1.
DS0 # 0 assigned to PCM
handling.
One DS0 assigned to LAPD.
- Up to 92 speech channels when
using PCM T1.
One DS0 assigned to LAPD.
TCU shelf boards
TCU shelf fans
TCU shelf boards
TCU shelf fans
TCU shelf boards
TCU shelf fans
TCU shelf boards
TCU shelf fans
TCU Cabinet
Per TCU shelf:
Eight or ten TCB boards, 12 speech channels per board =up to 92 or 120 speech
channels per shelf,
One TUC board.
Up to three TDTI boards, two PCM links per board.
One link to BSC: second PCM of the first TDTI.
Up to four links to MSC,
One link unused: second PCM of the third TDTI,
Per PCM link: 30 TS (E1) or 24 TS (T1),
For the four links: up to 120 (E1) or 92 (T1) speech channels.
Per TCU cabinet: up to four TCU shelves.
Note
One have to assign one DS0 for the CCS7 link and one DS0 for the LAPD link
(maintenance purposes).
11-47
Base Station Controller Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
11-47 Base Station Controller Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Check Your Learning
2- How many speech channels can a TCU shelf drive to the MSC?
3- What is the maximum number of TCU shelves in one TCU cabinet?
4- Can you connect TCU shelves of a TCU cabinet to different BSCs?
1- How many TDTI boards do we need per TCU? Why?
1- How many TDTI boards do we need per TCU? Why?
2- How many speech channels can a TCU shelf drive to the MSC?
3- What is the maximum number of TCU shelves in one TCU cabinet?
4- Can you connect TCU shelves of a TCU cabinet to different BSCs?
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-1
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-1 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Section 15
NSS Functions
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-2
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
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After completing this lesson you will be able to:
Know all the MSC external interfaces in the NSS
Relate the functions that a GMSC and a VMSC perform
Understand the PCM-30 and the CCS7 signaling devices
Objectives
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-3
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-3 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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NSS Architecture
MSC
AUC
GMSC
BSS
Other GSM,
PSTN, ISDN
G-i nterface
IWF IWF
Site 2
C-
interface
A-i nterface
A-i nterface
B-i nterface
B-i nterface
E
F
E
F
H
D D
BSS
Other GSM,
PSTN, ISDN
E-i nterface
Site 1
EIR
SMS-SC
Billi ng
Server
Billi ng
Server
VLR
VLR
HLR
The distributed architecture of the NSS is organized with MSCs, servers and data bases,
linked by interfaces normalized (B to G).
There are two types of MSC to provide switching services to a defined part of the PLMN:
MSC, used to establish traffic channels and to switch signaling messages between
PLMN entities and other GSM networks or fixed networks,
Gateway MSC (GMSC), is a specialized MSC managing the central data base HLR,
containing permanent and dynamic subscriber data.
All the information requested by the different functions is stored in four types of data bases
connected to (or included in) the MSCs:
HLR or Home Location Register: permanent data specific to each subscriber, including
service profile, location and billing options,
VLR or Visitor Location Register: in order to minimize access to the HLR, MSC uses this
data base, which contains working data for subscribers moving within its coverage area
(LAs),
Network security and access control are provided by the Authentication Center (AUC)
and by the Equipment Identity Register (EIR):
- AUC: to ensure that only authorized users have access to the network,
- EIR: to maintain a list of stolen, faulty and valid equipment identities.
NSS includes also specific equipment such as:
Inter-working Function (IWF): to provide the different bearer services offered by the
network,
Short Message Services-Service Center (SMS-SC): used to store and forward point-to-
point short messages,
Billing Server.
This equipment or software elements are running applications more or less operator
dependent.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-4
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-4 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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GMSC
BSC
BTS
BSS
BSC
BTS
BSS
MSC
To PSTN
C
B
G
F
D
B
A
A
E
Mobile Switching Center Interfaces
EIR
VLR
VLR
AUC
HLR
Nortel HLR/AuC is
housed in the DMS-
HLR
Nortel VLR is housed
in the DMS-MSC
Interface A
Provides connections to BSSs onto PCM links.
Handles users voice and data circuits.
Handles the CCS7-SCCP signaling.
Handles BSSAP, MM, and CM message transfer.
Interface B
Provides CCS7-SCCP-TCAP signaling links to VLR.
Handles MAP-VLR communications.
Interface C
Provides CCS7-SCCP-TCAP signaling links.
Handles MAP- HLR communications.
Interface D
Provides CCS7-SCCP-TCAP signaling links between HLR and VLR.
Handles MAP-HLR/ VLR communications.
Interface E
Handles CCS7 circuit related connection between two MSCs.
Provides ISUP call command communications.
Interface F
Handles CCS7-SCCP-TCAP signaling links to EIR.
Provides communication between MSC and the EIR.
Interface G
Handles CCS7-SCCP-TCAP signaling link between two VLRs.
Provides MAP-VLR to MAP-VLR communications.
PSTN / ISDN interface
Handles PCM trunks.
Handles various PSTN / ISDN signaling links (MF R2, CCS7, etc.).
Provide ISUP and country featured Call Command communications.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-5
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-5 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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AUC
GMSC
VMSC
Handles the calls from the PSTN
Retrieves roamer routing information
- Processes translations.
- Routes calls to appropriate VMSC.
Gateway MSC Functions
HLR
Any MSC in a GSM PLMN that acts as an interface between the land and the mobile
networks is a GMSC.
A GMSC provides an entry point into the PLMN from another network or service.
A GMSC is also a routing center for incoming PLMN calls.
When an incoming call reaches the GSM PLMN, it is routed through a GMSC, which
requests the HLR and routes the call to the appropriate MSC.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-6
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-6 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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VMSC
BSC
BTS
BSS
MSC
BSC
BTS
BSS
- Sets up and tears down the calls to PSTN.
- Receives calls from the gateway MSCs.
- Handles echo-canceler and IWF.
Handles inter-MSC
handovers.
- Informs VLR of
new location.
- Gets roamer
access grant for
services.
Check
MS
available
- Requests BSSs for paging.
- Processes update location.
- Processes translations.
- Requests for roamer and MS availability.
Provides ticketing.
Visitor MSC Functions
EIR
VLR
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-7
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-7 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
BSS
Timing
generator
CCS7
couplers
E1/T1
trunks
E1/T1
trunks
X.25
couplers
Command Unit
Computer
and
peripherals
module
Inter-Working
modules
- Coordinates of call set up.
- Location registration.
- Hand-over management.
- Ticketing and billing.
- Interworking functions.
- Synchronizes with the BSS.
- Gateway to SMS-SC.
- Handles operation on
echo-cancelers.
Echo
Canceler
Common bus
To other MSC
To PSTN / ISDN
MSC
Switch
MSC Architecture and Functions
The Mobile Switching Center (MSC) has mainly to provide basic switching
functionality as known from ISDN or toll exchanges but with additional capabilities for
handling mobile subscribers.
MSC coordinates the setup of calls to and from all GSM subscribers operating in its
area. Specifically, the MSC controls the paging function (incoming calls).
The dynamic allocation of access resources is done in coordination with the Base
Station SubSystem(BSS). More specially, the MSC decides when and which types of
channels should be assigned to which mobile. However the channel identity and
related radio parameters are the responsibility of the BSS.
The MSC supervises the connection transfer between different BSSs for MSs, with an
active call, moving from one cell to another. This is ensured if two BSSs are
connected to the same MSC but also when they are not. In this later case, the
procedure is more complex, since more than one MSC is involved.
Besides, the MSC performs ticketing on calls for all subscribers based in its area.
While the subscribers call in state, the MSC obtains data for the call billing from the
hand-over recipient MSC.
Furthermore the MSC transfers encryption parameters from Visitors Location
Registers (VLRs) to BSSs to enable ciphering on the radio interface.
Last, the MSC serves as a SMS gateway to forward SMS messages from Short
Message Service Centers (SMSCs) to the subscribers and from the subscribers to
the SMSCs.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-8
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-8 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
Mobile
Switching
Center
IWF
MS
BSS
PSTN
DTE
Land-DTE
Rate
adaptation
DTE
signaling
Modem
Modem
Data +
DTE signals
InterWorking Function
Because of GSM providing a wide range of data services to its subscribers, GSM
interfaces with the various public and private data networks currently available. It is
the job of the Interworking Function (IWF) to provide this interfacing capability.
Networks to which IWF presently provides interface as follows:
PSTN,
ISDN,
Circuit-switched public data networks (CSPDN),
Packet-switched public data networks (PSPDN).
It provides the subscriber with access to data rate and protocol conversion facilities
so that data can be transmitted between GSM Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and a
land line DTE (the recipient).
Furthermore it allocates a suitable modem from its modem bank when required. This
is the case when a GSM DTE, a Fax machine, exchange data with a land Fax
machine which works over analog modem (V.32).
The IWF also provides direct connect interfaces for customers provided equipment
such as X.25 PADs.
Different protocols conversion may be required for signaling and traffic messages.
This includes data rate adaptation and the addition of signaling bits reformatting.
The IWF is a part of the Mobile Switching Center.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-9
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-9 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
Mobile
Switching
Center
Base
Station
SubSystem
Echo
Canceler
Switch
Land telephone
4w to 2w
transformer
GSM network
4 wire circuit
PSTN
Local
loop
Talker Echo
Two wire circuit
4 wire
circuit
T
a
l
k
e
r
E
c
h
o
4 wire
circuit
(PCM)
Echo Canceler
When the mobile establishes a circuit to the PSTN, an Echo Canceler (EC) is used at
the MSC-PSTN interface to reduce the effect of the GSM delay.
GSM introduces a round-trip delay (which results of speech encoding, decoding, and
signal processing) of the order of 180 ms. Normally this delay would not be an
annoying factor to the mobile, except when communicating with PSTN as it requires a
two wires to four-wire transformer in the circuit.
This transformer is required at the toll office because the standard loop is a two wire
circuit.
Some of energy at its four-wire receive side re-transmitted to the mobile causes the
echo, which does not affect the land subscriber but is annoying factor to the mobile.
Note that during a normal PSTN call, no echo is apparent because the delay is too
short and the land user is unable to distinguish between the echo and the normal
telephone side tones.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-10
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-10 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
Short Message Service Center
SS7 MAP
Voice trunks:
R2, ETSI ISUP...
SMPP
(X.25 or TCP/IP)
Voice Mail alerts
Send Routing Information
Alert-SC
Set MW Data
Forward Short Message
Deli very Report
SME
SME
SME
PSTN
Note MS
Present
SS7 DTAP
Various applications
submitting
Short Messages
BSC
SMSC
MSC
VMS
HLR
D
T
M
F
X.25
SS7 MAP
SS7 MAP
Voice trunks:
R2, ETSI ISUP...
The Short Message Service is performed by a specific network element called Short
Message Service Center (SMSC) which is commonly implemented on a computer
platform.
This SMSC is functionally separated from the GSM network although this does not
preclude an integrated implementation.
More than one SMSC may be connected to the GSM network.
For both MO and MT services the SMSC acts as store and forward center; all GSM
point to point Short Messages are either to or from the SMSC.
A message from one Mobile Station to another must pass through a SMSC.
Messages may be input to the SMSC from a fixed network customer by means of a
suitable telecommunication service either from the fixed network or from a mobile
network customer. The SMSC shall then reformat the message into that provided by
the short message service, for delivery to the mobile telephone.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-11
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-11 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
Voice Mail System
SMS-SC
Virtual FAX
A
Voice Mail
System
PLMN
Call answering
Numeric messagi ng
Notificati on/automatic
deli very of messages
MS
TUES 11:46
Urgent Messages: 1
Normal Messages: 3
Pl ayed Messages: 2
Call 123# to retri eve
TX Mail
User 1
RX Mail
User 2
User Mail
Voice Mail System provides following functionality:
call answering: due to a large percentage of inbound traffic not completed, this
function allows operator to recapture the traffic and subscribers to be informed by
traffic diversion to mail boxes,
virtual fax: this fax allows mobile subscriber to be confident that no fax will be
missed while roaming,
numeric messaging: rather than to leave a voice message a caller will be able to
enter a numeric message (tel. number to re-call) that will be spoken to the
subscriber,
notification/automatic delivery of messages: either through pager or outcalling,
SMSC integration: due to this function it will be possible to display more than a
simple indication: empty/not empty. A typical message would be XX messages
YY new.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-12
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-12 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Intelligent Network Platform
GMSC
Service
Switching
Point
Service
Control
Point
Service
Creation
Environment
HLR
Intelligent
Peripheral
SRF
Specialized
Resource
Service
Management
System
SDF
Service Data
SCF
Service Control
SSF
Service Switching
CCF
Call Control
IN platform provides the service logic which can be developed by the service
providers, independently from the GSM network vendor, and interworks with the GSM
network using standardized signaling.
As an open standard solution, it allows operators to offer the same services to their
subscribers while roaming to other PLMNs.
The GMSC/SSP handles SSF and CCF:
Service Switching Function provides functions required for interaction between
the CCF and an SCF, and between the SRF and an SCF for non-call associated
service handling.
Call Control Function provides call and service processing and control.
The Service Control Point handles:
Service Data Function provides customer and network data for real time access
by the SCF in the execution of an IN provided service.
Service Control Function commands call control functions in the processing of IN
service requests; may interact with other Functional Element to access additional
logic or data as needed.
The IP platform handles the Specialized Resource Function which provides resources
for user interaction as part of an IN service (digit receivers, announcements,
automatic speech recognition, text to speech, etc.).
Intelligent Network can be configured as on-board or off-board networks, according to
the location of the Service Switching Point (SSP) functionality:
on-board: SSP function is housed into the MSC,
off-board: SSP function is housed in a unit separated from the MSC.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-13
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-13 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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NSS Nortel: DMS and GPP
Section 16
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-14
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-14 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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After completing this lesson you will be able to:
Draw the DMS architecture and its internal main interfaces;
Explain the principle of the Nortel's time-switch and recognize its
configurations;
Understand how a time slot comes into the dual panel switching
network and how it goes out;
Understand the PCM-30 and the CCS7 signaling devices;
Identify the Super Node, the Size Enhanced and Micro-Node
hardware layout;
Describe the Gsm Passport Platform hardware layout.
Objectives
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-15
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-15 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
PicoNode
Proven DMS SuperNode MSC and HLR Platform
Low - High Capacity Systems - Scalable/Modular
Best Reliability Track Record on DMS-100 Platform
SuperNode
Size
Enhanced
(SNSE)
MicroNode
SuperNode
(SN)
PicoNode for remote and
campus applications of 500-
5000 subscribers
Nortel MSC =Digital Multiplex System (DMS)
NSS Nortel: DMS Family and PicoNode
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-16
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-16 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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SuperNode (SN)
Cabi netized
Trunk
Module
Equi pment
FSP
P
S
U
P
S
U
P
S
U
P
S
U
COOLING UNIT
P
S
U
P
S
U
P
S
U
P
S
U
REVERSE
REWIND
FORWARD
WRITE ENABLE
ON LINE
LOAD
POWER
IOC
DDU
MTD
FSP
COOLING UNIT
P
S
U
P
S
U
P
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U
P
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U
P
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U
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U
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U
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U
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U
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U
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U
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U
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U
FSP
P
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U
P
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MS 1
P
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P
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U
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U
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MS 0
P
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P
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U
P
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CM 0 CM 1
SLM 1 SLM 0
P
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U
P
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U
P
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U
P
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COOLING UNIT
FSP
COOLING UNIT
P
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ENET 0.0
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ENET 0.1
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ENET 1.0
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ENET 1.1
FSP
COOLING UNIT
P
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LIS
LMS 0 LMS1
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U
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LIS
P
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P
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U
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LIS
FSP
COOLING UNIT
P
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P
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PCM30 Digital
Trunk Controller
PDTC 0
PCM30 Digital
Trunk Controller
PDTC 1
16 PCM30s
16 PCM30s
P
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U
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U
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FSP
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P
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P
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P P
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Billing Server
File Processor
Storage
Devices
Storage
Devices
COOLING UNIT
FSP
COOLING UNIT
P
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Maintenance
Trunk Module
Maintenance
Trunk Module
Maintenance
Trunk Module
Maintenance
Trunk Module
Cabi netized
Di gital Trunk
Controller for
Offshore
ISDN
Equi pment
Cabi netized
Input/Output
Equi pment
Cabi netized
Power
Distributi on
Center
Dual-plane
Combi ned Core
Enhanced
Network
(ENET)
equi pment
Li nk Peripheral
Processor (LPP)
Applicati ons File
Processor
cabi net
The SuperNode consists of the following cabinets:
The Cabinetized Power Distribution Center (CPDC) which provides the power for
the DMS SuperNode (row by row).
The SuperNode (SN) cabinet, or DPCC, which contains two Message Switch
(MS) shelves, a dual plane Computing Module (CM) shelf, and a dual plane
System Load Module (SLM) shelf.
The Cabinetized Trunk Module Equipment (CTME) which contains up to four
Maintenance Trunk Modules (MTM).
The Cabinetized Input/Output Equipment (CIOE) cabinet which contains the
Input/Output Controller and suitable devices (DDU, MTD).
The ENET Cabinet (ENC) which contains the Enhanced NETwork (ENET).
The Cabinetized Digital Trunk Equipment (CDTE) which may contain two PCM-
30 Digital Trunk Controllers (PDTC).
Applications File Processor cabinet (AFP) which may house storage devices.
The Link Peripheral Processor (LPP) cabinet which contains SS7 and Ethernet
coupling devices.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-17
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-17 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
DMS-Core
ENET
DMS-Core
ENET
PDTCs
LPP
To HLR, VLR,
EIR, SMSC, etc.
To BSSs
To
PSTN
/ISDN
DS30
V.35
interface
DS512
DS512
DS30
DS512
or DS30
IOM
ISM
File Processor
(Billing)
PCMs
DS30
1
0
CLK 0 Message switch 0
DMS - Bus
DSx channels access message
DSx channels (voi ce, data, and si gnaling)
Digital Multiplex System (DMS) Architecture
Nortels Digital Multiplex System (DMS) is a basic made up of the following:
DMS-core, the control component,
DMS-bus, the messaging component,
ENET, the switching matrix,
the Link Peripheral Processor (LPP), the PCM Digital E1/T1 Trunk Controller
(PDTC),
the Input/Output Controllers, IOC.
For reliability, the DMS-Bus features two Message Switch (MS) that route messages
and allow direct communication between the different modules of the DMS-Super-
Node (Switching Matrix ENET, Link Peripheral Processor, PCM Digital Trunk
controller).
The DMS-Bus also houses the system clock, used by both the Bus and the Core
Module to carry out general timing functions. The system clock, which receives the
network synchronization from PSTN, provides synchronization for the DMS and can
serve, in turn, as a master clock source to allow the entire network (the different
BSSs) to run the same frequency.
DMS-Bus access port can be configured as either DS30 copper interfaces or DS512
fiber-optic interfaces:
DS30 consists of 32 channels (2.56 Mbit/s).
DS512 consists of 512 channels (49.15 Mbit/s) equivalent to 16 DS30.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-18
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-18 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
0 1
System
Load
Module
Memory
CPU
0
MEB
Memory
CPU
1
SLM SLM
Duplex macro synchronous features
RTIF 1
RTIF 0
MEB: Mate Exchange Bus (redundancy communications), RTIF: Reset Terminal Interface
To the
DMS-Bus
Computing
Module
Crossover
Busses
DMS Core Modules
Features:
The DMS Core Module is a dual macro synchronized module working in duplex
mode (both the CPU are on-line and running simultaneously, one is designed
active and the other is hot-standby). Thus Both CPU are in-step, executing the
same sequence of instructions. If an inequality is detected, a mismatch interrupt
is generated and the faulty CPU is isolated. The standby CPU become active.
Coordinates call processing activities of system components.
Serves as control component for the DMS-MSC.
Can house some application process like the MSC, the VLR, the HLR, the STP
(Signaling Transfer Point), and combinations MSC/HLR.
It consists of:
The Computing Module (CM), which manages high-level call processing
functions with up to 256 Mbytes (SR70 processor) of memory per plane.
The System Load Module (SLM), which stores and loads system images from
hard disk and tapes. Each SLM is made of one cartridge tape drive of
525 Mbytes and one disk of 1 Gbyte.
The Mate Exchange Bus (MEB), which ensures operations of duplication. This
medium allows the two Computing Modules to routinely check each others mode
of operation.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-19
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-19 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
SuperNode Configuration
DPCC Cabinet
Dual Plane Combined Core
FSP
P
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MS 1
P
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MS 0
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CM 0 CM 1
SLM 1 SLM 0
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COOLING UNIT
The standard SuperNode platform is used for large GSM networks.
The DMS-Core is housed in the DPCC (Dual Plane Combined Core Cabinet).
In this cabinet, there are three shelves:
one shelf per MS,
one shelf for the CMs,
one shelf for the SLMs.
There is up to 960 Mbytes memory per CPU Plane.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-20
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-20 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
TSIU: Time Slot Interchange Unit,
also known as a crosspoint card
Fiber
interface
#7
OUT
Fiber
interface
#0
OUT
X 8
X 8
X 64
Time Slot
Interchange Unit
Nortel's Enhanced NETwork (ENET)
Horizontal Bus
V
e
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t
i
c
a
l
B
u
s
Fiber
interface
#7
IN
IN
Fiber
interface
#0
ENET (Enhanced NETwork) is a single stage, non blocking, time switch capable of
switching 131,072 one-way digital circuits or 65,536 two-way digital circuits (2048
PCM 30).
The switching network, consists of eight Horizontal buses for input, and eight Vertical
buses for output.
A Time Slot Interchange Unit (TSIU) is located at each of the 64 crosspoints:
unswitched channels entering onto the Vertical bus are written into a double-
buffered memory in each cross-point card (TSIU),
the appropriate cross-point circuit takes unswitched channels from the Vertical
Bus and feeds them to the suitable Horizontal Bus in the right time-slot,
from the H-bus, the time-slot goes back through the V-bus, where it is transmitted
to the appropriate terminating peripheral,
each TSIU (16K x 16K time-switch) store 16,384 time slots in a double-buffered
configuration so that the delay through the TSIU is always a fixed 125 micro
seconds.
The connection-memory control is updated by the DMS-Core (through the DMS-Bus
and the ENET processor).
Nortels ENET time-switch is available up to 128K (2 cabinet of 128K, one plane in
each cabinet) channels configuration.
SuperNode DMS currently uses an ENET up to 64K channels (one cabinet of 2
planes, each of 64K).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-21
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-21 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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DMS-Core
LPP
I/O
equipment
frame
LIU7 NIU NIU LIU7
LPP
LIU7 LIU7 EIU EIU
LMS unit
Ethernet LAN
LMS unit
LMS = Local Message Switch
HLR
EIR
V.35
Channelized
CCS7 from PSTN
ISDN
CSS7 MTP
treatment
ENET
DMS-Bus
PDTC
4215/ MRP
Link Peripheral Processor (LPP)
The Link Peripheral Processor (LPP) equipment provides the following functions:
Terminates a number of link types and implements a number of protocols, to
connect the DMS to external operating and signaling networks (PCM, Ethernet,
V.35).
Receives and transmits all CCS7 messages to/from switch into PLMN and PSTN
either in direct (V.35) or channeled access (PCM30 link).
Interfaces DMS-Core and CCS7 through DMS-Bus.
Allows for increased message handling by connecting the CCS7 network to the
DMS-Core (through the switching matrix).
It consists of several units:
LMS: Local Message Switch, controls the messaging between LPPs equipment
and DMS-Bus.
NIU: Network Interface Unit, acts as a switch for channeled access and manages
CCS7 signaling coming through PCM30 trunks from BSS. A NIU handles up to
10 LIU7s.
LIU7: Link Interface Unit, performs the necessary routing functions on the
signaling messages thereby relieving DMS-Core of this function or coming from
other nodes such as VLR, HLR, (V.35).
EIU: Ethernet Interface Unit, interface between DMS-bus and any Ethernet LAN.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-22
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The LPP Cabinet is currently featured with either 24 LIUs or 36 LIUs.
On the other hand, one can replace two LIU in each shelf by two NIU to provide
channelized signaling access.
The LPPs can be also shipped within the SNSE hardware. In that case one can use
12 expansion slots for the LIUs (12 LIUs or 10 LIUs +2 NIUs) plus 2 additional slots
for 2 LIUs close to the ENET.
15-22 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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LPP = Link Peripheral Processor
FSP
COOLING UNIT
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LIS
LMS 0 LMS1
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LIS
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LIS
Local Message
Switch
Link Interface
Shelf
One LIS contains
either 12 LIUs or
10 LIUs + 2 NIU
Super Node Hardware
LPP Cabinet
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-23
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-23 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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PCM-30
# 0
PCM-30
# 7
PCM-30
# 8
PCM-30
# 15
Processor
DS512
Fiber
Interface
Processor
DS512
Fiber
Interface
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PCM-30 Digital Trunk Controller (PDTC)
PDTC are designed to provide the necessary functions for supporting trunk
termination to the outside world.
The Dual-shelf Digital Trunk Access (DTA0, DTA1) processor operate in hot standby
mode. One shelf's processor is active, providing the necessary processing and
control functions, while the adjacent shelf's processor is in a standby mode that is
able to takeover if a fault occurs on the active shelf's processor.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-24
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-24 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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ISM= Integrated Service Module
The ISM Shelf contains
Maintenance and service circuits:
Enhanced Digital Recorded
Announcement Machine (EDRAM)
Conference Trunk Module (CTM)
Special circuit packs for:
alarm cross-connect shelf
Office Alarm Unit
IOM pack
ISM Dimensioning
3 shelves per cabinet
Up to 18 test and service circuits
The ISM Shelf contains
Maintenance and service circuits:
Enhanced Digital Recorded
Announcement Machine (EDRAM)
Conference Trunk Module (CTM)
Special circuit packs for:
alarm cross-connect shelf
Office Alarm Unit
IOM pack
ISM Dimensioning
3 shelves per cabinet
Up to 18 test and service circuits
P
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Peripherals: ISM
FSP
Not Used
2
1
0
The ISM accommodates up to 18 test and service circuit packs used in switch and
facility maintenance like the Enhanced Digital Recorded Announcement Machine
(EDRAM), Conference Trunk Module (CTM) and, with special circuit packs, an alarm
cross-connect shelf and an Office Alarm Unit.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-25
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-25 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
ISM Shelf
P
O
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T
+
D
D
U
DAT
P
O
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T
+
D
D
U
IOM Packs
IOM= Input Output Module
I/O Functionality
Disk drive
Tape drive units
Enhanced Multi-protocol controller (EMPC)
V.32, V.FAST and V.42 and Asynchronous
communications up to 28.8 kb/s
Optional Digital Audio Tape (DAT) drive for
removable storage up to 1.3 Gbytes
I/O Functionality
Disk drive
Tape drive units
Enhanced Multi-protocol controller (EMPC)
V.32, V.FAST and V.42 and Asynchronous
communications up to 28.8 kb/s
Optional Digital Audio Tape (DAT) drive for
removable storage up to 1.3 Gbytes
Peripherals: IOM
The Input/Output Module (IOM) is a new DMS pack that replaces the functionality of
the Input Output Controller (IOC), disk drive, tape drive units and Enhanced Multi-
Protocol Controller (EMPC), which were provided by various cards in the Input/Output
Controller shelf.
In addition, the IOM provides new functionality through the support of V.32, V.FAST,
V.42 and asynchronous communications of up to 28.8 kb/s and will also support an
optional Digital Audio Tape (DAT) drive for removable storage of up to 1.3 Gbytes.
The IOM is housed in the new Integrated Services Module (ISM) shelf.
When the DAT option is implemented, the DAT card is located in slot 4 of the ISM, to
the right of the IOM DDU card. In this case, slot 5 is not available, because of the
width of the DAT. For the same reason, slot 3 is not recommended for DAT.
A second IOM can be provisioned in a different ISM shelf, for redundancy.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-26
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-26 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Billing server Processor
Duplicated processor
SCSI Interface
Mass Storage Devices
6 shadowed Disks (12 disks Max)
1.3 Gbyte shadowed DAT Storage Unit
5 * 2.1GB shadowed disks =10GB
Provides OSI FTAM interface
Billing server Processor
Duplicated processor
SCSI Interface
Mass Storage Devices
6 shadowed Disks (12 disks Max)
1.3 Gbyte shadowed DAT Storage Unit
5 * 2.1GB shadowed disks =10GB
Provides OSI FTAM interface
Local storage
and transfer of Billing Data
Billing Server
16 PCM30s
16 PCM30s
P
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FSP
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P
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U
S
U
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Billing Server
File Processor
Storage
Devices
Storage
Devices
COOLING UNIT
AFP Applications File Processor cabinet
Billing Server uses the Application File Processor cabinet (AFP).
The Billing Server capacity is DISK 6 shadowed: 12 disk Maximum of which one Disk
has 2.1GB capacity.
Usually it is equipped with one shadowed DAT (1.3GB on each side).
This means that there remains five Disks slots per side: 10GB capacity.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-27
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-27 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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S
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FSP
MS0
Optional LIS
(up to 12 LIUs)
16K ENET
CPU 0
MS1
P
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CPU 1
Cabi netized
Power
Distributi on
Center
Cabi netized
Input/Output
Equi pment
Applicati ons File
Processor cabi net
SuperNode SE
SCC cabi net
SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE)
1 - Overview
FSP
COOLING UNIT
P
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P
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P
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P
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U
P
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U
P
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U
PCM30 Digital
Trunk Controller
PDTC 0
PCM30 Digital
Trunk Controller
PDTC 1
FSP
COOLING UNIT
P
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U
P
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U
P
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U
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U
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U
P
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Maintenance
Trunk Module
Maintenance
Trunk Module
Maintenance
Trunk Module
Maintenance
Trunk Module
FSP
P
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P
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U
P
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U
P
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U
COOLING UNIT
P
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U
P
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U
P
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U
P
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U
REVERSE
REWIND
FORWARD
WRITE ENABLE
ON LINE
LOAD
POWER
IOC
DDU
MTD
FSP
COOLING UNIT
P
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U
P
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U
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U
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U
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U
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P
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U
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U
P
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16 PCM30s
16 PCM30s
P
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U
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U
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U
P P
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P P
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FSP
P
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Billing Server
File Processor
Storage
Devices
Storage
Devices
COOLING UNIT
Cabi netized
Di gital Trunk
Controller for
Offshore ISDN
Equi pment
Cabi netized
Trunk Module
Equi pment
As an alternative option, the DMS SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE) gives network
providers greater flexibility (footprint) in deploying advanced capabilities in small
offices.
The newSupernode Combined Core (SCC) cabinet contains:
the DMS SuperNode processing and messaging platform,
the Enhanced Network (ENET),
the Link Peripheral Processor (LPP) platform.
In the SuperNode version, this equipment requires three or four cabinets.
Nevertheless we have much less capacity in term of LIU7 and PDTCs than the Super
Node (SN).
If more than 16K switching capacity is required on an SNSE configuration, the SNSE
ENI shelf can be replaced by a full ENET cabinet which allows for 64K with a single
cabinet and is expandable to a 128K configuration.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-28
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-28 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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FSP
COOLING UNIT
P
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ENET 0.0
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ENET 0.1
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ENET 1.0
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ENET 1.1
Enhanced Network
(ENET) equi pment
FSP
COOLING UNIT
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LIS
LMS 0 LMS1
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LIS
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LIS
FSP
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MS 1
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MS 0
P
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CM 0 CM 1
SLM 1 SLM 0
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COOLING UNIT
S
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FSP
MS0
Opti onal LIS
(up to 12 LIUs)
16K ENET
CPU 0
MS1
P
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CPU 1
Supernode Combined Core cabinet
replaces 3 cabinets
Dual-plane
Combined Core
(DPCC)
Link Peripheral
Processor (LPP)
SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE)
2 - The SCC Cabinet
The different components in the SCC cabinet are:
DMS Bus: which is a fully redundant, high speed transaction switch, is the hub
joining all peripheral modules, devices and processors that are connected to its
ports. It is located on either the SNSE or SuperNode cabinet.
Link Interface Shelf: LIUs process SS7 signaling messages between the DMS-
Core, the DMS-Bus and the SS7 signaling Network. The LPP is a stand-alone
cabinet. This functionality is also provided by the LIS (Link Interface Shelf) shelf,
which is located in the SNSE cabinet.
Max NB V.35-LIU/EIU =12; Max NB LIU Channelized Access =10.
ENET and Interface Shelf: provide voice and data connections between
peripheral modules and message paths to the DMS Bus. It is fully redundant,
non-blocking switching matrix. It is located on either the SNSE or as a stand-
alone cabinet. The ENET Shelf can also support 2 standard LIU7s for CCS7
links.
DMS-Core: is a fully redundant Central Processing Unit (CPU) and memory
reserve.
PSU =Power Supply Unit
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-29
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-29 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
MicroNode
1 - Overview
SCC SuperNode Size Enhanced (SNSE)
Combined Core
MCGS Meridian Cabinet
Global Switch
MCIP Meridian Cabinet
Interface & Power
FSP
COOLING UNIT
P
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MS 1
P
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LIS
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Plane 1
P
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MS 0
SLM
0
Plane 0
ENET
SLM
1
CPU 1 CPU 0
MSP
COOLING UNIT
ISM 1
SDM/FT ISM 0
PDTC 0 unit 1
PDTC 0 unit 0
MSP
COOLING UNIT
Battery Backup
Echo Cancellor
AC/DC Rectifier
DSX
The MicroNode is based on the DMS platform and benefits from all the DMS
advantages in terms of reliability and scalability.
All critical functionality is fully duplicated working in a "hot standby", "loadsharing" or
"warm standby" mode of operation which means that in the event of a failure,
takeover by the replacement element is automatic.
The front end of the MicroNode switch is the SCC cabinet (same as SuperNode Size
Enhanced cabinet).
The second cabinet, is the MCGS (Meridian Cabinet Global Switch) which is
configured with a DTC or PDTC.
The third cabinet, is the MCIP (Meridian Cabinet Interface Power) which contains
rectifiers, battery backup, echo cancellers, and DSX panels.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-30
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-30 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
MicroNode
2 - MCGS and MCIP Cabinets
MCGS Cabinet MCIP Cabinet
Meridian Cabinet Global Switch Meridian Cabinet Interface Power
MSP
COOLING UNIT
ISM 1
SDM/FT ISM 0
PDTC 0 unit 1
PDTC 0 unit 0
MSP
COOLING UNIT
Battery Backup
Echo Cancellor
AC/DC Rectifier
DSX
The MCGS (Meridian Cabinet Global Switch) cabinet merges two existing cabinets
into one, providing a cabinet that fits the technical needs without the footprint and
power requirements needed by larger systems. It comprises of the following:
16E1/20T1 port Digital Trunk Controller,
2 Integrated Service Module (ISM) shelves each containing the following circuit
packs,
1 Gigabyte Disk Drive,
1 DAT Drive,
Minimal MAP ports,
Modems.
The MCIP (Meridian Cabinet Interface Power) cabinet, designed to provide power,
gathers all power assets required to operate a small switch into one cabinet. It
comprises of the following:
Power Distribution Shelf, provides power distribution to MCIP and MCGS
cabinets.
Battery Backup system, provides 53 Amps, -48 V DC for 4 hours.
AC/DC Rectifiers, provides 220 V AC to -48 V DC.
Echo Cancellers, provides echo cancellation for PSTN spans, either T1 or E1. 8
of the 16 slots are populated for the pre-engineered configuration.
DSX provides cross-connectivity between the switch and the outside world. There
are 2 such DSX cross connect panels in the MicroNode.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-31
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-31 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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1- Call to the MS.
2- ISUP messages are treated in the DMS
core through signaling devices
(NIU & LIU7).
3- DMS cannot route further, therefore
interrogates HLR for an MSRN.
4- HLR complies with the routing number.
5- Now DMS can route the call.
LIU7
NIU
LIU7
NIU
LIU7
NIU
VLR
MSRN
DMS-Bus
ENET
Peripheral
Modules
GMSC
premises
Telephone
network
1
2
2
2 3
3 3
3 4
4
1
5
Core Module
MSRN
3
4
4 4
DMS-Bus
2 3 4
ENET
Peripheral
Modules
HLR
n VLR
HLR
n VLR
HLR
n VLR
Peripheral
Modules
ENET
DMS-Bus
Core Module
Incoming Call from the PSTN to the GMSC
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-32
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-32 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
LIU7
NIU
LIU7
NIU
LIU7
NIU ENET ENET ENET
Peripheral
Modules
Peripheral
Modules
Peripheral
Modules
Peripheral
Modules
Core Module Core Module
VMSC
premises
Gateway
MSC
Roamer
Ring !
2
3
3
2
3
3
5
1
3
1- Call comes from the GMSC.
2- VMSC treats the ISUP messages in
DMS core through the signaling
devices NIU & LIU7.
3- DMS requests BSS for paging
4- MS complies.
5- DMS now can establish the voice
circuit.
4
3
4
5
4
4
4
BSC
BTS
BSS
A Call Goes to the VMSC that Pages the MS
BSC
BTS
BSS
2
BSC
BTS
BSS
DMS-Bus DMS-Bus DMS-Bus
2
4
ENET
5
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-33
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-33 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Nortel IWF: Gsm PassPort Node
The Magellan cabinet
can host 2 GPP nodes
The IWF function is situated in a Gsm PassPort (GPP) node.
The Magellan cabinet can contain two GPP nodes.
This node is used in the PassPort family of data switches: i.e. PassPort 160.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-34
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-34 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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C C
P P
L L
A A
N N
C C
P P
D D
S S
1 1
C C

1 1
p p
D D
S S
1 1
M M
v v
p p

1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 0 0
or or
E E
1 1
C C
or or
1 1
p p
E E
1 1
M M
v v
p p
GPP Node
1 - Physical Presentation
Each GPP node is composed of:
a node shelf assembly (function and control processor cards),
the DC power convertors,
a cooling unit,
a cable management assembly.
The GPP shelf can contain up to 16 cards:
slots 0 and 15 are reserved for CPs cards (one redundant CP card may be
optionally provisioned),
slot 1 is reserved for Ethernet card,
slots 2 to 14 can contain Function Processor Cards (E1C and E1MVP).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-35
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-35 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
Control
Processor
i960 32M
Dual 800 Mbit/s Cell Buses
LAN Functi on
Processor
DS1C/E1C
Processor
MVP
Processor
Function Processors (FP)
Control
Processor (CP)
32M
Processor
Module
(PM)
Interface
Module
(IM)
i960 i960 i960 32M 32M
GPP Node
2 - Functional Architecture
Bus
Controller
Bus
Controller
Bus
Controller
Bus
Controller
Bus
Controller
Bus
Controller
Bus
Controller
Bus
Controller
LAN
Interface
Munich
Chi p
32 DSPs
Each GPP node is composed of four blocks:
Control Processors (CP) and Function Processors (FP) are the processing
elements for performing and managing Magellan PassPort functions.
In most cases, the software providing a service is split into Control and Function
parts: the Control part runs on the CP and the Function part, on the FP.
Function Processors (FP) provide interface ports that physically connect network
communications facilities and PassPort switches. They switch data from external
sources through the bus and out of the switch through other FPs. FPs have been
designed specifically to accommodate high data throughput. Their computational
resources support and execute only those real-time processes critical to rapidly
delivering a service. These processes include protocol handling, call routing, and
packet forwarding.
Ethernet card is a specific FP that handles IP connectivity (signaling MIP link).
PassPort bus is the bridge which allows data to be switched across different
types of processor cards. It is fully redundant and consists of two synchronous 32
bit 25 MHz cell buses, operating in a load-sharing capacity, which can
communicate with up to 16 function and control processors.
Each bus operates at 800 Mbit/s for an aggregate speed of 1.6Gbit/s. When both buses are active,
traffic is distributed across both buses (dual-bus mode); should one bus fail, the other continues,
although capacity is reduced to 800Mbit/s (single-bus mode).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-36
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-36 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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VLR VLR
DTCO
PCM 30
PCM Termination Panels
VLR VLR
LIM
PDTC
EIU
IP Network
E
T
H
C
P
E
1
C
E
1
M
V
P
Ethernet
Terminal Panel
VT420 Local Console
PC
VLR VLR
CPDC
GPP Node
3 - Connections
This drawing shows the different connections between GPP and other equipment.
The Cabinetized Power Distribution Center feeds GPP with -48 V power supply.
Several cables make the link between cards and terminal panels where PCM
and Ethernet links are connected. The termination panel is a cable distribution
system which can reside in the PassPort cabinet or be mounted in another
cabinet or rack.
A local console can be connected directly on CP card for direct access.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-37
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-37 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Nortels IN Platform: ServiceBuilder
GSM Network Fixed Network
CS1-R
CS1-R
MAP
Service Creation and
Management Environment
ServiceBuilder
TM
Intelligent Network
PRI
CAP+
SCP
DMS-100
SSP
SMS
MAP
IP
Voice
Signaling
Service Management
MSC
SSP
HLR
Internet
Intranets
SMS-C
CAP+
Nortel's IN architecture is made of a Service Control Point (SCP) which is connected
via standard open interfaces (Core INAP) to the wireline and GSM switches; these
have been enhanced to support IN via the integrated Service Switching Point (SSP)
functionality.
Nortel's IN architecture also comprises an Intelligent Peripheral (IP) used to provide
voice interaction between the subscriber and the IN service.
The IP is connected both to the SCP and to the SSPs.
Finally, Nortel's IN architecture comprises all the elements required to support service
creation in the IN.
This includes a Service Creation Environment (SCE) and a Service Management
System (SMS).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-38
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-38 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
1- What is the function of the DMS-Core?
2- What is the purpose of the DMS-Bus?
3- What is the purpose of the ENET?
4- What are the functions of the V-Bus and the H-Bus?
5- What is the maximum number of channels that a single ENET
cabinet configuration can support?
Check Your Learning
1- What is the function of the DMS-Core?
2- What is the purpose of the DMS-Bus?
3- What is the purpose of the ENET?
4- What are the functions of the V-Bus and the H-Bus?
5- What is the maximum number of channels that a single ENET cabinet configuration
can support?
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 15-39
NSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
15-39 NSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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6- What is the purpose of the PDTC?
7- What is the purpose of the LPP?
8- List four elements of the DMS Super Node.
9- Cite the modules which are combined into a compact, single cabinet
of the SNSE configuration.
Check Your Learning
6- What is the purpose of the PDTC?
7- What is the purpose of the LPP?
8- List three elements of the DMS Super Node.
9- Cite the modules which are combined into a compact, single cabinet of the SNSE
configuration?
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-1
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-1 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
OSS Functions
Section 17
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-2
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-2 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
After completing this lesson you will be able to:
Explain why we need an OMC-R and an OMC-S.
Relate the main O&M functions devoted to the BSS and NSS.
Show what elements are operated by an OMC.
Explain the OMC-R architecture and locate the Q3 interface.
Show the various solution for the implementation of the OMC-R
network.
Show the hierarchy of the OMC-R objects.
Provides an introduction to the Operation and
maintenance Sub-System (OMC-R and OMC-S)
Objectives
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-3
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-3 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Transmission
Network
Q.x : Proprietary interface
WS : Work Station
MD : Mediation Device
NMC : Network Management Center
NE : Network Element
BSS
Q.3
SERVER
WS WS
BSS BSS NSS
WS WS
NSS NSS
BSS BSS BSS
MD
NSS NSS
MD MD
OMN
NE NE NE NE NE NE
OMC/R
Stage 1 Stage 2
OMC/S
SERVER
WS WS
NMC
OMN
Q.x
Q.x
Q.x Q.x Q.x Q.x
SERVER
OSS Presentation
The Operation SubSystemis in charge of the control and management of the GSM
Network.
One distinguishes two types of OMC:
the OMC-R, which is able to manage several BSS,
the OMC-S, which is able to manage several NSS components.
One OMC mainly consists of a Server and WorkStations connected through a Local
Area Network such as Ethernet.
The link between the Server and the BSS or NSS named OMN Interface (Operation
and Maintenance Network), is a X.25 public or private Network.
In a first stage, the operation and maintenance functions for the different equipment
of BSS or NSS, are carried out through dedicated OMC.
Each OMC dialogues with managed entities through Q.x interface which is a
proprietary interface.
In a second stage, it is possible to manage the BSS or NSS from different suppliers
via specific Mediation Devices at a central position: the Network Management Center
(NMC).
The interface between the NMC and the different MD is named Q.3 and is
normalized.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-4
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-4 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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BTS Site
TRX A
TRX
TRX B
TRX C
Hybrid coupling device
Coupling device
Cavity coupling device
Operation
System
Functions
Data
Communication
Functions
Mediation
Functions
TMN Functions
BTS Object Classes
NSS
BCF
Network Management
1 - Telecommunication Management Network
The operation, maintenance and administration functions follows standard telecom
management principles.
The GSM Recommendations use object management similar to the
Telecommunication Management Network TMN developed by CCITT.
Dialogues between management entities pertain to modeled abstract representations
of the network to manage which is defined and stored in a management data base.
This model must lists the different components of the network (objects), their
relationships and their attributes.
Examples of managed objects are:
sites,
machines (MSC/VLR, BSC, HLR),
hardware modules,
transmission links,
software,
observations, tests.
The detailed specifications of the GSM architecture give the ability to identify object
classes which will apply to all GSM networks.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-5
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-5 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Network Management
2 - Network Object Tree Example
OMC-R
BSC BSC BSC BSC BSC
Radio
Site
Radio
Site
Radio
Site
TCU TCU TCU
Cell Cell
TUC
board
TCB
board
TCB
board
BCF TRX TRX
DRX PA
Channel
0
Channel
7
Each entity has a software representation. One entity can be a piece of hardware,
like for example an electronic board (PCMI board), a cabinet, a functional entity (cell,
TCU) or a piece of software.
This software representation is an object model representation known as the
Management Information Base (MIB) or Management Information Tree (MIT).
To manipulate these objects, we use UNIX commands, not directly but through a
Graphical User Interface on an OMC-R WorkStation.
For example, to access a specific objet, we double-click on its representation on the
screen.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-6
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-6 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Network Management
3 - Objects, Attributes and Parameters
Nortel Networks
Ref: Date:
Number of pages:
From: To:
TEXT
FAX
Nortel Networks
Ref:1999/026 Date: 06/10/99
Numberof pages: 1/1
From: Me To: You
TEXT
This is my new number
FAX
FAX Object Class
Instance of FAX Object Class
Attributes:
Reference
date
Number of pages
Parameters = values given to the attribute
Example: Reference = 1999/026
There is an object class per entity.
We have for example the object class of BSC. And in each class, there are instances
of the object.
To well understand this, let s make an analogy with FAX.
What are the attributes of an object class?
In this example we may cite reference, date, Nb of pages,.
What are the parameters?
They are the values given to the attributes: reference = 1999/026.
What is the state of an object instance?
It s an indication to its current situation: a channel may be BUSY, FREE,
UNAVAILABLE. A change of state could be the transition FREE --> BUSY
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-7
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-7 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Network Management
4 - OMC-R Object Definition
State Interaction
Administrati ve
State
LOCKED
UNLOCKED
Operational
State
DISABLED
ENABLED
DISABLED
Availability
Status
DEPENDENCY
FAILED
Administrati ve
State
Operational
State
Availability
State
Usage
State
Unlocked
Locked
Shutting Down
Enabled
Disabled
Dependency
Failed
Idle
Busy
Specific to xtp object
Attribute
State
Objects are characterized by state attributes: administrative, operational and
availability.
Administrative state, describe the passive state of an instance, which can be
modified by an operator; there are three states:
Unlocked (in service).
Locked (out of service).
Shutting down.
Operational state, describe the operational state of an object:
Disabled.
Enabled.
Availability status, describe the reason for an objects unavailability:
Dependency, due to another object being disabled.
Failed, problem with the object.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-8
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-8 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Network Management
5 - Notifications
Object
Identif.
Type
Level: Critical,
Major, Minor
Notification itself...
Event
Notification
Each change of state generates a notification. A notification is a message that will be
sent or not to the top of the tree, according to what the operator decides.
Not every notification will arrive at the OMC-R, because it could overload the OMC-R
CPU.
For example, we dont send a notification to the OMC-R, each time a channel
changes state; to know the situation about that there are counters which are regularly
reported. Example: average number of busy TCH during the latest 15 , the latest
hour, the latest day, .
Filter is mandatory; so that not all the notification are sent to the OMC-R. Log files
contain all notifications arriving at the OMC-R.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-9
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-9 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Network Management
6 - Handling Notifications
OMC-R
BSC
Radio
Site
TCU TCU TCU
Cell Cell
TUC
board
TCB
board
BCF TRX TRX
DRX PA
Channel
7
BSC BSC BSC BSC
TCB
board
Channel
0
Radio
Site
Radio
Site
LOG
Performance Alarm Handler Configuration Fault
Notifications arriving at the OMC-R are distributed to different handling functions.
These functions can be part of the OMC-R or on separate platforms.
It is possible for notifications to be sent to more than one function: for example, it is
normal for all notifications to be sent to a log handler function.
These same notifications could be sent to other handling functions as well.
A notification from a mal functioning TRX would possibly be sent to:
a log handler, to keep a record and possibly for later analysis,
an alarm handler, to ensure any automate handling procedures were initiated,
a fault handler, to ensure the operator is alerted and fault management
procedures can be started.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-10
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-10 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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MIB
MMI
Q.3 Manager
Part
BSS
Q.3 Agent Part
MD-R
Q.3
OMC-R
OMC-R
User
Objects
Software
Dynamic
Attributes
User view
Q.3 view
Mediation
view
BSC view
OMN Interface
BDE
BDA
Configuration Management
1 - OMC-R Data Bases
Managed objects are spread on three data bases stored on hard disks:
MIB (Management Information Base) located in the OMC-R (Q.3 level),
BDE (Exploitation Data Base) located in the OMC-R (MD-R level),
BDA (Application Data Base) located in the BSC.
MIB:
Is under OMC-R management control and is progressively built as long as
objects are created.
Is automatically updated whenever a relevant operation is performed.
Contains BSC related objects and other specific OMC-R objects (in Q.3 format).
BDE:
Is under OMC-R management control and is progressively built as long as
objects are created.
Is automatically updated whenever a relevant operation is performed.
Contains BSC related objects and other specific OMC-R objects (unknown to the
BSCs).
BDA Data base building is not automatic and is controlled by user.
In order to operate correctly, these two data bases must remain consistent:
Audit transactions check the state of the BDA compared to the BDE.
Users are warned when discrepancies occur.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-11
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-11 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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OMC software
BTS software
BSC software
OMC BSC BTS
BCF
TRX
BDE BDA
TCU
TCB
TCU software
Configuration Management
2 - BSS Software Management
The main functionality of this sub-function are:
Management of the software on the OMC-R disks.
Downloading management (MD-R level).
Software version change.
The downloading operation consists of sending a set of files correctly identified on
the target BSC disk, these files are stored in specific partitions of the disk, according
to the type of the concerned entities:
BSC.
BTS: btsSiteManager (BCF) or transceiver Equipment (TRX).
TCU: Transcoder board.
Software management is also in charge of MD and OMC software.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-12
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-12 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Fault Management
Immediate
intervention
Al arms
Acknowledg.
Deferred
intervention
No
intervention
S
E
V
E
R
I
T
Y
Manufacturer
Days/
Nights
Week-ends
Day off
Alarms
Configuration
Failure
detection
Fault
recovery
Al arm
reception
Fault Management enables the network operator to maximize the availability of the
GSM network, through rapid response to failure conditions by performing fault
isolation and fault recovery.
Alarms should be acknowledged and may be configured differently in terms of
severity, according to alarm criterion configurations.
Severity configurations are:
Immediate intervention,
Deferred intervention,
No intervention outside normal working hours.
Alarm criterion configurations are:
Manufacturer,
Days/Nights,
Special (week-ends and holidays).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-13
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-13 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Performance Management
Start of high
threshold crossing
End of high
threshold crossing
End of low
threshold crossing
Start of low
threshold crossing
Counter's value
Threshold crossing detection for preventive maintenance
Alarm start
Time
Alarm end
Performance data monitoring allows network usage patterns and trends to be
identified, enabling informed network design and engineering decisions to be made to
optimize network resource utilization.
Performance Management relies on counters collected by the OMC-R and OMC-S
(observations), followed by the analysis and subsequent storage of resultant data.
Main functions are:
Reception of measurements (counters) transmitted by BSS or NSS.
Report building, to be displayed or printed in a readable format, for the end user.
Reporting the crossing of thresholds counters.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-14
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-14 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Command Classes:
Configuration
Fault
Performance
Password
BDE/BDA
FTAM and EFT
Command files and jobs
SMS/CB
Inter-user message
Commands:
Create
Delete
Set
Display
Modify
Lock
Security Management
Z
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In
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Users profile
The Security Management aims to manage user profiles in order to control the
access users to functions provided by the OMCs.
Security Management handles authorization and control of access of the users to the
OMC functionality.
A user profile file is created for each OMC user.
Users profile:
user name and password (and password validity duration),
user work timetable (inactivity time out and scheduled access time),
a set of command classes,
a zone of interest.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-15
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-15 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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To control and monitor the BSS equipment
OMC-R
BTS
BTS
BTS
BTS
BSC
BSS
Networks quality of service
Operation cost
Why an OMC-R?
The OMC-R permits a centralized and remote operation and maintenance of BSS
network elements (BSC, TCU and BTS).
Remote and centralized operation activity provides the following advantages:
The operation information related to different network elements is managed
consistently ensuring effective maintenance and thus a high quality of service to
the network's subscribers.
The operation costs can be minimized (for example the OMC-R provides a
remote and centralized downloading and activation of software releases, as well
as a centralized and remote management of the BSS configuration parameters).
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-16
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-16 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Man
Machine
Interface
Internal
Functionality
BSS
Management
Configuration
Fault
Performance
Security
Common Functions
File Transfer
Management
Server Administration
OMC-R Functions
The OMC-R is made up of server and stations. Each station or X-terminal provides
the operating staff with a Graphical User Interface. The server centralizes the O&M
functions dedicated to the BSS network elements and thus allows to manage the
BSS network elements consistently.
The following O&M functions are provided:
Configuration management: to manage the resources to be supervised. Examples of
resources that can be managed : PCM links, SS7 and traffic channels on A-interface,
cells, list of frequencies allocated in each cell, list of adjacent cells of a given cell,
frequency hopping laws implemented in the cells, TDMA frames.
Fault management: OMC-R handles event reports received from the network elements
and related to anomalies. Alarm messages can be generated with a severity from these
reports by using criteria defined by the user.
Performance management: values of counters are collected from the BSS network
elements and reports are generated and displayed to the users. Thresholds can be
defined and associated with the counters to generate alarms for maintenance purposes.
Security management: to manage user profiles in order to control the access users to
functions provided by the OMC-R.
The following internal functions are provided:
File transfer management: downloading and activation of the software releases
dedicated to TCU, BSC, BCF and TRX is centralized via the OMC-R.
Common functions: inter-user mail (running within an SMS-C server), management
and execution of commands file, calendar for the deferred or periodic execution of a
command or a commands file, on-line help.
Server administration: supervision, switch-over and defense of the servers an stations.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-17
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-17 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Documentation
Reference
Time
Consulting
Calendar Management
TX Mail
User 1
RX Mail
User 2
User Mail
Data Archival
Command
Files
Management
5 6 7 8 9 10 11
1 2 3 4
12 13 14 15 16 17 18
19 20 21 22 23 24 25
26 27 28 29 30 31
?
HELP
On-Line
Common Functions
This functional area provides the user with the following services:
Command files management that enables the edition recording and the
execution of sequences of user commands.
The archiving and restoring of notifications and observations.
A job scheduler that enables requests for deferred and/or periodical execution of
a user command or a commands file.
The data & time provides services to read data/time of MD functions and update.
A user mail facility enabling the exchanges of messages between users.
An on-line help.
The display of product documentation stored on CD-ROM.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-18
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-18 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Server Administration
Supervision
OMC
Shut down
Start up
Switch-over
OMC OMC
Active
Server
Back-up
Server
The following services are provided to the user:
The powering-up and the shutting down of the OMC servers.
The automatic purging of files deletes old data files in order to avoid overfilling of
the disks.
The automatic switch over of the active server.
Defense accomplishes a monitoring and supervision task as well as
management of its own tasks.
Supervision includes software and machine operations monitoring.
Defense management can send event messages to Fault management.
It can also restart, reboot or switchover to the backup server if necessary.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-19
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-19 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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NSS OMC-S
MSC/VLR
Configuration
Fault
Performance
HLR/AUC
Security
Facilities
OMC-S Functions
The Operation and Maintenance Center of the NSS part (OMC-S) may be able to
achieve different kinds of function.
NSS configuration management:
BSCs, Location Areas, Cells.
Terrestrial links, etc..
Software configuration (downloading, file transfer).
MSRN and handover number management.
Fault management:
Detection.
Presentation.
Re-configuration.
Performance management:
Traffic control.
Service quality monitoring.
Security management:
User profiles.
Session monitoring.
OMC-S operation:
System management.
OMN management.
File transfer operations.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-20
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-20 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Network
Management
Center (NMC)
Commercial
GSM network
Management
OMC-S OMC-R OMC-R OMC-S OMC-R OMC-R
O & M communication network
X.25
HLR MSC
BSS
Level 1
Level 2
Level 4
Level 3
X-terminal
X-terminal
Q3 Q3
BSS
Hierarchical Arrangement of NMC and OMC
The Network Managment Center (NMC) has a view of the entire Network GSM and is
responsible for the network management as a whole. The NMC resides at the top of
the hierarchy. It receives its information from the network equipment via the
Operation and Maintenance Centers (OMC) which have previously filtered the
suitable data.
The NMC can thus focus on issues requiring national coordination regarding
interconnects to others networks, such as the PSTN / ISDN.
The features of the NMC are as follows:
Single NMC by network.
Provides traffic management for the whole network.
Monitors high-level alarms such as failed or overloads nodes.
Performs responsibilities of an Operation and Maintenance Center when it is not
staffed.
Provides network planners with essential data for network performance.
The Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC), in turn, is considered as a "regional
manager" for the network hardware and software. It supports the day-to-day
operations as well as provides a database for long-run network engineering and
planning tools. OMC handles a certain area of the GSM network, thus providing
regional network management.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-21
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1- Cite the four main functions that perform the OMC.
2- What are the network elements operated by an OMC-R?
3- What is the open interface used in the OMC-R?
4- Give an example of hierarchy between OMC-R objects.
17-21 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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2- What are the network elements operated by an OMC-R?
1- Cite the four main functions that perform an OMC.
3- What is the open interface used in the OMC-R?
4- Give an example of hierarchy between OMC-R objects.
Check Your Learning
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-22
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-22 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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OMC-R, TML and OMC-S
Section 18
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-23
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-23 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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After completing this lesson you will be able to:
Explain why we need an OMC-R.
Show what elements are controlled by an OMC-R.
Relate the main O&M functions devoted to the BSS.
Explain the OMC-R architecture and locate the Q.3 interface.
Show the various solution for the implementation of the OMC-R
network.
Show the hierarchy of the OMC-R objects.
Provides an introduction to the Operation and
maintenance of Radio Subsystem (OMC-R)
Objectives
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-24
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-24 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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OMC-R
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-25
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-25 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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BSS
BSS
BSS
X.25 Network
BSC-MD Interface
PSTN
X.25 Network
Terminals Server
LAN
Ethernet
Remote WorkStations (SUN Sparc 5)
Local WorkStations (SUN Sparc 5)
Monitoring link
Remote LAN
Ethernet
CD ROM
Unit
CD Rom
Unit
Server Sun
Enterprise
4000
X Terminal
Monitor
Monitor
BSS
BSS
BSS
TML/ROT
ROT
TML/ROT
ROT
Remote LAN
Ethernet
AUI SERIAL SERIAL CONSOLE AUX
I
O
AUI SERIAL SERIAL CONSOLE AUX
I
O
AUI SERIAL SERIAL CONSOLE AUX
I
O
Router
AUI SERIAL SERIAL CONSOLE AUX
I
O
Router
AUI SERIAL SERIAL CONSOLE AUX
I
O
Router
Sun SPARCstorage Array Sun SPARCstorage Array
ETHERNET
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sun
SSA
OMC-R Architecture
Configurations
The central OMC-R site is composed of the OMC-R servers, the WorkStations (WS),
the Terminal Server and the printers. All these platforms are interconnected via an
Ethernet LAN.
The OMC-R server (duplicated for redundancy purposes) centralizes the O&M
function as well as the database. It is connected to the BSC via X.25 links. An
automatic switch-over is undertaken between the servers when needed.
The WorkStations (up to 16) supporting a Graphical User Interface called Man
Machine Interface (MMI).
X terminals: physically connected to the LAN and communicates with one WS.
One or many printers can be shared between the WSs and X terminals.
The Terminal Server concentrates the PSTN connections from BSS Local
Maintenance Terminals used in the field in ROT mode (Remote OMC-R
Terminal) during maintenance interventions.
At least one local OMC-R WorkStation is to be provisioned in order to support
the connections from the ROTs used in the field and to support X terminals.
Routers that support X.25 links to OMC-R remote sites if such sites exist in the
OMC-R configuration.
A remote OMC-R site is composed of WSs and printers only, and is connected to the
OMC-R server of the central site via an X.25 link.
Therefore, routers are to be used in the remote OMC-R site as well as in the central
OMC-R site in order to concentrate the connections from a remote site to the central
site.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-26
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-26 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Enterprise 4500
(Agent +
Manager)
Active
Enterprise 4500
(Agent +
Manager)
Passive
StorEDGE A5000
Storage Unit
Sun
StorEDGE
A5000
Hardware Architecture
New Storage Unit (From V12 only)
Two types of server are available, according to the network configuration:
SPARCserver 1000 with 16.8 Go disk (less than 800 cells),
Enterprise 4000 (less than 1600 cells).
The high capacity OMC product is achieved with the Enterprise 4000 platform and its
associated storage unit SPARCstorage Array.
This high capacity OMC-R will be able to manage a great number of cells allowing its
use for:
micro-cell networks,
networks with numerous but small sites.
From V12, for the new OMC-R configurations, the newStorEdge A5000 storage unit
is suggested to take the place of the two SSA112 disks.
Each server is a SUN Enterprise 4xxx. The nominal V11 configuration is based on
the E4500 device.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-27
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
ROT Application is a software which runs beside Local Maintenance function
implemented in the Local Maintenance Terminal (TML) or a standalone PC/DOS
located in a remote site (TCU, BSC or BTS).
It is connected to an OMC-R work-stations either through PSTN links via modems or a
dedicated LAPD connection through the BSC. In case of PSTN connection the ROT function
requires standard Hayes command protocol and a suitable modem.
The ROT can be connected directly to these BTS: S2000E/S4000 (with AMNU+DCU4 only),
and S8000.
Not all the functionality offered through WS are available (Alarm criterion management, UNIX
access, log consultation, ...) with ROT access. For security purposes, all the Security
Management commands are not available.
After connection with the terminal server, a UNIX session is automatically established with
an OMC-R /WS which dynamically creates the ROT task on this WS. This feature is
available since the relevant BTS has been configured by the BSC.
ROT application capabilities
From the ROT menus and sub-menus the operator can:
Access the appropriate object (or object characteristic).
Perform the needed action on this object.
Thus he can perform the following functions:
BSS configuration management and OMN access management.
Security management, (limited to commands for password change and machine list).
Performance management.
Fault management.
OMC-R administration.
File transfer.
Communication management.
17-27 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Terminals
Server
OMC-R
Server
OMC-R
Site
2 links X.25 48 kbit/s
BSC
BSC Site
BTS
S2000
H&L
BTS
S4000/
S2000E
BTS
S8000
19.2 kbit/s
BTS Site
ETHERNET
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
X25
TML/ROT
ROT
TML/ROT
ROT
TML/ROT
ROT
TML/ROT
ROT
Modem Modem Modem
Modem
Modem
ROT
Task
PSTN
Remote Operation Terminal Application
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-28
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-28 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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OMC-R
BSC
TCU
BTS
BTS
20 (30) BSCs
138
1600 (2400) cells
6400 (9600) TRXs
Normal capacity
=
1600 cells, 6400 DRXs and 20 BSCs
High capacity
=
2400 cells, 9600 DRXs and 30 BSCs
Network Elements Operated by OMC-R
The OMC-R manages the BSCs, TCUs and BTSs.
TCUs and BTSs communicate with the OMC-R via their respective BSC.
The OMC-R interfaces with the BSC via X.25 links.
OMC-R operating capacity depends on the number of objects it manages but not on
the traffic it monitors:
Maximum number of BSC = 20 (30).
Maximum number of cells =1600 (2400).
Maximum number of TRX =6400 (9600).
The physical OMC-R equipment limitations and software requirements are:
Two servers to enable data redundancy.
Sixteen WS with no more than thirteen Remote WS.
One router per group of three Remote WS.
No more than 10 ROT, connected at the same time to OMC-R.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-29
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-29 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
3
NSS
X.25 Switch
V.35-PCM conversion
V.35
PCM
A-interface
0 1 2 3
WS WS WS
2
48 kbit/s
0 1 2 3
WS WS WS
X.25 Switch
0 1 2 3
OMC-R Server
WS WS WS
1
48 kbit/s
Automatic or
Manual
BSC
19.2 kbit/s
X.25 network
PSPDN
BSC
BSC
BSC BSC
OMC-R Server
OMC-R Server
BSC
Leased Lines
19.2 kbits
Implementation of the OMC-R Network
The Three Solutions
BSC
The OMC-R/BSC link can be based on various communication supports:
X.25 PSPDN,
X.25 switches and dedicated lines,
or the use of PCM timeslots of the A-interface.
The use of the A-interface is interesting:
if there is no reliable X.25 network in a given country,
if the operator wants to be independent from a third party carrier,
if he wishes to reduce the leased line cost,
if he wishes to establish OMC-R and OMC-S units in the same location.
The main advantage of that solution is that the OMC-R/BSC connections are
supported by PCM links of the managed GSM network itself.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-30
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-30 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
V9-V10
New objects
overall view
Allows to display more objects
in the network views
V11
New Man-Machine Interface
V11 versus V9-V10
Starting from the V11 release, a new Man-Machine Interface takes the place of the
V9-V10 one.
The major MMI changes are introduced to increase operator efficiency through:
separation of the physical and the logical view,
clearer network logical view,
better separation between alarms and object status,
mapping of the physical view of the network on a geographical map,
new graphical views of real time counters.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-31
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-31 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
TCU Level
Full Network
BSC Level
A-Interface
Site Level
New MMI: Logical View
Each type of display of the logical mode shows different objects:
the first logical view (Full Network) shows all the Network Elements, from the
MSC down to the sites,
the BSC level includes the BSS objects (Signaling Point, Signaling Link) for one
BSC,
the Site level describes the BTSs belonging to one site as well as the TDMA
frames,
the TCU level displays the LAPD Link and the TCBs belonging to one TCU; this
level is the only way to access the A-Interface level,
the A-Interface level mainly shows the XTPs used for MSC-BSC exchanges.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-32
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-32 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Full Network
Sub Network
BSS
New MMI: Topological View
All the topological views show the geographical backgrounds of the network:
in the Full Network view, all the sub networks are shown,
in the Sub Network view, all the BSSs of the different sub networks are
displayed,
in the BSS view, all pieces of equipment belonging to one single BSS are shown
on the map.
Note
There is always a relationship between the logical / physical display level and, on the
other side, the topological level.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-33
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
The alarm monitor has the following features:
The alarms in the list are sorted according to the column order, which may be modified
by the user.
The user may select the type of columns (i.e. of information) he wants to be displayed in
the minimized alarm summary.
More than 30 criteria are available to filter the alarm list.
A current alarm carries the following information:
A serial record number for the alarm message identification.
A serial record number of the notification that triggered the alarm and prompted the
alarm message.
The date and time on which the notification was sent.
The type of spontaneous event.
The fault number which identifies its type and therefore its cause.
The priority of alarm: immediate (IM), deferred (ID), no action (SI).
The alarm title.
The identity and the location of the object and/or equipment from where the alarm is
originated.
The alarm acknowledge state, if the alarm is acknowledged and the identity of the user
or the OMC-R.
If the alarm is cleared, the date and time the original notification was sent and the
identity of the user.
The notification is also included apart from the additional information.
17-33 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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.
Access to
notifications
windows
On-line help
Customizable
columns
organization
Sort
& filter
display
Complete
alarm
description
Alarm list
management
Alarm Window
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-34
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-34 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
BSS on Site Maintenance with TML
Terminal Maintenance Local
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-35
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
Maintenance operations are performed on-site via a special terminal called TML
(Local Maintenance Terminal).
On-site maintenance provides a set of functions that give the operator information on
the state of BSS elements that is not always available at the OMC-R level.
This terminal is a PC-like computer including one standard Ethernet board and
TCP/IP protocol, running TML tools (under Windows 95 environment).
A special cable: cross Ethernet (cross RJ 45-RJ 45) connected to the Ethernet
connector allows dialog with the BCF or a DRX module.
TIB is the application part of the TIL (Terminal for Local Intervention) dedicated to the
testing and checking of the BCF. TIB operates with BCF through O&M Bus.
17-35 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
TIB STANDALONE MODE MENU
A: Starting Installation Tests
B: Board Status
C: Prom Marking
D: Shelf Number
E: ALAT Alarms
F: ALAT Output
G: DCC External Test
H: TX Confi guration
I: FHBUS Confi guration
J: Switching Matrix Configurati on
K: Reset Board
L: DTI Board Tests -> External PCM
M: Switching Matrix (Connection)
N: Board Al arms
O: CCT test
P: Masthead test
Q: TX state
R: End of TIB Application
PC + HDLC board
TIB VXX_YYZZ
TEST
+5V
RDY
ON
REQ
WD
L0
L1
+5V
RESET
REF.CLK
MAINT.
MAINT
NORM
CSW1
CSW2
L
O
C
T
E
R
M
0
1
2
3
L
T
E
S
T
J
6
4
BTS on Site Maintenance with TML
1 - TIB (Testing the BCF)
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-36
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
TIF is the application part for the TIL (terminal for local Intervention) dedicated to the
testing and checking of one particular TRX.
It may run in Standalone mode or in Connected mode.
The TML/TIL terminal must be connected to the TEST connector of the MNU or the
AMNU board.
17-36 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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VXX_YYZZ
TIF STANDALONE MODE MENU
A: Starting Installation Tests
B: Board Status and BISTS
C: Prom Marking
D: SDA Test
E: RX Test
F: End of TIF Application
V.11
HDLC
64 kbit/s
TML/TIL
(PC 486 + PCMC525 board)
FP 1 G
ACT
DCU
ACT
DCU
ACT
DCU
ACT
DCU
ACT1
ACT2
TEMP
RESET
T
E
S
T
MNU
+5V
BIST
DCU4
RESET
J4
AMNU
Asw
LI
TX RX
CL
Ahw
SPU
TLC
ALA
INTERCARD
J5
+5V
DCU4
INTERCARD
J5
FP 1.5 G
BTS on Site Maintenance with TML
2 - TIF (Testing One Particular TRX)
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-37
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-37 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
TX
RX
LNK
COL
BIST
+5 V
RDY
ON
O&M
ABIS
WDG
MRQ
SERV
0
1
2
LC
E
T
H
CKI
GND
CKO
GND
J
6
4
RESET
CSWM
T
E
S
T
DRX
Gateway
BCF
TIL
Private PCM bus
Internal PCM bus
TIL
Stand-alone
mode
TIL
Connected
mode
TIL S8000
PC 486 +
Ethernet board
/PCMCIA
TML/TIL
10 Mbit/s
Ethernet link
BCF
CBCF
BTS on Site Maintenance with TML
3 - S8000 BTSs
The TIL S8000 software of the TML is designed to:
validate the BTS in factory,
install BTS site,
diagnose hardware problem,
check equipment substitution or extension.
On the screen, a color button resumes the BIST status of each device.
For each device (or main function), a popup menu proposes a list of tests; each
performable in its specific window.
This tool can be used with BTS, in On-line or in Standalone mode.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-38
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-38 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
S2000
IN SERVICE
DRX SBCF
TIL COAM /Window
TML
(PC/Windows 95
+ Ethernet board)
Ethernet
BTS on Site Maintenance with TML
4 - S2000H/L
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-39
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-39 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
COM1
J5
J4
J3
J2
CPU
66SE
J1
BIST
RUN
SCSI
J1
J2
CPU
120
J3
R
U
N
B
I
S
T
Serial port
asynchronous link
19.2 kbit/s
MODE
Option NORMAL MAINTENANCE
Partition contents
Software markers
Board slot numbers
Acces to MB II boards
PROM markers
Logical disk check
Physical disk check
Disk initialisation
BSC on Site Maintenance with TML
TML/BSC is an on siteBSC maintenance tool which is connected to CPU OMU
through an asynchronous serial link at a rate of 19.2 kbit/s.
Different tests are available on a given chain depending the selected mode:
Normal mode is used when the BSC runs.
Maintenance mode is used to isolate the chain from the system.
Logical disk, physical disk check and disk initialization are not authorized in
normal mode.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-40
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-40 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
TCU on Site Maintenance with TML
PC 486
Serial port COM1:
asynchronous link
TML/TCU
test tree structure
TUC Board
BIST
+5V
RDY
R1
R2
R3
RL
EXT
RESET
TUC
T
E
S
T
J
6
4
Complete automatic
Clock
TDTI boards number
TCB boards number
Markers
All boards
TUC
TDTI
TCB
Audit
Alarms
BIST
All boards
TUC
TDTI
TCB
Straps configuration
TEI configuration
TDTI boards configuration
Continuity test
All boards
TDTI
TCB
Internal PCM states
External PCM states
All boards
TDTI
TML/TCU is the TCU maintenance tool which runs on the local tool TML.
It is connected to the TCU board through an asynchronous serial link at a rate of
9.6 kbit/s.
All tests are performed in a standalone mode.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-41
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-41 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
OMC-S
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-42
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-42 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
NES
FM agent
PM agent
Q3
OMC-S
FM agent
PM agent
The OMC-S are associated with Fault Management and Performance Management
agents running on the SDM/FT.
These agents interact with the network elements internal operations and
maintenance functions, receiving and storing fault and performance data which are
transferred to the OMC-S or external NMC/OSS when required.
The Open Q3 interface requires interoperability testing and is between the SDM/FT
and external OSS for Fault Management application. Open Q3 interface for
Performance Management application will be available in GEM09 release.
This separation of management and agent functionality, allows the O&M processing
to be efficiently deployed by minimizing the amount of information required to be
transferred to the management system.
The OMC-S applications may be run on both PCs.
The OMC-S Man Machine Interface provides the user access to:
Configuration management.
Fault management.
Performance management
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-43
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-43 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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.
Comm & I/O
I/O Domain 1
Disk
Subsystem
Maintenance and Power Bus B
Comm & I/O
Disk
Subsystem
I/O Domain 0
Maintenance and Power Bus A
Computing Core
Dual Fault Tolerant I/O Buses
- 48 V dc
B Feed
- 48 V dc
A Feed
SuperNode Data Manager- Fault Tolerant
CPU 0
CPU 1
SDM-FT Platform
1 - Architecture
The SDM/FT (SuperNode Data Manager/Fault Tolerant) platform, introduced in
GEM08 release, is based on Motorola FX open system Series and is housed into a
standard DMS-MC or DMS-HLR cabinet (C28).
This platform is fully integrated into the DMS power (-48 V) and alarm subsystems:
up to 512 M RAM and 22 GB Disks on each I/O domain,
high speed DS-512 optical connections to CM cabinet.
This platform collects and processes data to/from the managed MSC and HLR.
The SDM/FT is necessary to support all OAMP applications, apart from Billing
Management which is supported by GSM Billing Mediation Device (GBMD):
FM and PM agents,
provisioning server,
service quality.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-44
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-44 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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Shelf 1
MSP
Main Chassis
1 2 3 4 56 78 9 10 11 1213141516
1 2 3 4 5 1213141516 6 7 8 11 10 9
Shelf 2
I/O Expansion Chassis
(Optional)
Cooling Unit
SDM-FT Platform
2 - Cabinet
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-45
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-45 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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DMS
SDM-FT Platform
3 - Software Components
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-46
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-46 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Menu Bar
Tool Bar
Fault Management
Area
Configuration &
Performance
Area
OMC-S Element Manager Main Window
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-47
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-47 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Network Configuration Window
OMC-S Configuration Management covers:
Displaying Configuration Management Window in List or Graphic mode.
Displaying Information on Elements.
Displaying Log files.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-48
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-48 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Fault Management
Fault Management enables the network operator to maximize the availability of the
GSM network, through rapid response to failure conditions by performing fault
isolation and fault recovery.
The OMC-S FM provides control of all fault management alarm information for the
monitored Network Elements (NE) including:
Displaying of received alarms where each alarm contains the name, date, event that
occurred, and the affected components. The alarms displayed can be filtered,
depending on user-defined criteria.
Alarms alert, enabling alarm changes on each NE to be received by the current alarm
list. New alarms are added to the list. If the change signifies that a previous alarm has
been cleared for, it is removed from the list.
Advanced fault filtering, allowing the operator to define the alarm criteria and create any
alerting actions. The alerting actions can be programmed by the operator to trigger
external alarm systems or more sophisticated procedures such as paging or e-mailing
the support staff.
The Fault Management Agent monitors the state of the resources in its associated
Network Element (NE), providing two main functions:
Resource Discovery allows the agent to retrieve and maintain information about the NE
resources, e.g. signaling links, traffic circuits within the associated NE.
Event Notification controls the updating of the NE resources from fault logs received for
the NEs. The logs are converted into standardized TMN operations, and the relevant
notification message indicates the event is transmitted to the OMC-S and/or NMC via
Open Q.3 Interface.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-49
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
17-49 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Performance Management
Performance data monitoring allows network usage patterns and trends to be
identified, enabling informed network design and engineering decisions to be made to
optimize network resource utilization.
The OMC-S PM contains two main components:
Data Selection allows the user to control performance data retrieval. The user can
define studies by selecting measurements to be retrieved, as well as using pre-defined
measurements. The user can also define the start and stop time when measurement
data is to be retrieved along with the retrieval frequency.
Data Display allows the user to view the performance data either as a graph, which can
have several measurements superimposed, or in raw data format. As well as displaying
current data, the user can access archived data for historical performance analysis. The
user can even export the raw data selected, for use with external processing packages.
The Performance Management Agent running on SDM/FT supports the collection,
processing and delivery of operational measurement data for its associated network
element to the OMC-S by providing the following capabilities:
Reception of the Operational Measurements (OM)s from the Network Element at the
end of each transfer period (every 15, 30, 60 minutes, daily, weekly or monthly).
Filtering and correlation of the Operational Measurements.
Accumulation of OMs allowing the user to create newOMs by summing or processing
existing ones, e.g. generating a summary measurement.
Storage of raw and processed OMs which can be used directly by the manager or
exported for use by other applications.
Notification to the management layer of the arrival of newOMs data.
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN 17-50
OSS Functions
J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
1- What are the network elements operated by an OMC-R?
6- What is the maximum number of WorkStations possible for an OMC-R?
5- What are the maximum numbers of BSC, BTS, cells, and TRXs handled by an
OMC-R?
8- What are the three solution for the implementation of the OMC network?
17-50 OSS Functions PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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1- What are the network elements operated by an OMC-R?
3- What are the maximum numbers of BSC, BTS, cells, and TRXs handled by
an OMC-R?
4- What are the three solutions for the implementation of the OMC network?
2- What is the maximum number of WorkStations possible for an OMC-R?
Check Your Learning
19-1
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
19-1 PicoNode Famil y PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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PicoNode Family
Section 19
19-2
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
19-2 PicoNode Famil y PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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PicoNode: A Very Small GSM System
Corporate
Small cells
In-building, campus
Distributed Wireless Access
Communities
Rural communities
Large cells
Highways, rural
Low cost sites for low traffic
PicoNode
One Product
Two Applications
What For?
Two primary applications are addressed with PicoNode.
Community Application
With local switching, PicoNode offers a cost effective solution for small and rural
communities.
With its small size, PicoNode can be deployed almost anywhere.
Corporate Application
Installed behind a wired PBX, PicoNode becomes a wireless PBX, working in
conjunction with the wired PBX.
19-3
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
19-3 PicoNode Famil y PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Rural and Community
PBSC
PMSC
PBTS
PBTS
PBTS
Small Remote Rural Community
PSTN
PLMN

Remote Switching
Reduced Backhaul

Scaleable Solution
Up to 3000 Subscribers
LowCost EntrySystem
CommunityServices
Support of Fixed Mobile
Competitive Features

Remote Switching
Reduced Backhaul

Scaleable Solution
Up to 3000 Subscribers
LowCost EntrySystem
CommunityServices
Support of Fixed Mobile
Competitive Features
As telecommunications technology edges its way into smaller communities, operators
are often forced to provide wired service by using expensive copper local loops over
long distances.
These long drops not only degrade the quality of service, they are expensive. Local
calls in these cases are actually backhauled over some distance to the switch and
then back to the same community.
The PicoNode offers a remote switching alternative to this expensive technique of
providing local telecommunications services.
The PicoNode has been designed to scale from an everything-in-one-box solution to
a multiple BSC/BTS network.
The PicoNode has the capability to deliver an MSC, BSC, and BTS all in one box that
is slightly larger than a computer tower. However, if there is a different requirement,
the PicoNode can be expanded into individual components: one box will be used for
each function (i.e. one for MSC, one for BSC, and a given number for BTS as
required for coverage).
19-4
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
19-4 PicoNode Famil y PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Corporate/In-building: CorporateNET
In-Building Coverage
Wall-Mountable BTS
Distributed Antenna option
LeakyFeeder option
PBX Interworking
Dial Plan Support
Abbreviated Dialing
PSTN Interworking
PRI/QSIG Trunks
PBX Features
Dual Ringing
Single VMS
Single Cabinet Solution
Combined MSC,BSC,BTS
Proconfigured Installation
In-Building Coverage
Wall-Mountable BTS
Distributed Antenna option
LeakyFeeder option
PBX Interworking
Dial Plan Support
Abbreviated Dialing
PSTN Interworking
PRI/QSIG Trunks
PBX Features
Dual Ringing
Single VMS
Single Cabinet Solution
Combined MSC,BSC,BTS
Proconfigured Installation
Office Zone
SEND C END
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
OFFICE
Mobile Network
DMS MSC
Corporate
NET
SEND C END
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9
Network
Operator Network
PBX
Although personal subscribers have begun to outnumber corporate subscribers in
terms of sheer numbers, the corporate subscriber is valued the most because they
generate more revenue per subscriber for the operator. For this reason they are
highly prized. Operators must have solutions that not only attract new corporate
users but also help in retaining existing ones.
One method for operators to make their GSM offering more appealing to corporate
subscribers is to provide better coverage within the users office building. However,
improved coverage is not the entire solution.
Corporate subscribers use their handsets in-building because they are not near their
PBX telephone. If some PBX services could be extended to the GSM handset while
the corporate user was in-building, the service offering would become much more
valuable.
Nortels PicoNode for the corporate market is focused on providing such an in-
building privateGSM network for corporations interested in a mobility solution that is
tied to their PBX. Delivering a corporate, high tier solution will be best suited for
corporations and campus environments with 100 or more GSM subscribers.
19-5
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
19-5 PicoNode Famil y PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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PicoNode Architecture
Combo
MSC/BSC/BTS
Growth&
Evolution
BSC
MSC
BTS
BTS BTS
Small Company
Large Corporation
PBX
PBX
Nortels PicoNode family is composed of four devices:
the PMSC (PicoNode Mobile Switching Center),
the PBSC (PicoNode Base Station Controller),
the BTS (PicoNode Base Transceiver Subsystem),
the POMC (PicoNode Operations and Maintenance Center).
The MSC, BSC and the BTS can be either:
incorporated in a single cabinet not much larger than a standard PC tower or
housed in their own separate cabinets
The OMC is a Sun Sparc based Operations and Maintenance Center that offers a
graphical user interface combined with a topographical representation of the network.
The PicoNode product also comprises of the HLR (Home Location Register) which is
a centralized database used to manage subscribers and services.
The HLR is co-resident with the MSC.
Other components that can be networked with the PicoNode include a Billing System,
a Pre-paid system and a Voice Mail System.
19-6
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
28
19-6 PicoNode Famil y PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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CommunityNet
A-Interface
PicoNode
PLMN/
Public MSC
Hybrid
Public
Private
ISDN or R2
PSTN
POMC-R-S
Public
PMSC
PBSC
PBTS
Hybrid
HLR/
VLR
19-7
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
38
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PBX
PicoNode
Network
PLMN
ISDN or R2
HLR/
VLR
HLR/
VLR
PSTN
A-Interface
CommunityNet
PBX Inter-Operability
19-8
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
19-8 PicoNode Famil y PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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Output Power after Combining =2 Watts
External Amplifier for Greater Power (on this
drawing): 4, 8, 16 Watts
Receive Sensitivity =-104 or -110 dBm
Receive Diversity available
1-2 TRXs per BTS (Omni configuration)
Power Consumption 150 W
Weight 20 kg
Temperature range =0 to 45 C
Output Power after Combining =2 Watts
External Amplifier for Greater Power (on this
drawing): 4, 8, 16 Watts
Receive Sensitivity =-104 or -110 dBm
Receive Diversity available
1-2 TRXs per BTS (Omni configuration)
Power Consumption 150 W
Weight 20 kg
Temperature range =0 to 45 C
PicoNodeBTS
Slot:
1 - MPM w/o Disk Drive
2 - E1-Abis
3-8 - TRX
9 - RF Distribution
The PBTS 3x08 can be used to provide cost-effective communication solution in rural
communities, where in conjunction with a PBSC and a PMSC/PCSN a local switching
alternative can be more economical than stretching a PLMN to provide coverage.
Upto 2 TRXs can be installed per PBTS 3x08 allowing upto 15 simultaneous wireless
connections.
Specifically designed and configured for the rural market the PBTS 3x08 has the
following attributes:
Receiver Sensitivity -110 dBm +- 1dB
All GSM Frequencies: 900/1800/1900 MHz available.
Redundant Power Supplies: Available
Connection to BSC: The drop and insert capability is used to reduce the number
of E1/T1s to connect to the BSC. This is implemented through Chain connection.
Upto 4 PBTS from PBSC E1-Abis card can be connected. Trunk Interface is
G.703 compliant.
Interface: Air interface is the standard GSM air interface.
Capacity:
- 8 channels per TRX, maximum 2 TRXs per cell,
- 7-15 voice channels,
- 2.9- 8.2 Erlangs at PO2 GOS,
- Equivalent to 117 - 328 subscribers at 25 mE per sub.
19-9
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
19-9 PicoNode Famil y PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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PicoNodeBSC
CPU/Power Supply Redundant (Opt.)
2-14 E1 per BSC
1-15 BTSs per BSC
1-30 TRXs per BSC
GSM Full Rate
Weight 20 kg
Power Consumption 150 W
CPU/Power Supply Redundant (Opt.)
2-14 E1 per BSC
1-15 BTSs per BSC
1-30 TRXs per BSC
GSM Full Rate
Weight 20 kg
Power Consumption 150 W
Services
ETSI GSM Phase 2
Power Management
Data & Fax Services (no IWF)
SMS Service
GSM Phase 1, 2, 2+ mobiles
Services
ETSI GSM Phase 2
Power Management
Data & Fax Services (no IWF)
SMS Service
GSM Phase 1, 2, 2+ mobiles
O
F
F
0 O
N 1 O
F
F
0 O
N
1
1 2 3 4 5 7 9 8 6
TEST RF DIST
13MHz
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
RS-232
E1-1-
RX
TX
E1-2-
RX
TX
RST
SCN
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
CDN
ENET
EXT
XREF
PWR
ON
FLT
ENET
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
RS-232
E1-1-
RX
TX
E1-2-
RX
TX
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
PBSC
Slot1 Processor
Slot2-9 E1
The PicoNode BSC is deployed in a similar compact package as the PicoNode MSC
and serves as the connection from the MSC to the BTS(s).
The BSC is responsible for allocating and releasing radio channels to the mobile
stations by way of the BTSs.
In addition to managing channels on a radio interface, it is also responsible for
managing mobile station handovers to other radio channels.
The BSC is comprised of a processor, and two to eight dual port E1 modules. It is
directly connected to the MSC through the A interface and to the BTS through the
Abis interface.
An important feature of the BSC structure is the transcoder unit or TCU. The TCU is
responsible for the GSM specific speech encoding and decoding as well as rate
adaptation in the case of data. In the PicoNode system, the TCU is co-located with
the BSC. The PicoNode BSC can be configured with redundant power.
The PBSC supports inter-connection with a mixture of 900 and 1800 MHz PBTS.
19-10
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
19-10 PicoNode Famil y PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
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PicoNodeMSC
200 Non-Blocking Voice Connections
14 E-1
GSM900/GSM1800
Redundant Power Supplies (Opt.)
100 Erlangs / 8000 BHCA
Integrated HLR/VLR
Inter/Intra BSC Handover
200 Non-Blocking Voice Connections
14 E-1
GSM900/GSM1800
Redundant Power Supplies (Opt.)
100 Erlangs / 8000 BHCA
Integrated HLR/VLR
Inter/Intra BSC Handover
Services
Call Establishment & Switching
Channel Allocation
Channel Switching
Mobility Management
Voice or Data Network Switching
HLR/VLR Maintenance
User Administration and
Authentication
Wireless PBX Adjunct
no Echo Canceler
Services
Call Establishment & Switching
Channel Allocation
Channel Switching
Mobility Management
Voice or Data Network Switching
HLR/VLR Maintenance
User Administration and
Authentication
Wireless PBX Adjunct
no Echo Canceler
O
F
F
0 O
N
1 O
F
F
0 O
N
1
1 2 3 4 5 7 9 8 6
TEST RF DIST
13MHz
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
RS-232
E1-1-
RX
TX
E1-2-
RX
TX
RST
SCN
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
CDN
ENET
EXT
XREF
PWR
ON
FLT
ENET
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
RS-232
E1-1-
RX
TX
E1-2-
RX
TX
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
PMSC
Slot1 - Processor
Slot2-9 - E1
The PicoNode MSC serves as a standard GSM Mobile Switching Center (MSC). The
PicoNode MSC is capable of handling call establishment and switching, mobility
management, and channel allocation.
The PicoNode MSC is deployed in a compact package (55 x 23 x 41 cm) that can
easily be maneuvered into remote areas.
The benefit of the compact size and light weight (20 kg) is that delivery to remote
areas is effortless as compared to a full size switching platform.
The PicoNode MSC is expandable to accommodate multiple E1 ports and 160
simultaneous full-rate voice connections (non-blocking) to meet the various capacity
requirements. The PicoNode MSC is always configured with redundant power.
19-11
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
19-11 PicoNode Famil y PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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PicoNodeOMC
Sun Workstation Platform
TMN Architecture
Multiple Windows Supported
Context Sensitive Help
8 Clients per Server
High Level of Security
1 OMC per MSC
Sun Workstation Platform
TMN Architecture
Multiple Windows Supported
Context Sensitive Help
8 Clients per Server
High Level of Security
1 OMC per MSC
Services
Region-wide configuration database
Remote Download of Software
Audit Functions
Regional Map of Network Elements
Real Time Monitoring
Audio and Visual Indications of Alarms
Measures Network Performance (to export)
Imports from Existing Cell Planning Tools
Export Data & Statistics
CDR (to a billing server)
Services
Region-wide configuration database
Remote Download of Software
Audit Functions
Regional Map of Network Elements
Real Time Monitoring
Audio and Visual Indications of Alarms
Measures Network Performance (to export)
Imports from Existing Cell Planning Tools
Export Data & Statistics
CDR (to a billing server)
PicoNode OMC provides the operations and management center functions for the
PicoNode.
It has a client-server architecture. In this architecture, the radio network is partitioned
into multiple management regions with each region containing one or more MSCs, as
well as all of the PicoNode hardware platforms managed by the MSCs.
A PicoNode OMC server is then responsible for the management of all the BSCs and
BTSs contained in this region.
PicoNode OMC provides a number of management functions for the PicoNode
hardware which include:
Communication interface to the PicoNode products
Security and Access control
Event and Alarm management
Network configuration management
Software upgrade management.
Interface: E1 to the MSC running TCP/IP.
Hardware: Sun Sparc with 128 MB memory and 4G Hard Disk.
19-12
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
19-12 PicoNode Famil y PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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PicoNodeCombo
O
F
F
0
O
N 1 O
F
F
0
O
N 1
TEST RF DIST
13MHz
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
RS-232
E1-1- RX
TX
E1-2- RX
TX
RST
SCN
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
CDN
ENET
EXT
XREF
RST
SCN
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
CDN
ENET
EXT
XREF
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
RS-232
E1-1- RX
TX
E1-2- RX
TX
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
-3-
TX1
6.7
2,3
4,5
6,7
2,3
4,5
-2-
-1-
RX3
RX2
RX1
TX3
TX2
CLK
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
RX
TX
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
RX
TX
2W
Slot
1- Processor
2- Processor
3- E1
4- E1
5-6- TRX
7-8- TRX
9- RF Distribution
O
FF 0
O
N 1 O
FF 0
O
N 1
1 2 3 4 5 7 9 8 6
TEST RF DIST
13MHz
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
RS-232
E1-1- RX
TX
E1-2-
RX
TX
RST
SCN
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
CDN
ENET
EXT
XREF
RST
SCN
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
CDN
ENET
EXT
XREF
PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
RS-232
E1-1-
RX
TX
E1-2- RX
TX
13MHZ
RX-2
TX-1 PWR
ON
LINE
FLT
RX
TX
PATH-1
ANT-1
ANT-2
TX-2
RX-1
PATH-2
TX PATH
8W
Slot
1- Processor
2- Processor
3- E1
4- E1
5-6- TRX
7-9- RF Distribution
Rural/Community Corporate/In-Building
The PicoNode PCSN is a combo switch meaning it has the MSC, BSC and BTS
functionality all included in one single box of the size not much bigger than a PC
tower. It is available in two configurations depending on the BTS output power.
These modules comprise all the basic components of the system for either the
PMSC, PCSN, PBSC, or PBTS.
19-13
PicoNode Family
PE/TRD/CN/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"Confidential information -- may not be copied or disclosed without permission".
19-13 PicoNode Famil y PE/TRD/GR/0101 12.01/EN J anuary, 2000
"
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PicoNodeScalable GSM Solutions
BSC 15 BTSs
30 TRXs
BSC 15 BTSs
30 TRXs
Supports (max) Configuration Capacity
NSS 2 BSCs 2000 Subs @ 0.05E (VLR)
4000 Subs (HLR)
NSS 2 BSCs 2000 Subs @ 0.05E (VLR)
4000 Subs (HLR)
Combined Node
MSC/HLR/VLR
BSC/BTS 2 TRXs 120 Subs @ 0.05E (VLR)
2000 Subs (HLR)
add-on BTSs 4
max number of TRXs for the combo: 8
Combined Node
MSC/HLR/VLR
BSC/BTS 2 TRXs 120 Subs @ 0.05E (VLR)
2000 Subs (HLR)
add-on BTSs 4
max number of TRXs for the combo: 8
BTS 3 TRXs 180 Subs @ 0.05E
BTS 3 TRXs 180 Subs @ 0.05E