Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12

Table of Contents

Instructor Guide

2012 APICS Confidential and Proprietary

Table of Contents
Participant Workbook Page

Table of Contents
Session 1Introduction to Supply Chain Management
Introduction to Manufacturing..............................................................................

1-9

Role of Manufacturing.................................................................................................................

1-9

Global Citizenship.......................................................................................................................

1-11

Manufacturing Business Model...................................................................................................

1-15

Business Environment.................................................................................................................

1-23

Manufacturing Environment and Process Choices............................................

1-27

Manufacturing Environments.......................................................................................................

1-27

Product Life Cycle and Manufacturing Environments.................................................................

1-33

Choice of Processes and Layouts...............................................................................................

1-35

The Manufacturing Supply Chain.........................................................................

1-45

The Supply Chain Concept.........................................................................................................

1-45

Views of the Supply Chain..........................................................................................................

1-47

Supply Chain Organizational Issues...........................................................................................

1-51

Performance Measures...............................................................................................................

1-53

Role of Materials Management...................................................................................................

1-55

Manufacturing Planning and Control...................................................................

1-57

Objectives of Manufacturing........................................................................................................

1-57

Priority and Capacity Planning....................................................................................................

1-57

Manufacturing Planning and Control Hierarchy...........................................................................

1-59

From MRP TO ERP.................................................................................................

1-61

From MRP to ERP.......................................................................................................................

1-61

From MRP to MRP II...................................................................................................................

1-61

From MRP II to ERP....................................................................................................................

1-63

Impact of New Systems and Philosophies..........................................................

1-65

2012 APICS

Instructor Guide Version 4.0

Basics of Supply Chain Management

Session 2Demand Management


Demand Management Processes.........................................................................

2-7

Marketing Management...............................................................................................................
Customer Relationship Management..........................................................................................

2-7
2-11

Demand Planning........................................................................................................................

2-11

Characteristics of Demand...................................................................................

2-13

Independent Versus Dependent Demand..................................................................................

2-13

Sources of Demand.....................................................................................................................

2-13

Demand Patterns and Stability....................................................................................................

2-15

Forecasting.............................................................................................................

2-19

Purposes and Uses of the Forecast............................................................................................

2-19

Principles of Forecasting.............................................................................................................
Data Collection and Preparation Principles.................................................................................

2-21
2-23

Forecasting Techniques........................................................................................

2-25

Qualitative Techniques................................................................................................................

2-25
2-25

Quantitative Techniques: Extrinsic..............................................................................................

Exponential Smoothing...............................................................................................................

2-27
2-27
2-35

Seasonal Forecast......................................................................................................................

2-39

Tracking the Forecast............................................................................................

2-43

Bias.............................................................................................................................................

2-43

Random Variation (Error)............................................................................................................

2-43
2-45

Quantitative Techniques: Intrinsic...............................................................................................


Moving Average Forecast...........................................................................................................

Measuring Forecast Error............................................................................................................

Instructor Guide Version 4.0

ii

2012 APICS

Table of Contents
Participant Workbook Page

Session 3Master Planning


Purpose and Scope of Master Planning.............................................................

3-7

Priority Planning.........................................................................................................................
Planning Horizon and Level of Detail.........................................................................................

3-7
3-7

S&OP and Production Planning ..........................................................................

3-9

Sales and Operations Planning.................................................................................................


Production Planning...................................................................................................................

3-9
3-11

Master Scheduling and Master Production Schedule.......................................

3-37

Purpose.....................................................................................................................................

Resolving Differences and Publishing the MPS.........................................................................

3-37
3-37
3-39
3-39
3-41
3-41
3-43
3-47
3-49
3-49
3-51
3-51

Master Scheduling and Sales..............................................................................

3-53

MPS and Delivery Promises......................................................................................................

3-53

Objectives..................................................................................................................................
Inputs.........................................................................................................................................
Relationship to the Production Plan...........................................................................................
Developing a Master Schedule..................................................................................................
Projected Available Balance......................................................................................................
Preliminary MPS........................................................................................................................
Planning Horizon........................................................................................................................
Time Fences and Zones............................................................................................................
Aggregating the Master Schedules............................................................................................
Rough-Cut Capacity Planning....................................................................................................

2012 APICS

iii

Instructor Guide Version 4.0

Basics of Supply Chain Management

Session 4Material Requirements Planning (MRP)


Material Requirements Planning Environment..................................................

4-7

Nature of Demand......................................................................................................................

4-7

Linkages with Other Manufacturing Planning and Control Functions........................................

4-7

Objectives of MRP.....................................................................................................................

4-9

MRP Process Inputs and Outputs..............................................................................................

4-11

Planning Software......................................................................................................................

4-13

Bill of Material.......................................................................................................

4-15

Introduction................................................................................................................................

4-15

Summarized Bill of Material and the Indented Bill.....................................................................

4-15

Single-Level Bill of Material........................................................................................................

4-17

Multilevel Bill of Material............................................................................................................

4-17

Parent-Component Relationship................................................................................................

4-17

Bill of Material: Summary...........................................................................................................

4-19

Planning Bill...............................................................................................................................

4-23

Where-Used and Pegging Data.................................................................................................

4-25

Uses of the Bill of Material.........................................................................................................

4-27

Material Requirements Planning Logic..............................................................

4-29

Approach to this Section............................................................................................................

4-29

MRP Logic Overview.................................................................................................................

4-29

Lead-Time Offsetting and Exploding..........................................................................................

4-31

Gross and Net Requirements....................................................................................................

4-37

Basic MRP Record.....................................................................................................................

4-41

Capacity Requirements Planning..............................................................................................

4-47

Using and Managing the Priority Plan................................................................

4-49

Role of MRP Software...............................................................................................................

4-49

Order Control.............................................................................................................................

4-51

Releasing Planned Orders.........................................................................................................

4-53

Maintaining Priorities and Replanning.......................................................................................

4-55

Instructor Guide Version 4.0

iv

2012 APICS

Table of Contents
Participant Workbook Page

Session 5Capacity Management and Production Activity Control


Introduction.........................................................................................................

5-7

Manufacturing Planning and Control Hierarchy.......................................................................


Transition from MRP to CRP and PAC...................... ............................................................

5-7
5-7

Capacity Management........................................................................................

5-9

Phases of Capacity Management...........................................................................................


Definition of Capacity..............................................................................................................
Capacity Planning Process.....................................................................................................
Determining Capacity Available..............................................................................................
Rated Capacity........................................................................................................................
Demonstrated Capacity...........................................................................................................

5-9
5-11
5-11
5-13
5-21
5-25

Capacity Requirements Planning.....................................................................

5-27

Introduction..............................................................................................................................
Key Inputs...............................................................................................................................
CRP Process...........................................................................................................................

5-27
5-27
5-33

Production Activity Control...............................................................................

5-41

Objectives................................................................................................................................
Functions.................................................................................................................................
Information Requirements.......................................................................................................
Data Requirements.................................................................................................................

5-41
5-43
5-45
5-47

Scheduling..........................................................................................................

5-49

Introduction..............................................................................................................................
Scheduling and Loading Techniques......................................................................................
Bottleneck Scheduling.............................................................................................................

5-49
5-49
5-53

Implementation...................................................................................................

5-55

Shop Order Packet..................................................................................................................


Order Release Process...........................................................................................................

5-55
5-55

Control.................................................................................................................

5-57

Goals, Objectives, and Control Levers....................................................................................

5-57
5-59
5-61
5-67

Priority Control.........................................................................................................................
Input/Output Control................................................................................................................
Flow Control.................................................................................................................

2012 APICS

Instructor Guide Version 4.0

Basics of Supply Chain Management

Session 6Aggregate Inventory Management


Introduction to Inventory...................................................................................

6-7

What is Inventory?...................................................................................................................

6-7
6-9

Aggregate and Item Inventory Management...........................................................................

Aggregate Inventory Management....................................................................

6-11

Inventory and the Flow of Materials........................................................................................


Reasons for Carrying Inventory...............................................................................................

6-11
6-13

Functions of Inventory.............................................................................................................

6-15

Inventory Objectives................................................................................................................

6-17

Inventory Costs..................................................................................................

6-21

Item Costs...............................................................................................................................
Carrying Costs.........................................................................................................................

6-21
6-23

Ordering Costs........................................................................................................................

6-25

Stockout Costs........................................................................................................................
Capacity-Related Costs...........................................................................................................

6-29
6-29

Financial Statements and Inventory.................................................................

6-33

Balance Sheet and Income Statement Accounts....................................................................

6-33
6-35
6-37

Balance Sheet.........................................................................................................................
Income Statement...................................................................................................................

Inventory Valuation..................................................................................................................

6-39
6-43
6-45

Financial Inventory Performance Measures............................................................................

6-47

Aggregate Inventory Management and Financial Statements................................................


Cash Flow Analysis.................................................................................................................

Instructor Guide Version 4.0

vi

2012 APICS

Table of Contents
Participant Workbook Page

Session 7Item Inventory Management


Order Quantities.................................................................................................

7-7

How Much to Order.................................................................................................................

7-7

Lot-Size Decision Rules..........................................................................................................

7-9

Economic Order Quantity (EOQ).............................................................................................


Economic Order Quantity Formula..........................................................................................

7-13
7-21

Validity of EOQ Assumptions..................................................................................................

7-25

Independent Demand Ordering Systems.........................................................

7-27

Order Point System.................................................................................................................


Determining When the Order Point is Reached......................................................................

7-29
7-35
7-43

Periodic Review System..........................................................................................................

7-47

ABC Inventory Control.......................................................................................

7-55

ABC Principles........................................................................................................................

7-55
7-57

Safety Stock............................................................................................................................

ABC Classification...................................................................................................................

Control Based on ABC Classification......................................................................................

7-57
7-59
7-63

Auditing Inventory Records..............................................................................

7-65

Periodic Inventory Audit..........................................................................................................

7-65
7-67

ABC Process...........................................................................................................................
Sample Calculation.................................................................................................................

Cycle Counting........................................................................................................................

2012 APICS

vii

Instructor Guide Version 4.0

Basics of Supply Chain Management

Session 8Purchasing and Physical Distribution


Purchasing..........................................................................................................

8-7

Types of Purchased Items.....................................................................................................

8-7
8-9

Purchasing Objectives...........................................................................................................

Purchasing Activities and Participants............................................................

8-11

Purchasing Activities..............................................................................................................

8-11

Physical Distribution..........................................................................................

8-29

Scope and Value.....................................................................................................................

Scope of Physical Distribution Factors....................................................................................

8-29
8-29
8-31
8-33
8-37
8-37

Distribution Inventory ........................................................................................

8-39

Purpose of Distribution Inventory............................................................................................

Distribution Requirements Planning (DRP).............................................................................

8-39
8-41
8-43
8-45
8-45

Transportation....................................................................................................

8-49

Introduction..............................................................................................................................

Costs of Moving Goods...........................................................................................................

8-49
8-55
8-55
8-65

Warehousing.......................................................................................................

8-71

Purpose of Warehousing.........................................................................................................

8-71
8-71
8-73
8-75

Global Distribution...................................................................................................................
Influence of Marketing.............................................................................................................
Interface with Production and Finance....................................................................................
Other Factors: Distribution Channels ......................................................................................

Objectives................................................................................................................................
Distribution Inventory Planning Systems.................................................................................
Push System...........................................................................................................................

Reverse Logistics......................................................................................................
Basic Transportation Modes....................................................................................................

Warehousing Process and Activities.......................................................................................


Stock Location Systems..........................................................................................................
Public Versus Private Warehousing........................................................................................

Instructor Guide Version 4.0

viii

2012 APICS

Table of Contents
Participant Workbook Page

Session 9Lean and Quality Systems


Product and Quality Systems............................................................................

9-7

Product and Quality Cycle.......................................................................................................

9-7

Objectives................................................................................................................................

9-7

Systems and Methodologies...................................................................................................


Principles, Practices, and Tools..............................................................................................

9-9
9-11

Focus on the Customer......................................................................................

9-13

Value of a Product to the Customer........................................................................................


Quality Functional Deployment...............................................................................................

9-15
9-15

Lean................................................................................................

9-17

House of Toyota......................................................................................................................

9-17
9-17

Why Implement Lean?............................................................................................................


Waste......................................................................................................................................
Continuous Flow Production...................................................................................................
Pull Systems............................................................................................................................
Work Layouts..........................................................................................................................
Process Flexibility....................................................................................................................
Total Productive Maintenance.................................................................................................
Process and Continuous Improvement...................................................................................
Employee Involvement and Empowerment.............................................................................
Lean Tools and Techniques....................................................................................................
Supplier Partnerships..............................................................................................................

Total Quality Management...........................................................................

9-19
9-21
9-21
9-23
9-25
9-27
9-29
9-31
9-33
9-35

9-37

Quality-Related Costs.............................................................................................................

9-37
9-41

Quality Control Tools...............................................................................................................

9-43

Six Sigma................................................................................................................................

9-57
9-63

Product Quality........................................................................................................................

Summary.................................................................................................................................

2012 APICS

ix

Instructor Guide Version 4.0

Basics of Supply Chain Management

Session 10Theory of Constraints


Introduction to Theory of Constraints..............................................................

10-7

Philosophy and Basic Principles.............................................................................................


Types of Constraints...............................................................................................................

10-7
10-9

Problem-Solving Tools............................................................................................................

10-9

General Applications..........................................................................................

10-11

VATI Analysis..........................................................................................................................

10-11

Drum-Buffer-Rope Planning and Scheduling..........................................................................

10-13

Simplified Drum-Buffer-Rope (S-DBR)....................................................................................

10-27

Throughput Accounting...........................................................................................................

10-29

Critical-Chain Method..............................................................................................................

10-31
10-33

Distribution..............................................................................................................................

Appendix
Progress Check Answer Sheet.........................................................................
Bibliography..............................................................................
Course Evaluation..............................................................................................

Instructor Guide Version 4.0

A-1
A-2
A-3

2012 APICS