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# DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

## SWITCHGEAR AND PROTECTION LAB INDEX Sr. No.

1 TO STUDY THE OPERATION OF DEFINITE TIME OVERCURRENT 2 RELAY. 5

Name of Experiment

Page No.
2

TO PLOT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE POLE OVER CURRENT OR EARTH FAULT USING STATIC I.D.M.T. RELAYS

## TO PLOT THE CHRACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC IDMT RELAY (MODEL NO.ICM-21NP)

10

TO STUDY THE OPERATION OF STATIC DEFINITE TIME REVERSE POWER RELAY (MODEL APDR-21) CHARACTERISTICS

13

## A) TO STUDY THE MAGNETISATION OF C.T.

16

B) TO STUDY THE PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH C.T. MAGNETISATION. 7 8 TO PLOT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FUSE WIRE TO STUDY DIRECTIONAL OVER CURRENT RELAY ( ACDR 11 HPD) 9 TO STUDY AND PLOT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPEDANCE RELAY ( ABB-RAKZB 10 11 TO STUDY TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION TO STUDY UNRESTRICTED EARTH FAULT RELAYS. 26 28 23 18 20

## VIIIth SEM B.E.

EXPERIMENT NO.1
AIM: - TO STUDY THE OPERATION OF DEFINITE TIME OVERCURRENT RELAY. APPARATUS: 1) Timer 2) Static definite O/C relay (Model ACTU 32 P) 3) Auxiliary D.C. supply = 110V 4) 1 phase variac =230V, 4A 5) Ammeter AC (0-5A) and (0-1/2 A) 6) Rheostat (100 ohm, 5Amp) 7) Experiment Kit 8) Connecting wires CIRCUIT DIAGRANM:

OFF ON

5 3

## 1PH 230V 50 HZ SUPPLY

11 +

110V DC

12

THEORY: 1. Principle and operation of static definite time over current relay, time current charact. equation. 2. Block diagram of static over current relay.

PROCEDURE: -

## 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12)

Connect the ckt as shown in fig procedure is done & time is noted. Set current and time setting of relays as per requirement Connect Auxiliary D.C. Supply (110) to pin 11 & 12 of relay and pin no. 3&4 to the time interval meter. Switch on the D.C. supply & make sure that relay is on Glowing of LED on the front panel of the relay. Switch on power supply from dimmer as well as to time interval meter. Adjust the current setting of the relay. Adjust the time setting of relay. Now by making DPDT switch on, increase the value of current by dimmer stat up to the point at which the relay trip. Trip can be observed by glowing of trip LED on front panel of relay. Switch is made off and relay is reset. Now Switch is made on & time interval meter reading is noted. For the same current setting , time setting is changed & same procedure is repeated until all the time setting are covered. Again current setting is changed & same PROCEDURE IS REPEATED.

OBSERVATION TABLE: Sr. No. Relay set time in sec Set phase trip =100% Ammeter reading Timer time Set phase tri[p Timer =180 % time Ammeter reading

1. 2. 3. 4. CHARACTERISTICS TABLE: Current setting = , Pick up current = Sr. No. Fault current (A) PSM Timer time, for TMS = Timer time, for TMS = Timer time, for TMS =

## VIIIth SEM B.E.

2 . . . 10 RESULT & CONCLUSION: The operation of definite time O/C relay is studied in this experiment. The reading is obtained for various time settings as well as current setting. It was found that for various time delay observed for peak up values of current is same.

Viva Question 1 Application of DTOC relay. 2 Draw back of DTOC relay 3 Importance of DC supply 4 Detail of other O/C relays 5 Use of timer

## VIIIth SEM B.E.

EXPERIMENT NO.2
AIM: TO PLOT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE POLE OVER CURRENT OR EARTH FAULT USING STATIC I.D.M.T. RELAYS APPARATUS: 1) Timer 2) IDMT relay (Model APR-11 P) 3) Auxiliary D.C. supplies = 110V 4) 1 phase Dimmer stat = 230V, 10A 6) Ammeter AC (0-15A) 7) Rheostat (38 ohm, 8.5 Amp) 8) Experiment Kit 9) Connecting wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
(0-15A) 36 OHM, 8.5A OFF ON

5 3

## 1PH 230V 50 HZ SUPPLY

11 +

110V DC

12

THEORY: 1. 2. 3. Define PSM, TSM. Equation of time current characteristics. Principle & Operation of static IDMT Relay with block diagram

## VIIIth SEM B.E.

PROCEDURE: -

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)
OPERATION: -

Make the connection as shown in fig. Set current and time setting of relays as per requirement Set phase trip to 50% and set phase time at X1 with phase TMS at maximum position. Switch on variac and check power ON indication provided on relay front panel. Very dimmer state with fault current of 1A,relayb will trip after certain time delay. Switch OFF dimmer state without disrobing its position and change the position of DPT switch. Also reset time. Switch ON dimmer state change the position of switch and measure the relay time from timer. Reap eat same procedure for varying a different fault current. Repeat this procedure consider different set phase time (TMS)

With supply on load are continuously monitored Electronic comparator checks this value with set value (N) of phase & earth fault trip, which can be adjusted on front plate. Pick up response is (1.1 N) IDMT timing is applicable to over current above 2N as per chosen curve. Time setting multiplier for actual tripping time delay. TMS is adjusted by 11-position switch & with variable preset pot. These pots adjusted time for intermediate values indicated on TMS switch. Tripping cause is indicated by LED lamp (OC/EF). When over current trips the circuit relay NO contact changes to NC when relay trips indicating LED to NC when relay trip indicating LED to NC when relay trips indicating LED to NC when relay trip indicating LED flag will remain ON till manually reset.

OBSERVATION 1 CHARACTERISTICS TABLE: - current setting =, Phase TMS Sr. No. 1 2 . . 10 Fault current (A) PSM Timer time for Timer time for TSM = TSM= Timer time for TSM=

## VIIIth SEM B.E.

RESULT: For lower values of current the time current characteristics are inverse and for higher value of current, time observed is constant. Viva Question 1 Application of IDMT relay. 2 Draw back of IDMT relay 3 Importance of DC supply 4 Detail of other Inverse type of relays 5 Importance of static relays 6 Why IDMT relay suitable for protection of long length of LV/MV TL.

## VIIIth SEM B.E.

EXPERIMENT NO.3
AIM: - TO STUDY THE OPERATION OF STATIC OVER VOLTAGE RELAY APPARATUS: 1) Static over voltage relay (Model No.: -ASOV) 2) Auxiliary D.C. supplies 110V 3) Time interval meter 4) Single pole variac 230V, 4A 5) Voltmeter (0-300V) AC 6) Rheostat (400 ohm, 1.7 Amp) 7) Connecting wires 8) Experiment Kit CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:OFF
300 OHM,1.7A

ON T I M E R

START STOP

v
10

3 4

## STATIC OVER VOLTAGE RELAY

11 +

110V DC

12 -

THEORY: 1. Principle and operation of static over voltage relay. 2. Application of static over voltage relay. PROCEDURE:-

## 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12)

Connect the ckt as shown in fig procedure is done & time is noted. Set current and time setting of relays as per requirement Connect Auxiliary D.C. Supply (110) to pin 11 & 12 of relay and pin no. 3&4 to the time interval meter. Switch on the D.C. supply & make sure that relay is on Glowing of LED on the front panel of the relay. Switch on power supply from dimmer as well as to time interval meter. Adjust the voltage setting of the relay. Adjust the time setting of relay. Now by making DPDT switch on, increase the value of voltage by dimmer stat up to the point at which the relay trip. Trip can be observed by glowing of trip LED on front panel of relay. Switch is made off and relay is reset. Now Switch is made on & time interval meter reading is noted. For the same voltage setting , time setting is changed & same procedure is repeated until all the time setting are covered. Again voltage setting is changed & same PROCEDURE IS REPEATED.

OBSERVATION TABLE: Sr. No. 1 2 . . 10 Time Knob Position in seconds. Set Voltage 105%= Timer time Set Voltage 130%= Timer time Set Timer Voltage time 155%=

## RESULT: The static over-voltage relay is studied.

Viva Question 1 Application of over and under voltage relay. 2 Draw back of electromagnetic as compare to static relays relay 3 Importance of DC supply 4 Range of under voltage relay

## VIIIth SEM B.E.

EXPERIMENT NO.4
AIM: - TO PLOT THE CHRACTERISTICS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC IDMT RELAY (MODEL NO.ICM-21NP)

APPARATUS: -

1) Timer 2) IDMT relay (MODEL NO.ICM-21NP)) 3) Auxiliary D.C. supplies = 110V 4) 1 phase Dimmer stat = 230V, 10A 5) Ammeter AC (0-15A) 6) Rheostat (38 ohm, 8.5 Amp) 7) Experiment Kit 8) Connecting wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

OFF
(38 ohm,8.5A)

ON

A
(0-10A) START S T O P T I M E R

5 6

+3

110V DC

-4

10

## VIIIth SEM B.E.

THEORY: 1) 2) 3) Construction and operation of Induction disc/ watt-metric type electromagnetic Relays. Time current characteristics equation Derivation of torque produced.

PROCEDURE: -

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

6) 7) 8)

9)

Make the connection as shown in the circuit diagram. Select current setting (set phase trip) less than 100%, keeping phase TMS at maximum position. Select any time setting. Switch on variac and check power ON indication provided on relay front panel. Vary dimmer stat and observe current value till Pick-Up will show Red indication when current value exceeds set phase trip position. Switch OFF dimmer stat without disturbing its position with the help of DPT switch. Also reset time. Measure the relay time from timer by switching on DPT switch. Now increase the fault current and note down timer time after switching OFF and DPT switch every time with same time setting. Repeat same procedure for different time setting keeping current setting same.

OBSERVATION TABLE OR CHARACTERISTICS TABLE: Sr. No. 1 2 . . . 10 Fault current (A) PSM Timer time For TSM = Timer time For TSM= Timer time For TSM=

RESULT:

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

For lower values of current the time current characteristics are inverse and for higher value for current observed times are constant. Viva Question 1 Pickup, PSM and TSM 2 Draw back of IDMT relay 3 Derivation of Torque equation in detail 4 Detail of other Inverse type of relays 5 Why IDMT relay suitable for protection of long length of LV/MV TL. 6 Reset time and trip time 7 Why characteristics is plotted between PSM and operating time?

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

EXPERIMENT NO.5
AIM: - TO STUDY THE OPERATION OF STATIC DEFINITE TIME REVERSE POWER RELAY (MODEL APDR-21) APPARATUS: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Timer Static definite time reverse power relay (Model APDR 21) Auxiliary D.C. supply = 110V 3 phase variac =440V, 50 Hz, 8A 1 phase variac =230V, 4A Ammeter AC (0-1A) AC Rheostat (300 ohm, 1.7Amp) Phase shifting transformer Voltmeter (0-300V) AC Experiment Kit Connecting wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
(0-2A)

A
R
P H A R S E S H I F T I N G T R A N F O R M E R 7 R

CT 8

3 PH 440V AC SUPPLY

Y
Y

R E L A Y

START
(0-300V)

V
1 PH VARIAC 270V, 4A

11

B
B

PT

S T O P

T I M E R

12

13

## VIIIth SEM B.E.

THEORY: 1. 2. OPERATION: Solid static state voltage and current sensing circuits measure the instantaneous voltage and current value in scales down format .The algorithmic circuit does the multiplication of the derived data. The output of this circuit remains positive as the moment when power reversal occurs, output of the circuits changes again. It is noted as pick up point and thus indicated by pick up LED. This also triggers the internal timer cit. This timer is adjustable by 11 positive switches. It has very high repeat accuracy. (Better than class 17) After the end of set timing and if power conduction are still reverse. PROCEDURE: 1) Make the connection as shown in fig. 2) Set current and time setting of relays as per requirement 3) Switch on supply to 3phase dimmerstate and also D.C. supply to relay. 4) By vaaarying 3 phase dimmerstate adjust the value of current . 5) Now keeping current at this val;ue constant change the angle of phase shifting tranfofmer gradually. 6) Observe the tripping zone of reverse power relay. 7) The relay will trip at certain angle of phase shifting transformer note down the angle and reset the relay. 8) Again increase the angle and observe tripping of relay. 9) Plot the tripping region of reverse power relay on the graph paper. OBSERVATION TABLE: Sr. No. 1 2 3 Phase angle 0 30 60 Till 360 Trip response Describe the operating principle, constructional feature and area of application of reverse power relay. Draw simplified block diagram of static reverse power O/C relay.

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Sr.No. 1 2 3 4

## Trip time in sec

RESULT: The operation of definite time reverse power relay is studied and triggering zone is plotted in the graph paper. Viva Question 1 Application of Reverse power relay 2 Types of relays used and its setting for protection of ring main feeders 3 Comparison of other directional relays and reverse power relays

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

EXPERIMENT NO: - 06
A) TO STUDY THE MAGNETISATION CHARACTERISTICS OF C.T. B) TO STUDY THE PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH C.T. MAGNETISATION.

APPARATUS:1) Current transformer ( CT ) 5/1 Amp 2) Ammeter :- ( 0-10 A) 3) Multimeter 4) Rheostat ( 38 ohm , 1.7 amp ) 5) 1 phase Dimmerstate. THEORY:Plot the excitation curve and explain (i) From origin to ankle point (ii) From ankle pt. to knee (iii) Knee region (iv) Saturation region CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
(O-1A)

300ohm,1.7A A

## 230V 50HZ, 1PH, SUPPLY

(0-75V) V OR MULTIMETER

O. C.

## 1:5 A CURRENT TRANSFORMER

PROCEDURE:(1) (2) (3) Make connections as shown Current is increased by 1 phase shown A certain value of current , measure voltage from multimeter

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## (4) (5) (6) CONCLUSION :point

Again increase the value of current and note down voltage. Similar procedure is done and current is increased till the saturation of C.T. Draw graph of current Vs voltage.

Magnetization curve of C.T. is studied. Ankle point, knee and saturation is observed.

Viva Question 1 Difference between protective CTs and measuring CTS 2 Why CT get saturate in differential protective scheme during external fault 3 Use of CTs in protection of any equipment 4 No. of CTs require for protection of transformer and generator and their connection.

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

EXPERIMENT NO :- 07
AIM :- To plot the characteristics of Fuse wire APPARATUS1) Fuse wire 2) Ammeter AC (0-10 A) 3) Stop watch 4) 1 ph Dimmerstat 230V, 10 A 5) Loading Rheostat 6) Rheostat (38 Ohm, 8.5 A) 7) Experimental Kit 8) Connecting Wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:(0-15A)

38 ohm,8.5A

FUSE

L O A D

THEORY: -

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

2)

3)

4)

Switch on the supply and keep the full load in the on position. Adjust the current to certain value with the help of dimmerstat Stop watch is stopped when the fuse element is blown which is indicated by decreasing of current in ammeter to zero. Note down the time of stop watch. Again after changing the fuse element increase the current to certain value and repeat above procedure .

OBSERVATION:

Sr.No 1 . . 5

Current ( Amp)

Time (Sec)

RESULT AND CONCLUSION :The characteristics of fuse wire is studied in this experiment and is found to be inverse type ,and is plotted on graph paper .

Viva Question 1 Application of fuse wire 2 comparisons of fuse and circuit breaker 3 Types of fuses and their application 4 types of fuse require for protection of transformer, generator and induction motor

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

EXPERIEMNT NO:- 08
AIM :- TO STUDY DIRECTIONAL OVER CURRENT RELAY ( ACDR 11 HPD) APPARATUS :1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

ASHIDA make single pole directional O/C relay ACDR 11 HPD Phase shifting transformer Dimmerstat ( 3 phase , 440 volt, 50 Hz ) Ammeter (0-1 Amp) Rheostate ( 300 ohm , 1.7 Amp) Dimmerstat ( 1 phase , 230 volt, 4 Amp) DC Power Supply ( 110 Volt )

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
110V

(0-2A)
1000ohm,1.2A

+ DC

15 R R 16

11 7

CT
Y

PT

B
12 B N N

8 4

3 TIMER

TO TRIP CIRCUIT

20

## VIIIth SEM B.E.

THEORY : 1. Directional O/C relay 2. Directional relay connection OPERATIONLoad current is continuously monitored and compared to set value and polarized with voltage for direction sensing. As soon as the current exceeds the set value and it is operating direction then N value (Time set value) is calculated and then the delay time count is started , two types of curves 10 times ( N=10 ) current 3.0 sec . Delay and 1.3 sec delay can be provided. At the end of the time count if the current still exceeds the set value TRIP is exceeded. All the monitored current value is available at the front D is skeets for external recording . If the direction is reverse then the TRIP execution is (represented) restrained high fault setting is also provided (2N. 20 N) IF the current value exceeds the HF set value instant trip (i.e. 100 msec.) is executed, by passing the directional restraint. PROCEDURE:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Make the connections as shown in the fig. Apply the voltage across the P.T of relay The pick up current through the relay coil. Set current and time setting of relays as per requirement Switch on the supply. Find out the operating region and non-operating region of relay by changing angle using the phase shifting transformer. Adjust the current to such a value, which is more than plug setting. Change the shifter angle such that relay operates in that region.

OBSERRVATION TABLE : Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Phase angle MTS = MAX torque setting 45 degree 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 -150 degree till 0 degree 60 Degree 9th Line

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

RESULT:maximum

The static directional relay is studied and graph for different torque setting is drawn.

Viva Question 1 Application of Directional over current relay 2 Derivation of max. torque angle in directional O/C relay 3 Protection of ring main feeders 4 300, 600and 900 connection in directional relays

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

EXPERIMENT NO : 09
AIM :- TO STUDY AND PLOT THE CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPEDANCE RELAY ( ABB-RAKZB) APPARATUS :1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 3 Phase AC Autotransformer Voltmeter (0-150 V) Ammeter(0- 2 Amp) Rheostat ( 300 ohm , 1.7 Amp) 3 Phase Impedance Relay Phase shifting Transformer 1 Phase Variac / DIMMERSTAT Auxiliary DC Supply

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

+ 1

18

Ru

3PH DIMMERSTAT

O/P

(0-75V)

IMPEDANCE RELAY

Su

Tu

S1

S1

(0-2A)

1000 ohm,1.7A

R Y B N

O/P
N

23

## VIIIth SEM B.E.

THEORY : 1) Explain Unit and non unit protection with examples 2) Explain characteristics of different distances relay on R-X diagram 3) Explain static impedance relay with amplitude and phase comparator. 4) Advantages of static relay over electromechanical relay.

PROCEDURE : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Make the connections as shown in the circuit diagram. Keep the rheostat in the middle position. Switch on the supply to the phase shifter and also the DC supply. Now reduce the voltage of the autotransformer, note the voltages at which the relay operates. Change the position of phase shifter & repeat the steps 4,5,6. After taking no of readings change the value of current and repeat the above steps. Note down the pickup impedance value of the relay. Plot the operating and non-operating region of relay on R-X plane.

NOTE :The output voltage of phase shifter is set at 110V and the voltage output from the auto transformer is also 100 V maximum permissible value .

## OBSERVATION TABLE: For A=20, B=6, Ia= 01 Amp

Sr No.

Phase Angle( ) 1) 0 degree 2) 30 degree 3) 60 degree 4) 90 degree 5) 120 degree 6) 150 degree 7) : 8) : 9) 360 degree 10) 0 degree

Voltage ( V)

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

Same table for A =40, B= 8, Ia =0.5 Amp Sr. / No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 I (Amp) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Voltage (V) volts

RESULT :the circle. The relay operates for any value of the radius less than the radius of circle, hence the operating region of the relay inside the

Viva Questions: 1 2 3 4 Torque equation of Reactance and mho relay with their characteristics. Effect of arc resistance in distance relay Selection of distance relay. Effect of power swing in distance relay

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

EXPERIMENT NO : 10
AIM :- TO STUDY TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION APPARATUS :1) Static Differential Relay (Model No. ACDF 31 HA) 2) 1 Ph Dimmerstat 230V, 10 A 3) 2 CT (10/ 5A and 20/5A) 4) Ammeter AC (0- 15 A) 3 No. 5) Ammeter AC (0- 5 A) 2 No. 6) Rheostat (38 ohm, 8.5 A) 7) Loading Rheostat 8) Multimeter 9) 1 ph Transformer 230/115 V, 50 Hz, 1 KVA 10) Connecting wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :
(0-15A) 38ohm, 8.5A

A
(0-15A)

(0-20A)

A
1PH 230 50 HZ A.C. SUPP LY

M L (0-5A)

A A
L O A D

(0-5A)

27 8

28

+15

- 16

110V DC

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

2. 1ph and 3 ph Transformer differential protection scheme 3. Difference between Transformer and generator Differential protection. PROCEDURE: 1) Make circuit connection as shown in ckt. Diagram. 2) Open the parallel path of secondary transformer containg rheostat with ammeter. Transformer is connected now at full load condition. 3) With the help of dimmerstat, give some supply voltage to primary side of transformer and observe its current. Make sure secondary current is varying in proportion to turn ratio. And current through secondary side of two CTs are zero. 4) Now connect the parallel path of secondary transformer by touching wire to the secondary terminal of transformer and observe the current through secondary side of two CTs. There is a difference of two CTs currents and at this condition differential relay will trip. 5) Note down values of these currents through secondary side of two CTs 6) Plot the characteristics between summation and difference of these two currents. OBSERVATION Sr. No. 1 2 . 5 RESULT- Transformer differential relay is studied. The characteristics between restraining and operating torque are straight line. Viva question: 1 2 3 4 5 Why ratio of two Cts is different? Circuit connection of 3 phase Y transformer Explain biased differential relay Types of fault occur in transformer No. of CTs require and their connection for protection of 3 phase transformer Secondary current of CT= i1(A) Secondary current of CT= i2(A) Restraining Torque= (i1(A) + i2(A))/2 Operating Torque= i1(A) - i2(A)

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

EXPERIMENT NO : 11
AIMAPPARATUSTo study unrestricted earth fault relays. 1) Static IDMT earth fault relays ( Model No. APR 41 ) 2) Rheostat ( 100 ohm, 5 A).3 Nos. 3) Ammeter AC ( 0- 5A).3 Nos. 4) Ammeter AC ( 0- 1A) 5) Experimental kit 6) Aux. DC supply- 110 V DC 7) Timer 8) 3 ph Dimmerstat 9) Connecting wires

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
R 3 - PH AC 3 P H D I M M E R S T A T

## (0-5A) A 100ohm,5A (0-5A) A 100ohm,5A (0-5A) A 100ohm,5A

Y
SUPPLY 440V, 50 HZ

I/P

O/P ON
OFF

3
STOP

T I M E R

START

110V DC 11

1 ph supply

12

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## VIIIth SEM B.E.

THEORYconnection

1) Unrestricted and restricted earth fault relays with ckt 2) Their application.

PROCEDURE-

1) Connect the circuit as shown in figure. 2) Set current and time setting of relays as per requirement 2) Give 3 ph. Supply to stat connected rheostat (load) 3) balance the load by making all three phase currents equal in magnitude. 4) Create a fault by short circuiting some of the winding of a single phase load. 5) Note down fault current and take corresponding time for tripping relay by resetting relay and timer by switching off without disturbing dimmerstat position. 6) Repeat same procedure with different fault current and plot characteristics between PSM and operating time OBSERVATION TABLE: Relay current Setting TMS -

Sr. No.

## Timer time( Sec)

RESULT: The unrestricted earth fault relay is studied Viva question: 1 2 3 Application of earth fault relay. Importance of high impedance connected between neutral to ground Difference between setting of earth fault and phase fault relays

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