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Service Training

Self-study Programme 427

The BiFuel LPG Drive Design and Function

For the first time, Volkswagen is offering the Golf 2009 with the 1.6l 75kW MPI engine and LPG drive straight from the factory. LPG is also known as liquid gas or autogas. LPG stands for Liquefied Petroleum Gas. All components that are required for gas operation are fitted on the production line at Volkswagen. LPG has been in use for decades and is currently the most popular alternative fuel across the world. It is made from a mixture of propane, butane and additives. It burns cleanly and is thus among the latest of energy fuels. In many cities, more and more vehicles are being run on LPG due to rising environmental awareness.

Compared with other fuels, LPG produces considerably fewer exhaust emissions. The same applies to carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), which are associated with climate change. On the whole, the exhaust emissions caused by LPG vehicles are among the lowest that can currently be achieved with combustion engines. LPG fuel is virtually sulphur-free and its combustion produces almost no soot. Hazardous substances like carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxide (NOX) and other health- and environment-harming exhaust gas components are considerably less.

S423_889

The self-study programme portrays the design and function of new developments. The contents will not be updated.

For current testing, adjustment and repair instructions, refer to the relevant service literature.

Important Note

Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

LPG Drive Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

LPG System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

System Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Engine Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Functional Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52

Test Yourself . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Introduction
The raw material LPG
LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) is a liquid gas that is used to power combustion engines. It is just as suitable for use as a vehicle fuel like petrol, diesel and natural gas. LPG is a waste product from natural gas and crude oil refining. It is characterised by a high degree of purity. This prevents aging so LPG can practically be stored indefinitely. The gas is liquefied under a relatively low excess pressure of approx. 6-10bar and stored in various types of compressed gas container. In this way, it is possible to transport and store large quantities of fuel in a small space. LPG can be used in any location. Compared with petrol, LPG has a very high anti-knock index and, depending on the mixture ratio of propane and butane has an octane number of approx. 105 to 115 RON. The quality requirements for LPG have been standardised across Europe in DIN EN 589 so one will have no problems when driving abroad.

Main components
In principle, LPG is a mixture of hydrocarbons. It is mainly made from a mixture of propane and butane. LPG also contains an odorant. This is added as a precaution since pure LPG is odourless and colourless. Propane is lighter and liquifies at lower temperatures than butane. Butane, however, has a higher energy proportion per volume unit. The mixing ratio is, dependent on the market, in summer 50:50 (in percentage propane/butane) and in winter 85:15. Deviations from the mixing ratio are possible depending on the supplier. Since propane delivers less energy than butane, the consumption of LPG is slightly higher in winter.

Properties of the main components


Propane C3H8 Butane C4H10

S427_010

S427_008

Formula: CH3-CH2-CH3 Boiling point: -42.1 C Ignition temperature: 470C (petrol 240C) Properties: - Colourless and odourless gas - Heavier than air - Extremely flammable gas Use as: - Combustion gas for heating and lighting purposes - Propellant in sprays - Balloon gas - Refrigerant in industry Production: Waste product from crude oil refining
H = hydrogen, C = carbon

Formula: CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 Boiling point: -0.5C Ignition temperature: 365C (petrol 240C) Properties: - Colourless and odourless gas - Heavier than air - Extremely flammable gas Use as: - Combustion gas in laboratories and households - Low-temperature solvent and extraction agent - Propellant in sprays - Refrigerant in fridges (not for freezing) Production: Waste product from crude oil refining

The following names for LPG are common across Europe: Autogas GPL GLP GLP = Germany = France Gas de ptrole liqufie, also called GPL-C (GPL-carburant) = Italy Gas Liquido Propano = Spain Gases Licuados del Petrleo (GPL Automocin)

Introduction
Advantages of LPG
Compared with conventional fuels and other alternative drive energy sources, LPG has an excellent environmental balance as a fuel. Only hydrogen and natural gas achieve comparable results.

Customer advantages

Technology and quality advantages

After sales services from Volkswagen Full warranty for whole vehicle Reduction in fuel costs Trouble-free installation in vehicles with petrol engines Constantly growing network of filling stations, standardised fuel quality across Europe in accordance with DIN EN 589 High ranges Very low hazardous emissions Tax subsidy in Germany until 2018 Easy switch-over from gas to petrol (even while driving) Robust engine Filling connection behind standard filler flap and not integrated in bumper Customer has added value when they sell the car

Mature technology Special LPG tank Complete LPG system crash-tested Optimised exhaust gas and performance thanks to adapted software Intake manifold with integrated mount for gas fuel rail and gas injection valves LPG wiring harness with VW connectors

Economic aspects
LPG has a higher consumption rate amounting to approx. 30 percent more when compared with premium petrol. This is, however, balanced out by the cheaper cost. The consumption per 100 kilometres is thus approx. 7.1 litres with petrol and 9.2 litres with LPG. A simple example shows whether an LPG vehicle is worthwhile.

Example calculation
Annual kilometres driven Period Average journey distance Cost of conversion Petrol price per litre Petrol consumption per 100km LPG price per litre Autogas consumption per 100km Starting petrol per journey 26000km 5 years

Cost development
Euros 12,000

9,000

24km 2500 euro 1.26 euro 7.10 litres 0.54 euro 9.20 litres 0.10 euro
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Years 3,000 6,000

S427_148 LPG Petrol

Evaluation
Annual savings compared with petrol Depreciation distance Depreciation period 365.02 euro 75,143km 2.89 years

All figures given here are only examples and are dependent on the respective market.

Introduction
LPG in comparison
Whenever you want to hit the accelerator in your car, you can do so with petrol, LPG or also natural gas (abbreviation CNG = Compressed Natural Gas). Both LPG and natural gas are sold with the claim that they are a low-pollutant alternative to conventional fuels and drive technologies for cleaner road traffic.

Feature

LPG

Petrol

Composition

LPG is made up of propane, butane and an odorant.

Petrol is a complex mixture of over 100 different, mainly light hydrocarbons.

Production

LPG is a by-product of crude oil refining (cracking).

Petrol is produced in crude oil refining.

Filling stations

LPG filling stations are easy to set up. The LPG tanks are above-ground at the filling station.

Petrol tanks at filling stations need to be built below ground at great expense.

Cost comparison

Fuel costs for LPG are lower than for petrol. It is supplied in litres.

Higher fuel prices for petrol and diesel in contrast to LPG.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions

The CO2 emissions from LPG vehicles are around 15% below those from petrol vehicles.

Octane number

105115 RON (depending on butane content)

91 RON for ordinary unleaded petrol 95 RON for premium unleaded petrol 98 RON for super unleaded petrol

Feature

LPG

Petrol

Life

LPG is a very pure fuel and thus has unlimited life.

Petrol has a limited life.

Boot volume

The LPG tank easily fits in the spare wheel well. As a result, you still have the full boot volume.

Range

The original petrol tank remains in the vehicle. This allows a range of approx. 1000km.

Standard/DIN

There is a European standard for LPG. DIN EN 589 regulates the quality of LPG.

The composition of petrol varies depending on the oil company.

Taxes

The German government has provided a tax concession on LPG until 2018.

Petrol is subject to fuel tax, ecotax and VAT.

Introduction
LPG vehicle population
The number of privately owned LPG vehicles is constantly growing. This increase shows the increasing acceptance of LPG vehicles among the population. In 2004, there were initially 15,000 vehicles running on LPG in Germany and just 500 public LPG stations were available to fill them up. Today, over 300,000 LPG-powered vehicles are on the road in Germany. By 2015, an estimated 1.5 million LPG vehicles will be registered in Germany. Over 5.5 million LPG vehicles are currently in use across the world.

Development of registered LPG vehicles in Germany

300000

250000

200000

150000

100000

65,000

50000

15,000

125,000

200,000

300,000

1,500,000

S427_074 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2015

10

Service station network


The LPG filling station network in Germany has grown constantly over recent years to more than 4,900 public refuelling sites. Further LPG filling stations are planned. Therefore in Germany too as is already the case in other European countries an alternative gas fuel is available in a dense network. In most European countries (in particular in the Netherlands, France, Italy and Poland), a dense network of LPG filling stations has been set up.

LPG filling station network in Europe as of May 2009 Belgium Bosnia-Herzegovina Denmark Germany Estonia France Greece United Kingdom Ireland Italy Croatia Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Austria Poland Portugal Rumania Sweden Switzerland Slovenia S427_066 Slovakia Spain S427_064 Czech Republic Hungary 529 9 16 4974 10 1321 22 563 98 1981 116 4 40 6 1122 66 14 7000 94 34 15 21 14 8 34 95 256

Serbia and Montenegro15

11

LPG Drive Components


Overview of components
All components that are required for gas operation are fitted on the production line. Normal petrol operation remains available as usual. The LPG system consists of: the gas filler neck, the LPG tank the selection button with the gas supply gauge and the fuel selection switch the vaporiser the gas filter and the gas fuel rail with gas injection valves and the gas rail sensor.

Gas filler neck

LPG tank with gas gauge sender G707, pressure relief valve, gas tank valve N495 and automatic fill limiter

Selection button with gas gauge G706 and petrol or gas fuel selection switch E395

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Effects upon failure If one or more components or parts in the LPG system fail, the system switches back to petrol operation. If a fault is reported again upon restarting, the system switches to petrol mode and you should visit a specialist workshop.

Gas mode control unit J659

Vaporiser with high pressure valve for gas mode N372

Gas filter S427_220

Gas fuel rail with gas injection valves N366-N369 and gas rail sensor G401

13

LPG Drive Components


1.6l 75kW engine with 2-valve technology
The basic engine is based on the FlexFuel (E85) engine with engine code CCSA, which, in turn, is based on the technology from the 1.6l 75kW BSE engine. Both engines were used for the first time in the Golf 2004. No mechanical modifications are required to the CCSA petrol engine for operation with LPG. Normal petrol operation is still possible as usual and you can switch to LPG with the selection button in the centre console. The engine reaches an output of 72kW in gas mode.

Technical features

2-valve roller rocker finger Aluminium engine block with ribbed sump Secondary air system Plastic variable intake manifold Modified applications in engine control unit, adapted to gas operation - Gearbox code JHT as with BSE engine - The valve train, pistons and piston rings from the CCSA FlexFuel engine have been used

S427_149

This engine must not be run on ethanol (E85).

14

Technical data
Engine code Type Displacement Bore Stroke Valves per cylinder Compression ratio Maximum power Maximum torque Engine management Fuel CHGA 4-cylinder in-line engine 1595cm3 81mm 77.4mm 2 75kW at 5600 rpm petrol 72KW at 5600 rpm LPG 148Nm at 3800 rpm petrol 144Nm at 3800 rpm LPG Simos 7PP Premium unleaded RON 95 (normal unleaded RON 91 with reduction in performance) LPG Main catalytic converter with Lambda control EU4 10.3:1

Torque and power graphs compared


200 180 160 140 Torque [Nm] 120 100 80 60 40 20 1000 3000 5000 Engine speed [rpm] 100 90 80 70 Power [kW] 60 50 40 30 20 10 7000 S427_152

Exhaust gas treatment Emissions standard

Petrol power Gas power Petrol torque Gas torque

15

LPG Drive Components


Gas filler neck
The gas filler neck is next to the petrol filler neck behind the tank filler flap and is connected to the LPG tank via an LPG pipe.

S427_134

The gas filler neck has a check valve. This allows the liquid gas to flow in one direction and stops the liquid gas flowing in the opposite direction. The check valve opens when the tank is filled under pressure.

S427_156

Pressure relief valve, check valve

Gas filler neck

Cap

An adapter can be screwed onto the gas filler neck for the different systems used in other countries. The gas nozzle fits onto the adapter when you refuel.

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Filler neck adapter


Three different connection systems are currently in use across Europe for filling LPG vehicles. These are the ACME connector, the Dish connector and the Bayonet connector. Depending on the country, you will need the right adapter to use the LPG pumps.

ACME connector

Dish connector

Bayonet connector

S427_072 Belgium Germany England Ireland Luxembourg Poland Scotland Switzerland Denmark France Greece Hungary Italy Austria Portugal

S427_070 Netherlands

S427_068

17

LPG Drive Components


Refuelling procedure
A closed system is used for refuelling. Refuelling is just as simple and takes the same time as petrol. The quantity of LPG filled is measured in litres and displayed on the delivery pump like petrol. The maximum filling capacity of the LPG tank is just 80%, so the gas has sufficient volume to expand in summer.

After opening the fuel filler flap, you unscrew the cap from the gas filler neck and screw on the adapter.

S427_242

Take nozzle

S427_244

Screw nozzle to adapter and pull trigger to lock in place.

S427_246

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Press start button and hold down until the tank has been filled.

S427_248

LPG escapes when you release the filler hose. Keep hands away from the escape holes. There is a risk of frostbite should gas come into contact with skin.

S427_240

Unscrew nozzle and adapter from gas filler neck and screw cap onto gas filler neck.

S427_250

19

LPG Drive Components


LPG pipes
The liquid gas flows through the LPG pipes from the gas filler neck to the tank and from there to the engine. The LPG system is divided into a high-pressure area and a low-pressure area. The LPG pipes are made from copper piping with a PVC sleeve in the high-pressure area and from special plastic hoses in the low-pressure area. The following LPG pipes are fitted:

1. From gas filler neck to tank (high-pressure area) 2. From tank to vaporiser (high-pressure area) 3. From vaporiser to gas fuel rail (low-pressure area) 4. From gas fuel rail to injection valves (low-pressure area)

Made from copper piping with a PVC sleeve Pressure from 8-10bar liquid LPG Made from copper piping with a PVC sleeve Pressure from 8-10bar liquid LPG Made from special plastic hosing Pressure from 0.1-2bar gaseous LPG Made from special plastic hosing Pressure from 0.1-2bar gaseous LPG

All damaged pipes must be replaced during a repair or after an accident.

20

LPG tank
The LPG tank is fitted in the spare wheel well. It is made from 3.5mm thick steel. The LPG tank with crash-optimised mounts and a swirl pot comes with a pressure relief valve, an automatic fill limiter, a gas gauge sender G707 and a gas tank valve N495. The LPG tank has a capacity of 49 litres. The automatic fill limiter stops the refuelling process when there is 80% LPG in the tank. The filling level is temperature-related and can fluctuate. At an outside temperature of 15C, the LPG tank holds 39 litres.

S427_150

LPG tank

Pressure relief valve

Automatic fill limiter Gas gauge sender G707 Pressure relief valve S427_144

S427_234 Gas tank valve N495 Gas gauge sender G707 Swirl pot Gas tank valve N495 Automatic fill limiter

21

LPG Drive Components


Crash-optimised mounts
In collisions, the mounts will not break off, but instead they will deform to absorb the crash energy. The mounts have pre-defined deformation points for this purpose.

S427_138

Mount

Cover for tank valve pot

Swirl pot
Supply line from gas filler neck

There is a swirl pot in the tank. It guarantees a constant supply of gas in all driving situations, e.g. hill start, hill descents and cornering.
Tank valve pot

Supply line to vaporiser

The swirl pot is round and has an opening on top for the pick-up pipe. Furthermore the swirl pot has holes at the bottom and side to allow the liquid gas to get inside the pot. The snorkel leads to the pressure relief valve in the valve pot.
Snorkel Swirl pot

S427_136

Pick-up pipe for gas tank valve

Holes

22

Gas tank valve N495


The gas tank valve N495 is fitted in the valve pot and is used to interrupt the gas supply. It is a solenoid valve and is opened by the gas mode control unit J659 during LPG operation. The valve closes automatically and liquid gas no longer flows to the vaporiser when you switch over to petrol mode, turn off the engine, are involved in an accident (crash recognition) or when the voltage supply fails.
S427_192

How it works:
Unpowered
Spring

The valve is pressed into the valve seat by the spring force and thus closes the access to the vaporiser.

Coil

Plunger Valve

To vaporiser S427_076 From tank

Powered
Spring

Coil

Plunger Valve To vaporiser S427_078 From tank

The gas mode control unit powers the gas tank valve in LPG mode. The magnetic field of the coil pulls the plunger upwards against the spring force. The access to the vaporiser is now open. If LPG mode is ended, the gas mode control unit immediately shuts off the gas tank valve. The valve is pushed down again by the spring force and the access to the vaporiser is closed.

23

LPG Drive Components


Automatic fill limiter
The automatic fill limiter is in the valve pot of the LPG tank. It is used to stop the refuelling process. Refuelling is stopped when the filling level of the tank reaches 80%. The automatic fill limiter is operated mechanically by a float.

Refuelling

Filling limit

Filling pressure Upper plunger Inlet channel Spring Lower plunger Outlet openings Spring

Lower valve chamber Shut-off valve S427_218 Cam disk Float S427_216

The filling pressure presses the upper and lower plungers downwards. The upper plunger works as a check valve. The lower plunger opens the outlet holes through which liquid gas flows into the tank. Furthermore the lower plunger has a small hole in the centre through which the liquid gas reaches the tank via the open shut-off valve. When the shut-off valve is open, pressure cannot be built up in the lower valve chamber. Depending on the filling level, the cam disk is turned by a float during the filling procedure. The cam disk operates the shut-off valve.

In the float position corresponding with an 80% filling level, the shut-off valve slips into the cam disk recess and closes the shut-off valve. The liquid gas now builds up pressure in the lower valve chamber. This pressure together with the spring force causes the lower plunger to move upwards. The side outlet holes are then closed. The counter-pressure builds up to the filling pressure, the filling pump switches off and the upper plunger closes the inlet channel due to the spring force.

24

Pressure relief valve


The pressure relief valve is fitted in the LPG tank and is located in the valve pot. It prevents the natural gas tank bursting if the pressure rises excessively, for example, because of high temperatures. As soon as the pressure in the tank reaches 27.5bar, the pressure relief valve opens mechanically. The LPG first reaches the valve pot and is vented away from the passenger compartment via breather hoses made from plastic.

S427_228 Breather hoses Pressure relief valve

Pressure relief valve closed

Pressure relief valve open

Dust cap Outlet aperture Valve spring

Escaping LPG

Valve disk

S427_212

Pressure in tank

S427_210

Pressure in tank greater than 27.5bar

The valve disk is pressed downwards by the force of the valve spring. The valve is closed. The outlet hole is closed by a red dust cap.

If the pressure in the LPG tank is greater than the force of the valve spring, the pressure relief valve opens due to the valve disk being pushed upwards. The red dust cap is pressed out and the LPG flows into the valve pot. It is vented to atmosphere via breather hoses.

25

LPG Drive Components


Gas gauge sender G707
The gas gauge sender G707 is in the tank. The liquid level in the tank is shown 1. on a gauge on the tank valve pot and 2. on the fuel gauge (gas gauge G706) integrated in the selection button on the centre console.

1. Display of filling level in valve pot

Electrical connection to gas mode control unit

Needle

Float

Top of housing Gear mechanism

Gauge

S427_236

The float for the gas gauge sender G707 moves in the LPG tank depending on the filling level. This movement is converted into a rotary movement by the gears in the gear mechanism. This also turns the ring magnet in the top of the housing. There is also a ring magnet in the gauge. Depending on the filling level, the two ring magnets have a defined position in relation to each other and create a magnetic field together. This magnetic field influences the position of the needle in the gauge from which you can then read the filling level. The filling level is only shown on the valve pot for safety reasons.

26

2. Display of filling level in selection button

S427_290

Gas gauge sender G707

Gas mode control unit J659

Gas gauge G706

The driver can read the filling level from the gas gauge G706 integrated in the selection button, which is located on the centre console in the passenger compartment. The gas gauge sender G707 in the tank needs to communicate with the gas mode control unit J659 for this purpose. The gas gauge sender is powered by the gas mode control unit. The magnetic field formed by the two ring magnets then influences the electrical resistance of the conductor. Changing the electrical resistance by applying an external magnetic field is known as a magnetoresistive effect. Different resistances of 0-90 ohm are possible depending on the filling level in the tank. The voltage signal, which is sent by the sender to the gas mode control unit and from there to the gas gauge in the selection button, is thus a measurement for the filling level in the LPG tank.

27

LPG Drive Components


Vaporiser
The LPG is converted from liquid to gaseous state in the vaporiser. The vaporiser also has the task of reducing the pressure of the LPG from approx. 10bar to 1bar above the pressure present in the intake manifold. The LPG is expanded in the vaporiser in two stages. The two-stage pressure reduction allows pressure fluctuations to be better compensated for.

S427_222

Technical features 1st stage


2nd stage
from 1.6bar to 1.0bar above intake manifold pressure Inlet from tank Outlet to gas filter

Two-stage pressure reduction High-pressure valve for gas mode with external connection and integrated filter element Internal coolant circuit for avoiding formation of moisture and icing

from 3-10bar to 1.6bar

High-pressure valve for gas mode N372

Technical data
Type Working pressure Max. working pressure Weight Operating nominal throughput Working temperature Two-stage vaporiser with diaphragm 0.95bar to 1.10bar 3.5bar 1450g 40kg/h Coolant, inlet From -20C to 120C

S427_254

Vacuum connection intake manifold Coolant, outlet

There is an inspection plug on the vaporiser. After 60,000km, this screw needs to be removed to check the vaporiser for impurities. If impurities are found, the filter in the high-pressure valve will need to be replaced. Please refer to the information in ELSA and the maintenance table.

28

Design
Each stage of the vaporiser consists of an internal chamber, an external chamber and a control chamber containing LPG. The LPG passes from the 1st stage to the 2nd stage via the overflow channel. Also each stage has a valve with a flap and a plunger. The plunger is bolted to the diaphragm. There is a spring in each spring chamber. Atmospheric pressure is present in the spring chamber of the 1st stage. Intake manifold pressure is present in the spring chamber of the 2nd stage. There is a rubber seal between the 1st and 2nd stage that separates the cooling circuit from the LPG.

1st stage
Overflow channel Supply line from highpressure valve for gas mode Diaphragm Flap Inner chamber Plunger Spring

2nd stage

Outlet to gas filter Diaphragm Inner chamber Flap Plunger Spring

Spring chamber

Spring chamber Control chamber

Control chamber

Outer chamber

Vacuum connection intake manifold Outer chamber

Coolant, inlet

Rubber seal

Coolant, outlet

S427_252

29

LPG Drive Components


Function
In gas mode, the LPG travels to the vaporiser. To illustrate the processes in the separate stages of the vaporiser, the cross-section of the vaporiser has been greatly simplified.

1st stage The liquid LPG passes through the high-pressure valve for gas mode with a maximum pressure of 10bar to the inner chamber of the 1st stage. The valve flap is open. The liquid LPG passes through the outer chamber to the control chamber of the 1st stage. In this way, the liquid LPG expands and becomes gaseous. The diaphragm of the 1st stage is influenced by the preset spring on the spring chamber side and by the atmospheric pressure present in the spring chamber.
Supply line from highpressure valve for gas mode Spring chamber Diaphragm Flap Spring Control chamber Inner chamber Outer chamber S427_270

If the gas pressure in the control chamber rises above 1.6bar, the spring will be compressed by the diaphragm. The plunger bolted to the diaphragm operates the flap and the valve closes the supply line from the high-pressure valve for gas mode. No more liquid gas can flow through. The LPG can continue to expand and flow into the inner chamber of the 2nd stage via the overflow channel.

Overflow channel

Flap (closed)

Plunger

S427_272

If, as a result, the pressure acting on the diaphragm in the control chamber again falls below 1.6bar, the spring will push the flap open with the plunger and more LPG can flow in. In this way, the pressure of the LPG is reduced from a maximum 10bar to 1.6bar.
Flap (open) Spring

S427_274

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2nd stage:
Overflow channel Spring chamber Diaphragm Flap Spring Vacuum connection intake manifold Control chamber Inner chamber S427_276 Outer chamber Outlet

In the 2nd stage, the pressure of the LPG, which is already in gaseous form, is relieved and reduced to 1bar above the intake manifold pressure. The LPG passes from the outer chamber of the 1st stage via the overflow channel to the inner chamber of the 2nd stage. The flap of the 2nd stage valve is open during this process. When the gas expands, it passes via the outer chamber to the 2nd stage control chamber. The diaphragm of the 2nd stage is influenced by the preset spring on the spring chamber side and by the intake manifold pressure present in the spring chamber. If the gas pressure acting on the diaphragm in the control chamber rises 1bar above the intake manifold pressure, the spring will be pressed together by the diaphragm. The plunger bolted to the diaphragm operates the flap, and the valve closes the overflow channel. No more LPG can flow through. The LPG can continue to expand and pass through the outlet to the filter and to the gas injection valves.

Flap (closed)

Plunger

S427_278

If, as a result, the pressure acting on the diaphragm in the control chamber falls again to 1bar above the intake manifold pressure, the spring will push the flap open via the plunger and more LPG can flow in.

Flap (open) Spring

S427_280

31

LPG Drive Components


Coolant circuit
Design The coolant circuit is inside the vaporiser. The vaporiser is shown folded open in the middle to illustrate the design. The coolant circuit is connected to the engine coolant system via the two coolant connections. It is split into the 1st and 2nd stage in the vaporiser by the rubber seal. The LPG passes from the 1st stage to the 2nd stage via the two overflow channels.

S427_262

Overflow channel LPG from the 1st to 2nd stage 1st stage Rubber seal

2nd stage

S427_264 Coolant overflow channels Coolant, inlet Coolant, outlet

Function When the LPG pressure is reduced from 10bar to 1bar above intake manifold pressure, the liquid LPG expands and changes state from liquid to gas. The LPG draws thermal energy from its surroundings so the gas and its surroundings cool down. A refrigerating effect results, which could lead to icing of the vaporiser. The vaporiser is connected to the engine coolant system in front of the heat exchanger via the coolant connections. In this way, the hot coolant passes through the vaporiser. This stops the vaporiser icing.

32

High-pressure valve for gas mode N372


The high pressure valve for gas mode N372 is mounted on the vaporiser and is used to interrupt the gas supply to the vaporiser. A filter is integrated into the high-pressure valve. It is used to filter out any impurities in the liquid LPG in order to protect the sensitive components of the vaporiser. This safety valve works in the same way as the gas tank valve N495. The high pressure valve for gas mode N372 is a solenoid valve and is opened by the gas mode control unit J659 while the vehicle is running on LPG. The valve closes automatically and liquid gas no longer flows to the vaporiser when you switch to petrol mode, turn off the engine, are involved in an accident (crash recognition) or when the voltage supply fails.

Not activated
Valve seat Spring Coil

Activated
Valve seat Spring Coil

To vaporiser

To vaporiser

Filter From tank

Plunger S427_232

Filter From tank

Plunger S427_230

The valve is pressed into the valve seat by the spring force and thus closes the access to the vaporiser.

If all system requirements are met for LPG operation, the gas mode control unit operates the high-pressure valve for gas mode. The magnetic field of the coil pulls the plunger against the spring force. The access to the vaporiser is opened. If LPG mode is ended, the gas mode control unit immediately shuts off the high-pressure valve for gas mode. The access to the vaporiser is closed automatically by the spring force.

The filter in the high-pressure valve needs to be replaced after 90,000km.

33

LPG Drive Components


Gas filter
The gas filter is between the vaporiser and the gas fuel rail. It is used to protect the gas injection valves and filters fine particles out of the gas.

S427_224

Filter element

Gas outlet, to gas fuel rail

Gas inlet, from vaporiser

S427_132

The gas filter needs to be replaced every 30,000km. When fitting the gas filter, make sure that the flow direction arrow corresponds with the flow direction of the gas.

34

Gas fuel rail


The gas fuel rail is mounted on the engine intake manifold. Four electrically controlled gas injection valves and a gas rail sensor G401, which measures the pressure and temperature of the LPG, are integrated in the gas fuel rail. The LPG coming from the gas filter flows into the gas fuel rail. The carefully metered gas leaves the gas injection valves through the opening and passes through a plastic pipe to the intake manifold. The gas injection valves are controlled by the gas mode control unit.
S427_226 Gas rail sensor G401

Gas injection valves N366-N369

When the gas injection valves are working in gas mode, you will hear clacking noises. In order to counteract the greater noise in gas mode, an insulating mat is fitted under the bonnet.

S427_214 Gas fuel rail

Gas outlet, hoses to intake manifold

Gas inlet

Electrical connection

Gas injection valve

Gas inlet

Connection for pressure and temperature sensor

S427_172 Gas fuel rail

Gas outlet, hoses to intake manifold

35

LPG Drive Components


Gas injection valves N366-N369
Four gas injection valves N366 - N369 are fitted on the gas fuel rail.
Electrical connection

Technical features

Simple, robust solenoid valve Uses relatively large coils to prevent clogging with LPG Simple fitting Long life (approx. 290 million cycles)

Gas inlet

Technical data
Reaction time: Working temperature Max. working pressure 1.7ms 0.2 - 40C to 120C 3bar Gas outlet S427_142

Current [A]

The gas injection valves are controlled by the gas mode control unit J659 in LPG mode with a pulsewidth modulated signal.

Actuation

Time [ms] S427_080

Before switching automatically from petrol to LPG operation, the function of the gas injection valves is checked once each time the engine is started. This means the gas injection valves are triggered by the control unit and opened briefly. This is a safety measure to clear residue from the gas injection valves and prevent clogging.

36

Function
In LPG mode, the gas injection valves deliver the gaseous LPG into the intake manifold of each cylinder.

Not activated The gas injection valve is not powered. The pressure spring presses the plunger with armature and sealing lip downwards thus closing the gas outlet to the intake manifold. LPG flows into the lower chamber via the gas inlet and into the upper chamber of the gas injection valve via holes in the armature. As a result, the same gas pressure acts on the armature in the upper and lower chamber. This prevents the armature with sealing lip being pressed upwards against the spring force by the pressure in the lower chamber and the gas injection valve opening the gas outlet.

Pressure spring

Plunger Upper chamber Gas inlet

Solenoid

Armature

Lower chamber Gas outlet

Sealing lip S427_258

Activated The gas injection valves are electronically controlled by the gas mode control unit. The electrical connection and the solenoid are located in the valve housing. The solenoid generates a magnetic field when it is powered. The armature with sealing lip is pulled against the force of the pressure spring. The LPG from the upper chamber flows via the holes in the armature back into the lower chamber. The gas injection valve opens the gas outlet. The LPG passes through the intake manifold into the combustion chamber.

Pressure spring

Plunger

Solenoid

Armature Gas inlet

Lower chamber

Sealing lip

S427_260 Gas outlet

37

LPG Drive Components


Gas fuel rail sensor G401
The gas rail sensor G401 is fitted in the gas fuel rail. It is used to measure the pressure and temperature of the LPG. The gas temperature and the gas pressure are used to calculate and control the opening times of the gas injection valves. The gas pressure signal also determines when it is necessary to switch back to petrol mode. Possible reasons for this are: An empty LPG tank A pressure drop in the gas system A clogged gas filter

S427_130

38

Display in dash panel insert


The display of the average fuel consumption in the dash panel insert has been adapted to gas mode. This means there can be discrepancies between the range reading and the fuel gauge in petrol mode.

Fuel gauge S427_169

S427_170

39

LPG Drive Components


Gas gauge G706 and petrol or gas fuel selection switch E395
The gas gauge G706 and the petrol or gas fuel selection switch E395 are integrated in a selection button. It is located in the centre console and controls the following functions:

Petrol/gas fuel selection Checking gas level in the tank (fuel gauge) Indication of malfunctions (flashing/acoustic signal)
Selection button with gas gauge G706 and petrol or gas fuel selection switch E395 S427_140

Fuel selection
You can switch over from petrol to gas (or vice versa) with the petrol or gas fuel selection switch E395. The fuel being used is indicated by the blue ON LED for gas mode or the orange OFF LED for petrol mode being constantly illuminated. If the ON LED flashes quickly, this indicates that the system is waiting to automatically switch over to gas mode during the starting phase (which is always with petrol). The system switches from petrol to LPG mode if the following conditions are met: Sufficient LPG in the tank Coolant temperature greater than 20C The accelerator pedal is pressed Engine speed in driving mode greater than 1200 rpm.
Gas filling level LEDs Selection button Petrol mode LED

S427_050 Gas mode LED

Gas gauge
The row of blue LEDs shows the level of gas in the tank. If the LPG level in the tank is very low, the red reserve LED will be illuminated.

40

LPG tank empty


If the LPG tank is empty, a slow continuous acoustic signal sounds. In addition, the orange OFF LED is illuminated and the blue ON LED flashes slowly. The system has already automatically switched over to petrol mode. To switch off the acoustic signal, the driver needs to press the selection button. Then only the orange LED for petrol mode will be illuminated. The LPG system is in petrol mode. Once the gas tank has been filled again, the driver needs to switch over to LPG mode first with the selection button.

Malfunctions
A malfunction can have two causes: 1. A temporary fault During a brief full-throttle manoeuvre (e.g. overtaking), the gas pressure is no longer sufficient due to the low filling level in the gas tank. 2. A fault in the LPG system (e.g. a faulty gas injection valve). In both cases, a system fault is recognised and an entry is made in the fault memory of the gas mode control unit. A fast, continuous acoustic signal sounds. In addition, the orange OFF LED is illuminated and the blue ON LED flashes quickly. The control unit automatically switches from gas mode to petrol mode. To switch off the acoustic signal, the driver needs to press the selection button. Then only the orange LED will be illuminated. The LPG system is in petrol mode.

Petrol mode only


You can switch between gas and petrol mode while driving by pressing the selection button. In this case, the orange LED will be constantly illuminated. Even after restarting, the engine stays in petrol mode until you press the selection button to switch to gas mode.

1. If there is a temporary fault, the system switches back to gas mode after you press the selection button and the switch-over conditions have been met. For example, this is when: - the engine is running in the lower partial load range or - the tank has been filled again. 2. If there is a fault in the LPG system due to a faulty component, it is not possible to switch over to LPG mode.

41

LPG System
Supply schematics

Vacuum hose to intake manifold

Coolant, outlet Coolant, inlet 8

7 6

1 5

Legend 1 2 3 4 5 6 Gas filler neck Adapter Tank Gas gauge sender G707 Pressure relief valve Automatic fill limiter 7 8 9 10 11 12 Gas tank valve N495 Vaporiser High-pressure valve for gas mode N372 Gas filter Gas fuel rail Gas rail sensor G401

42

13

13

13

13

12 11 10

16

15 14 S427_112

LPG pipe approx. 10bar 13 14 15 16 Gas injection valves (N366-N369) Gas mode control unit J659 Selection button with gas gauge G706 and petrol or gas fuel selection switch E395 Intake manifold LPG pipe approx. 1bar above intake manifold pressure Vacuum hose Coolant hose Sensor signal cable Actuator signal cable

43

LPG System
Safety concept
The safety concept of the LPG system guarantees risk-free operation. The whole natural gas system is installed so that it is protected against damage in the best possible way. All mounting points and materials are designed for maximum safety. The high safety standard has been confirmed by a series of crash tests. The following safety equipment and measures are provided:

1. Check valve in gas filler neck The check valve prevents the gas flowing back while you fill the tank up. 2. LPG tank The LPG tank is located in the spare wheel well and is thus protected against damage and the elements in the best possible way. It has crash-optimised mounts that do not break in crashes, but instead absorb the deformation. The tank is extremely robust and resistant to heat. The LPG tank made from 3.5mm thick steel meets the highest safety standards. Each individual tank is subjected to a meticulous check and is given a serial number by the manufacturer. All LPG tanks used go through six safety checks and are given a test certificate.
4 8 7

5 3

3. Automatic fill limiter in LPG tank The automatic fill stop when the tank is 80% full allows the LPG to expand as it becomes warm in the tank. Two integrated shut-off valves prevent the gas flowing back while you fill the tank up. 4. Pressure relief valve in LPG tank The pressure relief valve prevents the natural gas tank bursting if the pressure rises excessively, for example, because of high temperatures. Pipes to the outside stop gas getting inside the vehicle. As soon as the pressure in the tank rises above 27.5bar, it opens mechanically until the pressure in the tank reaches a normal level.

44

The odorants are added to the gas to support the high operating safety of LPG vehicles. This allows you to detect even the smallest leaks in the LPG system with your nose.

5. Gas tank valve N495 on LPG tank The gas tank valve N495 automatically shuts off the gas supply when the engine is not running, in petrol mode as well as in crashes. 6. High-pressure pipes All high-pressure pipes and connecting parts are made from copper and mainly run outside the passenger compartment. 7. High-pressure valve for gas mode N372 on vaporiser This solenoid valve automatically shuts off the gas supply when the engine is not running, in petrol mode as well as in crashes. 8. Low-pressure pipes Flexible gas pipes on the low-pressure side prevent damage caused by vibrations. 9. Gas injection valves The valves only open when they are operated by the gas mode control unit J659.
S427_238

45

System Overview
Sensors
G707 Gas gauge sender

E395 Petrol or gas fuel selection switch

G401 Gas rail sensor

G62 Coolant temperature sender

J659 Gas mode control unit

G28 Engine speed sender

G71

Intake manifold pressure sender

46

Actuators
N495 Gas tank valve

G706 Gas gauge

N372 High-pressure valve for gas mode

N366 Gas injection valve 1 N367 Gas injection valve 2 N368 Gas injection valve 3 N369 Gas injection valve 4

N30 N31 N32 N33


S427_190

Injector, cylinder 1 Injector, cylinder 2 Injector, cylinder 3 Injector, cylinder 4

47

Engine Management
Control units
In addition to the engine control unit J623, the gas mode control unit J659 is required to control the gas mode. There is a connector on the engine wiring harness running to the petrol injectors. The petrol injection signals are interrupted there and forwarded to the gas mode control unit. There the signal is used to calculate the gas injection times. To avoid a fault entry in the engine control unit, the engine control unit receives the expected petrol injector signals via resistors in the gas mode control unit.

Engine control unit J623

Gas mode control unit J659 Gas mode

Wires disconnected

Connector on wiring harness

Colour code/legend = earth = positive

S427_282 Petrol injector Gas injection valve

48

Gas mode control unit J659


A microprocessor in the gas mode control unit J659 takes over gas regulation to ensure low-emissions and the most efficient combustion in the engine.

Engine control unit J623

Gas mode control unit J659

Colour code/legend = input signal = output signal = earth

S427_176

= positive

Engine sensors: Coolant temperature sender Engine speed sender Intake manifold pressure sender

Gas sensors, actuators: Gas gauge sender Gas gauge G706 Petrol or gas fuel selection switch E395 Gas rail sensor Gas tank valve High-pressure valve for gas mode Gas injection valves

Engine control unit J623


The starting application in engine control unit J623 has been adapted to ensure safe restarting of the vehicle even after the vehicle has been parked in LPG mode.

49

Functional Diagram

Terminal 30 Terminal 15

J299

A G28 G185 G79

K G42 G71

V101 G476

J623

G61

G186

G187

G188

J338

G130

G39 G83

G40

S427_200 A E395 F G6 G28 G39 G40 G42 G61 G62 G71 G79 G83 G130 G185 G186 Battery Petrol or gas fuel selection switch Brake light switch Fuel system pressurisation pump Engine speed sender Lambda probe Hall sender Intake air temperature sender Knock sensor 1 Coolant temperature sender Intake manifold pressure sender Accelerator position sender Radiator outlet coolant temperature sender Lambda probe after catalytic converter Accelerator position sender 2 Throttle valve drive for electric throttle G187 G188 G401 G476 G706 G707 J17 J299 J329 J338 J519 J623 J659 Throttle valve drive angle sender 1 for electric throttle Throttle valve drive angle sender 2 for electric throttle Gas rail sensor Clutch position sender Gas gauge Gas gauge sender Fuel pump relay Secondary air pump relay Terminal 15 voltage supply relay Throttle valve module Onboard supply control unit Engine control unit Gas mode control unit

50

Terminal 30 Terminal 15

J329

J519

J17

N372

N495

G401

G6

N30

N31

N32

N33

J623

J659

K E395 G62 N366 N367 N368 N369 G706 G707

N30 N31 N32 N33 N366 N367 N368 N369 N372 N495 V101 K S 1 2

Injector, cylinder 1 Injector, cylinder 2 Injector, cylinder 3 Injector, cylinder 4 Gas injection valve 1 Gas injection valve 2 Gas injection valve 3 Gas injection valve 4 High-pressure valve for gas mode Gas tank valve Secondary air pump motor Diagnostic connection Fuse CAN data bus CAN data bus

Colour code/legend = input signal = output signal = positive = earth = powertrain CAN data bus

51

Service

A pressurised gas tank check is carried out after 10 years as part of the normal MOT. An appropriate test decides whether the LPG tank needs to be replaced. The gas filter needs to be replaced every 30,000km. The paper filter in the high-pressure valve for gas mode in the vaporiser needs to be replaced every 90,000km. The vaporiser needs to be checked for impurities every 60,000km. The inspection bolt on the vaporiser should be removed for this purpose. If impurities are found, the filter in the high-pressure valve will need to be replaced.

Please refer to the service information in ELSA! Perform a gas system test after any repair work is performed on the gas system (see Maintenance Manual; book 26.1.)

52

Special tools
Description
VAS 6227 Gas leak detector for natural gas vehicles

Tool

Application
For finding leaks in LPG system components

S427_119

BiFuel software

Diagnosis software for gas mode control unit to read and clear fault memory.

S427_284

USB diagnosis cable

For connecting gas mode control unit to the corresponding diagnosis device (VAS 5051B, notebook).

S427_286

53

Service
Parking in underground car parks (Germany)
LPG vehicles are allowed to park in underground car parks. The German garage regulations have taken the high level of safety technology used with LPG into account and allow LPG vehicles full access. All German states have now used this common building regulation as a basis for their local laws.

Safety in accidents
The risk of an uncontrollable LPG leak in an accident is extremely small because several safety features would have to fail at the same time. Crash and fire tests have shown that vehicles powered by LPG are no more dangerous than petrol vehicles. If a gas leak is discovered at the accident scene (e.g. there is a smell of gas), the following measures should be taken:

Switch off engine Switch off ignition Clear and cordon off the danger area Do not start the vehicle. If it has to be removed from an enclosed space, push it. Ventilate the vehicle interior (open doors, windows, bonnet and boot) Establish where the gas is concentrated, remember it will collect in areas close to the ground Ensure adequate ventilation, blow away LPG with fan Avoid ignition sources

If the vehicle should catch fire and the LPG tank also be exposed to heat, there is no risk of the tank exploding. At a pressure of approx. 27.5bar inside the tank, the pressure relief valve opens and the LPG is released in a controlled manner. The gas released from the safety valve ignites and burns off in a controlled manner.

If there is a smell of gas, you should not disconnect the battery in case sparks ignite the gas.

54

Test Yourself
Which answers are correct? One or several of the answers could be correct. 1. What is the decisive difference between natural gas and LPG? a) LPG is basically a propane and butane mixture. b) LPG is stored in the tank at 200bar. c) LPG and natural gas are made from what is known as camping gas.

2.

In which vehicles is Volkswagen using LPG? a) Polo model year 2009. b) Golf model year 2009. c) Passat EcoFuel.

3.

Autogas is another term for? a) CNG Compressed Natural Gas. b) LPG Liquefied Petroleum Gas. c) LPG Little Pressure Gas

4.

Using LPG has benefits for a) the engine b) the environment c) the vehicle owner

55

Test Yourself
5. What is the boiling point of propane? a) - 5 b) - 32 c) - 42

6.

Which statement is correct? a) The LPG tank is designed as an underfloor tank. b) The LPG tank replaces the petrol tank. c) The LPG tank is fitted in the spare wheel well.

7.

At what pressure is LPG stored in the tank? a) Between 20 and 25bar depending on the outside temperature. b) At up to 10bar. c) At the same pressure as natural gas vehicles

8.

At what coolant temperature does the engine switch to LPG? a) 30 b) 25 c) 20

56

9.

In the Golf BiFuel, the engine always starts a) with LPG. b) with a mixture of LPG and petrol. c) with petrol.

10. How is a fault in the gas system indicated? a) In the selection button, the orange LED flashes quickly, the blue LED is constantly illuminated and a fast intermittent acoustic signal sounds. b) In the selection button, the blue LED flashes quickly, the orange LED is constantly illuminated and a fast intermittent acoustic signal sounds. c) In the selection button, the orange LED flashes quickly, the blue LED is constantly illuminated and a constant acoustic signal sounds.

11.

After how many kilometres does the gas filter need to be replaced? a) After one year and 15,000km b) After 90,000km c) After 30,000km without time limit

Answers 1. a); 2. b); 3. b); 4. a), b), c); 5 c); 6 c); 7 b); 8 c); 9 c); 10 b); 11 c)

57

Notes

58

59

427

VOLKSWAGEN AG, Wolfsburg All rights and rights to make technical alterations reserved. 000.2812.21.20 Technical status 06.2009 Volkswagen AG After Sales Qualifizierung Service Training VSQ-1 Brieffach 1995 D-38436 Wolfsburg

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