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Alexandria University Faculty of Engineering 4thYear Production Eng. Dept.

2013

Provide an automatic railway gate at a Level crossing replacing the gates operated by the gatekeeper for :
Reduction of time for closing and opening the gate. Higher reliability as it is not subjected to manual errors. provide safety to the road users by reducing the accidents.

The place where track and highway/road intersects each other at the same level is known as level crossing.

An embedded system is : A microcontroller / microprocessor based system that is built to control the functions of equipment, machinery or plant.

Combination of hardware & software for specific application.


Hardware: processor, memories, peripherals, power supply etc.., Software: assembly language program (ALP) like c, c++ ..,

HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION:
Micro Controller Power supply Buzzer and light signals: to warn the road user Two IR (Infrared) sensors 12 V Dc Motor

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS Languages:


Assembly language program (ALP) like c, c++ ..,

The arrival of train is detected by the sensor placed on either side of the gate at about 5km from the level crossing. Once the arrival is sensed , the sensed signal is sent to the microcontroller. Subsequently, buzzer indication and light signals on either side are provided to the road users indicating the closure of gates.

The departure of the train is detected by sensors placed at about 1km from the gate.
The signal about the departure is sent to the microcontroller, which in turn operates the motor and opens the gate.

Type:
ATmega16 microcontroller
forms the brain of the entire system.
performs the complete operations of: Sensing Closing of the gate Opening of the gate operation done by software code written on the controller.

Software used: Code Vision AVR & C Free IDE

Ultrasonic
Sends out pulses of ultrasonic waves and measures the reflection off a moving object.

Microwave
Sensor sends out microwave pulses and measures the reflection off a moving object. Similar to a police radar gun.

infrared sensors

In our project we used :

Power supply

IR transmitter

IR receiver

This circuit has two stages:

IR TRANSMITTER
The transmitter unit consists of an infrared LED and its associated circuitry. The IR LED emitting infrared light is put on in the transmitting unit. Infrared LED is driven through transistor.

IR receiver
The receiver unit consists of a sensor and its associated
circuitry. In receiver section, the first part is a sensor, which

detects IR pulses transmitted by IR-LED.

Whenever a train crosses the sensor, the output of IR sensor momentarily transits through a low state.

As a result the monostable is triggered , a short pulse is applied to the port pin of the microcontroller.
On receiving a pulse from the sensor circuit, the controller activates the circuitry required for closing and opening of the gates and for track switching.

2013