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11/7/2011

Example 3: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell

Assumptions:

•long pipe

k = thermal conductivity of wall

What is the steady state temperature profile in a cylindrical

shell (pipe) if the inner wall is at

T 1 an d th e ou ter wall is a t T 2 ?

(T 1 >T 2 )

Cooler wall at T 2 R 1
r
R 2

Material of thermal conductivity k L (very long)

Hot wall at T 1

1

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Example 3: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell Solution:
q
r c
1
Not constant
A
r
c
1
T 
ln r c
2
k
Boundary conditions?

2

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

11/7/2011

Example 3: Heat flux in an annulus with temperature boundary conditions

Solutions:

T

T k

 

 q r  1 2  A ln R 2 r R 1 T 2  T  ln R 2 r T T 2 1 ln R 2 R 1

Pipe with temperature BCs The heat flux q /A DOES depend

r

on, k; also q r /A decreases as 1/r

Note that T(r) does not depend

on the thermal conductivity, k

3

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

DimensionlessTemperature Profile in a pipe; R 1 =1, R 2 =2 1
0.9
0.8
 T
T 2
0.7
0.6
 T
T 2
1
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.
1
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
r
R
2
Pipe with temperature BCs

4

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

11/7/2011

Example 4: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell

Assumptions:

•long pipe

d

• steady state •k = thermal conductivity of wall •h 1 , h 2 = heat transfer coefficients

What is the steady state temperature profile in a cylindrical

shell (pipe) if the fluid on the inside is at T b1 and the fluid on the outside is at T b2 ? (T b1 >T b2 )

Cooler fluid at T b2 R 1
r
R 2

Hot fluid at

T b1 © Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Example 4: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell Solution:
q
r c
1
Not constant
A
r
c
1
T 
ln r c
2
k
Boundary conditions?

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U. Example 4: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell
c
1
h
T
T
1
b
1
w
1
R
1
h
T
2
w
2
b
2
4
unknowns;
R
c
,
T
,
c
,
T
2
1
w
1
2
w
2
c
SOLVE
1
T

ln R
c
w 1
1
2
k
c
1

ln R
c
T w
2
2
k 2
© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U. c
1

T

4

equations

11/7/2011

Example 4: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell, Newton’s law of cooling boundary Conditions © Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

11/7/2011

Example 5: Heat Conduction with Generation

What is the steady state temperature profile in a wire if heat is generated uniformly throughout the wire at a rate of S e W/m 3 and the outer radius is held at T w ? R
r long wire

T w

S e = energy production per unit volume

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Example 5: Heat Conduction with Generation Shell Balance: choose control volume
r r
r+ r

contributions to energy transport:

•generation

T w

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

11/7/2011

Compare solutions 1.2
Conduction in pipe
1
Wire with generation
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Temperature ratio

r/R or r/R1 R 1 R
T T 2 ln
1
1
R
2
2
T  T
w
 1    r 
S R
2 / 4
k
R
e

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U. Example 6: Wall heating of laminar flow . What
is the steady state temperature profile in a
flowing fluid in a tube if the walls are heated
(constant flux, q 1 /A) and if the fluid is a
Newtonian fluid in laminar flow?
cross‐section A:
r
z
r
z
A
L
assume:
heater
constant viscosity
v
z (r)
fluid
R

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

11/7/2011

General Energy Transport Equation: Covers all

(microscopic energy balance) convection
source
(energy
  T
ˆ
2
generated
   
v
T
k
T
S
C p
per unit
t
volume per
time)
rate of change
conduction (all
directions)
velocity must satisfy
equation of motion,
equation of continuity
see handout for
component notation

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.