Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

11/7/2011

Example 3: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell

Assumptions:

•long pipe

• steady state

k = thermal conductivity of wall

What is the steady state temperature profile in a cylindrical

shell (pipe) if the inner wall is at

T 1 an d th e ou ter wall is a t T 2 ?

(T 1 >T 2 )

Cooler wall at T 2

R 1 r  R 2
R 1
r
R 2

Material of thermal conductivity k

L
L
2 R 1 r  R 2 Material of thermal conductivity k L (very long) Hot

(very long)

Hot wall at T 1

1

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Example 3: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell

Solution: q r c 1  Not constant A r c 1 T  ln
Solution:
q
r c
1
Not constant
A
r
c
1
T 
ln r c
2
k
Boundary conditions?

2

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

11/7/2011

Example 3: Heat flux in an annulus with temperature boundary conditions

Solutions:

T

T k

 

q

r

1

2

A

ln

R

2

r

 

R

1

T

2

T

ln

R

2

r

T T

2

1

 

ln

R

2

 

R

1

Pipe with temperature BCs

The heat flux q /A DOES depend
The heat flux q /A DOES depend

r

on, k; also q r /A decreases as 1/r

Note that T(r) does not depend

on the thermal conductivity, k

(steady state)

3

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

DimensionlessTemperature Profile in a pipe; R 1 =1, R 2 =2

1 0.9 0.8  T T 2 0.7 0.6  T T 2 1 0.5
1
0.9
0.8
 T
T 2
0.7
0.6
 T
T 2
1
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.
1
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
r
R
2
Pipe with temperature BCs

4

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

11/7/2011

Example 4: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell

Assumptions:

•long pipe

d

• steady state •k = thermal conductivity of wall •h 1 , h 2 = heat transfer coefficients

What is the steady state temperature profile in a cylindrical

shell (pipe) if the fluid on the inside is at T b1 and the fluid on the outside is at T b2 ? (T b1 >T b2 )

Cooler fluid at T b2

R 1 r  R 2
R 1
r
R 2

Hot fluid at

T b1

b 2 ) Cooler fluid at T b 2 R 1 r  R 2 Hot

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Example 4: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell

Solution: q r c 1  Not constant A r c 1 T  ln
Solution:
q
r c
1
Not constant
A
r
c
1
T 
ln r c
2
k
Boundary conditions?

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Example 4: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell c 1  h  T 
Example 4: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell
c
1
h
T
T
1
b
1
w
1
R
1
h
T
2
w
2
b
2
4
unknowns;
R
c
,
T
,
c
,
T
2
1
w
1
2
w
2
c
SOLVE
1
T

ln R
c
w 1
1
2
k
c
1

ln R
c
T w
2
2
k 2
© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.
c 1
c
1

T

4

equations

11/7/2011

Example 4: Heat flux in a cylindrical shell, Newton’s law of cooling boundary Conditions

flux in a cylindrical shell, Newton’s law of cooling boundary Conditions © Faith A. Morrison, Michigan

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

11/7/2011

Example 5: Heat Conduction with Generation

What is the steady state temperature profile in a wire if heat is generated uniformly throughout the wire at a rate of S e W/m 3 and the outer radius is held at T w ?

R r
R
r
3 and the outer radius is held at T w ? R r long wire T

long wire

T w

S e = energy production per unit volume

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Example 5: Heat Conduction with Generation

Shell Balance: choose control volume r r r+ r
Shell Balance: choose control volume
r r
r+ r

contributions to energy transport:

•generation

•radial conduction

T w

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

11/7/2011

Compare solutions

1.2 Conduction in pipe 1 Wire with generation 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.2
1.2
Conduction in pipe
1
Wire with generation
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Temperature ratio

r/R or r/R1

R 1 R T T 2 ln 1 1 R 2 2 T  T
R 1 R
T T 2 ln
1
1
R
2
2
T  T
w
 1    r 
S R
2 / 4
k
R
e

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

Example 6: Wall heating of laminar flow . What is the steady state temperature profile
Example 6: Wall heating of laminar flow . What
is the steady state temperature profile in a
flowing fluid in a tube if the walls are heated
(constant flux, q 1 /A) and if the fluid is a
Newtonian fluid in laminar flow?
cross‐section A:
r
z
r
z
A
L
assume:
heater
constant viscosity
v
z (r)
fluid
R

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.

11/7/2011

General Energy Transport Equation: Covers all

(microscopic energy balance)

convection source (energy   T  ˆ 2 generated     
convection
source
(energy
  T
ˆ
2
generated
   
v
T
k
T
S
C p
per unit
t
volume per
time)
rate of change
conduction (all
directions)
velocity must satisfy
equation of motion,
equation of continuity
see handout for
component notation

© Faith A. Morrison, Michigan Tech U.