sdfsdfsdfsdf

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

4 Aufrufe

sdfsdfsdfsdf

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

- Heat Balance When Wearing Protective Clothing
- HMT UNIVERSITY QUESTIONS ME6502 R13 - Unit Wise.pdf
- Heat and Temperature 2
- Heat Transfer
- thermal lab report
- Insulation
- 1-s2.0-S0960148101001926-main
- book
- Cool Machines Cv Series Insulation Removal Vacuum
- MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF MELTING AND FREEZING PROCESSES.pdf
- Thermal Conductivity
- Conduction
- Copy of 2000ti
- ASTM D5930.1207343-1 CONDUTIVIDADE TERMICA.pdf
- Controlled Environments
- edd portfolio
- 1-s2.0-S2214157X15000106-main.pdf
- GATE 2017 Mechanical Engineering Syllabus
- 2.pdf
- 2003-SUT-Effects-of-High-Temperature-on-the-Design-of-Deepwater-Risers.pdf

Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

Ahmet Z. Sahin

*

, Muammer Kalyon

Mechanical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals,

Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Received 1 July 2003

Abstract

An analytical solution is obtained for the insulation thickness variation over a pipe to maintain a uniform outer

surface temperature. A high temperature uid is considered to be owing through the pipe. The amount of the

insulation material is assumed to be limited. Heat transfer from the outer surface of the pipe is through convection

and radiation. The solution of the insulation thickness is found to be independent from the outer surface convective

and radiative heat transfer coefcients. In addition, the solution is found to be very close to linear variation which is

very easy to implement in practice.

q 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

There are three major considerations in determining insulation type and thickness. These are

economics, safety and control of process conditions. Insulation can be used to save considerable amount

of energy, protect people and living things from injury, protect delicate equipment, and regulate process

temperatures. Pipes that are accessible by workers and other people are subject to safety constraints.

Therefore, insulation type and thickness should be selected such that the outside temperature of the

insulation is kept below about 60 8C in order to avoid injury.

In the case of cryogenic applications, designing insulation thickness to prevent condensation on cold

lines may become important. In this case, it is crucial that sufcient insulation is added so that the outer

temperature of the insulation remains above the dew point temperature in order to prevent moisture in

0360-5442/$ - see front matter q 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.energy.2004.05.020

Energy 30 (2005) 637647

www.elsevier.com/locate/energy

* Corresponding author. Fax: C966-3-860-2949.

E-mail address: azsahin@kfupm.edu.sa (A.Z. Sahin).

the air to condense onto the insulation and therefore cause damage to the insulation and to form a

suitable environment for micro-organisms to grow.

Energy conservation is one of the major concerns in many industrial applications. In this regard, the

supply of insulation material, in general, has limitations due to its cost, weight and volume. The cost of

purchase, installation and maintenance can often be expensive. The weight and volume of the insulation

material is required to be minimal in some cases such as aerospace applications. Thus, it is necessary

Nomenclature

C

p

specic heat (kJ/kg K)

h

i

heat transfer coefcient inside the pipe (W/m

2

K)

h

o

heat transfer coefcient outside the pipe (W/m

2

K)

h

r

radiation heat transfer coefcient s3T

4

s

KT

4

N

=T

s

KT

N

k

w

tube wall thermal conductivity (W/m K)

L length of the tube (m)

_ m mass ow rate (kg/s)

Nu Nusselt number

_

Q rate of heat transfer (W)

r

i

inner tube radius (m)

r

o

outer radius of insulation (m)

r

w

outer tube radius (m)

R

tot

total heat transfer resistance (m K/W)

t thickness (m)

t

ave

average insulation thickness (m)

t

w

tube wall thickness (m)

T

i

inlet temperature (K)

T

f

uid bulk temperature (K)

T

o

tube outlet temperature (K)

T

s

outer insulation surface temperature (K)

T

N

ambient temperature (K)

U velocity (m/s)

V

o

volume (m

3

)

x axial distance (m)

Greek letters

3 emissivity

n kinematic viscosity (m

2

/s)

s StefanBoltzmann constant (5.67!10

K8

W/m

2

K

4

)

t dimensionless thickness (t/L)

q

f

dimensionless uid bulk temperature ((T

f

KT

N

)/(T

i

KT

N

))

q

s

dimensionless surface temperature ((T

s

KT

N

)/(T

i

KT

N

))

x dimensionless axial distance (x/L)

A.Z. Sahin, M. Kalyon / Energy 30 (2005) 637647 638

to distribute the limited amount of insulation material so that an optimal insulation is achieved.

This is especially important where the structure is not isotropic, such as in aerospace and automotive

structures in which the conductivity could be varying throughout the wall to be insulated [1].

Optimum insulation of surfaces involves the determination of the optimum distribution of limited

available insulation material throughout the surface. Although, uniform distribution of insulation

material is easy to implement [2,3], it may be necessary to consider variable insulation thickness over the

surface to be insulated when convective and radiative boundary conditions cause variations in heat

transfer to or from the ambient along the surface [4,5].

A number of studies can be found in the literature on the thermal insulation of pipelines and

structures. However, most of these studies consider uniform insulation thickness. For example, Zaki and

El-Turki [6] studied the optimization of multi-layer thermal insulation for pipelines. Variable insulation

thickness consideration can be found only in very fewstudies. Kalyon and Sahin [7] studied the optimum

insulation thickness of a pipe subjected to convective heat transfer that minimizes the heat loss using the

control theory approach and steepest descent method. Sahin [8] studied the optimal insulation of ducts

subjected to external thermal radiation. He found the optimal insulation thickness variation along the

tube using a limited amount of insulation material in order to minimize the heat transfer. Due to the

convenience of implementation, the thickness function of the insulation in his analysis is considered to

be linear along the duct.

Wechsatol et al. [9] investigated the optimal geometric layout of schemes for distributing hot water

uniformly over an area. The amount of insulation material, the volume of all the pipes, and the amount of

pipe wall material were the main constraints in their work. In a more recent work [10], they studied the

optimization of a tree-shaped system of insulated pipes for the distribution of a stream of hot water over

an area which is covered uniformly by users who must receive the same ow rate of hot water. They

showed that the geometry of the insulated tree structure is relatively insensitive to how the insulation is

distributed over all the pipes. The thermal performance of the structure is also found to be relatively

insensitive to how nely the distribution of pipe sizes and insulation radii is optimized.

In the present study, insulation of a pipe is studied in order to obtain a suitable thickness variation such

that the temperature of the outer surface of the insulation is maintained to be uniform. The amount of

insulation material is set to be the constraint. Heat transfer on the outer surface of the insulation is

considered to be a combination of convection and radiation. An explicit analytical solution of the prole

for the insulation thickness variation is obtained. It is shown that the insulation thickness variation that

provides uniform surface temperature is independent of the convection and radiation heat transfer

coefcients. In other words, once the insulation is applied in the given prole, the outer surface

temperature of the insulation remains uniform regardless of the surrounding thermal conditions.

2. Analysis

Consider a circular duct through which a given uid is transported from one end to the other as shown

in Fig. 1. Although the circular cross-section has been chosen here as the most common geometry in

practice, the same analysis can be used for other cross-sectional geometries. The inlet temperature of the

uid is T

i

and the outlet temperature is T

o

. A limited amount of insulation material is available. When

this insulation material is distributed uniformly on the surface of the duct, the thickness of the insulation

becomes t

ave

. The objective in this study is to obtain a uniform outer surface temperature by distributing

A.Z. Sahin, M. Kalyon / Energy 30 (2005) 637647 639

the insulation material on the surface of the pipe from which heat transfer takes place with the ambient at

the surrounding temperature T

N

by convection and radiation.

The heat loss of uid in the control volume shown in Fig. 1 is

d

_

Q ZK_ mC

p

dT

f

Z

T

f

KT

N

R

tot

_ _

dx Z2pr

o

h

o

Ch

r

T

s

KT

N

dx (1)

where

R

tot

Z

1

2p

R

c

C

1

k

ln

r

o

r

w

_ _

C

1

r

o

h

o

Ch

r

_ _

(2)

in which

R

c

Z

1

r

i

h

i

C

1

k

w

ln

r

w

r

i

_ _

; r

i

Zr

w

Kt

w

; r

o

Zr

w

Ctx; and h

r

Zs3T

4

s

KT

4

N

=T

s

KT

N

:

The outer surface temperature of the insulation is related to the uid bulk temperature as

T

f

KT

s

R

c

C

1

k

ln

r

o

r

w

_ _ Z

T

s

KT

N

1

r

o

h

o

Ch

r

: (3)

This equation can be solved explicitly for the uid bulk temperature

T

f

ZT

s

Cr

o

h

o

Ch

r

R

c

C

1

k

ln

r

o

r

w

_ _ _ _

T

s

KT

N

(4)

Differentiating Eq. (4) with respect to x and noting that the outer surface temperature of the insulation

is considered to be constant

dT

f

dx

Zh

o

Ch

r

R

c

C

1

k

ln

r

o

r

w

_ _

C

1

k

_ _

T

s

KT

N

dr

o

dx

: (5)

Fig. 1. Sketch of the insulated circular duct.

A.Z. Sahin, M. Kalyon / Energy 30 (2005) 637647 640

On the other hand, Eq. (1) yields

dT

f

dx

ZK

2pr

o

h

o

Ch

r

_ mC

p

T

s

KT

N

(6)

Substituting Eq. (6) into Eq. (5) and re-arranging the result the differential equation for the insulation

thickness (i.e. the outer radius of the insulation) is obtained as

dr

o

dx

ZK

2pr

o

_ mC

p

R

c

C

1

k

ln

r

o

r

w

_ _

C

1

k

_ _ ; r

o

Or

w

(7)

Inspecting Eq. (7), it can easily be seen that the insulation thickness variation is independent of the

outer heat transfer coefcients h

o

and h

r

. In addition, since _ mO0; C

p

O0, r

o

OrO0, kO0, R

c

O0, we

observe, from Eq. (7), that (dr

o

/dx)!0. Thus, r

o

(x) is a decreasing function.

It can be shown that, using separating of variables, the solution of Eq. (7) is obtained as

r

o

x Ztx Cr

w

Zr

w

exp

a

1

K

4pk

_ mC

p

x

KkR

c

K1

_ _

(8)

where a

1

is the integration constant to be determined from the volume constraint

_

L

0

pr

2

o

x Kr

2

w

dx ZV

o

Zpr

w

Ct

ave

2

Kr

2

w

L (9)

Eq. (9) can be written as,

_

L

0

r

o

r

w

_ _

2

K1

_ _

dx Z

V

o

pr

2

w

(10)

where, from Eq. (8),

r

o

r

w

Z1=c

1

exp

a

1

Kb

1

x

_

_ _

(11)

in which b

1

Z4pk= _ mC

p

and c

1

Zexp(kR

c

C1).

Substituting Eq. (11) into Eq. (10) and organizing the resulting equation yields,

_

L

0

exp 2

a

1

Kb

1

x

_

_ _

dx Zd

1

(12)

where

d

1

Z

V

o

pr

2

CL

_ _

c

2

1

Zconstant (13)

Noting that

_

exp

s

p

_ _

ds Z 2

s

p

K2

_ _

exp

s

p

_ _

;

A.Z. Sahin, M. Kalyon / Energy 30 (2005) 637647 641

the integral in Eq. (12) becomes,

4

a

1

Kb

1

L

_

K2

_ _

exp 2

a

1

Kb

1

L

_

_ _

K 4

a

1

p

K2

_ _

exp 2

a

1

p

_ _

ZK4b

1

d

1

or

e

1

gK1

_

K1

_ _

e

e

1

gK1

p

K e

1

g

p

K1

_ _

e

e

1

g

p

ZK2b

1

d

1

(14)

where e

1

Z2

b

1

L

p

; gZa

1

/(b

1

L), and gR1.

Once the volume constraint V

o

is given g can be obtained from Eq. (14) by iteration technique. Thus,

the integration constant a

1

is obtained as

a

1

Zgb

1

L Zg

4pk

_ mC

p

L (15)

Let us, now, compute the value of the constant surface temperature, T

s

(0)ZT

o

, by using inlet

conditions, where T

f

(0)ZT

f,0

,

r

o

0 Zr

o;0

Zr

w

=c

1

exp

a

1

p

_ _

: (16)

Rewriting Eq. (3) at the inlet conditions, yields

r

o;0

h

o

T

o

KT

N

Cr

o;0

s3T

4

o

KT

4

N

Z

T

f;0

KT

o

R

c

C

1

k

lnr

o;0

=r

w

(17)

or

[

4

T

4

o

C[

1

T

o

K[

0

Z0; (18)

where

[

4

Zr

o;0

s3 R

c

C

1

k

lnr

o;0

=r

w

_ _

;

[

1

Z1 Cr

o;0

h

o

R

c

C

1

k

lnr

o;0

=r

w

_ _

;

and

[

0

ZT

f;0

Cr

o;0

R

c

C

1

k

lnr

o;0

=r

w

_ _

s3T

4

N

Ch

o

T

N

:

Among the four roots of Eq. (18), the real and positive one is chosen for the sound T

o

. Once T

o

is

determined, then, from Eq. (3) an explicit equation for T

f

(x) can be written as

T

f

x Z R

c

C

1

k

lnr

o

x=r

_ _

r

o

xh

o

T

o

KT

N

Cs3T

4

o

KT

4

N

CT

o

(19)

where r

o

(x) is given by Eq. (8).

A.Z. Sahin, M. Kalyon / Energy 30 (2005) 637647 642

3. Results and discussion

The insulation thickness variation that yields a uniform outer surface temperature along a pipe

through which a uid is transported is given in Eq. (8) in an explicit form. The prole is in an exponential

form, however, for most practical cases, it is very close to a linear function. In order to illustrate the

solution for the insulation thickness variation and discuss the relevant parameters, a base case is selected

for which the thermophysical parameters are given in Table 1. The working uid is chosen to be water.

The ow is assumed to be fully developed and laminar. For the base case the Reynolds number is

calculated to be

Re Z

2Ur

w

Kt

w

n

water

Z

2!0:01!0:0127 K0:002

1:005!10

K6

Z213

This ensures that the ow is laminar. The heat transfer coefcient on the inner surface of the pipe is

then calculated to be

h

i

Z

k

water

Nu

2r

w

Kt

w

Z

0:6!3:66

2!0:0127 K0:002

Z102:6

Heat transfer coefcient on the outer surface of the insulation is taken to be a typical value of

10 W/m

2

K. The prole of the insulation thickness is not affected by the selection of the outer

convective and radiative heat transfer coefcients. Therefore, for the case study selected the radiation

heat transfer is considered to be negligible. The insulation material available is considered to be

limited amount such that when it is distributed uniformly over the pipe the thickness would be 20 mm.

Fig. 2 shows the variation of the insulation thickness for the base case in the dimensionless form. As

the inlet temperature of uid entering the pipe is higher than the surrounding, the uid bulk temperature

along the pipe is expected to decrease and therefore the insulation thickness is also a decreasing

exponential function. However, the variation is very close to a linear one as seen from the gure,

indicating that the implementation of this insulation is an easy matter in practical applications.

Table 1

Parameters used in numerical study

Parameter Value

L (m) 10

r

w

(m) 0.0127

t

w

(m) 0.002

t

ave

(m) 0.02

T

N

(K) 273

T

i

(K) 350

U (m/s) 0.01

k

water

(W/m K) 0.6

(C

p

)

water

(J/kg K) 4178

n

water

(m

2

/s) 1.005!10

K6

k

w

(W/m K) 30

k (W/m K) 0.03

h

o

(W/m

2

K) 10

A.Z. Sahin, M. Kalyon / Energy 30 (2005) 637647 643

Fig. 3 shows the resultant temperature variations of both the bulk uid and outer surface of the

insulation when the proper insulation is applied as given in Eq. (8). This gure shows that the insulation

thickness obtained is indeed a correct solution to provide uniform surface temperature.

Referring to Eq. (8), the insulation thickness prole includes basically two parameters, namely, the

thermal conductivity of the insulation and the velocity of the bulk ow through the pipe. Here it is

assumed that the geometry of the pipe, the material of the pipe and the uid type are xed. Fig. 4 shows

the effect of the thermal conductivity of insulation material selected on the thickness of the insulation.

For low thermal conductivity insulation material the variation of insulation thickness is very close to

Fig. 2. Insulation thickness variation along the pipe.

Fig. 3. Temperature variation along the pipe for bulk uid and outer surface of insulation.

A.Z. Sahin, M. Kalyon / Energy 30 (2005) 637647 644

uniform distribution. As the thermal conductivity of insulation material increases the thickness variation

becomes signicant. In all cases the variation of the insulation thickness can easily be approximated to a

linear prole for ease of application.

Fig. 5 shows the effect of the bulk uid velocity on the insulation thickness variation. For high uid

velocity a nearly uniform insulation distribution is obtained. However, as the velocity of the bulk uid

decreases the variation of insulation thickness becomes important to ensure uniform outer surface

temperature of the insulation. The proles of the insulation thickness for this case can also be

approximated to linear ones.

Fig. 4. Effect of thermal conductivity of insulation on the variation of the insulation thickness.

Fig. 5. Effect of the bulk uid velocity on the variation of the insulation thickness.

A.Z. Sahin, M. Kalyon / Energy 30 (2005) 637647 645

The type of insulation thickness proles indicate that it is possible and easily applicable to distribute a

limited amount of insulation material on a pipe such that a uniform outer surface temperature is

maintained. The results nd application in the situations where safety and comfort considerations are

priority and where temperature uniformity is important due to sensitive process conditions.

4. Conclusions

An analytical solution to the insulation thickness variation over a pipe transporting high temperature

uid is obtained in an effort for maintaining a uniform outer surface temperature. The following

conclusions can be derived from the current study:

1. It is possible to distribute a limited amount of insulation over the surface of a pipe such that the outer

surface temperature is maintained to be uniform. The solution of insulation thickness variation is

obtained analytically.

2. The insulation thickness prole is found to be independent from the outer convective and radiative

heat transfer coefcients, as long as these coefcients are uniform over the surface. This fact provides

convenience and possibility of wide range of applications.

3. The insulation thickness prole is in an exponential form, however, it is very close to linear variation

for most practical cases. This indicates that the practical application of the results for the insulation

thickness is very easy.

4. For high velocity uid ow problems and low thermal conductivity insulation material applications

the insulation thickness may be applied uniformly over the pipe as the variation of the outer surface

temperature will be insignicant.

Acknowledgements

The author acknowledges the support of the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals for this

work.

References

[1] Sahin AZ. Optimal insulation of structures with varying thermal conductivity. AIAA J Thermophys Heat Transfer 1997;

11(2):1537.

[2] Bejan A. How to distribute a nite amount of insulation on a wall with nonuniform temperature. Int J Heat Mass Transfer

1993;36(1):4956.

[3] Bejan A, Tsatsaronis G, Moran M. Thermal design and optimization. New York: Wiley; 1996.

[4] Lim JS, Bejan A. The optimal thickness of a wall with convection on one side. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1992;

35(7):16739.

[5] Bejan A. Convection heat transfer, 2nd ed. New York: Wiley; 1995.

[6] Zaki GM, Al-Turki AM. Optimization of multi-layer thermal insulation for pipelines. Heat Transfer Eng 2000;

21(4):6370.

A.Z. Sahin, M. Kalyon / Energy 30 (2005) 637647 646

[7] Kalyon M, Sahin AZ. Application of optimal control theory in pipe insulation. Numer Heat Transfer, Part A 2002;

41:391402.

[8] Sahin AZ. Optimal insulation of ducts in extraterrestrial applications. Int J Energy Res 2003;28:195203.

[9] Wechsatol W, Lorente S, Bejan A. Tree-shaped insulated designs for the uniform distribution of hot water over an area. Int

J Heat Mass Transfer 2001;44(16):311123.

[10] Wechsatol W, Lorente S, Bejan A. Development of tree-shaped ows by adding new users to existing networks of hot

water pipes. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 2002;45(4):72333.

A.Z. Sahin, M. Kalyon / Energy 30 (2005) 637647 647

- Heat Balance When Wearing Protective ClothingHochgeladen vonBasil Oguaka
- HMT UNIVERSITY QUESTIONS ME6502 R13 - Unit Wise.pdfHochgeladen vonkannanviknesh086319
- Heat and Temperature 2Hochgeladen vonEman Elshaikh
- Heat TransferHochgeladen vonKathreen Cajigas
- thermal lab reportHochgeladen vonMainakendra Nath Mandal
- InsulationHochgeladen vonBrinto Varghese
- 1-s2.0-S0960148101001926-mainHochgeladen vonResearcherz
- bookHochgeladen vonjitendertalwar1603
- Cool Machines Cv Series Insulation Removal VacuumHochgeladen vonbrooklynarmstrong487
- MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF MELTING AND FREEZING PROCESSES.pdfHochgeladen vonAjit Kamble
- Thermal ConductivityHochgeladen vonx7nvan
- ConductionHochgeladen vonRohit Kumar
- Copy of 2000tiHochgeladen vonjacquesmayol
- ASTM D5930.1207343-1 CONDUTIVIDADE TERMICA.pdfHochgeladen vontadeuaf
- Controlled EnvironmentsHochgeladen vonRanjit Marimuthu
- edd portfolioHochgeladen vonapi-295725474
- 1-s2.0-S2214157X15000106-main.pdfHochgeladen vondennisitty01
- GATE 2017 Mechanical Engineering SyllabusHochgeladen vonAbhishek Anand
- 2.pdfHochgeladen vonme641siva
- 2003-SUT-Effects-of-High-Temperature-on-the-Design-of-Deepwater-Risers.pdfHochgeladen vonvictor gerardo
- Some Heat and Thermo Problems and SolutionsHochgeladen vonRippleIllusion
- Tutorial 2(1)Hochgeladen vonserizawa91
- V Sem Courses UpstreamHochgeladen vonRahul_Muchhadiya
- Lecture 28Hochgeladen vonMayank soni
- MA0389Hochgeladen vonLED
- Solar Water StillHochgeladen vonArunabh Saikia
- Alphawool 1600 Vacuum Formed Board Data SheetHochgeladen vonGurdeep Sungh Arora
- Heating still in jetsHochgeladen vonHotnCrispy Crispy
- 345_NW_LT-DAT-HEATHochgeladen vonHerberth Silitonga
- Nbc Chapter 11 FinalHochgeladen vonPranav

- Example 8.3 1Hochgeladen vonSiddharth Saroha
- SECTION 2 - Design Criteria for Water Distribution Systems_201304251344365252.pdfHochgeladen vonPipeline Engineer
- Imp CalcualtionHochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- Cable Tray Fill and Load CalculationHochgeladen vonklmsunny
- Defor Extractive AnalyzerHochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- EXAMPLE_8.2-1_2Hochgeladen vonSiddharth Saroha
- Cable Tray Load CalculationHochgeladen vonPrem Kumar
- Classification of Heat ExchangersHochgeladen von4605566vivek
- Transient Conduction and Lumped Capacitance MethodHochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- HX1Hochgeladen vonmvsscribd
- Solar Water Heating Slope Roof and CoilHochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- Catalog No LinksHochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- 1-s2.0-S0017931005003005-mainHochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- ReamHochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- 1761 Performance Aspen SeriesHochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- Toolbox 11Hochgeladen vonIngole Deepak
- C-6105G1Hochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- Tempest InfoHochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- C-6105G1Hochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- Example 8.1 2Hochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- flue gas loses.pdfHochgeladen vonsaeedalipour
- Emissions Incinerator Plants - Application Note (2006)...FtirHochgeladen vonMuhammad Awais
- EXAMPLe of HXHochgeladen vonDanial Qadir
- Plate and Frame Heat ExchangersHochgeladen vonAndrés Ramón Linares
- Stanford Research Systems Residual Gas Analyzer - Mass Spectrometer (SRS RGA) ManualHochgeladen vonmichaeljkelly
- Eurofid Extractive AnalyzerHochgeladen vonCristian Fernandez
- Flue Gas in Industry 0981 2773Hochgeladen vonDragos Plaesu

- 2161902 Internal Combustion Engines [Autosaved]Hochgeladen vonharsh
- Experiment 2 (CHE151-1L)Hochgeladen vontracyymendoza
- ME341_EXP1.pdfHochgeladen vonadarsh barnwal
- principlesHochgeladen vonspeedkillz
- Worksheet on Thermal PhysicsHochgeladen vonilyasheee901
- VCES-DDC-IOM-1-(PN-500020459)Hochgeladen vonEmanuel Maracajá
- ASTM01 Thermal Measurements the Foundation of Fire Standards GritzoHochgeladen vonEleni Asimakopoulou
- syllabus-btechHochgeladen vonRishabh Jain
- Quizzes (1)Questions and Answers on Survey Meters for RSO in PDF Visual FoxproHochgeladen vonshaban
- Thermal BridgesHochgeladen vonarkade
- Chapter 8Hochgeladen vonMohamed Tarek Kamar
- Heat-Transfer-Texbook.pdfHochgeladen vonkangsungjin
- Calculating Thermal Bridges and Fabric Moisture - Sebastian Moreno, Passivhaus BelgiumHochgeladen vonGiuseppe Onorevoli
- Ammonia-Water Falling Film AbsorberHochgeladen vonKin Wai Cheah
- cae331_lecture10_nov11_20131Hochgeladen vonGustavo Buenrostro Ruiz
- Air Source Heat Pump PresentationHochgeladen vonAndreiUrsarescu
- LAMINAR VISCOUS FLOW HEAT TRANSFER UNIT.docHochgeladen vonalgan7
- Topic 8.2 - Thermal Energy TransferHochgeladen vonPaul Amezquita
- BoilingHochgeladen vonRonal Maharaj
- 10.Unit 3 Case Studies UPV EHU Building EHUHochgeladen vonErlet Shaqe
- EX._11Hochgeladen vonZaher Zaher
- Chiller.pdfHochgeladen vonRakheeb Basha
- HT3eChap06_1_71Hochgeladen vonmsdhiman2003
- Thermal ComfortHochgeladen vonNishant Prakhar
- Basics InfraredHochgeladen vona.la_pica2161
- HEAT TRANSFER Chapter 4Hochgeladen vonking_nn2010
- Pinch Technology AnalysisHochgeladen vonPiyush Jain
- Filmwise and Dropwise ExperimentHochgeladen vonGoodMarissa
- Excercise & Solutions.pdfHochgeladen vonMd Ashikur Rahman
- Thermal Radiation - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaHochgeladen vonle vinh

## Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.

Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.

Jederzeit kündbar.