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ICON COLLEGE

OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

Course:
BTEC LEVEL 7 ADVANCE PROFESSIONAL DIOLOMA IN MANAGEMENT

STUDIES ( DMS)

UNIT 02 MANAGING CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS

Submitted by:
MD. AMANAT ULLAH
STUDENT ID # 3062

Task-01
Change is the major factor for the development of any organisation. Every organisation is changing and it is a process. It effect in four areas: Task, Technology, People and Structure. Manufacturing process is one of the important factor for change management. Nokia Mobile Communications is the key organisation about manufacturing process change.

Nokia Mobile Communications:


Nokia Corporation (Nokia) is world leader in mobile phone industry. The Company makes a range of mobile devices with services and software that enable people to experience music, navigation, video, television, imaging, games, business mobility and more. Nokia also provides equipment, solutions and services for communications networks through Nokia Siemens Networks. During the year ended December 31, 2007, the Company had production facilities for mobile devices and network infrastructure around the world, sales in more than 150 countries, and a global network of sales, customer service and other operational units.

Company Profile:
Nokia Corporation Nokia House, P.O.Box 226 Keilalahdentie 4 Espoo 02150 Industry: Employees: Fiscal Year-End: Telecommunications Equipment 1,12,262 12/2008 2.67 $ 3.08 $ 0.78 $ 5.42
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Per share data:


Earnings (TTM): Cash Flow: Annual Dividend: Book Value:

EBITDA:

$10.67B B=Billions TTM = Trailing Twelves Months

M = Millions

Production units:
Network Technology: China Finland India Mobile Devices and Enhancements: Brazil China Finland Germany Great Britain Hungery India Mexico South korea

Market Segmentation:
Very few products or services can satisfy all customers in market. Not all customers want or are prepared to pay for the same things. Market segmentation may be defined as the

identification of individuals or organisations with similar characteristics that have significant implications for the determination of the marketing strategy, We identifies four benefits of segment market. Which will now be discussed: Target market selection Tailored marketing mix Differentiation Opportunities and threats

Of the hundreds of customer-inspired hacks that have emerged, the most powerful is a program called Podzilla produced by nokia- essentially a bare-bones version of Linux with a graphical user interface that runs on the iPods tiny screens. Not surprisingly then, the Mac OS X based iPhone bears a lot in common with the Podzilla-based iPod.
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Take market segments for example. By understanding the well-established market segments for the iPod, its possible to predict market segments for the iPhone. And if theres any merit in that speculation, then one of the surprising demographics for the iPhone will be teens.Teens have been practically weaned on the iPod. The iPod plus various transportable and mobile gaming platforms like the PS2, Xbox, etc. Many teens already have cell phones, or will soon. Although the iPhones USD 500 price tag is steep, the value becomes evident when you consider its triple-play-plus possibilities for teens. Theres no question that those of us hooked on our Crack Berries will be interested in tempting ourselves with the iPhone. However, itll be much more interesting to monitor uptake by teens. Jobber D(1995), Principles and practice of marketing, 04 th addition

Target market:
Market segmentation is a means to an end : target marketing. This is the choice of specific segments to serve and is a key element in marketing strategy. A firm need to evaluate the segments and decide which ones to serve. For example , CNN targets its news programmes to what are known as influentials. This is why CNN has, globally focused so much of its distribution efforts into gaining access to hotel rooms. Business people know that whatever they are in the world they can see international news on CNN in their hotel. Its sports programming is also targeted, with plenty of coverage of up market sports such as golf and tennis. Such as BMW uses technology to target a distinct segments of customers. At the annual Nokia Capital Market Days in New York, Nokia senior management set out clear targets and milestones to hone existing and build new competitive advantages for continued leadership in the dynamic mobile communications market. Somewhat faster than market growth in mobile devices and infrastructure - To achieve a mobile device operating margin of 17% - 18% in the medium term (two to three years)
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- To achieve an infrastructure operating margin of 14% in the medium term(two to three years)

"Our target in the mobile phone industry is to continue leveraging our leading position and to further increase our global market share, said Anssi Vanjoki, Executive Vice President, Nokia Mobile Phones, Europe & Africa. Jobber D(1995), Principles and practice of marketing, 04 th addition

Scope and scale of Nokia:


Internet calls on a Nokia phone made possible with the first Nokia UMA network solution,
3GSM World Congress 2006, Barcelona, Spain Today, at the 3GSM World Congress, Nokia

unveiled three new devices; First: introduced its first UMA network solution; announced collaboration with Vodafone aimed at increasing usage of the S60 platform. Second: Launched additional frequency variants for the Nokia Flexi WCDMA Base Station and third: Announced a new cooperation agreement on DVB-H interoperability. Nokia unveiled the Nokia 6131 and Nokia 6070 mid-range GSM camera phones, as well as the Nokia 6136 Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) device. The Nokia 6131 comes in a folding design and offers a 1.3 megapixel camera, while the Nokia 6070 comes in a classical form and offers basic camera phone capabilities at an affordable price point. Nokia is the largest vendor of telephone handsets in the world with 40% in the global market and EUR 13.5 billion in operating revenue in 2007. Nokia scale advantage manifests itself in low cost, high margin handset. The company aim to take advantage of its scale by expanding into emerging markets in china,India,Latin America, Africa and Middle East which collectively constitute 40% of the global hand market and are growing. Nokia occupies a dominant position in the global handset market, contributing almost 40% of the global markets wireless handsets. In 2007 nokia sold 437 millions or 38.4% of the 1,138 million mobile device sold globally.
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Nokias size means it can exploit economies of scale, that is average production cost fall as output increase. The following table suggests the advantage.

Handset vendors 2007 data NOKIA MOTROLA SAMSUNG LG SONY ERICSSON

Unit sold (MM) 437.1 250.6 189.5 99.3 93.6

Revenue per unit $134 $154 $205 $174 $184

Cost per unit $113 $138 $177 $164 $170

Profit per Profit (%) unit $20.9 $15.9 $27.8 $ 9.5 $13.3 15.6% 10.3% 13.6% 5.5% 7.3%

Production Process of Nokia:


Nokia establish nine (soon to be 10) factories around the world, mobile-phone giant Nokia will churn out approximately 325 million handsets this year alone. That's 10 phones per second, every hour of every day, all year long. As a leading global supplier of telecommunications equip-ment, Nokias success is tied not only to innovation but also to product quality. As a result, the company actively evaluates its manufacturing processes knowing that any process improvements can directly affect the quality and reliability of its products. Nokia Finland has recently begun testing its complex base station printed circuit boards with Agilents BGAOpens Detector, a patent-pending feature of the Agilent 5DXX-ray test system. This paper describes how Nokia beta-test-ed the
BGA Opens Detector as well as the process improvements that resulted from this new

technology. In the following slides, see how the workers at Nokia's plant in Salo, Finland, make a phone, from raw materials to finished goods. Process design and product design are most important about manufacturing process :
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Process design:
Process design is a complex process requiring expertise and the correct set of process design tools to accurately depict the process. Process design, whether designing a new process or modernizing an existing process, require knowledge of the process equipment, the chemical components, thermodynamic methods, applicable regulatory requirements, and standard design practices in order to produce accurate mass and energy balances for the process. Proper process design incorporates simulation software in order to accurately model a process to ensure that the process can be designed safely with the lowest total cost of ownership by increasing the efficiency of the design engineers and reducing the time needed to complete an accurate design. Simulation software can create rigorous mass and energy balances based on the processes chemical components, related thermodynamics, and the equipment configuration.

Product Design:
Product Design is an activity which defines and reacts to society and culture, shaping our environment, facilitating daily life and providing a powerful medium for communication and expression. Designing new products involves choices and decisions which may have an effect reaching far beyond an individual designer. In turn the design process is affected by numerous external factors such as manufacturing process or consumer habits. Such factors are made tangible via project stakeholders: the individuals or organisations that provide the requirements from which a design is generated. Successful product designers draw upon a wide range of expertise, combining technical literacy with knowledge of the business context and human factors, while developing creative and interpersonal skills, in order to meet and exceed stakeholder needs.
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Naylor J (2000) Introduction to operations management, 2nd Edition

Nokia (Past):
Nokias first century (1865-1967) a half of innovation, from a riverside paper mill in southwestern Finland to a global telecommunications leader. The move to mobile from roots in paper, rubber, and cables, in just over 100 years nokia becomes a powerful industrial conglomerate. The newly formed Nokia Corporation is ideally positioned for a pioneering role in the early evolution of mobile communications. The period 1997-2002 marks the beginning of the third generation of mobile telecommunications, the development of UMTS technologies. In this period, Nokia had 48 strategic alliance agreements, of which 25 were joint development agreements, 16 co-production contracts, six joint ventures and one standardization consortium. Nokia has many joint R&D agreements on relatively new technological capabilities with weak ties (Granovetter 1973), i.e. with partners it did not collaborate before.

Nokia (Present):
Nokia mobile corporation now is a player in mobile industry. Nokia now plays a lead role in all aspects of the industry in handsets, networks, operating systems and new gaming software. From January 1, 2004 through March 31, 2007, Nokia also provides equipment, solutions and services for communications networks through Nokia Siemens Networks. Nokia now actively evaluates its manufacturing processes knowing that any process improvements can directly affect the quality and reliability of its products. Nokia Finland has recently begun testing its complex base station printed circuit boards with Agilents BGAOpens Detector, a patent-pending feature of the Agilent 5DXX-ray test system. This paper describes how Nokia beta-test-ed the BGA Opens Detector as well as the process improvements that resulted from this new technology. Currently, Nokia establish a new manufacturing plan in Cluj, Romania, which will start operations in spring 2008. Nokia expand mobile device production in China from Finland to meet growing market demand, particularly from the Far East. Nokia also expanded Dongguan plant in China will begin production the third quarter of 2006. The expanded plant will be located adjacent to nokia's existing facility. More importantly, it established a $150 million handset manufacturing facility in Chennai in 2005 and Nokia also established several R& amp;D centers and labs in India.

Task-02
Change management is a structured approach to change in individuals, teams, organizations and societies that enables the transition from a current state to a desired future state about Nokia. From a business perspective, the change may be a new business process or new technology or growth. From an individual perspective, the change may be a new behaviour.

From a social perspective, the change may be a new public policy or the passing of new legislation. There are two key causes or factors has influenced the change. The factors are 1. External factors and 2. Internal factors Wiley J and Sons (Nov 2005), Managing organisational change, 2nd Australasian edition

External Factors about change :


Usually the External forces for change are originated outside the organization. Because these forces have global effects, but it may also cause an organization to question the essence of what business it is in and the process by which products and services are produced. The external key factors for change are technological change, market changes, economic, demographic characteristics, social and political pressures. Technological change : Many organisations have utilized technology as a means to improve productivity and market competitiveness, automisation and computer technology is two well-known developments in this regard. The will be there to keep the man from touching the equipment." by Warren Bennis (Articles relating the cultural change, aol search). As we all know that both manufacturing and service organization are increasingly using technology to improve productivity and market competitiveness. Nokia mobile communications is the key organization about technological change. It is exploiting its technological capabilities for the development or extension of existing technologies for existing markets. Market change: The third change is the market change. Companies have to force new partnerships with their suppliers or manufacturer in order to deliver higher quality products at lower prices as the emergence of a global economy is forcing US companies to change the way they do business. Nokia had to collaborate with a local manufacturer in order to enter the the mobile phone and network technology markets in China, and Brazil but also in Australia. The local or national
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authorities or government required Nokia to nationalize their production facilities abroad. This nationalization process usually meant that (part of) a local manufacturer took care of the production process or that a local company sold the products in the name of Nokia. For many foreign entrants, this was the only way to sell their products to the local market. In the case of Australia it used to be so that part of the product (nokia) had to be manufactured in Australia in order to sell it locally. Economic factors: follows: Income level / GDP Inflation / Interest Foreign exchange rate Balance of Payment The economic factors is another key factor about changing . These are

Chinese income level or GDP now 10% which is the highest in all over the world. Inflation, foreign exchange rate and balance payment are also positive for foreign investment. The Demographic characters: The Demographic characters make us understand that the workforce is more diverse and that there is a business imperative to effectively manage diversity. Mangers play a key role in this as the organizations need to effectively manage diversity if they are to receive maximum contribution, dedication and commitment from employees. As we all know that both manufacturing and service organization are increasingly using technology to improve productivity and market competitiveness. Nokia established nine factories around the world, large quantity of skill and dedicate workforce are working in this factories. They are also using high technology to improve productivity and market competitiveness.

Internal Factors about change:


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Internal forces for change come from inside the organization. These forces may be subtle, such as low morale, or can manifest in outward signs, such as low productivity and conflict. Internal forces for change come from human resource factors, managerial behavior/decisions and collective bargaining agents (C.B.A). Nokia is well established company which started from 1865 as riverside paper mill in southwestern Finland to a global telecommunication leader. Hunan Resource Dept, Managerial Behavior/Decisions and C.B.A of nokia corp. are well balanced. In that case, internal factors are not influenced to the change of this organisation. Wiley J and Sons (Nov 2005), Managing organisational change, 2nd Australasian edition

Task- 03
Change process:
Change can be viewed as a one-off event , an expectation to the normal running of an organization and, therefore, something to be dealt on an issue by-issue basis as it arises. On the other hand, some organisations see change not as an exception but as a norm, a continuous process that forms part of the organisations day-to-day activities. The change process are mainly two types. Such as: Planned change and Force change

Planned change:
Organisations can and do change through a natural process of development. Any organization can be different ten years from now whether it desired and planned to change or, conversely was an unaware of change taking place. This changes will be observable and measurable. Planned change implies a conscious and positive decision to bring about a desire difference.
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The range of change situations and approaches, therefore, need to be borne in mind when considering the following six interrelated activities that make up the planning and change process: Establishing a change management team Management structures Activity planning Commitment planning Audits and post audits Training and Development

Force change:
Organisations, therefore, in seeking to create a willingness and a readiness for change, need to be aware that stressing the positive aspects of any proposed change may be much less impact than they might imagine. This point was recognized by Lewin(1947a) when he argued that the status quo needs to be destabilised before old behaviour can be discarded (unlearnt) and new behaviour successfully adopted. He referred to this process as unfreezing. Drawing on his work on field theory, Lewin recognized that the status quo occurred when the forces of change and the forces of stability were equal. To bring labour change, one had to increase the strength of the former and reduce that of the latter. Like Machiavelli, however he also recognized that making proposed changes seems attractive had less effect on increasing the pressure for change that making the current situation less attractive,i.e it is often easier to create a readiness for change by making people dissatisfied with their current situation, and thus prepared to consider alternatives, than to try to paint a rosy picture of the future. Force changes are occurring from following cases:
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Regulatory Agencies Government legislations Compliance Shareholders and Competitors Douglas W. Steeples (1990), Managing change in higher education, 2 nd edition

Change process about nokia:


Planned change is a rational change and force is sudden change. The change about nokia is planned change because of market changes and requirements for global cost efficiency and flexible capacity growth. However, as Handelsblatt notes, wages add up to less than 5% of production costs and Nokia's profit margins are already the highest in the sector. According to Handelsblatt the companys strategic objective is to restructure manufacturing on a global scale concentrating its manufacturing plants in 'industrial villages' near suppliers of low-priced preliminary products. The change about nokia is also force change . According to Financial Times Germany, a company spokesperson as saying that most of the suppliers are located in Asia. He also said that increasing flexibility of production may require an increase in manual work which is considered too expensive in Germany and Finland. In that case, to continue as a market leader and increase global market share communications. this change was most necessary for nokia mobile

Change models:
There is a wide, and often confusing, variety of approaches to strategy development that organisations can adopt. It follows that the same comment can be made with regard to
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the types of strategy that organisations do actually adopt in order to achieve competitive advantage over their rivals. The change models are Lewins Change Model Kotters Eight Step Model Action Research Model EckesModel General Process Model ( Organisational Development) Now we have to short discussion about those models. Lewins Change Model : Lewins suggested that organizational change could be understood in terms of three consecutive processes: 1. Unfreezing : Unfreezing involves introducing measures that will enable employees to abandon their current practices or cultural norms in preparation for the change. 2. Movement: Moving to the new level involves bringing about the requisite change itself. The time period given over to this phase varies widely. 3. Refreezing: Refreezing is necessary to lock in in the changes and to prevent the organisation from going back to its old ways. Kotters Eight Step Model: John Kotters proposed an Eight-Step process to accomplishing change in such a volatile organizational environment. Chief ingredients in his prescription include

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creating the guiding coalition and empowering broad based action. This framework for change management offers a different perspective from the legacy management approaches. The eight steps are: 1. Establish the need of urgency 2. Ensure there is powerful change group to guide the change 3. Develop a vision 4. Communicate the vision 5. Empower stuff 6. Ensure there are short-term wins 7. Consolidate gains 8. Embed the change in the culture David Gleicher, Beckhard and Harris model / formula:
The change model also known as change formula and change equation of David Gleicher, Beckhard and Harris (1987) is a simple yet powerful tool that gives you a quick, first impression of the possibilities and conditions to change an organisation. Historically the change quotation can be seen as a mejor milestone for the field of organisational

development. It has expanded gradually over time, in response to the needs of employers who not only want to move their organisations forward in terms of business objectives. The change model formula (change equation) is: DVF>R = Dissatisfaction Vision First Steps > Ressistance to Change It is important to note that the three components must all be present to overcome the ressistance to change in an organisation. Dissatisfaction with the present situation, a vision of what is possible in the future, and achievable first steps towards reaching this vision. If
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any of the three is zero or near zero, the product will also be zero or near zero and the ressistance to change will dominate.

Action Research Models:


The action research model places heavy emphasis on data gathering and diagnosis prior to action planning and implementation, as well as careful evaluation of results after action is taken. This process provides information to guide subsequent action, followed by

assessing the results.

1. Change researcher is also an active participant in change process 2. Contrasts with scientific research 3. positive approach positive stories possibility, vision focus

Eckes Model:
George Eckes' Six Sigma model approach the most sought after and well respected in the field is his emphasis on a methodology that encompasses a strategic, tactical and cultural component embracing management's active involvement. Unlike other consulting approaches, Eckes' use of Business Process Management helps management identify and measure the project and process that will drive the organization's improvement in line with strategic goals, and his emphasis on tactics include DMAIC, where project teams define, measure, analyze, improve and control the outcome of Six Sigma performance related objectives. The formula are given below: Q* A = E, where
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Q= Quality A= Cultural acceptance of Six sigma E= Extent of achievement of Six sigma as a technical measure of performance. More generically .. Q= Any transformational change A= Cultural acceptance of change E= Effectiveness of change implementation and change itself

General Process model (Organisational Development):


Each of the theories described above suggest a general framework for planned change. This general framework describes the four basic activities that practitioners and organization members jointly carry out in organization development. The main characteristic of general process models are: Entering and contracting: It includes those events which help managers decide whether they want to engage further in a planned change program and commit resources to such a process. Diagnosing: Diagnosis stage focuses on understanding organizational problems, including their causes and consequences, or on identifying the organization's positive attributes. Planning and implementation change: Organization members and practitioner jointly plan and implement OD interventions. Evaluating and institutionalizing: The stage involves evaluating the effects of the

intervention and managing the institutionalisation of successful change programs.


Douglas W. Steeples (1990), Managing change in higher education, 2 nd edition

Change model about Nokia:


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Nokia is the largest vendor of telephone handsets in the world with 40% in the global market and EUR 13.5 billion in operating revenue in 2007. Nokia scale advantage manifests itself in low cost, high margin handset. The company aim to take advantage of its scale by expanding into emerging markets in china,India,Latin America, Africa and Middle East which collectively constitute 40% of the global hand market and are growing. From January 1, 2004 through March 31, 2007, Nokia also provides equipment, solutions and services for communications networks through Nokia Siemens. In 2006, Nokia expand mobile device production in China from Finland to meet growing market demand, particularly from the Far East. Nokia also expanded Dongguan plant in China will begin production the third quarter of 2006. In 2005, it established a $150 million handset manufacturing facility in Chennai and Nokia also established several R& amp;D centers and labs in India The period 1997-2002 marks the beginning of the third generation of mobile telecommunications, the development of UMTS technologies. In this period, Nokia had 48 strategic alliance agreements, of which 25 were joint development agreements, 16 coproduction contracts, six joint ventures and one standardization consortium. After going through the whole procedure of acquiring I can say that the Change Model by David Gleicher, Beckhard and Harris perfectly fits with Nokia mobile corporation. The change model explained by Gleicher, Beckhard and Harris there should be dissatisfaction, vision and first steps and all three has to be greater than resistance to change. Nokia is a world leader in mobile communications, driving the growth and sustainability of the broader mobility industry. Chairman of nokia never satisfied, he is always hungry to get more, get bigger and he wanted to be the true global leader. Secondly, Nokia senior management set out clear targets and milestones to hone existing and build new competitive advantages for continued leadership in the dynamic mobile communications
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market. And the resistance to this change was historical but nokia chief dissatisfaction, vision and first steps proved to be greater than the historical resistance to change.

Task- 04
Change process implementation including resistance about Nokia:
The issues that emphasizes as I take on the implimentation of change are most important factor for the success of any organisation . The real challenge of nokia corporation is the development program of change process implementation. Nokia company actively evaluates its manufacturing processes knowing that any process improvements can directly affect the quality and reliability of its products. Successful product designers draw upon a wide range of expertise, combining technical literacy with knowledge of the business context and human factors, while developing creative and interpersonal skills, in order to meet and exceed stakeholder needs. Process design and product design are most important about manufacturing process. Nokia maintain this product and process design by using conceptual-analytical research and data gathering techniques . Although many other questions could be posed, we believe that palnning to impliment democratically-based comprehensive school improvement can be narrowed down to three key isssues of change process implimentation: Your team attitude about problem solving The process of developing shared leadership Obtaining the resources needed to support the emerging changes Currently, Nokia expand mobile device production in China from Finland to meet growing market demand, particularly from the Far East. Nokia also expanded Dongguan plant in China will begin production the third quarter of 2006. Dongguan is a strategic location for Nokia's global supply network for mobile devices. Increasing capacity in Dongguan will
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help Nokia to improve its competitive position in the fast-growing Chinese and Asian markets. More importantly, it established a $150 million handset manufacturing facility in Chennai in 2005 and Nokia also established several R& amp;D centers and labs in India. Nokias senior management implement this process by collaborate with Chinese local companies for continued leadership in the dynamic mobile communications market. Almost all change management attempts are meet some type of barrier or resistance. Resistance may be any structural, systematic or human barrier that impedes both deliberately introduced and extremely pressured change. The purpose of this section is to draw together the issues associated with fostering acceptance of change and to examine the avenues for overcoming resistance. We consider the role of change theory and assumptions in dealing with change responses, positive and negative, as well as the impact on resistance of conventional change management strategies. The source of resistance can be grouped into five categories: Distorted perceptions of change need, barriers to interpretation and vague strategic priorities. Low motivation for change Lack of creative response Political and cultural deadlocks Others
Douglas W. Steeples (1990), Managing change in higher education, 2 nd edition

The main resistance of change process implementation about Nokia are given below :

Government :
Government is the main factor about change process implementation in China. It is a socialist country and they have a some specific law and regulations about investment.
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Chinese government now remove subsidies and other support from investors. Nokia also expand mobile device production in China with new linkages to foreign companies This is the main resistance of change process implementation about nokia.

Legislation:
Chinas legislative power is carried out by two or more power organs, which means the country has multi legislative powers, including at national level, that for administrative laws and local laws, each subject to different organ authority. As a foreign investor nokia see local sourcing for overcome multi legislative powers in China . In that case, Chinese companies can take advantage of new linkages to foreign companies to expand and upgrade their operations. This is the another problem for nokia about implimentation. change process

Language:
Language is another resistance about change process implementation. Since the late 1980s there has been a top-down movement to reform English language teaching (ELT) in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). The total number of Nokia employees in China area is nearly 6,000. An important component for nokia of this reform has been an effort to import communicative language teaching (CLT) in the Chinese context. CLT, however, has failed to make the expected impact on english language teaching (ELT) in the peoples republic of China. Nokia mobile corporation now is a player in mobile industry. Nokia now plays a lead role in all aspects of the industry in handsets, networks, operating systems and new gaming software. Currently, Nokia expand mobile device production in China from Finland to meet growing market demand, particularly from the Far East. Nokia also expanded Dongguan plant in China will begin production the third quarter of 2006. More importantly, it established a $150 million handset manufacturing facility in Chennai. As a leading global
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supplier of telecommunications equipment, nokias success is tied not only to innovation but also to product quality. As a result, the company actively evaluates its manufacturing processes knowing that any process improvements can directly affect the quality and reliability of its products. In that case, we can say that design is the main factor whose effected in the nokias change process and the design are specially manufacturing process design.

References:
Douglas W. Steeples (1990), Managing change in higher education, 2nd edition, Pearson Education 2000 Jobber D (1995), Principles and practice of marketing, 04 th addition, McGraw Hill Naylor J (2000) Introduction to operations management, 2nd Edition ( FT Prentice Hall,2002) Wiley J and Sons (Australia NOV 2005), Managing organisational change, 2nd Australasian edition. Prentice Hall, 2005

Bibliography:

Banks J (1989) The principles of quality control (Wiley,1989) Bernard B (2004) Managing Change: A Strategic Approaches to Organisational Dynamics, Pearson Education 2000 Carnal C Managing change in organisations (FT Prentice Hall,2002)
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Harrison A et al(1999) Cases in operations Management, 3rd edition ( FT prentice Hall,2002) Jim Stewart (1991) - Managing Change through Training and Development , Kogan Page Ltd - 1996
Mabey C and Maynon Managing Change ( Paul Chapman Publishing,1993)

Senior B Organisational Change ( FT Prentice Hall, 2001) Slack N et al (2003) Operations Management ( FT Prentice Hall,2003) Todd D. Jick (1993), Managing Change Cases and Concepts, Published 1993 Wyatt Warner Burke (1994), Managing Organisational Change, Amacom 1995

Journals / Magazines:
A good daily broadsheet eg, The Times, The Guardian, The Financial Times Harvard Business Review (Harvard Business School) Production, Planning and Control ( Taylor and Francis Group) Academy of Management Journal ( Academy of Management)

Websites:
www.nokia.com www. dti.gov.uk/mbp www. ft .com www. european - quality .co.uk www.managerwise.com www.quality.co.uk www.tandf.co.uk Nokia mobile communications Department of Trade and Industry management best practice Financial Times Archive European Quality Management Business Management Information and Resources Quality Network- guide to subject of quality Management Taylor & Francis international publishers of academic books and journals.
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