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# SNC2D Exam Review

## Grade 10 Science June 2012 Exam Review

Exam date: June 19, 2012 Useful equations and constants
1000 m = 1 km 1000 g = 1 kg 60 s = 1 minute 100 cm = 1 m 1000 mg = 1 g 60 minutes = 1 hour 10 mm = 1 cm

Time: 2:00 pm

Location: Gymnasium

c n= v 1 1 1 = + f do di

## c = 3.00 108 m/s

M =

hi d ,M = i ho do

## Light and Geometric Optics Unit Review Questions:

Fill in the following table on different sources of light: (pages 463, 470-476) Type Incandescence Definition Light created from heating Light created by living organisms Chemiluminescence Energy is absorbed and immediately re-emitted as a different wavelength Phosphorescence Light created by friction or crushing Light created from high voltage electricity Light-emitting diode Duct tape, lifesaver mints Lightning Firefly, angler fish Example

## Glow stick CFL bulbs

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SNC2D Exam Review 2. Place the following types of electromagnetic waves in order from smallest wavelength to largest wavelength: x-rays, visible light, radio waves

3. While traveling down the highway (posted speed limit: 100 km/h), you estimate that you are traveling 20 m/s. Will you get ticketed for speeding? Write down your conversion factors, and show all your steps. (from handouts)

## gt . Solve for t. (from handouts) 2

6. Write the following in scientific notation, and then round each of the original numbers to 3 significant digits. (from handouts) Scientific notation 0.006087 43, 300.78 g

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## 8. What is the Law of Reflection? (pages 480-485, 489-491)

9. Draw a sketch of a light ray traveling from glass (index of refraction, n = 1.52) into water (n = 1.33). Make sure you draw a normal and show whether the ray bends towards the normal or away from the normal. (pages 515-519; 524-528, 535-537)
glass

water

Table #1: The Index of Refraction of Various Media Medium Air/vacuum Water Ethyl alcohol Quartz Vegetable oil Acrylic Glass Zircon Diamond Index of Refraction (n) 1.00 1.33 1.36 1.46 1.47 1.49 1.52 1.92 2.42 11. When light travels from water to glass, would it bend towards the normal or away from the normal? 10. Would you expect light passing through glass to travel faster or slower than through ethyl alcohol?

12. The speed of light in a mysterious substance is 2.04 108 m/s. Calculate the index of refraction and check values in Table #1 above to determine what the substance is. Write down all givens, show all steps. (pages 515-519; 524-528, 535-537)

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SNC2D Exam Review 13. A futuristic science fiction novel writes about a very special material with an index of refraction of 0.90. What is the speed of light in this material? Write down all givens, show your steps (algebra or formula triangle). Why would this material be so special? (pages 515-519; 524-528, 535-537)

14. In the novel Lord of the Flies, a band of marooned boys use the eyeglasses of a nearsighted boy to focus light and start fires for warmth and cooking. However, diverging lenses are required to correct nearsightedness, and cannot be used to start fires. Sketch a converging and a diverging lens and then sketch what happens to parallel rays when they pass through the lenses to show why diverging lenses cannot be used. (pages 551-552)

15. For the following converging lens system, measure the focal length. Label the principal axis and the lens axis. Use the rules for drawing ray diagrams (Parallel Ray, Centre Ray and Focal Ray) for converging lenses to find the resulting image. Describe the image using SALT (Size, Altitude, Location, Type). (pages 554-556)

2f

2f

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SNC2D Exam Review 16. For the following converging lens system, draw a ray diagram to show why no focused image is formed (i.e. you should be able to show that a Parallel Ray and a Centre Ray do not converge in this case). (pages 554-556)

2f

2f

17. An object located 40 cm away from a converging lens produces a focused image 15 cm away from the lens on the other side of the lens. (pages 562-564) a. b. c. d. What is the magnification of this lens system? What kind of image is produced (real or virtual)? Is the image upright or inverted? What is the focal length of the lens?

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SNC2D Exam Review 18. A converging lens with a focal length of 20 cm has a 75 cm tall object placed 30 cm away from the lens. (pages 562-564) (a) (b) (c) (d) Where will the focused image be produced? What kind of image is produced, and what is its attitude? What is the magnification of this lens system? How tall is the image?

## 19. Give 2 common examples of refraction phenomena.

20. Give 2 examples of applications that make use of total internal reflection.

## Climate Change Unit Review Questions:

Weather and Climate, Main Components Affecting Earths Climate (p. 319-321, 322-329) 1. What is the difference between weather and climate?

2.

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## SNC2D Exam Review

3.

How does the earths rotation on its axis affect the earths climate?

4.

Draw 2 sketches showing the tilt of the earth and incoming rays from the sun for summer and winter, and explain how the earths tilt and revolution around the sun give us seasons.

5. Which country would you expect to have a warmer climate; Guatemala or Nunavut? Explain.

Earths Energy Balance, Transfer of Energy (pp. 325-328) Vocabulary and concepts: Electromagnetic spectrum, radiation, conduction, convection, albedo, heat sink, infrared radiation 1. a) b) c) d) The earth absorbs energy from the sun and re-emits it as heat in the form of ultraviolet radiation gamma rays infrared radiation x-rays

2. Draw 2 diagrams to explain how energy is transferred through conduction and through convection. For each of these methods of energy transfer, explain what substances they take place in. Conduction: Convection:

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## SNC2D Exam Review

3. Does warm water rise or fall in cold water? Explain why this happens.

4. If the polar ice caps began to melt, replacing the earths snow cover with open water, how would this affect the overall albedo of the earth? What possible effect might this have on global climate?

The Atmosphere and Hydrosphere (p. 330-335) 1. Name the 3 most abundant gases in the earths atmosphere and the approximate percentages of each. Name 1 other gas in the atmosphere.

2. Give 3 reasons why life as we know it would not be possible without the atmosphere.

The Greenhouse Effect (pp. 338-342, 384-389) 1. What is the difference between the natural greenhouse effect and the anthropogenic Greenhouse Effect?

## 2. Identify 3 major greenhouse gases, and give 2 sources of each.

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SNC2D Exam Review 3. Why does the level of CO2 in the atmosphere fall in the spring and summer and then rise in the fall and winter?

4. Why is carbon dioxide considered to be the most important GHG, even though methane and water vapour absorb more heat?

Clues to Past Climate (pp. 358-360) 1. What climate information do ice cores give, and why are ice cores important as records of past climate compared to other records of past climate (e.g. human measurements of temperature)?

2. What might be 1 advantage of using tree rings as a proxy record? What are 2 disadvantages or limitations of tree rings?

Long-term and Short-term Changes in Climate (pp. 348-352) 1. What is the difference between an ice age and an interglacial period?

## 2. Explain how large volcanic eruptions might affect short-term climate.

3. What is El Nino?

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SNC2D Exam Review 4. What is a solar cycle, and how might the solar cycle affect short-term climate on earth?

Evidence for Climate Change (pp. 373-377) 2. List 3 pieces of evidence that support the hypothesis of climate change.

## 3. What are 2 reasons that sea levels are rising?

4. Why do the records of increasing surface temperatures and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels support the hypothesis of anthropogenic (human-caused or human contributed) climate change over the last 150 years?

## 5. In what ways do ecosystem changes provide evidence of climate change?

Feedback Loops and Climate (pp. 355-357, 388-389) 1. What is feedback? What is the difference between positive feedback and negative feedback?

2. With the use of a diagram, explain how rising temperatures, melting ice sheets, and albedo might be connected in a feedback loop.

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## SNC2D Exam Review

Effects of Climate Change (Notes, pp. 412-416, 419-422) For any 3 of the following areas, give 2 possible or current effects of climate change and indicate why these effects are important: Extreme Weather, Freshwater Impacts, Forest Impacts, Imperilled Ecosystems, Global Meltdown, Health, Economic Risks.

Taking Action on Climate Change (pp. 423-428, 429-432) 1. What is the Kyoto Protocol?

2. What are 3 types of action individuals can do about climate change, and why would these actions be useful?

3. What are 3 types of action that government, industry and businesses can take, and why would these actions be useful for fighting climate change?

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## Cells, Tissues and Living Systems Unit Review Questions:

Plant and Animal Cells, Cell Theory, Cell Structure (p. 29, 30-32) 1. The cell theory states that:
a. b. c. 2. How are prokaryotic cells different from eukaryotic cells? Give one example of each.

## 3. Label the parts of the animal cell.

2. 1. 3. 4. 8. 5.

7.

6.

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## SNC2D Exam Review

4. Referring to question 3, list the numbered parts of the animal cell and fill in their respective functions in the table below: Cell Structure
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Function

6. 7. 8.

1. (green)

2. 3.

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## SNC2D Exam Review

6. By referring to question 5, list the numbered parts of the plant cell and fill in their respective functions in the table below: Cell Structure
1. 2. 3.

Function

## Cell Division, Cell Cycle (pp. 36-37, 40-43)

1. Refer to the diagrams below for question 3.

D A

B
Which of the following diagrams (A-F) shows:

E F

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## Cancer (pp. 48-55)

1. Describe the four steps of tumour formation.

2. How does a doctor diagnose cancer once he or she has located a tumour?

3. What are some reasons why cancer might recur after it has been successfully removed from a person?

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## 5. Explain the difference between a benign and a malignant tumour.

The Animal Body - Levels of Organization, Stem Cells (pp. 73-76, 77-79)
Label the levels of organization in the following organism.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5. organism

2. For the following tissues types, complete the table using the phrases provided: supporting/transporting digestive tract/heart Tissue Type Connective Nervous Tissue Muscle Tissue Epithelial Tissue 3. For the following stem cells, complete the table using the phrases provided: movement bones/tendons Function communication skin/digestive tract covering/lining brain/spinal cord

Where found

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SNC2D Exam Review found in embryo totipotent Umbilical cord Type of Stem cell Embryonic Adult Umbilical brain, bone marrow blood cells, brain cells multipotent blood and immune cells Types of cells it makes

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## The Circulatory System, The Respiratory System (pp. 83-87, 91-94)

1. Explain how gaseous exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the lungs. (Make sure to include a sketch of an alveolus, and the role diffusion plays in the process)

2. As a medical doctor, what are some life style changes you would recommend a patient who has a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease?

## 5. What is the role of platelets?

6. List the three (3) types of blood vessels which make up the circulatory system.

## 7. Which type of blood vessel carries blood towards the heart?

8. Which type of blood vessel carries blood away from the heart?

9. In which type of blood vessel does diffusion of oxygen/nutrients and the removal of carbon dioxide/waste take place?

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