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Dalam Bahasa Inggris ada 8 jenis kata (8 Parts of Speech) yang sering disingkat PANCAVIP:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 1.

PRONOUN (Kata Ganti) ADJECTIVE (Kata Sifat) NOUN (Kata Benda) CONJUNCTION (Kata Sambung) ADVERB (Kata Keterangan) VERB (Kata Kerja) INTERJECTION (Kata Seru) PREPOSITION (Kata Depan)

EXAMPLES I, We, You, They, He, She, It Beautiful, Good book, table, cat and, but, or, in the school, today, seriously write, read, walk, hello!, dammit!, at, in, on, turn on, smile at

PRONOUN (Kata Ganti) Kinds of Pronoun (Macam-Macam Pronoun) Subject Object Possessive Pronoun Pronoun Pronoun Before Noun After Noun I Me My car The book is Mine We Us Our . ... Ours You You Your . . Yours They Them Their . ... Theirs He Him His . .... His She Her Her . .... Hers It It Its . ... Its Demonstrative Pronoun This That these those the former the latter Relative Pronoun Who Whom Which That When Where Interrogative Pronoun What? Who? When? Where? Why? How?

Reflexive Pronoun Myself Ourselves

Yourself/ yourselves

Themselves Himself Herself Itself Reciprocal Pronoun Each other, One another

Definite Indefinite Pronoun Pronoun The other(s) All/ any/ both/ each/ either/ other(s)/ another/ few/ many/ more/ neither/ none/ some/ someone/ something/ anything/ one/ ones/ half Penggunaan Pronouns: 1. Subject Pronoun diletakkan sebelum verb Example: I buy a book. 2. Object Pronoun diletakkan setelah verb Example: Budi give me a book. 3. Possessive Pronoun

Before Noun terletak sebelum Noun (kata benda) Example: Fazida took my book last night b. After Noun terletak setelah Noun (kata benda) Example: Fazida took mine book last night 4. Reflexive Pronoun a. Menegaskan Subject = I myself saw you last night b. Menegaskan Object = Did you see me myself at night? c. Sebagai Object (S=O) = She can help herself d. Jika ada by=alone = He did his homework by himself e. Bentuk yang lain = I cook myself noodles = I cook noodles for myself 5. Demonstrative Pronoun (kata ganti penunjuk) Example: This is a good picture 6. Relative Pronoun (kata ganti penghubung) Example: The man who is standing in front of my class is my brother 7. Interrogative Pronoun (kata ganti penanya) Example: who will visit you tomorrow? 8. Reciprocal Pronoun (kata ganti saling) Example: we must forgive each other 9. Definite Pronoun (kata ganti tertentu) Example: You have 2 books. You give me one book. Where is the other? 10. Indefinite Pronoun (kata ganti tak tentu) Example: You have 9 books. You give me one. Give me another! %%%%%%%%% 2. ADJECTIVE (kata sifat) Macam-Macam Adjective Dan Penggunaannya 1. Descriptive Adjective (menggambarkan) she is beautiful, cute, nice, and polite 2. Demonstrative Adjective (kata sifat sebagai penunjuk) This book, that dictionary. 3. Distributive Adjective (bersifat distribusi) each student, every teacher 4. Possessive Adjective (kepunyaan sebelum kata benda/ Possessive Before Noun) my book, your dictionary, their school 5. Interrogative Adjective (kata tanya sebagai kata sifat) what lesson?, which car?, how many students? 6. Numeral Adjective (bilangan sebagai kata sifat) one pen, two books, the first love, the second chance 7. Quantitative Adjective (jumlah) much money, many teachers, little water, few words %%%%%%%%% NOUN (Kata Benda) Macam-Macam Noun Dan Penggunaannya 1. Countable Nouns (kata benda yang dapat dihitung) book, pen, dictionary, car, cat. 2. Uncountable Nouns (kata benda yang tidak dapat dihitung)



water, oil, sugar, coffee, tea, light, smog, air, salt Concrete Nouns (kata benda yang berwujud) table, book, bag, computer 4. Abstract Nouns (kata benda yang tidak berwujud) happiness, emotion, feeling, disappointment. 5. Common Nouns (kata benda biasa/ umum) #) book, bag, ruler, lamp. 6. Proper Noun (kata benda nama diri) London, Jakarta, Serayu, Kalibeber, Muhammad, Supra, Shogun, 7. Collective Nouns (kata benda kumpulan) a box, a bundle, a club, a team, a family, a group 8. Material Nouns (kata benda bahan baku) gold, silver, wood, steel, bronze, tin. 9. Singular Nouns (kata benda tunggal) book, pen, student, child, car, man, woman, cat. 10. Plural Nouns (kata benda jamak) books, pens, students, children, cars, men, women, cats. 3. %%%%%%%%%


CONJUNCTION (Kata Sambung) Macam-Macam Conjunctions 1. Coordinarting Conjunctions (Mengumpulkan/ Menambah) a. Cumulative Conjunctions (mengumpulkan/ menambah) Examples: CONJUNCTION MEANING - and - (dan) - both ... and - (dan: juga) - also - (juga) - as well as - (dan juga) - no less than - (dan sama tarafnya) - not only but also - addition - furthermore - like wise - besides - again - moreover b. Alternative Conjunctions (pemilihan antara 2/ lebih) Examples: CONJUNCTION MEANING - Or -

- or else - either or - neither nor c.

Adversative Conjunctions (pertentangan) Examples: CONJUNCTION MEANING - Yet - Still - However - But - Nevertheless - Whereas Illusive/ Illative Conjunctions (menunjukkan kesimpulan) Examples: CONJUNCTION MEANING - Therefore - Hence - Accordingly - Consequently - So - Wherefore - Thus - Thereby - Otherwise - Moreover


2. Sub-ordinating Conjunctions (Kalimat Bertingkat) Examples: CONJUNCTION MEANING - After - Because - Though - Before - Since - as soon as - that - even - although - when - until - in order that 5. %%%%%%%%% ADVERB (kata keterangan) Macam-Macam Adverbs 1. Adverb of Manner (Keterangan Cara)

Menjawab pertanyaan How dan menerangkan cara bagaimana sesuatu dilakukan atau terjadi, misalnya: Lazily, Happily, quickly, fast, hard. Beautifully, greedily, slowly, etc. 2. Adverb of Place (Keterangan Tempat) Menjawab pertanyaan Where dan menerangkan dimana sesuatu terjadi atau dilakukan, misalnya : At home, in Malang, at school, here. In the office, out-side, in Medan, etc. 3. Adverb of Time (Keterangan Waktu) Menjawab pertanyaan When atau What time dan menerangkan kapan sesuatu dilakukan, misalnya : In the morning, at 7 oclock, in June. Yesterday, two days ago, just now, etc. 4. Adverb of Frequency (Keterangan Frekuensi) Menjawab pertanyaan How often dan menerangkan sering tidaknya sesuatu dilakukan, misalnya: Often, frequently, usually, generally. Commonly, reraly, ever, always. Hardly ever, seldom, sometimes, etc. %%%%%%%%% 6. VERB (kata kerja) Macam-Macam Verbs No. Verbs 1. V-1 (Infinitive) 2. V-2 (Preterete/ Past Tense) 3. V-3 (Past Partiiple) 4. V-ing (Present participle) 5. V-1 (s/es) (Special Verb) 6. Transitive Verb (Perlu Object) 7. Intransitive (Tidak Perlu Object) 8. Gay Verb (Transistif dan Intransitif) 9. Ordinary Verb (K.K.Biasa) 10. Auxiliary verb (k. Kerja Bantu) 11. Linking Verb (K.K. yang tidak yang

Examples Call, Speak, Write, Put, ...... Called, Spoke, Wrote, Put, ...... Called, Spoken, Written, Put, ..... Calling, Speaking, Writing, Putting, ...... Calls, Speaks, Writes, Puts ...... Call, Read, Eat, Write, Drink ...... Run, Go, Cry, Fly, Sleep . Study, Fly, .. Eat, Sit, Go, Read, Keep, . do, does, have, has, did, ...... is, feel, .

12. 13.

Menunjukkan Aktivitas) Regular Verb (Kata Kerja Beraturan) Irregular Verb (K.K. Tak Beraturan)

Study- Studied- Studied Walk- Walked- Walked Eat- Ate- Eaten Write- Wrote- Written %%%%%%%%%


INTERJECTION (kata seru) Macam-Macam Interjections (Kata Seru) 1. Kegembiraan : hurray! 2. Persetujuan : bravo! 3. Perhatian : hush! 4. Ketidaksabaran : pshaw! 5. Kesedihan : alas! 6. Kejemuan : heigh-ho! 7. Celaan : fie! fie! 8. Amarah : dammit! %%%%%%%%%


PREPOSITION (kata depan) Macam-Macam Prepositions (Kata Depan): 1. Free Preposition (bebas) On : - untuk hari-hari dalam seminggu : on Sunday........ - untuk tangal saja/ tanggal+bulan/lengkap : on Marc 5, 2004 In : - untuk bulan saja : in Marc, in July...... - untuk tahun saja : in 1986, in 1988..... At : untuk menunjukkan jam : at 7 oclock............ 2. Bound Preposition (terkait): - Turn on : Menyalakan - Go on : Melanjutkan - look at : Memperhatikan - Get in : Masuk - Interested : Tertarik - Smile at : Tersenyum %%%%%%%%%