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ADULT LEARNING Irfannuddin Faculty of Medicine University of Sriwijaya (FAMOUS) Objectives Backgrounds for adult learning Characteristic of adult

lt learner Motivate the adult learner The ways of being adult learner Key Questions Why should I be as adult learner ? What is adult learner ? What is adult learner look like ? How to be an adult learner ? What should I do as adult learner ? A story A Medicine man with MD John Capsul,MD; is a clever doctor, his IPK is more than 2,5 when graduated from FAMOUS in 7 years. Now, he work in a very isolated island that can be reach after 2 days journey from a very isolated town. All people come to him for care cause there is no alternative, so that he got a lot of patient. After 10 years, he already rich, but know he also be a medicine man with MD. Why ??? What ever the diseases, what ever the symptoms the medicine only : AB & PCT Your story Buying a new Branded-Hand phone What do you do first ? Why should I be as adult learner? In medical profession, there are specialist even sub-specialist !! Why ? Medical science is a huge, deep, and very complicated science Medical science always developed and dynamically changed in every day Medical science is combination of art and science that a lot of variation in every parts

Free to direct your self Actively involve in the learning process Have a perspective about topics Work on projects base on your interests Teachers only as facilitators guiding your own knowledge rather than supplying the facts Foundation of life experiences & knowledge Work related activity Relies on prior knowledge & experience Draw out your experience & knowledge which is relevant to the topics Relate theories & concepts to the learning Goal-oriented Appreciate the programs Goals & objectives must be known early Pursues accuracy rather than speed Relevancy-oriented Must see a reason for learning something Choose the applicable to your work/ responsibilities Example: Choose the projects that reflect your own interests Practical Looking for respect Focus on a lesson most useful to your goal Makes immediate application of learning Ask the teachers to explain explicitly how the lesson will be useful Should be treated as equals in experience and knowledge Voice your opinions freely in class

Why should I be as adult learner? Is it possible to be learnt completely in only 6-7 years ? Is there any guarantee that what I already learnt will not be change in the following time ? What is adult learning ? An adult learn some thing ! An adult learn : - Because he must learn for his own goal ! - Base on experience ! - Best by doing Example: An adult learning how to drive a car : - Goal : He want to be a good driver - Experience : He realize that, car different with cycle - Doing : He learn by trying to drive Result : He know how to drive a car and he can do it What is adult learners look-like ? Characteristics of adult learners: 1. Autonomous and self-directed 2. Accumulated a foundation of life experience and knowledge 3. Goal-oriented 4. Relevancy-oriented 5. Practical 6. Looking for respect Characteristics of Adult Learner AUTONOMOUS & SELF-DIRECTED

How to be an adult learner MOTIVATION Escape/stimulation Break in the routine life Social relationships New friends, need for associations External expectations Fulfill the expectation/recommendations Social welfare Improve ability to serve mankind/community, participate in community work Personal advancement Higher status/job, professional advancement, rich Cognitive interest Sake of learning, seek knowledge, satisfy an inquiring mind Barrier or Stimulant Time/scheduling Money Confidence Interest Information Expected Promotion, job enrichment, job changes Enrolling your motivations Decrease the barriers !!! What should I do as adult learner ? 1. Taking responsibilities Dont say !! : OK, teach me Begin with perceptive questions : What are the goals of this lesson ? How do these goals relate to my own goal ? How can we adapt my practice on these course relevant to my goals ? How can we use the resources available ? (Library, internet, etc) Answer by your self !! 2. Making connections Seek & make connections between : Previous experience/knowledge to a new one Theory-theory Theory-practice

Theory-practice-opinion-value Pola Belajar Teacher centered to student centered Siti HildaniThaib Bagian Biologi Kedokteran dan Andrologi Fakultas Kedokteran UNSRI TUJUANPEMBELAJARAN (LEARNING OBJECTIVES): Untuk memahami: Peralihan dari strategi pembelajaran oleh dosen Ke proses pembelajaran oleh mahasiswa Pembelajaran dari sederhana ke mendalam, Proses Pembelajaran bersifat aktif Perubahanstrategis pengajaran dan pembelajaran

Identify my own learning need Know what already know Know what we still have to learn

3. Planning Identify what is impeding & take step to overcome the obstacle How best to use the time How best to apply our effort Interested in deadline Be a good manager for our own step Tips : 6 Ps of preparation : 1. Preparation time 2. Prepare the environment 3. Program flexibility 4. Proactive readiness 5. Platform skills 6. Practice, practice, practice 4. Strategic Learning Know how we learn best & seek out these ways of learning Take a deep approach to learning Make our own sense of what we are learning We know what we have to do Even be a

Teacher-centered 1. Standards-driven 2. Traditional 3. Factory model 4. Norm (bell curve) based

TRADITIONAL

SPICES
Student-centered Problem-based Integration Community-based Electives /Early Clinical exposure Systematic
5. Breadth 6. Single subjects 7. Product-oriented 8. Short time periods 9. Isolated teaching and learning 10. Rote knowledge Teacher-centered: Ruang kuliah Teacher-centered dipengaruhi oleh pola acuan yang standard. Semua mahasiswa belajar pengetahuan yang sama. Kurang variasi dalam berbagai tahap pengembangan, Semua mahasiswa mendapatkan materi yang sama dalam waktu yang sama. Teacher-centered: Fokus perkuliahan utamanya hanya pada pengajaran kurikulum. Dosen mempengaruhi apa yang seharusnya dipelajari, bila, bagaimana dan dalam kerangka waktu yang disusun

Teacher-centered
Information gathering Subject Based

Discipline-based Hospital based Standard program /Compulsory


surface learner if necessary Practice make perfect An adult learn best by doing

Apprenticeshipbased /Unsystematic

People remember 10% of what they READ 20% of what they HEAR 30% of what they SEE 50% of what they SEE & HEAR 70% of what they SAY 90% of what they DO 5. Monitoring progress Interested in receiving feed back from tutor/teacher Interested in talking to other students about your work Self evaluate on your own work Always questioning Where are we know ? Where do we begin ? What should we do ?

Student centered: 1. Constructivist-driven 2. Progressive 3. Information-age model

4. Criterion-based 5. Depth 6. Thematic integration 7. Process- and product-oriented 8. Block scheduling 9. Collaboration 10. Experiential knowledge STUDENT - CENTERED LEARNING Pada Cara pembelajaran oleh mahasiswa rencana pembelajaran, pengajaran dan penilaian oleh dosen dipusatkan pada kekebutuhan dan kemampuan mahasiswa. STUDENT - CENTERED LEARNING Ide utama cara pembelajaran ini adalah bahwa pembelajaran haruslah memberikan makna karena topiknya relevan dengan kehidupan, kebutuhan dan minat dari mahasiswa dan mahasiswa aktif berinteraksi dengan pelajaran tersebut untuk menimbulken minat memahami dan menyatukan pengetahuan yanag didapat. Ide utama cara pembelajaran ini adalah bahwa pembelajaran haruslah memberikan makna karena topiknya relevan dengan kehidupan, kebutuhan dan minat dari mahasiswa dan mahasiswa aktif berinteraksi dengan pelajaran tersebut untuk menimbulken minat memahami dan menyatukan pengetahuan yanag didapat. STUDENT - CENTERED TEACHING Pengajaran terpusat pada : mahasiswa membantu dosen dalam perencanaan intruksi yang efektif untuk setiap mahasiswa, tidak ada masalah apa ada perbedaan kebutuhan pembelajaran diantara mahasiswa. Secara alamiah, pengajaran terpusat pada mahasiswa dapat diterima sesuai kebutuhan setiap mahasiswa. Dalam penyusunan setiap pelajaran, dosen pertama kali memikirkan kebutuhan mahasiswa, baru kemudian materi dgn demikian kebutuhan mahasiswa dapat dipenuhi

Student-centered constructivist model of teaching: Model pembelajaran Constructivist membutuhkan masukan aktif dari mahasiswa dan membutuhkan upaya intellektual. Peran dosen pada pembelajaran student-centered learning adalah memfasilitasi pembelajaran mahasiswa dengan menyiapkan kerangka kerja yang memfasiliasi pembelajaran mereka Contoh: Aktivitas Dosen setelah kegiatan atau pertanyaan yang harus diselesaikan oleh mahasiswa: 1. Diskusis kelompok kecil 2. Laporan tertulis, 3. Makalah 4. Essai Student-centered constructivist model of teaching: Agar level kognisi yang lebih tinggi terjadi, mahasiswa harus membangun pengetahuan mereka melalui aktivitas yang mengikat mereka dalam pembelajaran aktif Effective learning terjadi jika mahasiswa mengambil pengetahuan yang telah mereka miliki dan digunakan untuk keperluan lain. Konsep Kunci dalam constructivism: Mhs mempersiapkan diri agar dapat mengingat dan mengulangi informasi yang mereka dapatkan Makin siap mahasiswa makin banyak yang bisa dipelajari Berbagai macam pengalaman dan data yang terkait dengan materi pembelajaran akan membentuk fondasi yg kuat shg berbagai tingkatan informasi dapat ditambahkan. Metodologi Constructivist Seorang dosen akan meemulai suatu pelajaran dengan pertanyaan untuk mengetahui apakah mhs sdh mengetahui materi yg akan dikuliahkan selanjutnya mhs dilibatkan secara aktif dalam pembahasan materi kuliah sehingga pemahaman mereka bertambah dari apa yang telah mereka ketahui sebelummnya. Aktivitas Constructivist meliputi: 1. Constructing 2. Experimenting 3. Practicing 4. Summarizing and reading 5. Conducting research and analysis 6. Articulating (writing and drawing)

BAGAIMANA CARA MENYIAPKAN PENGAJARAN BERPUSAT PADA MAHASISWA? Dalam upaya mahasiswa berperan dalam kelas, dosen jangan hanya memberikan kuliah dan membiarkan mahasiswa pasif. Dosen harus merencanakan aktivitas yang memungkinkan mahasiswa berinisiatif dan memberikan kesempatan menemukan informasi yang berguna bagi mereka BAGAIMANA CARA MENYIAPKAN PENGAJARAN BERPUSAT PADA MAHASISWA? Dosen harus mengenal semua mahasiswa secara individu, dengan demikian mereka dapat meberikan respon yang lebih baik sesuai kebutuhan dan minat individu mhs. Contoh pendekatan student-centered : Dosen memulai tiap unit pelajaran dengan menanyakan apa keinginan mahasiswa pada unit pelajaran itu. Jika mereka mau belajar tentang golf,misalnya, Dosen menyusun cerita berdasarkan berbagai aspek dari permainan golf.

PEMBELAJARAN DANGKAL & DALAM ATAU PEMBELAJARAN MANDIRI LATAR BELAKANG Ada dokter specialis atau sub-specialis. Mengapa? Ilmu Kedokteran luas, dalam dan rumit. Tidak mungkin dapat dipelajari semua dalam waktu 6-7 tahun Mahasiswa harus terus belajar setelah mereka menjadi dokter malah mungkin seumur hidup mereka Kemudian ,tidak akan ada lagi yang akan mengajar mereka - Apa yang seharusnya mereka lakukan? Pendekatan pembelajaran: 1. Dangkal (Surface approach) 2. Mendalam (Deep approach) Pendekatan dangkal : Fokus pada hapalan dan rumus Fokus pada sebagian ketimbang seluruh tugas - Sedikit pemahaman Motivasi dari luar - Contoh: Dengan Ujian Pertanyaan: 1. Bisakah anda mengingat semua materi selama masa studi 6 tahun? 2. Apakah anda puas dengan hanya mengingat tetapi tidak paham? 3. Adakah ilmu hanya penting untuk ujian atau untuk profesi anda? Pendekatan dalam : Pembelajar : 1. Aktif menelusuri untuk mengerti dalam upaya untuk memahami dengan cara membandingkan, menguji dan mengintegrasikan pengetahuan

Contoh pendekatan student-centered : Dosen harus meminta saran dari mahasiswa tentang istilah dan tatabahasa yang ingin mereka ketahui Dosen juga harus memperbolehkan mereka melakukan berbagai hal yang direncanakan sesuai dengan keinginan mereka untuk belajar Contoh student-centered approach: Dosen meberikan keleluasaan kepada mhs untuk merencakan apa yg akan mereka pelajari. Mhs akan mempelajari materi an g sesuai dgn kebutuhan mereka. Contoh Pendekatan student-centered: Lebih lanjut, mereka termotivasi untuk belajar karena mereka ikut mendesain dan merencanakan pelajaran mereka sendiri PENDEKATAN STUDENT-CENTERED : Kuliah Student centered fokus pada yang belajar daripada pada pengajar. Pengajaran Student-centered berdasarkan model konstruktif dimana mahasiswa mengkontruksi pengetahuan ketimbang menerima atau menyerap pengetahuan.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Mampu untuk menghubungkan pengetahuan baru dengan pengetahuan yang telah dimilik/dipahami Mampu untuk menghubungkan teori dengan pengalaman dengan kata kata sendiri Mampu untuk membedakan bukti dan argumen untuk generalisasi Motivasi dari diri sendiri (Intrinsic) Dibentuk dengan metode pembelajaran konstruktif dan pengalaman

Bagaimana melakukan pembelajaran pendekatan dalam? 1. Menjadi pembelajar yang mandiri 2. Focus pada perkembangan pribadi 3. Dengan Problem base atau project base learning Pembelajar mandiri : Seperti apa Pembelajar Mandiri itu? Senang belajar dan mencari peluang untuk belajar Tahu cara belajar yang terbaik dan mencarai cara ini untuk belajar Menanyakan Pertanyaan yang perceptive Membawa enthusiasme dan ide pada kuliah Dapat mengenali apa yang perlu dan menghindari yang tidak perlu Tahu apa yang telah diketahui dan tahu apa yang masih harus dipelajari Dapat mengenali kebutuhan pembelajaran mereka

BELAJAR AKTIF Apakah BELAJAR AKTIF itu? Belajar aktif adalah bentuk pembelajaran yang langsung melibatkan mahasiswa pada proses pembelajaran mereka. pasif, dimana tanpa usaha

Apa yang seharusnya Pembelajar mandiri lakukan? 1. Bertanggung jawab Jangan berkata: OK ajari saya Mulai dgn pertanyaan: Apa tujuan kuliah ini? Bagaimana hubungan dengan tujuan saya belajar? Bgmn caranya agar saya dapat menyesuaikan diri agar sesuai dengan tujuan saya? Bgmn caranya saya dpt menggunakan sumber2 pembelajaran (kuliah,perpustakaan, internet dll) Jawablah pertanyaan2 tersebut oleh anda sendiri 2. Membentuk koneksi Secara terus menerus mencari dan membuat koneksi antara theory dgn theory, theory dgn praktek, theory-praktek-opiniNilai.

Ini berbeda dengan cara pembelajaran mahasiswa hanya menerima pengetahuan misalnya dari kuliah. Apakah Belajar Aktif itu?

Belajar aktif juga lebih student-centered karena mahasiswa menjadi terlibat secara aktif dengan materi pembelajaran. Intinya: belajar aktif lebih merupakan suatu pendekatan praktik, yang melibatkan pengalaman belajar. Bagaimana caranya kita mengintegrasikan belajar aktif di ruang kuliah? Ada banyak cara untuk memadukan belajar aktif diruang kuliah. Khususnya di perkuliahan bahasa asing, dosen berbagai strategi untuk melibatkan mahasiswa. dapat menggunakan

. 3. Strategi pembelajaran Melakukan pendekatan mendalam untuk belajar dengan cara membuat simpulan sendiri tentang apa yang dipelajari Jika diperlukan dapat berperan sebagai pembelajar dengan pendekatan dangkal / sekilas Penting: Anda tahu apa yang seharusnya dikerjakan! 4. Rencana Bagaimana cara terbaik memanfaatkan waktu dan penerapannya? Memperhatikan batas waktu? Jadilah manager yang baik untuk waktu yang tersedia 5. Memantau kemajuan Berminat mendapat umpan balik dari tutor Berminat membahas dengan mahasiswa lain tentang tugas2 mereka Melakukan evaluasi diri untuk pekerjaan anda 6. Selalu bertanya : Sudah dimana sekarang? Dimana kita mulai? Apa yang harus kita kerjakan?

1. Dengan Pertanyaan dan Perintah melakukan aktivitas fisik oleh dosen. Dengan kedua pendekatan ini mahasiswa akan terlibat akif dalam proses pembelajaran. Bagaimana caranya kita mengintegrasikan belajar aktif di ruang kuliah? Cara lain : 2. Dosen mengintegrasikan aktivitas mahasiswa dengan simulasi via role-play. Konsep baru mahasiswa mempraktekkannya dalam bentuk roleplaying. Tipe aktivitas ini dapat memberikan dampak ganda pada pelajaran bahasa asing. Contoh belajar aktif di ruang kuliah Cara lain 3. TPR (Total Physical Response) yang mengharuskan mahasiswa melaksanakan aktivitas fisik sesuai perintah dosen. Misal : Dosen menyuruh : berdiri, berputar,dan duduk kembali! Pendekatan ini amat praktis dalam menyampaikan perintah dalam bahasa asing dan dapat juga digunakan untuk tujuan lain dari pembelajaran Contoh belajar aktif di ruang kuliah

Aktivitas ini melibatkan belajar aktif pada mahasiswa melalui pergerakan fisik. - Intelegensia Kinesthetic memberikan ingatan yang kuat - Tahap selanjutnya setelah mahasiswa mendapatkan praktek yang cukup, dibutuhkan kegiatan pada kelompok mereka. Dengan cara ini mahasiswa tidak hanya menerima perintah tetapi juga melakukannya Mengapa mahasiswa harus belajar aktif? Apa Keuntungannya? Memasukkan belajar aktif di ruang kuliah : - Dapat memperkaya proses pembelajaran mahasiswa. Pada pemelajaran bahasa asing belajar aktif menjadi lebih bernilai untuk meningkatkan pemahaman pada mahasiswa. - Juga lebih berkesan jika melakukan kegiatan kinesthetics, sehingga didapat manfaat lebih besar dalam pemahamann misalnya dalam pelajaran bahasa asing. Mengapa mahasiswa harus belajar aktif? Apa Keuntungannya? Hasil penelitian bahwa dengan materi yang lebih sedikit dan lebih banyak fakta dan penerapan [termasuk belajar aktif] akan memberi manfaat yang lebih besar pada pembelajaran mahasiswa." (Russell 1984) Dengan belajar aktif mahasiswa mempunyai kesempatan yang lebih banyak untuk mempraktekkan materi yang telah dipelajari sebelumnya. Mengapa mahasiswa harus belajar aktif? Apa Keuntungannya? Salah satu keunggulan dari belajar aktif adalah mengeluarkan mahasiswa dari peran pasif dan menciptakan lingkungan yang memungkinkan mereka mempraktekkan skills yang dibutuhkan." (Seeler et. al,1994)Belajar aktif dan penggunaan berbagai aktivitas yang menyatu dengan pendekatan ini memfasilitasikan kontruksi pengetahuan secara aktif, yang meningkatkan daya ingat (Step, 2000). Mengapa mahasiswa harus belajar aktif? Apa Keuntungannya? Penemu TPR, James J. Asher menyatakan manfaat dari TPR akan meningkatkan pemahaman dari pembelajaran bahasa asing yang lain misalnya reading. Menurut Asher, sekali anak2 atau orang dewasa paham maka sasaran pembelajaran bahasa asing melalui languagebody , mereka segera bisa membaca bila melihat kata tersebut di buku." (Asher,1988) Kesulitan menggunakan belajar aktif Pemakaian pendekatan ini memaksa Dosen memberikan materi lebih sedikit dalam masa perkuliahan dari biasanya.Belajar aktif melibatkan penerapan pengetahuan selama perkuliahan, yang memungkinkan mahasiswa mendapat kesempatan untuk mempraktekkan materi baru, tapi proses ini memakan waktu yang lebih banyak. Mengapa Dosen harus menggunakan cara ini? Karena dosen harus mennggunakan metode terbaik untuk memfasilitasi proses pembejaran mahasiswa sehingga efektif dan sesuai tujuan pembelajaran dan tujuan mahasiswa belajar. Asher, James J. "Brainswitching: A skill for the 21st Century." Sky Oaks Productions, Inc.Los Gatos CA, 1988 Additional Links http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed253468.html http://ncrtl.msu.edu/ When you make the finding yourself even if youre the last person on Earth to see the light youll never forget it. Carl Thank you. Sagan (1934-1996)

Sumber Bacaan : Russell. I.J., Hendricson, W.D., & Herbert, R.J. (November, 1984). Effects of lecture information density on medical student achievement. Journal of Medical Education, 59, 881-889 http://www.active-learningsite.com/sum1.htm Seeler et. al,1994: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JVME/V21-1/Seeler1.html Knowledge Web 2000

Komunikasi Dr. H.M.A.Husnil Farouk,MPH


Pendahuluan Komunikasi

Berasal dari kata communicare yang artinya berpartisipasi atau memberitahukan. Beberapa pengertian komunikasi: 1. Adalah pertukaran fakta, gagasan, opini atau emosi antar dua orang atau lebih. (Azrul azwar). 2. Adalah suatu hubungan yang dilakukan melalui surat kabar, kata-kata, simbol atau pesan yang bertujuan agar setiap manusia yang terlibat dalam proses dapat saling tukar menukar arti dan pengertian terhadap sesuatu. (Azrul azwar). 3. Adalah proses pengoperasian rangsangan (stimulus) untuk mempengaruhi orang lain. (Sukijo Notoatmojo) Rangsangan/stimulus dapat berupa suara/bunyi atau bahasa lisan, maupun berupa gerakan, tindakan, atau simbol-simbol. Proses komunikasi yang menggunakan rangsangan dalam bentuk bahasa lisan maupun tulisan disebut komunikasi verbal, sedangkan bila menggunakan simbol-simbol disebut komunikasi nonverbal. Unsur-unsur Komunikasi 1. 2. 3. 4. Komunikator (source) Komunikan (receiver) Pesan (message) Saluran(media).

H = help client solve their problems E = explain how to prevent the problem R = return to follow up Komunikasi massa Menyampaikan pesan kesehatan melalui berbagai media massa. Yang paling efektif menggunakan media tradisional.(wayang kulit, Dul Muluk) Rencana Program Komunikasi

Pengembangan Implementasi Media

Telaah Desain Komunikasi

PROSES KOMUNIKASI

Komunikator/Sumber Komunikator harus mempunyai enam variabel Kemampuan komunikasi Mempunyai sikap Mempunyai pengetahuan Mempunyai posisi sosial Berbudaya Mampu memberikan umpan balik Pesan (massage) Adalah berita (stimulasi) yang disampaikan oleh sumber kepada sasaran. Dapat berupa pendapat/hasil pemikiran sumber. Dapat dalam bentuk kata-kata maupun simbol-simbol. Dalam kesehatan dikenal 2 macam komunikasi: 1. Interpersonal communication 2. Mass Communication. Media komunikasi Adalah saluran atau alat yang digunakan sumber untuk menyampaikan pesan kepada komunikan (sasaran). Dikenal 2 macam media: Media massa Media antar pribadi Bentuk-bentuk komunikasi a. Komunikasi intrapersonal (intrapersonal communication) b. Komunikasi interpersonal (face to face communication) c. Komunikasi massa d. Komunikasi organisasi Interpersonal Communication: langsung (tatap muka) perorangan/kelompok efektif bila memenuhi : empathy Respect Jujur. Contoh: Konseling (councelling). Proses konseling. G = greet client warmaly A = ask client abaout themselves T = tell client about their problems

Analisis
Analisis. Mencakup : aspek: epidemiologi: prevalensi penyakit, karakteristik penderita, faktor-faktor resiko/penyebab utama penyakit. Aspek perilaku: perilaku masyarakat sehubungan dengan penyakit, penyebab dan cara penularan penyakit, cara pencegahannya, tindakan dan cara mencari pengobatan. Desain Komunikasi. Menentukan khalayak sasaran Menentukan tujuan Menentukan isi pesan dan media Menyusun rencana tindak lanjut ( POA) Pengembangan media Membuat desain media Uji coba Revisi dan finalisasi media Implementasi, monitoring, assesment Pelatihan petugas Peluncuran ( lounching) Pemantauan proses Pengukuran dampak Telaah (review) Analisis hasil assessment Rekomendasi tindak lanjut Perencanaan kembali (replan) Faktor-faktor yang (7 C) 1. Credibility 2. Content 3. Context mempengaruhi komunikasi

4. 5. 6. 7.

Clarity Continuity and Consistency Channels Capability of audience

Tahap proses penerimaan pesan 1. Awareness 2. Interest 3. Evaluation 4. Trial 5. Adoption

ELM MODEL DALAM KOMUNIKASI Sebagai salah satu bentuk komunikasi persuasi Ada 2 rute : * Rute sentral * Rute Periferal Pemilihan rute tergantung pada : * Kemampuan * motivasi KOMUNIKSASI EFEKTIF KOMUNIKASI Komunikasi adalah bagian penting dari mempengaruhi orang lain untuk memperoleh apa yang kita inginkan. Dari semua pengetahuan dan ketrampilan yang anda miliki, pengetahuan dan ketrampilan komunikasi termasuk di antara yang paling penting dan berguna..J.A Devito,1997. Fungsi Komunikasi

KOMUNIKASI EFEKTIF KOMUNIKASI Proses pertukaraan pesan diantara dua orang, sekelompok orang Kemampuan komunikasi menunjukkan keberhasilan seseorang dalam mengirim pesan secara jelas, manusiawi, dan efisien TUJUAN KOMUNIKASI Memberikan informasi kepada para klien, kolega, bawahan, supervisor, masyarakat Mempengaruhi orang lain : merangsang orang lain, mengurangi perselisihan, menggerakkan orang lain/masyarakat untuk melakukan sesuatu Dalam organisasi digunakan untuk pemecahan masalah dan pengambilan keputusan NILAI KOMUNIKASI Sebagai sarana informasi Sebagai sarana untuk memotivasi Sebagai sarana mengekspresikan emosi Sebagai sarana mempengaruhi orang lain TANDA-TANDA KOMUNIKASI EFEKTIF Informasi yang diterima sama dengan informasi yang dikirim Umpan balik sesuai tujuan Ada hubungan saling menghargai Bahasa non verbal sesuai dengan verbal HAMBATAN DALAM KOMUNIKASI Kurangnya kemampuan dalam berkomunikasi Sikap kurang selaras Kurang mengetahui sistem sosial setempat Prasangka yang negatif Jarak fisik Kesalahan penafsiran bahasa Penyajian kurang menarik Indera kurang baik Alat bantu yang tidak memadai Komunikasi berlebihan Komunikasi hanya satu arah CARA MENINGKATKAN EFEKTIVITAS KOMUNIKASI Usahakan ada umpan balik Gunakan bahasa yang dimengerti Gunakan beberapa media Bila mungkin lakukan tatap muka Sadari arti simbolik bahasa non verbal Persepsi yang positif thd orang lain Meningkatkan kemampuan mendengarkan Kejelasan pernyataan tentang pesan Penggunaan emosi yang tepat CARA MENDENGARKAN AKTIF Punya kesediaan untuk mendengarkan Mampu menunda penilaian sampai pihak menyampaikan informasi secara lengkap Memfokuskan perhatian secara penuh Usahakan jangan menyela Mampu menyimpulkan dan mengambil intisari Mampu memberikan tanggapan MENGELOLA DIRI DALAM KOMUNIKASI Sikap / gerakan badan Suara Kontak mata Pengaturan pernafasan Bahasa yang digunakan Penampilan diri

Mencapai pengertian satu sama lain Membina kepercayaan Mengkoordinir tindakan Merencanakan strategi Melakukan pembagian pekerjaan Berbagi rasa Mendengarkan Bertingkah laku asertif Menyelesaikan konflik Membaca situasi Melakukan persuasi digunakan

Waktu yang untuk mendengarkan Penelitian Rankin (1928) 45 % mendengarkan 30 % berbicara 16 % membaca 9 % menulis Penelitian Barker (1980) 53 % mendengarkan 17 % membaca 16 % berbicara 14 % menulis

Waktu yang digunakan untuk mendengarkan Mendengarkan proses aktif menerima rangsangan (stimulus) telinga. Mendengarkan adalah ketrampilan yang sangat penting, tetapi umumnya kita memiliki ketrampilan yang buruk. Seorang kolonel kepada Perwira Pelaksana Besok malam kira-kira pukul delapan malam Komet Halley akan kelihatan di daerah ini, suatu peristiwa yang hanya terjadi satu kali dalam setiap 75 tahun. Kumpulkan pasukan di distrik militer setempat, lengkap dengan pakaian kerja, dan fenomena yang jarang terjadi ini akan saya jelaskan kepada mereka. Namun seandainya hujan turun malam itu, kita tidak akan dapat apa-apa , kumpulkan pasukan di gedung terater dan akan saya jelaskan filmnya. Perwira Pelaksana kepada Komandan Kompi Atas perintah kolonel besok pukul delapan malam Komet Halley akan tampak di sekitar distrik militer ini. Kalau hujan turun kumpulkan pasukan lengkap dengan pakaian kerja. Kemudian bariskan merka menuju teater dimana akan terjasi sebuah fenomena langka yang hanya akan nampak satu kali dalam 75 tahun. Komandan Kompi kepada Letnan Atas perintah kolonel kira-kira pukul delapan besok malam Komet Halley yang fenomenal itu dengan pakaian kerjan akan muncul di dalam gedung teater. Apabila hujan turun di daerah distrik militer, kolonel akan memberi perintah lain, yaitu suatu perintah yang hanya diberikan sekali dalam 75 tahun Letnan kepada Sersan Besok jam delapan malam kolonel akan muncul di gedung teater dengan Komet Halley suatu peristiwa yang hanya akan terjadi satu akali

45 0

lain

selesai

dalam setiap tujuh Puluh lima tahun. Kalau hujan turun, maka kolonel akan memerintahkan sikomet turun ke distrik militer Sersan kepada Prajurit Apabila besok hujan turun pada pukul delapan malam jendral Halley berusia 75 tahun yang fenomenal itu yang diiringi oleh pak kolonel, akan mengendarai kometnya untuk meninjau distrik militer ini dengan menggunakan pakaian kerjanya Hambatan-hambatan mendengar Sibuk dengan diri sendiri

ide

KOMUNIKA

Pesan
TUJUAN

Sibuk dengan masalah-masalah eksternal

Perseps
noise

Asimilasi (kecenderungan merekonstruksi pesan sedemikian hingga sesuai dengan sikap, prasangka, kebutuhan, nilai diri) Faktor kawan atau lawan Mendengar yang diharapkan (hanyut dalam pesan pembicara, tidak mendengar apa yang dikatakan melainkan mendengarkan apa yang kita harapkan).

Saluran
MEDIA
Umpan balik

IND

Skill Komunikasi
Komponen dalam komunikasi IDE /GAGASAN KOMUNIKATOR PESAN MEDIA Panca indra PENERIMA Ketrampilan Persepsi dalam Komunikasi Buatlah segitiga sama kaki dengan sudut lancipnya 45 0 Buat lingkaran dengan menempel pada sudut lancip bagian bawah sebelah kiri Buatlah bujur sangkar yang ujung kanan bagian atasnya menempel pada lingkaran Sehingga ketiga bangunan tersebut membentuk sudut 45 0 dengan sumbu horisantal. Faktor komunikasi Siapa Pesan Media Tempat Situasi Hambatan Komunikasi

Latar belakang Bahasa Sikap Waktu Lingkungan

Etika Berkomunikasi Diam dan Menyimak Tidak Memotong Pembicaraan Tidak meninggalkan lawan bicara Tidak menepis pembicaraan lawan

Tidak berusaha menunjukkan bahwa kita lebih pandai Lima Respon Empatik

Students are able to: 1. Understand learning style concepts 2. Understand types of learning styles 3. Recognize own learning styles

Learning In the field of neuropsychology, personal development and education, learning is one of the most important mental function of humans and animals It relies on the acquisition of different types of knowledge, supported by some activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals and humans In general, a learning can be conscious and not conscious For example, for a small children, non-conscious learning process are as natural as breathing In fact, there is evidence for behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation From the social perspective, learning is the goal of teaching and education Conscious learning is a capacity requested by students, therefore is usually goal oriented and requires a motivation Learning Styles A learning style is the method of educating, particular to an individual that is presumed to allow that individual to learn best It is commonly believed that most people favor some particular method of interacting with, taking in, and processing stimuli or information Based on this concept, the idea of individualized learning styles originated in the 1970s, and has gained popularity in recent years It has been proposed that teachers should assess the learning styles of their students and adapt their classroom methods to best fit each students learning style Individualized Learning Styles Some people may find that they have a dominant style of learning, with far less use of the other styles Others may find that they used different styles in different circumstances There is no right mix. Nor are your styles fixed You can develop ability in less dominant styles, as well as further develop styles that you already use well Multiple Learning Styles Using multiple learning styles and multiple intelligences for learning is a relatively new approach This approach is one that educators have only recently started to recognized Traditional schooling used (and continue to use) mainly linguistic and logical teaching methods It also uses a limited range of learning and teaching techniques Many school still rely on classroom and book based teaching, much repetition, and pressured exams for reinforcement and review A result is that we often label those who use these learning styles and techniques as bright Those who use less favored learning styles often find themselves in lower class, with various not-so-complimentary labels and sometimes lower quality of teaching This can create positive and negative spirals that reinforce the belief that one is smart or dumb It also uses a limited range of learning and teaching techniques Many school still rely on classroom and book based teaching, much repetition, and pressured exams for reinforcement and review A result is that we often label those who use these learning styles and techniques as bright Those who use less favored learning styles often find themselves in lower class, with various not-so-complimentary labels and sometimes lower quality of teaching This can create positive and negative spirals that reinforce the belief that one is smart or dumb Recognize Your Own Learning Styles By recognizing and understanding your own learning styles, you can use techniques better suited to you This improved the speed and quality of your learning

Mengulangi kata demi kata Mengatakan kembali isi Merefleksikan perasaan Mengatakan kembali isi serta merefleksikan perasaan

Melihat kapan empati tidak diperlukan Ungkapan menunjukan pengertian

Nampaknya, anda merasa bahwa Yang saya tangkap adalah bahwa Jadi, menurut penglihatan anda. Sependengaran saya, anda.. Anda pasti merasa Apa yang anda sampaikan tampaknya seperti, saya

Kiat Komunikasi Efektif

Gunakan umpan balik Saluran komunikasi yang banyak Mengenali siapa penerima pesan Komunikasi tatap muka Menyadari dampak bahasa tubuh Menanggapi isi pembicaraan Sopan dan wajar Menghormati semua orang Mengendalikan emosi

Dll LEARNING STYLES Muhaimin Ramdja Unit Pengembangan dan Evaluasi Pendidikan (UPEP) FK Unsri Learning Objectives

The Learning Styles are: Visual (spatial). You prefer using picture, images, and spatial understanding Aural (auditory-musical). You prefer using sound and music Verbal (linguistic). You prefer using words, both in speech and writing Physical (kinesthetic). You prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch Logical (mathematical). You prefer using logic, reasoning and systems Social (interpersonal). You prefer to learn in groups or with other people Solitary (intrapersonal). You prefer to work alone and use selfstudy

Why Learning Styles? Your learning styles have more influence than you may realize You preferred styles guide the way you learn They also change the way you internally represent experiences, the way you recall information, and even the words you choose Understanding the Basis of Learning Styles Research show us that each learning style uses different parts of the brain By involving more of the brain during learning, we remember more of what we learn Researchers using brain-imaging technologies have been able to find out the areas of the brain responsible for each learning style Learning Styles-Brain Area Visual. The occipital lobes at the back of the brain manage the visual sense. Both occipital parietal lobes manage the spatial orientation Aural. The temporal lobes handle aural content. The right temporal lobe is especially important for music Verbal. The temporal and frontal lobes, especially two specialized areas called Brocas and Wernickes areas (in the left hemisphere of these 2 lobes) Physical. The cerebellum and the motor cortex (at the back of the frontal lobe) handle much of our physical movement Logical. The parietal lobes, especially the left side, drive our logical thinking Social. The frontal and temporal lobes handle much of our social activities. The limbic system also influences both the social and solitary styles. The limbic system has a lot to do with emotions, moods and aggression Solitary. The frontal and parietal lobes, and the limbic system, are also active with this system

The Visual (Spatial) Learning Style You prefer using images, pictures, colors, and maps to organize information and communication with others You can easily visualize objects, plans and outcomes in your minds eye You also have a good spatial sense, which give you a good sense of direction You can easily find your way around using maps and you rarely get lost When you walk out of an elevator, you instinctively known which way you turn

You love drawing, scribbling and doodling especially with colors You typically have a good dress sense and color balance Common phrases Lets look at it differently See how this works for you I cant quite picture it Lets draw a diagram or map Id like to get a difference perspective I never forget a face The Aural (Auditory-Musical-Rhythmic) Learning Style You like to work with sound and music You have a good sense of pitch and rhythm You typically can sing, play a musical instrument, or identify the sounds of different instrument You notice the music playing in the background of movies, TV shows or other media You often find yourself humming or tapping a song or a jingle Common Phrases That sounds about right That rings a bell Its coming through loud and clear Tune in to what Im saying Clear as a bell Thats music to my ears The Verbal (Linguistic) Learning Style The verbal style involves both the written spoken word You find it easy to express yourself, both in writing and verbally You love reading and writing You like playing on the meaning or sound of words You know the meaning of many words and regularly make an effort to find the meaning of new words You use these words, as well as phrases you have picked up recently, when talking to others Common Phrases Tell me word for word Lets talk later The word youre looking for is I hear you but Im not sure I agree Let me spell it out for you In other words. The Physical (Bodily-Kinesthetic) Learning Style Its likely that you use your body and sense of touch to learn about the world around you Its likely you like sport and exercise, and other physical activities such as gardening or woodworking You would rather go for a run or walk if something bother you, rather than sitting at home You typically use larger hand gesture and other body language to communicate You probably dont mind getting up and dancing either, at least when the time is right When you are learning a new skill or topic, you would prefer to jump in and play with the physical parts as soon as possible You would prefer to pull an engine apart and put it back together, rather than reading or looking at diagrams about how it works The thought of sitting in a lecture listening to someone else talk is repulsive. In those circumstances, you fidget or cant sit still for long. You want to get up and move around Common Phrases That feels right to me I cant get a gripon this Stay in touch Get in touch with That doesnt sit right with me I have good feelings about this My gut is telling me. I follow your drift The Logical (Mathematical) Learning Style You like using your brain for logical and mathematical reasoning You can recognize pattern easily, as well as connections between seemingly meaningless content This also leads you to classify and group information to help you learn and understand it You work well with numbers and can perform complex calculations. You remember the basic of trigonometry and algebra Your often support your points with logical examples or statistics

You like games such as brainteaser, backgammon and chess You may also like PC games such as Dune II, Starcraft, Age of Empires, Sid Meier games and others Common Phrases Thats logical Follow the process, procedure, or rules Theres no pattern to this Lets make a list We can work it out Quantify it, or prove it The Social (Interpersonal) Learning Style You have a strong social style, communicate well with people both verbally and non verbally People listen to you or come to you with advice and you are sensitive to their motivations, feelings or moods You listen well and understand other views You may enjoy mentoring or counseling others You prefer to stay around after class and talk with others You prefer social activities rather than doing your own thing You typically like games that involve other people such as card games You enjoy team sport such as soccer, basketball, volleyball or hockey Common Phrases Lets work together on this We can work out Tell me what you are thinking Help me understand this Lets pull some people together to discuss Lets explore our option The Solitary (Intrapersonal) Learning Style You are more private, introspective and independent You can concentrate well, focusing your thoughts and feelings on your current topic You are aware of your own thinking, and you may analyze the different ways you think and feel You like to spend time alone You may have a personal hobby You prefer traveling or holiday in remote areas, away from crowds You prefer to work on problems by retreating to somewhere quite You may sometimes spend too much time trying to solve a problem that you could more easily solve by talking to someone You like to make plans and set goals You know your direction in life and work You prefer to work for yourself, or have thought a lot about it If you dont know your current direction in life, you feel a deep sense of dissatisfaction Common Phrases Id like some time to think it over This is what I think or feel about that Id like to get away from everyone for a while Ill get back to you on that DONT FORGET There are no good and no bad learning styles. All profiles are totally equal. Your profile is relatively stabile thus, it is not going to change radically, and should changes occur, it will be in cycles of 2-3 years. The exercises exploit the various sensoric modalities. You must exploit the knowledge and the test has imparted to you. Use the feedback you get after you have taken the test. Summary of Learning Styles I have my desires, you have yours You keep yours and Ill keep mine because each of us wants to be excellent. You have your talent and I have mine and I can admire yours. I hope you will reciprocate We can not accommodate all learning styles all of the time

General Medical Competencies Block I Faculty of Medicine University of Sriwijaya Introduction Competence is a standardized requirement for an individual to properly perform a specific job. Competence is the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified, having the ability to perform a specific role. Competency is a combination of knowledge, skills and behavior utilized to improve performance.

Level of General Competence Dreyfus and Dreyfus has introduced the levels of competence in competence development. The levels are: Novice: Rule based behavior, strongly limited and inflexible Experienced Beginner: Incorporates aspects of the situation Practitioner: Acting consciously from long term goals and plans Knowledgeable practitioner: Sees the situation as a whole and acts from personal conviction Expert: Has an intuitive understanding of the situation and zooms in on the central aspects Virtuoso: Has a higher degree of competence, advances the standards and has an easy and creative way of doing things Maestro: Changes the history in a field by inventing and introducing radical innovations The process of competence development is a lifelong series of doing and reflecting. It requires a special environment, where the rules are necessary in order to introduce novices, but people at a more advanced level of competence will systematically break the rules if the situations requires it. This environment is synonymously described using terms such as learning organization, knowledge creation, self organizing and empowerment.

General Competence In a specific organization or community you need to have the Professional Competence of the profession. The professional competencies are equal to the Occupational competencies. For all organizations and communities there is a set of primary tasks that competent people have to contribute to all the time. The four general competences are: Meaning Competence: Identifying with the purpose of the organization or community and acting from the preferred future in accordance with the values of the organization or community. Relation Competence: Creating and nurturing connections to the stakeholders of the primary tasks. Learning Competence: Creating and looking for situations that make it possible to experiment with the set of solutions that make it possible to solve the primary tasks and reflect on the experience. Change Competence: Acting in new ways when it will promote the purpose of the organization or community and make the preferred future come to life. Four stages of competence Relate to the psychological states involved in the process of progressing from incompetence to competence in a skill: 1. Unconscious incompetence

2.

3.

4.

The individual neither understands or knows how to do something, nor recognizes the deficit or has a desire to address it. Conscious incompetence Though the individual does not understand or know how to do something, he or she does recognize the deficit, without yet addressing it. Conscious competence The individual understands or knows how to do something. However, demonstrating the skill or knowledge requires a great deal of consciousness or concentration. Unconscious competence The individual has had so much practice with a skill that it becomes "second nature" and can be performed easily (often without concentrating too deeply). He or she can also teach it to others.

Medical doctor must demonstrate interpersonal and communication skills that result in effective information exchange and teaming with patients, their patients families, and professional associates.

Medical doctor are expected to: Create a therapeutically and ethically sound interaction with patients Use effective verbal and non-verbal listening skills to elicit appropriate information and communicate effectively in writing Work effectively with others as a member of a health care team Effectively communicate with a patients family and other health care professionals 5. Medical Informatics Medical doctor must be able to efficiently consult the scientific literature as a means of optimizing patient care. Medical doctor are expected to: 1. Carry out computerized medical literature searches as a means of leaning about patients diseases, and the most sound and proven effective therapeutic interventions grounded in evidence based medicine 2. Determine what information is usable based on various patient findings Medical doctor are expected to: 3. Convey their findings in a coherent manner to their attending physicians and residents 4. Use information technology to manage information and support their own education 5. Stay current with the latest information technology as it relates to medicine 6. Develop life-long learning skills 6. Population Health and Preventive Medicine Medical doctor must be cognizant of the association between the health of their patients and that of the population at large and this understanding must be grounded in a solid knowledge base and appreciation of the principles of disease prevention. Medical doctor are expected to 1. Understand the importance of preventive medicine in disease avoidance and convey to their patients the central importance of prevention as a preference to treatment of disease 2. Extrapolate the disease findings of their patients with disease prevalence locally and nationally 3. Understand the impact of complementary and alternative medical practices on their patients 4. Understand and importance of diet and exercise on disease prevention and health maintenance and be able to take a nutrition history of their patients

Medical Profession Competencies 1. Medical Knowledge 2. Patient Care 3. Professionalism 4. Interpersonal and Communication Skills 5. Medical Informatics 6. Population Health and Preventive Medicine 7. Practice-Based and Systems-Based Medical Care 1. Medical Knowledge Medical doctor must demonstrate as measured by internal and national-based examinations and skills assessments that they have a firm grasp of the clinical sciences and the basic sciences that underpin medicine; and as well the ability to apply that knowledge appropriately in the clinical setting. Medical doctor are expected to: 1. Demonstrate a working knowledge of the basic and clinical sciences 2. Demonstrate proficient clinical skills in the taking of a patient history and in carrying out a physical examination 3. Demonstrate an analytic thinking approach to clinical situations 4. Demonstrate cultural competence in dealing with patients and their families 2. Patient Care Medical doctor must be able to provide supervised patient care that is compassionate, appropriate, and effective for the treatment of health problems and the promotion of health. Medical doctor are expected to: Communicate effectively and demonstrate caring and respectful behaviors when interacting with patients and their families Gather essential and accurate information about their patients Develop patient treatment and management plans Counsel and educate patients and their families Perform competently those medical procedures considered essential for their education Provide health care services aimed at preventing health problems or maintaining health Work with health care professionals, including those from other disciplines, to provide patient-focused care 3. Professionalism Medical doctor must demonstrate a commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities, adherence to ethical principles, and sensitivity to a diverse patient population. Medical doctor are expected to: Demonstrate respect, compassion, and integrity; a responsiveness to the needs of patients and society that supersedes self-interest; accountability to patients, society, and the profession; and a commitment to excellence and on-going professional development Demonstrate a commitment to ethical principles pertaining to the provision of clinical care, confidentiality of patient information, and informed consent Demonstrate sensitivity and responsiveness to patients culture, age, sexual orientation, gender, and disabilities Dress in a manner consistent with that of a medical professional 4. Interpersonal and Communication Skills

Practice-Based and Systems-Based Medical Care Medical doctor must demonstrate an awareness of the larger context and system of health care. Medical doctor are expected to: 1. Obtain and use information about their own population of patients and the larger population from which their patients are drawn 2. Understand how patient care practices impact on the larger society and how elements of the larger system may impact on their future practice 3. Participate in the education of their patients regarding their health care 4. Know how types of medical practice and delivery systems differ from one another 5. Understand the importance of providing cost effective health care that does not compromise quality

METACOGNITIVE THINKING BLOCK 1 COMPETENCE BASED CURRICULUM (CBC) WHAT IS IT? THINKING ABOUT THINKING CONSCIOUS MONITORING & DIRECTING

CONVERSATION WITH A PROBLEM

KEY TO THE POSITIVE & ACTIVE ROLE OF THE TUTOR INFORMATION INTERNAL PROBLEM SOLVER (KNOWLEDGE IN MEMORY RECALLED FACTS CONCEPTS & PRIOR EXPERIENCE RELEVAN TO THE PROBLEM) RECALLING THOUGHT, REFLECTION, DELIBERATION METACOGNITION EXTERNAL INFORMATION MAY BE NEEDED TO ENLARGE, CORRECT & SHARPEN TO DECIDE WHAT IS NEEDED DELIBERATION & REFLECTION

STUDENTS MUST NOT BE DIRECTED: TO WHAT SHOULD BE LEARNED TO WHAT DEPTH IN WHAT SEQUENCE METACOGNITIVE SKILLS IMPORTANT NOT ONLY IN SCHOOL, BUT THROUGHOUT LIFE CONSCIOUS AWERENESS OF ONES KNOWLEDGE CONSCIOUS ABILITY TO UNDERSTAND, CONTROL & MANIPULATE ONES OWN COGNITIVE PROCESS POTENTIALLY CONSCIOUS AND POTENTIALLY CONTROLLABLE METACOGNITIVE SKILL AS A LEARNER NEED: KNOWLEDGE OF FACTUAL INFORMATION BASIC SKILLS: ENABLE TO MASTER INFORMATION SOLVE PROBLEM MORE EASILY SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING STRUCTURE OF TUTORIAL PROCESS ROAD MAP FOR SEQUENCE OF METACOGNITIVE TO SHAPE STUDENTS SELF DIRECTED LEARNER

NEW INFORMATION CAUSES NATURE & EXTENT OF THE PROBLEM TO CHANGE

HAVE TO BE PONDERED, DELIBERATED & REFLECTED ELEMENT OF MT CONSIST OF: METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE OR

INFORMATION

METACOGNITIVE EXPERIENCE REGULATION METACOGNITIVE KNOWLEDGE THINKING ABOUT ONES OWN THINKING

KNOWLEDGE OF ONES OWN THINKING PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS OR ANYTHING RELATED TO THEM THINKING PROCESS

METACOGNITIVE EXPERIENCE OR REGULATION . SEQUENTIAL PROCESSES . EXAMPLE A LEARNER: READING A PARAGRAPH IN A TEXT QUESTION HERSELF ABOUT THE CONCEPT DISCUSSED IN A PARAGRAPH (SELF QUESTIONING) SELF QUESTION IS COMMON METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY COGNITIVE GOAL IS TO UNDERSTAND THE TEXT CANNOT ANSWER HER OWN QUESTION DOES NOT UNDERSTAND THE MATERIAL DISCUSSED DETERMINE WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE TO ENSURE THAT HE MEETS THE COGNITIVE GOAL DECIDE TO GO BACK AND RE-READ THE GOALS STUDENT ABLE . TO BECOME INDEPENDENT TO SOLVE PROBLEM TO LEARN ON THEIR OWN TO PRACTISE DEALING WITH PROBLEM TO LEARN TO IDENTIFY WHAT THEY NEED TO LEARN UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF THE TEACHER (AS TUTOR) ATTENTION

CRITICAL THINKING BLOCK 1 COMPETENCE BASED CURRICULUM (CBC)


EASING THE PENALTY FOR CRITICAL AND ORIGINAL THOUGHT In classroom and in companies, people fear looking stupid or asking something that is dumb. So teacher and employers must start removing conformity and the fear of dumbness from the classroom and workplace (Carol Travis, co-author of Psychology) BACKGROUND SINCE 1980:

CRITICAL THINKING (CT) CONTRIBUTES TO DEVELOPMENT OF RATIONAL DELIBERATION RELEVANT TO DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY DEFINITION CT AS REASONABLE REFLECTIVE THINKING THAT IS FOCUSED ON DECIDING WHAT TO BELIEVE OR TO DO (ENNIS, 1991) FORMULATING HYPOTHESES ALTERNATIVE WAYS OF VIEWING A PROBLEM, QUESTION, POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS PLANS FOR INVESTIGATING SOMETHING CT IS THE PROCESS OF PURPOSEFUL, SELF REGULATORY JUDGMENT. THIS PROCESS REASONED CONSIDERATION TO EVIDENCE, CONTEXT, CONCEPTUALIZATIONS, METHODS, AND CRITERIA (ERIC, 1990) PHILOSOPHICALLY CT IS PRIMARILY APPROACHED: 1. POINT OF VIEW 1. AS THE NORM OF GOOD THINKING (RATIONAL ASPECT) 2. AS THE INTELLECTUAL VIRTUES (THE WORLD IN A REASONABLE) 2. CONCEPTUALIZE CT AS HIGHER-ORDER THINKING FOCUS ATTENTION ON THE APPROPRIATE LEARNING AND INSTRUCTION PROCESSES 3. CONCEPT OF CRITICAL PEDAGOGY CAPACITY TO RECOGNIZE AND OVERCOME SOCIAL INJUSTICE THREE DOMAINS IN CT BLOOMS TAXONOMY DEVIDES THE WAY PEOPLE LEARN INTO THREE DOMAINS. ONE OF THESE IS THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN WHICH EMPHASIZES INTELLECTUAL OUTCOMES. COGNITIVE DOMAIN THIS DOMAIN IS FURTHER DIVIDED INTO CATEGORIES OR LEVELS. THE KEY WORDS USED AND THE TYPE OF QUESTIONS ASKED MAY AID IN THE ESTABLISHMENT AND ENCOURAGEMENT OF CT, ESPECIALLY IN THE HIGHER LEVELS. LEVEL 1: KNOWLEDGE Exhibits previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers Key words: who, what, why, when, omit, where, which, choose, find, how, define, label, show, spell, list, match, name, relate, tell, recall, select. Questions: What is ? When did happen? Can you recall ? LEVEL 2: COMPREHENSION Demonstrating understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving description and stating main ideas Key words: compare, contrast, demonstrate, interpret, explain, extent, illustrate, infer, outline, relate, rephrase, translate, summarize, show, classify Questions: How would you compare ? What facts or idea show ? How would you classify the type of ? LEVEL 3: APPLICATION Solving problems by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way Key words:apply, build, choose, construct, develop, interview, make use of, organize, experiment with, plan, select, solve, utilize, model, identify Questions: How would you apply what you learned to develop ? What examples can you find to ? What approach would you use to ? LEVEL 4: ANALYSIS 1.

Examining and breaking information into parts by identify motivies or causes; making inferences and finding evidence to support generalization Key word: analyze, categorize, classify, compare, contrast, discover, dissect, divide, examine, relationships, function, motive, inference, assumption, conclusion Questions: How would you categorize ? Can you identify the difference parts ? What conclusions can you draw ?

LEVEL 5: SYNTHESIS Compiling information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions Key word: build, choose, combine,compile,compose,construct, create, design, develop, estimate, formulate, imagine, invent, make up, originate, plan, predict, propose, solve, solution, suppose, discuss, modify, change, original, improve, adapt, minimize, maximize, delete, theorize, elaborate, test, improve, happen, change Questions: Can you construct a model that would change ? How would you test ? Can you elaborate on the reason ? LEVEL 6: EVALUATION Presenting and defending opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of works based on a set of criteria Key words: award, choose, conclude, criticise, decide, defend, determine, dispute, evaluate, judge, justify, measure, compare, mark, ratem recommend, rule on, select, agree, interpret, explain, appraise, prioritize, opinion, support, importance, criteria, prove, disprove, assess, influence, perceive, value, estimate, influence, deduct Questions: How would you justify ? How would you prioritize ? What is your opinion of ?

2. SKILLS DOMAIN ANALYZING ARGUMENS, JUDGING CREDIBILITY OF SOURCES, IDENTIFYINGTHE FOCUS OF THE ISSUES, AND ANSWERING AND ASKING CLARIFYING AND/OR CHALLENGING QUESTIONS CORE CT SKILLS INTERPRETATION ANALYSIS EVALUATION INFERENCE EXPLANATION SELF-REGULATION 3. ATTITUDES DOMAIN (SO-CALLED DYSPOSITION) BE PREPARED TO DETERMINE AND MAINTAIN FOCUS ON THE CONCLUSION OR QUESTION, WILLING TO TAKE THE WHOLE SITUATION INTO ACCOUNT HOW HAS CT CHANGED MY LIFE? CT is my life; its my philosophy of life. Its how I define my self . Im an educator because I think these ideas have meaning. Im convinced that what believe in has to be able to stand the test of evaluation. John Chaffee, author of Critical Thinking SIX STEPS TO EFFECTIVE THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING 1. IDENTIFY THE PROBLEMS 2. DEFINE THE CONTEXT 3. ENUMERATE THE CHOICES 4. ANALYZE OPTIONS TO FIND THE BEST 5. LIST THE REASONS EXPLICITLY

6.

SELF-CORRECT (5 WHATS AND A WHY)

CT AT UNIVERSITY To think critically requires you to adopt a critical inquiry approach in all aspects of your university learning. In practical terms, for example, this will mean: Critically reading different text, and using the information to gain new understanding and insights on a topic or issue Using note making skills to summarise and evaluate reading, identifying meaningful relationships or connections that reach across texts In your writing assignment, initialy posing questions for explloration and then considering differing perspectives on controversial issues objectively and in a balanced manner In tutorial presentations, using creativity in exploring possibilities, analysing conflicting views, and synthesising ideas, During your professional placements/practice, exploring moral dimensions of conflicting positions and analysing value-laden issues

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

Tekanan studi psikologi menggunakan observasi perilaku Tekanan kepada pentingnya proses belajar Analisis S-R dalam studi perilaku Penelitian mengenai belajar merupakan upaya ilmu dasar bukan sekedar ilmu terapan Edwin Guthrie: contiguity antara S-R ada dalam proses belajar.Reinforcement merubah kondisi stimulus sehingga memunculkan respon tertentu yang diharapkan dan mencegah respon lain yang tidak diharapkan. Clark Hull: teori deduktif-matematis, menjelaskan kecenderungan munculnya respon berdasarkan dalil yang formal dan umum (deduktif) dan diformulasi dalam bentuk matematis. sEr = sHr x V x D x K (Ir + sIr)

Edward Tolman: teori behaviorisme purposif, yang mencakup segi positif dari konsep behavioristik dan kognitif. Tolman berpendapat bahwa melalui perilaku bertujuan, proses belajar bukanlah sesuatu situasi yang dapat diamati semuanya, tetapi proses nyata dari belajar terdiri dari operasi kognitif yang terpusat. B.F Skinner: operan conditioning, perilaku dapat dimanipulasi dengan mengelola kondisi reinforcement. Donald Hebb: physiological learning, bahwa didalam belajar terdapat proses perubahan elektrokimia didalam satu atau lebih sinaps, yang berada diantara axon dan dendrit yang dikendalikan oleh sistem syaraf pusat. Jean Piaget: teori belajar kognitif, menekankan pentingnya interaksi antara pertumbuhan fisikdan perkembangan intelektual organisma.

PSIKOLOGI BELAJAR Safri Dhaini, S. Psi. Psikolog (Ninie) RSMH Palembang 08153839922 Jl. KH. Azhari Rt. 18 no. 12 kel. 14 ulu palembang PENDAHULUAN Secara historis studi ilmiah tentang belajar dilakukan oleh psikolog. Dipelopori oleh ahli-ahli seperti Ebbinghaus (1885), Bryan dan Harter (1897, 1899) dan Thorndike (1898). Banyak Psikolog membuat pengakuan eksplisit bahwa belajar merupakan hal sentral dalam mempelajari tingkah laku (Hilgard, 1956), didukung oleh Tollman, Guthrie dan Hull. Pengaruh Pra Psikologi Terhadap Studi Belajar Filsafat: Objek studi dari para filosof adalah peranan pikiran individu dalam mempersepsikan dunianya. Aristoteles : belajar itu melalui asosiasi Tiga hukum asosiasi : contiguity, similarity dan law of contrast. Psikologi Belajar Sebagai Ilmu Pengetahuan : Psikologi belajar menggunakan pendekatan ilmiah untuk studi perilaku. Kesimpulan kesimpulan psikologis harus berdasarkan hasil observasi yang tepat dan objektif. Penelitian Awal tentang Studi Belajar Herman Ebbinghaus: penelitian mengenai ingatan terhadap nonsense sylabels. Variabel yang mempengaruhi ingatan: waktu, tipe dan jumlah materi, pengalaman. Sistem Psikologi Sistem Psikologi menjelaskan perilaku secara komprehensif sedangkan Teori Psikologi menjelaskan sebagian perilaku. Sistem-sistem Psikologi : a. Strukturalisme d. Behaviorisme b. Fungsionalisme e. Psikologi gestalt c. Asosiasionisme f. Psikoanalisa

Pendekatan-pendekatan Kontemporer Pendekatan Asosiasi dan Kognitif pendekatan asosiasi mementingkan ikatan S-R dalam belajar, sedangkan pendekatan kognitif mementingkan proses kognitif yaitu adanya proses mental yang tinggi. Pendekatan Ethologi mementingkan struktur biologis dalam mempelajari respon organisme Pendekatan Belajar Verbal dan perilaku bahasa menerapkan pendekatan asosiasi dan kognitif. PENGERTIAN BELAJAR Belajar adalah proses dimana suatu aktivitas berasal atau berubah melalui reaksi pada situasi yang ditemui, asalkan ciri perubahan aktivitasnya tidak dapat dijelaskan sebagai kecenderungan respon dasar, kematangan, atau proses tubuh organisma yang bersifat sementara. Hal-hal pokok berkenaan dengan belajar: a. membawa perubahan b. adanya kecakapan baru c. adanya usaha Ciri-ciri Perubahan Perilaku dalam Belajar 1. Terjadi secara sadar 2. Bersifat kontinu dan fungsional 3. Bersifat positif dan aktif 4. Bukan bersifat sementara 5. Bertujuan atau terarah 6. Mencakup seluruh aspek perilaku individu Perilaku Bukan Belajar Menurut,Hilgard: Respon bawaan: Gerak refleks, tropisms, insting Kematangan: pertumbuhan Kelelahan Dirambahkan oleh Wittig: Motivasi Kepekaan dan kebiasaan Adaptasi sensori Ciri-ciri fisiologis Kondisi belajar Definisi Belajar Bukan Sumber Utama Ketidaksamaan Diantara Teori-teori yang Ada Definisi belajar sangat sulit untuk diformulasikan secara utuh atau memuaskan, karena melibatkan semua aktifitas dan proses yang diharapkan untuk dimasukkan ataupun dihapus.

Teori-teori Belajar Pengaruh dari sistem/ aliran psikologi mulai berkurang pada 1930 dan beralih ke teori psikologi,sebab penelitian psikologi terfokus pada masalah proses sentral psikologi, seperti belajar, motivasi, dll. Teori-teori belajar komprehensif menjadi kekuatan baru yang dominan dalam psikologi karena: 1. Psikologi mengutamakan penelitian dan percobaan-percobaan

Kontroversi itu terdapat pada fakta dan interpretasi, tetapi bukan pada definisi. Alasan untuk mempelajari belajar yang berbeda-beda menyebabkan pemberian tekanan kepada aspek yang berbedabeda sehingga tampil seolah-olah ada pertentangan teori.

Sejumlah Masalah Tipikal yang Berhadapan dengan Teori Belajar Terdapat beberapa pertanyaan yang timbul selama meneliti tentang belajar: a. Apa batasan belajar? b. Apa peran latihan dalam belajar? c. Seberapa penting drive dan incentive, hadiah dan hukuman? d. Apa yang dimaksud dengan pengertian dan insight? e. Apakah belajar membantu seseorang mempelajari hal lain? f. Apa yang terjadi bila seseorang mengingat atau melupakan? Metode Penelitian Metode Eksperimen Observasi Naturalis Studi Kausal-Komparatif Studi Korelasi Tes Psikologi dan Survai Sejarah Kasus Klinikal Subyek Penelitian Selain Manusia Penelitian dalam Psikologi Belajar sering menggunakan binatang sebagai subyek. Alasannya: Hemat Hewan cepat bereproduksi Kesempatan yang lebih leluasa Waktu relatif tidak terbatas Kode etik yang ketat terhadap manusia Etika Penelitian Peneliti harus melindungi hak-hak subyek dan toidak menempatkan subyek dalam bahaya psikis maupun fisik. Peneliti harus menjelaskan detail prosedur penelitian dan meminta persetujuan dari subjek PENGKONDISIAN KLASIKAL Ivan P. Pavlov (1849-1936) Paradigma pengkondisian klasikal: - stimulus benar-benar netral dengan stimulus alami yang menghasilkan respon dipasangkan - setelah satu atau dua kali pemasangan stimulus netral diharapkan menghasilkan respon tertentu. Bila kondisi tersebut terjadi maka telah terjadi pengkondisian klasikal. Terminologi Pengkondisian Klasikal CS CR Pemasangan UCS UCR Pada kasus-kasus tertentu CR dan UCR tidak sama : anticipatory respon CS dapat menghasilkan respon tidak dibawah penelitian : orienting respon

Diskriminasi dan Generalisasi Stimulus Bila S diberi stimulus yang berbeda dari CS yang asli ada tiga kemungkinan respon yang akan dilakukan yaitu: a. membuat CR sama kuat dengan CR dari CS yang asli b. membuat CR kurang kuat dibanding CR dari CS yang asli c. tidak membuat CR sama sekali Kondisi (a) dan (b) Kondisi (c) generalisasi diskriminasi

Pengukuran Pengkondisian Respon Amplitudo dari respon Frekuensi dari respon Latensi dari respon Ketahanan dari pemadaman Inteval Antar Stimulus Delay conditioning Trace conditioning Simultaneous conditioning Backward conditioning Temporal conditioning Inhibition of delay Efek dari Penguatan Sebagian CR lebih tahan dari pemadaman, dibandingkan dengan CR berdasarkan dari penguatan terus menerus. PENGKONDISIAN INSTRUMENTAL B. F Skinner Proses belajar yang meliputi manipulasi akibat-akibat dari suatu respon dengan tujuan untuk menaikkan atau menurunkan probabilitas munculnya respon tersebut Latar Belakang Pengkondisian Instrumental Di awali oleh penelitian Edwaed Thorndike pada akhir 1800 dan awal 1900 eksperimen puzzle memasukkan hewan-hewan ke dalam puzzle dengan harapan dapat menemukan jalan keluarnya. = terdapat perilaku trial and error Karakteristik Pengkondisian Instrumental Penguatan (Reinforcement) Pengkondisian instrumental bisa terjadi apabila terdapat penguatan untuk mendukung atau membentuk perilaku khusus yang diinginkan. penguatan positif penguatan negatf Kontingensi Mengukur kekuatan respon Tugas-tugas diskriminatif Perbandingan Instrumental Conditioning dengan Classical Conditioning a. Respon yang dikeluarkan vs respon yang diperoleh (emitted) (elicited) b. Identifikasi stimulus Classical : hubungan antara CS-UCS atau CS-CR Instrumental : hubungan antara respon dan penguatan Shaping Shaping: pembentukan respon a. External shaping: pembentukan respon dengan cara mengontrol lingkungan dimana organisme berada b. Internal Shaping : pembentukan respon dimana kontrol yang konstan datangnya dari dalam organisma dukan dari lingkungannya Penjadwalan Penguatan Fixed ratio (FR) Variable ratio (VR) Fixed interval (FI)

Variabel-variabel Non Pengkondisian a. Respon alpha b. Habituasi c. Sensitisasi d. Pengkondisian palsu e. Hambatan laten f. Sensory preconditioning Pemadaman dan Pemulihan Spontan Pemadaman: menghentikan UCS, sehingga berkurangnya atau padamnya CR. Pemulihan spontan: UCS dipresentasikan kembali.

Variable interval (VI) - dalam pengkondisian instrumental ini respon yang diberi penguatan sebagian juga lebih tahan terhadap pemadaman dibandingkan respon dari penguatan yang terus menerus Pemadaman dan Pemulihan Spontan Pada pengkondisian ini, penghentian pemberian penguatan dapat menyebabkan pemadaman respon (extinction). Pemulihan spontan dapat terjadi bahkan tanpa penambahan penguatan

Munculnya tiga hukum asosiasi yaitu asosiasi, contiguity dan law of contrast. Aristoteles: pikiran manusia adalah organizing agent Penelitian Ebbinghaus : nonsense syllabels, yang menyimpulkan bahwa kemampuan mengingat akan menurun dengan bertambahnya waktu.

Generalisasi dan Diskriminasi Dalam tugas-tugas diskriminatif S dicoba untuk mempertimbangkan apakah ia membuat respon atau tidak. Bila ia membuat respon, maka ia melakukan generalisasi stimulus. Bila S tidak merespon, maka ia melakukan diskriminasi stimulus. Pertimbangan Lain dalam Pengkondisian Intrumental Perilaku takhayul Belajar dari kondisi tidak berdaya Biofeedback MODELING Merupakan beberapa bentuk perilaku (model) yang kemudian diikuti oleh performance atau perilkau yang sama oleh organisma Pengertian Modeling Terdapat beberapa cara pandang yang berbeda dalam mengartikan modeling: Belajar imitasi Belajar observasi Belajar sosial Belajar pengalaman Perbandingan Modeling dengan Belajar Lainnya Modeling vs Classical Conditioning belajar modeling tidak meliputi diperolehnya respon dan respon yang dipelajari bukan karena adanya stimulus khusus (CS) Modeling vs Instrumental Conditioning dalam modeling, respon organisma merupakan respon instrumental untuk mendapat penguatan. Efek penguatan tersebut hanya sebagai motivasi bukan penyebab terjadinya respon. Penguatan dalam modeling Reinforcement by the model

Belajar Berseri Subjek diberi stimulus berseri dan kemudian diminta untuk mengulangi (menyatakan) kembali apa yang telah diterimanya. Terdapat 4 metode belajar berseri,yaitu: 1. Metode antisipasi 2. Metode serial recall 3. Metode presentasi lengkap 4. Metode free recall Ada 3 tipe asosiasi untuk menganalisis belajar berseri: 1. Immediate forward association 2. Immediate backward association 3. Remote association Kurva Posisi Berseri Modifikasi Kurva Posisi Berseri Modifikasi Kurva Posisi Berseri Modifikasi Kurva Posisi Berseri Karakteristik Materi Sangat berarti: diukur dari jumlah asosiasi rata-rata suatu perolehan unit verbal. Misal: kata mama sangat berarti bagi anak dibandingkan kata komputer Nilai asosiasi: presentasi responden tentang beberapa asosiasi dari unit verbal. Memiliki kesamaan dengan karakteristik materi sangat berarti. Familiaritas: materi yang sudah dikebal oleh subjek. Penilaiannya dibuat dalam skala 1 sampai 7 (tidak familiar sampai sangat familiar). Kemampuan pengucapan: penilaian kemudahan pengucapan unit verbal. Penilaiannya dibuat dalam skala 1 sampai 7 (tidak mudah sampai sangat mudah diucapkan). Imagery: mudah tidaknya subjek membuat gambaran mental tentang materi belajar di dalam dirinya. Ketergantungan rangkaian: didasarkan atas pengetahuan bahwa fonim, huruf dan kata tergantung pada rangkaiannya. Asosiasi simetri: pasangan R-S (respon-stimulus) dipelajari sama kuat dengan pasangan S-R.

Self reinforcement Tipe-tipe Modeling Sensory modeling Verbal modeling Live vs Symbolic modeling Efek-efek Modeling Efek modeling: respon yang dihasilkan benar-benar baru. Efek hambatan dan tanpa hambatan: peniruan dilakukan dengan rasa nyaman atau tidak oleh S. Efek Perolehan: respon yang dihasilkan tidak benar-benar baru Karakteristik Modeling Kesamaan model, kesamaan karakteristik model dengan pengamat. Status model, bisa berupa posisi (jabatan) dari model atau peran model. Standar model Jika model yang diamati cukup terhormat, maka pengamat tidak hanya mempertimbangkan perilaku nyata dari model tetapi juga standar performan yang ditunjukkan oleh model. Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Belajar Modeling a. Faktor spesies b. Kompleksitas respon c. motivasi BELAJAR VERBAL Belajar verbal adalah proses pemerolehan perilaku verbal baru dalam seting sedang melakukan proses belajar Latar Belakang Belajar Verbal

PRINSIP-PRINSIP PENGUATAN DAN HUKUMAN Sebagian besar aspek psikologi belajar mempelajari penguatanpenguatan yang berfungsi meningkatkan atau memelihara kekuatan suatu respon. Tipe-tipe 1. Penguatan Positif dan Negatif Konsekuensi yangPenguatan mengikuti respon Positif Penguatan Diberikan Penguatan

Negatif hukuman hukuman dihilangkan ditunda atau (escape) dihindari (avoidance)

Pengaruh dari konsekuensi Respon diperkuat

Bila latihan dihentikan

Terjadi pemadaman respon yang memperoleh penguat (pemulihan spontan mungkin terjadi)

Perbandingan prosedur Hukuman Konsekuensi yangHukuman mengikuti respon Positif hukuman Diberikan

Negatif penguat penguat dihilangkan ditunda

2. Penguatan primer vs sekunder Penguatan primer adalah stimulus yang dapat meningkatkan atau memelihara kekuatan respon organisme secara otomatis. Penguatan sekunder adalah stimulus yang dapat meningkatkan atau memelihara kekuatan respon organisme bila organisme telah mempelajarinya. 3. Penguatan di Pengkondisian Klasikal, Instrumental dan Modeling UCS (unconditioned stimulus) sebgai penguatan di pengkondisian klasikal. Stimulus yang menyertai respon organisme sebagai penguatan di pengkondisian instrumental dan modeling 4. Prinsip Premack Beberapa keadaan performan dari perilkau diharapkan akan dikuatkan oleh perilaku yang diharapkan yang tidak

Pengaruh konsekuensi

dariMelemahnya respon

Bila latihan dihentikan Terjadi munculnya kembali respon yang memperoleh hukuman (kecuali bila diberikan tekanan)

Penguatan Sekunder Penguatan yang dipelajari, yang berfungsi sebagai sumber informasi dalam periode waktu antara membuat respon dan identifikasi informasi beberapa penguatan yang lain yang terdapat didalam jalur penguatan sekunder.

Making PowerPoint Slides


Penilaian Penguatan Tiga teknik untuk menilai apakah stimulus sebagai penguatan atau bukan penguatan: 1. Apakah stimulus dapat meningkatkan atau memelihara respon? 2. Apakah stimulus dapat memperpanjang tidak terjadinya pemadaman? 3. Apakah stimulus dapat sebagai penguat untuk beberapa respon lainnya? Apabila stimulus dapat memenuhi teknik no 3 maka dapat dikategorikan sebagai penguatan yang cukup kuat. Penundaan Penguatan Terjadi bila respon tidak langsung diikuti dengan pemberian penguatan, dan cenderung memunculkan penurunan performan organisma. Sifat Penguatan Efektifitas stimulus yang berfungsi sebagai penguatan tergantung pada: 1. Kualitas penguatan 2. Kuantitas penguatan 3. Jumlah usaha organisme untuk memperoleh penguatan Penguatan Kontras: digunakan dalam percobaan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perubahan kuantitas atau tingkatan penguatan Penguatan Primer dan Sekunder Penjadwalan Penguatan Penjadwalan sederhana: fixed ratio, fixed interval, variable ratio, variable interval. Penjadwalan lanjutan: penjadwalan jamak, penjadwalan gabungan, dan penjadwalan konkuren Pertimbangan Lain dari Penjadwalan Penguatan Autoshaping, adalah pembentukan sendiri yang merupakan pemberian penguatan pada saat stimulus khusus muncul pada organisma. Automaintenance, adalah pemeliharaan sendiri yang akan terjadi bila organisma membuat respon terus-menerus yang seolah-olah organisme nampak mencegah penguatan yang diberikan kepadanya. Teori-teori Penguatan Drive-Reduction Theory Optimum Arousal Theory Stimulus Change Theory Punishment (Hukuman) Stimulus yang bilamana ditampilkan akan melemahkan kekuatan respon atau menurunkan frekuensi munculnya respon. Hukuman Positif Hukuman Negatif Hukuman Negatif vs Pemadaman Avoiding the Pitfalls of Bad Slides Tips to be Covered Outlines Slide Structure Fonts Colour Background Graphs Spelling and Grammar Conclusions Questions Outline

Make your 1st or 2nd slide an outline of your presentation Ex: previous slide Follow the order of your outline for the rest of the presentation Only place main points on the outline slide Ex: Use the titles of each slide as main points

Slide Structure Good

Use 1-2 slides per minute of your presentation Write in point form, not complete sentences Include 4-5 points per slide Avoid wordiness: use key words and phrases only

Slide Structure - Bad

This page contains too many words for a presentation slide. It is not written in point form, making it difficult both for your audience to read and for you to present each point. Although there are exactly the same number of points on this slide as the previous slide, it looks much more complicated. In short, your audience will spend too much time trying to read this paragraph instead of listening to you. Slide Structure Good

Show one point at a time: Will help audience concentrate on what you are saying Will prevent audience from reading ahead Will help you keep your presentation focused

Slide Structure - Bad

Do not use distracting animation Do not go overboard with the animation

Be consistent with the animation that you use Fonts - Good Use at least an 18-point font

Use different size fonts for main points and secondary points this font is 24-point, the main point font is 28-point, and the title font is 36-point

Use a standard font like Times New Roman or Arial

Fonts - Bad If you use a small font, your audience wont be able to read what you have written

CAPITALIZE DIFFICULT TO READ

ONLY

WHEN

NECESSARY.

IT

IS

Dont use a complicated font

Colour - Good

January February March Blue Balls 20,4 27,4 90 Use a colour of font that contrasts sharply with the background Red Balls 30,6 38,6 34,6
Ex: blue font on white background Use colour to reinforce the logic of your structure Ex: light blue title and dark blue text Use colour to emphasize a point But only use this occasionally

Graphs - Bad Minor gridlines are unnecessary Font is too small April Colours are illogical 20,4 Title is missing 31,6 Shading is distracting

Colour - Bad

Spelling and Grammar Proof your slides for: speling mistakes the use of of repeated words grammatical errors you might have make If English is not your first language, please have someone else check your presentation! Conclusion Use an effective and strong closing Your audience is likely to remember your last words Use a conclusion slide to: Summarize the main points of your presentation Suggest future avenues of research

Using a font colour that does not contrast with the background colour is hard to read Using colour for decoration is distracting and annoying. Using a different colour for each point is unnecessary Using a different colour for secondary points is also unnecessary Trying to be creative can also be bad

Background - Good Use backgrounds such as this one that are attractive but simple Use backgrounds which are light

Use the same background consistently throughout your presentation Background Bad Avoid backgrounds that are distracting or difficult to read from Always be consistent with the background that you use Graphs - Bad

Questions?? End your presentation with a simple question slide to: Invite your audience to ask questions Provide a visual aid during question period Avoid ending a presentation abruptly

Blue Balls Red Balls

January February 20,4 27,4 30,6 38,6

March 90 34,6

April 20,4 31,6

Graphs - Good

Taxonomy of Learning Irfannuddin


Learning Objectives Understand the taxonomy of learning Describe the taxonomy Utilize the taxonomy in methods of learning Key Questions What is taxonomy ? Why do we need the taxonomy in medical education ? What are the most popular taxonomy of learning ? How are their taxonomy of learning Why do we need the taxonomy of learning ? Determine the goals of learning process Guidance of instructional design Determine the students achievement Guidance of assessments and evaluations After the training session, the learner should have acquires new . What are the most popular taxonomy of learning ? Blooms Taxonomy Gagnes Taxonomy

Graphs - Bad

Blooms Taxonomy 3 Domain of educational activity Cognitive (knowledge) Mental skill Affective (attitude) Growth in feelings/emotional area Psychomotor (skills) Manual/physical skills Cognitive Knowledge and the development of intellectual skills Recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, concepts 6 major categories 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation C1: Knowledge Recall/remember data or information Key words: Defines, describes, knows, recall, list, names, states I know The ritual activity to clean the penis is called circumcision C2: Comprehension Understand the meaning or interpretation of topics. States the topics with ones own words Key words: Comprehend, explain, gives examples, interpret, review I understand Circumcision is a surgery procedure that cutting the preputium to clean the smegma C3: Application Use / apply the concept to a new situation or to solve problems Key words: Apply, use, adopt, demonstrate, illustrate, show I demonstrate circumcision procedures 1. Antiseptic 2. Anesthetic 3. Cutting preputium Dorsum method Circum method 4. Stop bleeding 5. Suture wound 6. Wound toilet C4: Analysis Breaking the topics in to parts: understanding the parts, analyze / distinguish between parts Key words; Analyze, break down, compare, find the relationships, infer, select, identify I can see the comparison I analyze steps of circumcision, I compare both of cutting methods (dorsum-circum), and I found that circum method more simple, faster, but higher risk. C5: Evaluation Judging/asses the value of the topics Key word: Accept, appraise, conclude, critique, judge, evaluate, justify, summarize I can judge / I conclude I conclude that dorsum method is better for the amateur and circum method is better for the master. C6: Synthesis Ability to formulate new idea/ creating a new meaning/ creating something new by putting part to a whole one Combine, create, compile, design, plan, reform, revise, produce I can create I can create a new combination of circum method, that safer but still simple and faster

Affective The manner in which we deal with topics emotionally Express the feelings, values, attitudes, appreciations, enthusiasms, and motivation 5 major categories: 1. Receiving phenomena 2. Responding phenomena 3. Valuing 4. Organization 5. Internalizing value A1: Receiving Phenomena Awareness, willingness to hear, selected attention Key word: Ask, follow, name, select Examples Attendance to the lecture Listen to others with respect Listen for/ remember the name of newly introduced A2: Responding to phenomena Active participation to part of the learners. React/ responding to the phenomena Key word: Answer, assist, present, report, tell, write Examples Participate in discussion Gives presentation Ask the question Answer the question A3: Valuing The worth or value a person attaches to a particular phenomena Key word: Complete, demonstrate, join, invite, share Examples: in debate Show ability to solve the problem Propose to improvement A4: Organization Organize value into priorities by contrasting different value Resolving conflicts between them Key words: Adhere, alter, arrange, combine, modifier, prepare, organize Example: Prioritizes topics effectively to meet the need of all members A5: Internalizing values Characterization according value system that control behaviors Key words: Perform, practice, qualify, revise, solve Example: Change behavior in light of new evidence Revised judgments, value people for what they are, now how they look Psychomotor Physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill area Require practice Measured by speed, precision, distance, procedures or techniques in execution 5 Major (Daves) Imitation Manipulation Precision Articulation Naturalization P1: Imitation Observing & patterning behavior after someone else Performance: May be low of quality Example: Copying a work art P2: Manipulation Being able to perform actions by following instruction and practicing Performance: begin to follow the goal Example: Creating work after taking lesson/ reading manual

P3: Precision Refining, becoming more exact Performance: Few error are apparent Example: Working and reworking, so it will be just right P4: Articulation Coordinating a series of action, achieving harmony and internal consistency Performance: Consistence to their own style Example: Producing a video that involve music, drama, sound ect. P5: Naturalization/Origination Become natural, without needing to think much, and some times special Performance: Highest level of performance Example: Style of Michael Jordan playing Basket Ball Style of David Beckham kicking the ball Style of Zidane / Ronaldinho controlling the ball

Task:

Process: trial and error until the one to solve the problem is found Task

Make 4 MCQ from topic of adult learning which consist of C1-C4 Blooms level cognitive.

PBLfor Supporting Critical Thinking BLOK 1 FK UNSRI Objectives: Background of critical thinking Definition of critical thinking Component of critical thinking Way to enhance critical thinking Definition of PBL Types of PBL Component of PBL Practice with PBL PBL preparation Key Questions Why does critical thinking? What is critical thinking? How to enhance critical thinking ability? What is PBL? How the student should prepare for PBL?

GAGNES TAXONOMY 5 Domains 1. Motor skills 2. Attitude 3. Verbal information 4. Cognitive strategy 5. Intellectual skills Motor skills Bodily movements involving muscular activity Starting a car, shooting a target. Swinging racquet Attitude Internal state which effects an individuals choice of action toward some object, person Choosing to visit art museum, writing letters with poetry words Verbal information Labels and Fact: Naming / making verbal response Vocal or written response : name, talk Bodies of Knowledge: Recalling a large body of interconnected facts Paraphrasing the meaning of textual material/ rule/ regulation Cognitive Strategy Control his/her own way of thinking & learning Engaging in self-testing to decide how much study in need Answering the responded questions Intellectual Skills 4 Levels: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Case Dr. Rame, saw an advertisement from internet that there is a new supplement to decrease body weight. He directly recommend the supplement to his patient which bought via MLM company. After consumed the complement, his patients report that they got allergy cause by supplement Why critical thinking ? Medicine is Deep & extensive Priorities Rapidly develop Always adaptive Art & science Excessive variation Medicine is deep and extensive You have to know What are your competencies What are your priorities What you need Medicine is rapidly develop Doctor is a long-life learning profession You have to always adaptive Always looking for new information Critically appraise of all information Validity, reliability, necessarily Medicine is art & science You have to determine your own style/ methods But always consider ethics and standard What is critical thinking ? Ennis: Reasonable reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to do or believe. The intellectual disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, synthesizing, and or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning or communication as a guide to belief and action.

Discrimination Concrete concept Rule using Problem solving

Discrimination Making different responses to the different member Example: distinguish colors of traffic light Concrete concept Responses in a single way to all members of particular class of the topics Example: When hearing Indra Lesmana Music, he knew the music is Jazz music Rule Using Applying a rule to a given situation Using antipyretic to improve the pever Problem Solving Combining lower level rules to solve problems May involve generating new rules

What are the component of CT ? Kennedy, Fisher & Ennis : Identify the problem with their assumptions Clarify & focus on problem Analyze the problem Inferential or resumed Logically thinking base on inductive & deductive Evaluate the validity & reliability of assumptions, data, & information How to enhance critical thinking? Always focused, do & believe on critical thinking concept in learning How: Perform the critical thinking component in learning of some issues Some methods in Medical School Pro-ACTIVE Problem-Objective-Alternative-ConsequencesTradeoffs-Integrate-Value-Evaluate COBMT Clinical Oriented Basic Medical Teaching Ommundsen Group Discussion PBL Problem Based Learning Etc.

The trigger Namaku Siti Maonah, saya mau cerita: Siti Kelembungan temanku, lagi bersedih. Dia sedih karena pacarnya Raden John Tralala memutuskan hubungan atas perintah ibu si Raden. Setahuku Raden John Tralala adalah keturunan bangsawan Palembang asli. Ibunya mensyaratkan agar setiap calon istri anaknya harus bisa membuat pempek lenggang. Sedangkan Kelembungan mahasiswa FKUnsri yang terlalu sibuk belajar, sehingga tidak tahu bagaimana cara memasak Ayo teman-teman mari kita tolong Siti Kelembungan 1. Term Clarifications 2. Identify the problems P = (O E)xC P = Problem O = Observe E = Expected C = Concern Problem ? 3. Analyze the problems Make a lot of questions related to problems (5W1H) ? ? ? Brain-storming !!! Try to answer your own questions

What is Problem Based Learning? A small group discussion moderated by tutor The process called tutorial Stimulated (triggered) by problem Stimulate student to critically think about how to think the content with some steps of thinking 4. Formulate the hypothesis The student must: 5. Formulate learning issues Determine the problem Think how to solve it Evaluate the resolution 2nd phase of TUTORIAL Example of PBL Steps Synthesis and Mc. Master & QueensDiana F Wood (7-Step) Brandas Step resume of self University (UI) Mastrict, UGM,Unand learning result (Unpad) Identify new learning issues Read the problem Identify & clarify unfamiliarClarification and definition of the problem Self Directed learning terms Plenary discussion Brainstorming Define the problems Analysis of the problem Hyphothesis Development of hypothesis - What we know You want to success in PBL Identification the knowledge Dont needed - What we need to know do this: Learning issues Identification of what already is known Act without think (impulsive) Brainstorming Identification learning resources Need help in every learning (overdependent) Do not understand the causative relation Discuss the problems Identify/discuss/assign Collection of new information Do not think comprehensive (miss meaning) Explanation of prior Over convinced to believe the truth (dogmatis) Individual reading/research knowledge Synthesis of old and new information Identify incompleteRepetition of steps, as necessary Not fleksibel (think tight) Return knowledge Always afraid (do not confidence) - Review case Review step 2-3 Identification of what was not learned Lazy to think harder (anti-intellectual). - Report and discuss Tentative solutions - Assess progress - Self evaluation Formulate learning objective Summary of what was not learned - Next problem Private study Testing the understanding of knowledge Discus result of private study PBL steps in FK-Unsri Modification from all steps 1st phase of TUTORIAL 1. Term clarification 2. Identify the problems 3. Analyze the problems 4. Formulate the hypothesis 5. Formulate the limited knowledge & learning issues 1. Self Directed Learning 2nd phase of TUTORIAL 7. Synthesis and resume of self learning result 8. Identify new learning issues 9. Self Directed learning Plenary discussion

Keterampilan Belajar, Teknologi Informasi & Komunikasi Learning Skill, Information Technology Communication Drs. Sadakata Sinulingga, Apt., M.Kes dr. Muhammad Reagan, M.Kes

and

KOMPETENSI LULUSAN
Berkomunikasi tertulis Berfikir Analitis Bekerja dalam Tim

5. 6. 7. Content

Memahami sumber-sumber belajar & informasi teknologi Mengerti dan mengaplikasikan keterampilan belajar yang sesuai Mengerti dan bisa menggunakan terminologi medis dasar Metode pembelajaran orang dewasa (do): Meta-cognitive /critical thinking Deep learning Self directed learning Self reflection PBL curriculum at Faculty of Medicine (do) Seven jump Teori pendidikan yang melandasi PBL dll. The scope of medical science (know) Peran perpustakaan dalam PBL (do) Penelusuran sumber belajar melalui information technology (do) Critical appraisal terhadap sumber belajar Membaca text, mendengar aktif, mencatat, concept mapping, menyiapkan ujian, time management, writing for academic purpose, presentation Problem solving (do) Terminologi anatomika / cara pembentukan kata bidang kedokteran (know)

Ilmu Pengetahuan

Teknologi

Bekerja Mandiri Berfikir Logis

Berkomunikasi Lisan

BUKAN LAGI BAGAIMANA DOSEN MENGAJAR DENGAN BAIK ( TEACHER CENTER ), TAPI.


TRANSFER OF KNOWLEDGE

( STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING )

BAGAIMANA MAHASISWA BISA BELAJAR DENGAN BAIK DAN BERKELANJUTAN

METHOD OF INQUIRY DISCOVERY

Metode Pembelajaran Integrated Teaching Pract/Skills lab Tutorial Assignments Log book TUTORIAL Note : Tutorial includes all the 3 basic contents Triggers may include; Patogenesis of diseases Basic sciences/Biomed/klinis/humaniora Kasus yg sedang trend: flu burung, HIV, dll Kasus dengan insiden tinggi : TBC Popular & general case

Kompetensi inti 1. Keterampilan Komunikasi Efektif. 2. Keterampilan Memanfaatkan, Menilai dan Mengelola Informasi Secara Kritis. 3. Kemampuan Mawas Diri dan Mengembangkan Diri Serta Belajar Sepanjang Hayat 1. Mampu berkomunikasi baik secara verbal dan non-verbal, mendengar dgn penuh konsentrasi utk memfasilitasi kerja sama dlm pengelolaan masalah kesehatan antara dokter-pasien, keluarga, komunitas dan sesama teman sejawat dan profesi terkait. Mampu memanfaatkan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi dlm mengakses informasi, berkomunikasi, menapis, serta memanfaatkan informasi yg diperoleh utk pemecahan masalah Mampu memanfaatkan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi dalam pembelajaran sepanjang hayat dan pengembangan kepribadiannya

2. 3.

KUMPULAN SOAL2 MCQ 1. Above are the characteristic of being an adult learner, except.. a. Relevancy oriented b. Foundation of life experience and knowledge c. Autonomous and self directed d. Just studying based on our needs Being an adult learner is very important,we as an adult learner should.. a. Taking a course b. Taking responsibility c. Taking all our priority d. Taking other peoples opinion Tini is a new college student,since she start her day in college.she doesnt Have the courage or braveness to make new friends and study the new lesson.The barrier that is happening to Tini is. a. Selfish b. Proud c. Confidence d. Guilty When we browse the internet to find some data,for our taskor presention.. The function of Being adult learner in this case is.. a. To look and see b. To analize the materials c. To browse the data d. To fulfill our needs E The following is characteristic of adult learner except rhetorical

OUTCOME 1. Menerapkan prinsip-prinsip komunikasi verbal dan non-verbal utk berkomunikasi secara etis. 2. Menerapkan prinsip-prinsip komunikasi verbal dan non-verbal untuk mendapatkan, memberikan, dan bertukar informasi. 3. Menggunakan internet dan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi lain dlm mengakses dan bertukar informasi. 4. Mengerti system dan lingkungan pendidikan secara umum dan khususnya di fakultas kedokteran. 5. Memahami profesi dokter, tugas dan tanggungjawabnya serta kompetensi yang harus dimiliki sebagai seorang dokter 6. Mengaplikasikan pola dan prinsip-prinsip pemelajaran dan memanfaatkan sumber2 belajar di bidang kedokteran 7. Mengaplikasikan dan menganalisis terminologi kedokteran dan medical paper 8. Menerapkan metode PBL secara khusus dlm proses pembelajaran di FK Unsri Sasaran pembelajaran 1. Menerapkan prinsip2 komunikasi verbal dan non-verbal utk berkomunikasi secara etis, mendapatkan, memberikan, dan bertukar informasi dgn; A. Dosen/tutor. B. Teman sejawat dlm kelompok diskusi 2. Mengerti prinsip-prinsip dan aplikasi adult learning melalui problem based 3. Mengerti prinsip-prinsip dinamika kelompok 4. Terlibat dalam diskusi kelompok

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1. a.

b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d.

looking for respect self-directed goal oriented Adult learning is a condition where an adult try to learning something adult that learn something new adult that study till the end of their life adult that already learn everything If you have become a doctor and new medical equipment has been found, the best thing you should do is find out and read as many article as you can find learn about the new medical equipment and use it if it can help you try to learn how to use it, if succeed use it and if failed just ignore it just forget about it since it was not really necessary for your carrier There is a man who just bought a car and he cant drive it. .The best thing he should do is take a risk to drive it to the street in hope that he can learn it faster employ a driver go to driving school to learn how to drive and practice a lot read and find out on the book how to drive a car and than practice it B

a. improve ability to serve in community, and participate the community work b. voice your opinion freely in class c. fulfill the recommendations d. previous experience to a new one Answer: a. Improve ability to serve community This one contain about C3 (application) which use or apply the concept to a new situation or to solve problems 3. Could you illustrate an example of attitude someone that have adult learning planning habit on him a. Identifies my own learning need: know what already know and know what we still have to learn b. Interested in receiving feed back from tutor or teacher, interested in talking to other students about your work and self evaluate on your own work c. Know how we learn best & seek out these ways of learning, take a deep approach to learning, make our own sense of what we are learning, we know what we have to do and even be a surface learner if necessary d. identifies what is impeding & take step to overcome the obstacle: how best to use the time, how best to apply our effort, interested in deadline, and be a good manager for our own step Answer: d. identifies what is impeding & take to overcome the obstacle: how best to use the time, how best to apply our effort, interested in deadline, and be a good manager for our own step This one is containing about C4 (analysis) which break the topics in to parts: understanding the parts, analyze or distinguish between parts

1.

The ritual to clean the penis is called a. Describes b. Circumcision c. Defines d. States e. Cleaning Answer: b Circumcision is surgery procedure that cutting the a. Comprehend b. Interpret c. Preputium d. Smegma e. Appendix Answer: c Bellows are circumcision procedure except a. Anesthetic b. Antiseptic c. Stop bleeding d. Suture wound e. Kinesthetic Answer: e The following statements are the parts of analysis except a. I conclude b. I can see the comparison c. I compare d. I found e. I analyze Answer: a C

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4. Find the relationship between adult learning and long life learning in medicine a. analyzing long life learning as guidance b. comparing between them could be found on adult learning there are a lot of attitude which can be supporter to keep own consistent on learn in long life learning world c. the relationship of them in medicine is as adult learning we have to learn not only in 6-7 years but more than it. Medical science is a huge, deep, and very complicated science in addition medical science always developed and dynamically changed in every day so that as an adult learner if we are really want to be a good doctor we have to do long live learning. d. because of someone must learn for his own goal and perhaps always trying to do the best to get his ambition without thinking the effect of his act for around Answer: c. the relationship of them in medicine is as adult learning we have D This one contain about C-1 (knowledge) which recall or remember data or information 1. The characteristics of adult learners is, except. a. Relevancy-oriented b. Practical c. Egoist d. Looking for respect Answer: C

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This one contain about C-2 (comprehension) that we have to understand the meaning and interpretation of the topics and states the topics with our own word 2. Why In medical profession there are specialist even subspecialist ? a. b. c. d. Answer: D Medical science is a huge, deep, and very complicated science Medical science always developed and dynamically changed in every day Medical science is combination of art and science that a lot of variation in every parts Medical science give a lot of money

This one contain about C1 (knowledge) which recall or remember data or information 1. Be a good doctor in the future is include a for someone who study in medical school as an adult learning a. experience b. goal c. doing d. result

Answer: b goal This one contain about C2 (comprehension) that we have to understand the meaning and interpretation of the topics and states the topics with our own word 2. How to be an adult learner as a good doctor in social welfare?

This one contain about C-3 (application) which use or apply the concept to a new situation or to solve problems 3. From this statement which following true about adult learner practical characteristic

a. b. c. d. Answer: B

When he/she gets the lesson, he/she will trying to get focus on the lesson that useful for his/her goal. And he/she can stepping up closer to her/him goal. He/she will doing everything to get him/her closer to own goal although it will be cheating each of his/her friend and teacher. After receiving the lesson he/she immediately make application of lesson to let him/her out so that memory of the lesson can stay for long time in brain If He/She new matter from lesson, He/She will asking teacher to explain more explicitly and trying know if is the lesson going to be useful t gain the goal.

b. c. d. 3.

20% 30% 40%

Name one of the 6 ps of preparation? a) Preparation time b) Playing c) Pretending d) Proactive steadiness What should I do as a adult learner? a) Read lots of books b) Pretend to be busy c) Making mistake d) Taking responsibilities H

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This one is containing about C-4 (analysis) which break the topics in to parts: understanding the parts, analyze or distinguish between parts 4. Why should we be long life learning with adult learning as faculty of medicine students. a. Studying about medical health is not enough only 6-7 years studies at college because medical health is kind of deep, huge, and very complicated science. So we suppose learning and learning about the science by ourselves although we had graduated from college. b. We study long life because we being force to do it, if we dont go with that we cant get good marks from our teacher, and there is no own motivation. c. Doing long life learning just because we see all people doing that, so the reason to be long life learner just try not to be different from the other. d. Just because we want to get closer with person who we love so much. If we dont do it, it could makes not good relation between. Answer: A F

1. How you can describe that one people have characteristic of adult learning ? a. study oriented b. looking for respect c. always say teach me now d. he or she will study if there is assessment 2. What is the example from schedule can be barrier our learning process ? a. If our friend asked me about the lesson b. If we have many task to do c. If there is two tasks must to do in the same period d. If there is a letter invite us. 3. How do you apply and use your personality to support your study to be an adult learner, except ? a. only will study, if there is assessment b. always be responsibility person c. do everything must use planning d. making connection to the other people 4. How do you analyze autonomous & self directed in adult learning ? a. Passively involve in the learning process b. Given your opinion without think the other person c. See on a lesson has given however it is making bored d. Teachers only as facilitators guiding your own knowledge rather than supplying the facts Answer: 1. C 2. B 3. D 4. A I 1. Theres a man named Budi. He had just accepted as an employee in an enterprise. He began his first day with full spirit of working. Suddenly, when he did his job, he got surprised. The job wasnt related with his skill. But, he ever done this job, so he could do it. According to the text, what kind of characteristic that budi had? a. Autonomous and self-directed b. Accumulated a foundation of life experience and knowledge c. Goal-oriented d. Practical Answer : B 2. In the emergency situation, an adult learner has to take the action immediately by choosing the best and right way to treat the patient. What kind of cognitive that we us in that condition? a. Application b. Knowledge c. Analysis d. Comprehension Answer : C 3. There are the major categories of cognitive, except : a. Analysis b. Evaluation c. Articulation d. Synnthesis

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A condition that an adult is learning something is usually called e. adult learning f. long-life learning g. old-time learning h. natural learning In medical profession, everyone have to know about adult learning because e. in medical science, adult learner is very important f. medical science is combination of art and science that a lot of variation in every parts g. it was needed through out your life wherever you are h. they will need it To be a doctor, is a life-long learning. There is no guarantee that what we learn will not change over time. If there is something new, for example a new method to check blood pressure, the best thing we do is e. find out and read as many article as you can find f. study about it and apply it if this new method better than the old one g. read the article and than practice it to your patient h. forget about it because it was not really necessary for your carrier. There is a man who just bought a car and he cant drive it. As an adult learner, the best thing he should do is a. find a driver for his car b. take a risk to drive it to the street in hope that he can learn it faster c. find someone that can teach him drive and practice a lot. d. read a book about car and find out on the book how to drive a car and than practice it G

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What is adult leaner look a like? a) Goal oriented b) Taking chances c) Hard working d) Learning the hard way How many percent do people remember when using hearing when it comes to Strategic learning? a. 10%

2.

Answer : C 4. Recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, concept is the characteristic of a. Affective b. Cognitive c. Psychomotor d. Attitude Answer : B J Group: I

7.

Name one of the 6 ps of preparation? e) Preparation time f) Playing g) Pretending h) Proactive steadiness What should I do as a adult learner? e) Read lots of books f) Pretend to be busy g) Making mistake h) Taking responsibilities 9. A condition that an adult is learning something is usually called adult learning long-life learning old-time learning natural learning In medical profession, everyone have to know about adult learning because in medical science, adult learner is very important medical science is combination of art and science that a lot of variation in every parts it was needed through out your life wherever you are they will need it To be a doctor, is a life-long learning. There is no guarantee that what we learn will not change over time. If there is something new, for example a new method to check blood pressure, the best thing we do is find out and read as many article as you can find study about it and apply it if this new method better than the old one read the article and than practice it to your patient forget about it because it was not really necessary for your carrier. There is a man who just bought a car and he cant drive it. As an adult learner, the best thing he should do is find a driver for his car take a risk to drive it to the street in hope that he can learn it faster find someone that can teach him drive and practice a lot. read a book about car and find out on the book how to drive a car and than practice it

8.

1. How you can describe that one people have characteristic of adult learning ? a. study oriented b. looking for respect c. always say teach me now d. he or she will study if there is assessment 2. What is the example from schedule can be barrier our learning process ? a. If our friend asked me about the lesson b. If we have many task to do c. If there is two tasks must to do in the same period d. If there is a letter invite us. 3. How do you apply and use your personality to support your study to be an adult learner, except ? a. only will study, if there is assessment b. always be responsibility person c. do everything must use planning d. making connection to the other people

i. j. k. l. 10. i. j. k. l. 11.

i. j. k. l. 12. e. f. g. h.

4. How do you analyze autonomous & self directed in adult learning ? a. Passively involve in the learning process b. Given your opinion without think the other person c. See on a lesson has given however it is making bored d. Teachers only as facilitators guiding your own knowledge rather than supplying the facts 5. Answer: 5. 6. 7. 8. C B D A

This one contain about C-1 (knowledge) which recall or remember data or information

The characteristics of adult learners is, except. a. b. c. d. Answer: C Relevancy-oriented Practical Egoist Looking for respect

5.

What is adult leaner look a like? e) Goal oriented f) Taking chances g) Hard working h) Learning the hard way How many percent do people remember when using hearing when it comes to Strategic learning? a. 10% b. 20% c. 30% d. 40%

This one contain about C-2 (comprehension) that we have to understand the meaning and interpretation of the topics and states the topics with our own word

6.

6.

Why In medical profession there are specialist even subspecialist ?

a. b. c. d. Answer: D

Medical science is a huge, deep, and very complicated science Medical science always developed and dynamically changed in every day Medical science is combination of art and science that a lot of variation in every parts Medical science give a lot of money 6. 5. Above are the characteristic of being an adult learner, except.. a. b. c. d. should.. a. b. Taking a course Taking responsibility Taking all our priority Taking other peoples opinion Relevancy oriented Foundation of life experience and knowledge Autonomous and self directed Just studying based on our needs

Being an adult learner is very important,we as an adult learner

This one contain about C-3 (application) which use or apply the concept to a new situation or to solve problems 7. 7. From this statement which following true about adult learner practical characteristic a. When he/she gets the lesson, he/she will trying to get focus on the lesson that useful for his/her goal. And he/she can stepping up closer to her/him goal. b. He/she will doing everything to get him/her closer to own goal although it will be cheating each of his/her friend and teacher. c. After receiving the lesson he/she immediately make application of lesson to let him/her out so that memory of the lesson can stay for long time in brain d. If He/She new matter from lesson, He/She will asking teacher to explain more explicitly and trying know if is the lesson going to be useful t gain the goal. Answer: B 8.

c. d.

Tini is a new college student,since she start her day in college.she doesnt Have the courage or braveness to make new friends and sstudy the new lesson.The barrier that is happening to Tini is. a. b. c. d. Selfish Proud Confidence Guilty

When we browse the internet to find some data,for our taskor presention.. The function of Being adult learner in this case is.. a. b. c. d. To look and see To analize the materials To browse the data To fulfill our needs

Task: make 4 MCQ about Adult Learning which content of C1-C4 Blooms Level Cognitive This one contain about C1 (knowledge) which recall or remember data or information 2. Be a good doctor in the future is include a for someone who study in medical school as an adult learning a. b. c. d. Answer: b goal This one contain about C2 (comprehension) that we have to understand the meaning and interpretation of the topics and states the topics with our own word 2. How to be an adult learner as a good doctor in social welfare? a. improve ability to serve in community, and participate the community work b. voice your opinion freely in class c. fulfill the recommendations d. previous experience to a new one experience goal doing result

This one is containing about C-4 (analysis) which break the topics in to parts: understanding the parts, analyze or distinguish between parts

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Why should we be long life learning with adult learning as faculty of medicine students. a. Studying about medical health is not enough only 6-7 years studies at college because medical health is kind of deep, huge, and very complicated science. So we suppose learning and learning about the science by ourselves although we had graduated from college. b. We study long life because we being force to do it, if we dont go with that we cant get good marks from our teacher, and there is no own motivation. c. Doing long life learning just because we see all people doing that, so the reason to be long life learner just try not to be different from the other. d. Just because we want to get closer with person who we love so much. If we dont do it, it could makes not good relation between. Answer: A

Answer: a. Improve ability to serve community This one contain about C3 (application) which use or apply the concept to a new situation or to solve problems 3. Could you illustrate an example of attitude someone that have adult learning planning habit on him a. Identifies my own learning need: know what already know and know what we still have to learn b. Interested in receiving feed back from tutor or teacher, interested in talking to other students about your work and self evaluate on your own work c. Know how we learn best & seek out these ways of learning, take a deep approach to learning, make our own sense of what we are learning, we know what we have to do and even be a surface learner if necessary d. identifies what is impeding & take step to overcome the obstacle: how best to use the time, how best to apply our effort, interested in deadline, and be a good manager for our own step Answer: d. identifies what is impeding & take to overcome the obstacle: how best to use the time, how best to apply our effort, interested in deadline, and be a good manager for our own step This one is containing about C4 (analysis) which break the topics in to parts: understanding the parts, analyze or distinguish between parts 4. Find the relationship between adult learning and long life learning in medicine a. analyzing long life learning as guidance b. comparing between them could be found on adult learning there are a lot of attitude which can be supporter to keep own consistent on learn in long life learning world c. the relationship of them in medicine is as adult learning we have to learn not only in 6-7 years but more than it. Medical science is a huge, deep, and very complicated science in addition medical science always developed and dynamically changed in every day so that as an adult learner if we are really want to be a good doctor we have to do long live learning. d. because of someone must learn for his own goal and perhaps always trying to do the best to get his ambition without thinking the effect of his act for around Answer: c. the relationship of them in medicine is as adult learning we have to learn not only in 6-7 years but more than it. Medical science is a huge, deep, and very complicated science in addition medical science always developed and dynamically changed in every day so that as an adult learner if we are really want to be a good doctor we have to do long live learning BLOK 1 8. 7.

a. Comprehend b. Interpret c. Preputium d. Smegma e. Appendix Answer: c Bellows are circumcision procedure except a. Anesthetic b. Antiseptic c. Stop bleeding d. Suture wound e. Kinesthetic Answer: e The following statements are the parts of analysis except a. I conclude b. I can see the comparison c. I compare d. I found e. I analyze Answer: a

3. The lowest level of knowledge must be achieved by graduate level is... a. syntesis b. analisis c. ... d. aplication 20. Active learning means ... a. students engages to their learning process b. students arrange own curriculum c. students dont need teacher d. students seek own their learning contents 24. key consept of constructivisme... a. students create mental schemes b. students create physical schemes c. single type of experience and data relating to a subject d. the boarder students schema less able to learn 37. critical thinking dalam PBL diutamakan pada proses... a. term clarification b. identify the problem c. analize the problem d. synthesis 40. small group activities outside classroom are also important in creating learning atmosphere. The reason is.... a. enchance learning interaction among students b. students can learn together in the same room without disturbing each other c. students can use the learning facilities together for efficiency d. small group discussion is the most effecting method in learning 41. communication and information technology is very important in creating global learning atmosphere, because... a. we need communication and information technology for learning b. communication and information technology develop more rapid than human intelegence c. artificial intelegence can replace human brain d. communication and information technology creative integrated and network amount intelectual around the world 43. the most important thing that you need to support your learning atmposphere is... a. text book or journal b. note book c. special room with all you need for learning d. nothing 55. why we have to effective reading... a. ... b... c. it it one type of is... d. there is a lot of written material to be studied in a short of time 60. Further dimension of in depth reading... a. spesific reading b. critical reading

Make 4 MCQ ( Multiple Choice Question) from topic Adult Learning which consist of C1-C4 Blooms level cognitive! 5. The ritual to clean the penis is called a. Describes b. Circumcision c. Defines d. States e. Cleaning Answer: b Circumcision is surgery procedure that cutting the

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c. skim reading d. through reading 12. 62. In 1936 olympics, a man competed as a women for nazy germany. The nazis obviously expected him to win simply because they are generally bigger,faster and stronger than women. They apparently overlooked the fact that there are big, fast, strong women and he came in fourth. Which of the suggested ttitle is correct for passage above... a. olympic scandal b. gender issues c. man competies with women came in fourth place d. size and strength of men and women vary 77. the most essential ability to build clinical reasoning... a. building logical thinking b. building knowledge c. have a lot of experience d. building critical thinking 79. I dropped an egg and it larded on my dog. The egg was boiled and it didnt crack open. This sentence was ineffective because a... a. not easy to read b. convincing c. has phrase d. intriguing 84. He only found to mistake The statement incorrect due to... a. using modifier b. parallel reffractive construction c. ... d. grammer 91. proffesional sign,except... a. greed b. should decisions making c. conflict of interest d. impairment 103. if you teach to another you will... a. remember b. understand c. acquire knowledge d. acquire 113. The statement neurons that fire together wire together it means... a. thinking generate synapse grow up b. information are stored in neuron c. memory stored in grandmother cell d. neuron insulated by glial cell 115. someone who has a good thinking process is not influence by changes in other... a. sensitization b. reinforcement c. punishment d. habituation 124. first step to make a good journal... a. interpretation b. analysis c. sinthesis d. evaluation 9. Above are the characteristic of being an adult learner, except.. a. Relevancy oriented b. Foundation of life experience and knowledge c. Autonomous and self directed d. Just studying based on our needs Being an adult learner is very important,we as an adult learner should.. a. Taking a course b. Taking responsibility c. Taking all our priority d. Taking other peoples opinion Tini is a new college student,since she start her day in college.she doesnt Have the courage or braveness to make new friends and study the new lesson.The barrier that is happening to Tini is. a. Selfish b. Proud 10.

c. Confidence d. Guilty When we browse the internet to find some data,for our taskor presention.. The function of Being adult learner in this case is.. a. To look and see b. To analize the materials c. To browse the data d. To fulfill our needs E The following is characteristic of adult learner except rhetorical looking for respect self-directed goal oriented Adult learning is a condition where an adult try to learning something adult that learn something new adult that study till the end of their life adult that already learn everything If you have become a doctor and new medical equipment has been found, the best thing you should do is find out and read as many article as you can find learn about the new medical equipment and use it if it can help you try to learn how to use it, if succeed use it and if failed just ignore it just forget about it since it was not really necessary for your carrier There is a man who just bought a car and he cant drive it. .The best thing he should do is take a risk to drive it to the street in hope that he can learn it faster employ a driver go to driving school to learn how to drive and practice a lot read and find out on the book how to drive a car and than practice it B

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skill 9. The ritual to clean the penis is called a. Describes b. Circumcision c. Defines d. States e. Cleaning Answer: b Circumcision is surgery procedure that cutting the a. Comprehend b. Interpret c. Preputium d. Smegma e. Appendix Answer: c Bellows are circumcision procedure except a. Anesthetic b. Antiseptic c. Stop bleeding d. Suture wound e. Kinesthetic Answer: e The following statements are the parts of analysis except a. I conclude b. I can see the comparison c. I compare d. I found e. I analyze Answer: a C

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This one contain about C1 (knowledge) which recall or remember data or information 3. Be a good doctor in the future is include a for someone who study in medical school as an adult learning

a. b. c. d. Answer: b goal

experience goal doing result

b. c. d. Answer: D

Medical science always developed and dynamically changed in every day Medical science is combination of art and science that a lot of variation in every parts Medical science give a lot of money

This one contain about C2 (comprehension) that we have to understand the meaning and interpretation of the topics and states the topics with our own word 2. How to be an adult learner as a good doctor in social welfare? a. improve ability to serve in community, and participate the community work b. voice your opinion freely in class c. fulfill the recommendations d. previous experience to a new one Answer: a. Improve ability to serve community This one contain about C3 (application) which use or apply the concept to a new situation or to solve problems 3. Could you illustrate an example of attitude someone that have adult learning planning habit on him a. Identifies my own learning need: know what already know and know what we still have to learn b. Interested in receiving feed back from tutor or teacher, interested in talking to other students about your work and self evaluate on your own work c. Know how we learn best & seek out these ways of learning, take a deep approach to learning, make our own sense of what we are learning, we know what we have to do and even be a surface learner if necessary d. identifies what is impeding & take step to overcome the obstacle: how best to use the time, how best to apply our effort, interested in deadline, and be a good manager for our own step Answer: d. identifies what is impeding & take to overcome the obstacle: how best to use the time, how best to apply our effort, interested in deadline, and be a good manager for our own step This one is containing about C4 (analysis) which break the topics in to parts: understanding the parts, analyze or distinguish between parts 4. Find the relationship between adult learning and long life learning in medicine a. analyzing long life learning as guidance b. comparing between them could be found on adult learning there are a lot of attitude which can be supporter to keep own consistent on learn in long life learning world c. the relationship of them in medicine is as adult learning we have to learn not only in 6-7 years but more than it. Medical science is a huge, deep, and very complicated science in addition medical science always developed and dynamically changed in every day so that as an adult learner if we are really want to be a good doctor we have to do long live learning. d. because of someone must learn for his own goal and perhaps always trying to do the best to get his ambition without thinking the effect of his act for around Answer: c. the relationship of them in medicine is as adult learning we have D This one contain about C-1 (knowledge) which recall or remember data or information 9. The characteristics of adult learners is, except. a. Relevancy-oriented b. Practical c. Egoist d. Looking for respect Answer: C

This one contain about C-3 (application) which use or apply the concept to a new situation or to solve problems 11. From this statement which following true about adult learner practical characteristic a. When he/she gets the lesson, he/she will trying to get focus on the lesson that useful for his/her goal. And he/she can stepping up closer to her/him goal. b. He/she will doing everything to get him/her closer to own goal although it will be cheating each of his/her friend and teacher. c. After receiving the lesson he/she immediately make application of lesson to let him/her out so that memory of the lesson can stay for long time in brain d. If He/She new matter from lesson, He/She will asking teacher to explain more explicitly and trying know if is the lesson going to be useful t gain the goal. Answer: B

This one is containing about C-4 (analysis) which break the topics in to parts: understanding the parts, analyze or distinguish between parts 12. Why should we be long life learning with adult learning as faculty of medicine students. a. Studying about medical health is not enough only 6-7 years studies at college because medical health is kind of deep, huge, and very complicated science. So we suppose learning and learning about the science by ourselves although we had graduated from college. b. We study long life because we being force to do it, if we dont go with that we cant get good marks from our teacher, and there is no own motivation. c. Doing long life learning just because we see all people doing that, so the reason to be long life learner just try not to be different from the other. d. Just because we want to get closer with person who we love so much. If we dont do it, it could makes not good relation between. Answer: A F

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A condition that an adult is learning something is usually called q. adult learning r. long-life learning s. old-time learning t. natural learning In medical profession, everyone have to know about adult learning because q. in medical science, adult learner is very important r. medical science is combination of art and science that a lot of variation in every parts s. it was needed through out your life wherever you are t. they will need it To be a doctor, is a life-long learning. There is no guarantee that what we learn will not change over time. If there is something new, for example a new method to check blood pressure, the best thing we do is q. find out and read as many article as you can find r. study about it and apply it if this new method better than the old one s. read the article and than practice it to your patient t. forget about it because it was not really necessary for your carrier. There is a man who just bought a car and he cant drive it. As an adult learner, the best thing he should do is i. find a driver for his car j. take a risk to drive it to the street in hope that he can learn it faster k. find someone that can teach him drive and practice a lot. l. read a book about car and find out on the book how to drive a car and than practice it G

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This one contain about C-2 (comprehension) that we have to understand the meaning and interpretation of the topics and states the topics with our own word 10. Why In medical profession there are specialist even subspecialist ? a. Medical science is a huge, deep, and very complicated science

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What is adult leaner look a like? i) Goal oriented j) Taking chances k) Hard working l) Learning the hard way How many percent do people remember when using hearing when it comes to Strategic learning? a. 10% b. 20% c. 30% d. 40% Name one of the 6 ps of preparation? i) Preparation time j) Playing k) Pretending l) Proactive steadiness What should I do as a adult learner? i) Read lots of books j) Pretend to be busy k) Making mistake l) Taking responsibilities H

in that condition? a. Application b. Knowledge c. Analysis d. Comprehension Answer : C 3. There are the major categories of cognitive, except : a. Analysis b. Evaluation c. Articulation d. Synnthesis Answer : C 4. Recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, concept is the characteristic of a. Affective b. Cognitive c. Psychomotor d. Attitude Answer : B J

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1. How you can describe that one people have characteristic of adult learning ? a. study oriented b. looking for respect c. always say teach me now d. he or she will study if there is assessment 2. What is the example from schedule can be barrier our learning process ? a. If our friend asked me about the lesson b. If we have many task to do c. If there is two tasks must to do in the same period d. If there is a letter invite us. 3. How do you apply and use your personality to support your study to be an adult learner, except ? a. only will study, if there is assessment b. always be responsibility person c. do everything must use planning d. making connection to the other people 4. How do you analyze autonomous & self directed in adult learning ? a. Passively involve in the learning process b. Given your opinion without think the other person c. See on a lesson has given however it is making bored d. Teachers only as facilitators guiding your own knowledge rather than supplying the facts Answer: 9. C 10. B 11. D 12. A I 1. Theres a man named Budi. He had just accepted as an employee in an enterprise. He began his first day with full spirit of working. Suddenly, when he did his job, he got surprised. The job wasnt related with his skill. But, he ever done this job, so he could do it. According to the text, what kind of characteristic that budi had? a. Autonomous and self-directed e. Accumulated a foundation of life experience and knowledge f. Goal-oriented g. Practical Answer : B 2. In the emergency situation, an adult learner has to take the action immediately by choosing the best and right way to treat the patient. What kind of cognitive that we us