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Timeline of Jainism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from History of Jainism) Jain doctrine teaches that Jainism has always existed and will always exist,[1][2][3] although historians date the foundation of the organized or present form of Jainism to sometime between the 9th and the 6th century BC.[4][5] Like most ancient Indian religions, Jainism has its roots from the Indus Valley Civilization, reflecting native spirituality prior to the Indo-Aryan migration into India. [6][7][8] Other scholars suggested the shramana traditions were separate and contemporaneous with Indo-Aryan religious practices of the historical Vedic religion.[9]
Jainism timeline Pre-history
Prior to 10th The first 22 Trthakara Century BCE abha to Nemintha .

The age of Trthakaras
20001500 BCE Terracotta seals excavated at site suggest links of Jainism with Indus Valley civilization. Mention of Jain Trthakaras in Vedas indicates pre-historic

1 Indus Valley Civilization 2 Timeline 2.1 Before common era (BCE) 2.2 Common era (CE) 3 Middle Ages 4 British India 5 Post-Partition 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

origins of Jainism. 877777 BCE The period of P rva, the 23rd

The age of Mhav ra, the 24th

599527 BCE

Trthakaras of Jainism Nirva of Mhav ra, Kevala

Jna of his chief disciple Ganadhara Gautama and origin of Divli.

527 BCE

The age of Kevalins

523 BCE As per Jain cosmology, the end of the 4th ra Duama-

Main article: Indus Valley Civilization Contemporary historians like Ram Prasad Chandra, Vilas Sangave[10], Heinrich Zimmer[11], John Marshall, Thomas McEvilley[12], P.R. Deshmukh[13] and Mircea Eliade are of the opinion that there exists some link between the first Jain Tirthankar Rishabha and the Indus valley civilization. Ram Prasad Chanda, who supervised Indus Valley Civilisation excavations, states[14] that, Not only the seated deities on some of the Indus seals are in Yoga posture and bear witness to the prevalence of Yoga in the Indus Valley Civilisation in that remote age, the standing deities on the seals also show Kayotsarga (a standing or sitting posture of meditation) position. The Kayotsarga posture is peculiarly Jain. It is a posture not of sitting but of standing. In the Adi Purana Book XV III, the Kayotsarga posture is described in connection with the penance of Rsabha, also known as Vrsabha.[15]

suam and start of 5th ra Duama (sorrow and misery).

The age of sorrow is said to have started three years and eight and a half months after the nirvana of Mhav ra. 527463 BCE The Reign of the Kevalins Gautama, Sudharma and Jambusvami

The age of Shruta-kevalins

463367 BCE The reign of the Shrutakevalins. First Council held at Pataliputra for compilation of Jain Agamas. Gradual loss of Purvas.

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Christopher Key Chappel also notes some other possible links with Jainism.[16] Seal 420, unearthed at Mohenjodaro portrays a person with 3 or possibly 4 faces. Jain iconography frequently depicts its Tirthankaras with four faces, symbolizing their presence in all four directions. In addition, Depictions of a bull appear repeatedly in the artifacts of the Indus Valley. Richard Lannoy, Thomas McEvilley and Padmanabh Jaini have all suggested that the abundant use of the bull image in the Indus Valley civilization indicates a link with Rsabha, whose companion animal is the bull. This seal can be interpreted in many ways, and authors such as Christopher Key Chappel and Richard Lannoy support the Jain interpretation.[16]

Start of Schism in Jainism in two main sects vetmbara and Digambara. The reign of Chandragupta Maurya. 320298 BCE became a Jain ascetic at the end of his reign. Kharavela, reign of King of Kalinga 2nd century (Orissa). Reinstallation of Jina BCE image taken by Nanda Kings of Magadha as per Hathigumpha inscription

The Agamic Age

Before common era (BCE)

877777 BCE: Parshva, 23rd Tirthankar of Jainism. He is the earliest Jain leader who can be reliably dated.[17][18] 599527 BCE: Mahavira, 24th and last Tirthankar of this era.[23] 5th century BCE: Siddhasen Diwakar d. 507 BCE: Ganahar Sudharma Swami d. 357 BCE: Acharya Bhadrabahu d. 162 BCE: Hathigumpha inscription mentions the Navkar Mantra and Jain monarch Kharvela.[24][25] 2nd century BCE: Navakar Mantra epigraphically attested in Maharashtra

156 CE

Recitation of akhadgama and

Kayapahuda by crya
Dharasena to cryaPupadanta and crya Bhtabali in Candragumpha in Mount Girnar. (683 years after Mhav ra)


Kundakunda, founder of Mla 2nd Century sangha the main Digambara ascetic CE lineage. Compilation of Tattvrthastra by 2nd 3rd Century Umsvti (Umsvmi). This was the CE first major Jain work in Sanskrit. 300 CE Two simultaneous councils for compilation of gamas, 827 years

Common era (CE)

1st century CE: Acharya Kundkund born 87 CE: Pushpadanta starts to write Shatkhandagam 156 CE: Bhutbali completes writing of Shatkhandagam 454 CE: Devardhigani compiles Jain Agams 5th century CE: first mention of the Mula Sangh order 7th century CE: 8000 Tamil Jains massacred in Madurai

after Mhav ra Mathura Council headed by crya Skandila and The First Valabhi Council headed by crya Ngrjuna. Second Valabhi Council headed by 453 or 466 CE Devarddhi Ganin, that is, 980 or 993 A V Final redaction and compilation of vetmbara Canons.

The Age of Logic

9th century Life of Nemichandra, a famous Jain author. The Tirumalai complex in Tamil Nadu is established. 10th century: Svetambara 1172: Acharya Hemachandra 12th century: Kashtha Sangh 1194: Tristutik 1229: Tapa Gachchha 1476: Lonka Shaha schism 1664: Digambar Terapanth

4th 16th Century CE, also known as the age of logic, was the period of development of Jain logic, Philosophy and Y oga. Various original texts, commentaries and expositions were written. The main cryas were Samantabhadra, Siddhasena Divkara, Akalanka, Haribhadra, M nikyanandi, Vidynandi, Prabhcandra, Hemacandra, Y a ovijaya. For a detailed chronological list of Jain philosopher-monks see Jain Philosophers. It was

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Timeline of Jainism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


1658: Digambara Jain Lal Mandir temple in Delhi built. 1760: Swetembar Terapanth 1780: Sthanakvasi and Terapanthi orders

also a period of formation of modern Jain communities and extensive Jain contribution to Sanskrit, Tamil, Kannada, Hindi and Gujarati Literature.

1868: Jain temple in Mumbai 1880s: reform movement of Acharya Rajendrasuri 1893: Virachand Gandhi participates in Chicago's World Parliament of Religions& Won Silver Medal. 1904: Jain temple at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition 1927: Madras High Court in Gateppa v. Eramma and others recognizes "Jainism as a distinct religion"

981 CE

Construction of Gommaevara Statue of Lord B hubal (18 meters- 57 feet, worlds tallest monolithic free standing structure), at Sravana Belagola, Karnataka by Cmuarya, the General-in-chief and Prime Minister of the Gaga kings of Mysore.

1970s: significant presence of Jainism in the United States 1975: Monolithic statue of Bahubali is installed at Dharmasthala, Karnataka, India under the auspices of D. Rathnavarma Heggade and Mathrushree D. Rathnamma Heggade, members of Dharmasthala's Jaina lineage who also manage the local Shivaite temple. Carving work began in 1966 under the sculptor Rejala Gopalkrishna Shenoy of Karkala. 1976: In Arya Samaj Education Trust, Delhi & Others v. The Director of Education, Delhi Administration, Delhi & Others (AIR 1976 Delhi 207), the Court referred to Heinrich Zimmer's Philosophies of India describing Jainism as "a heterodox Indian religion" and J. N. Farquhar's Modern Religious Movements in India describing Jainism as "a rival of Hinduism." 1981: First Jain convention in Los Angeles 1983: Formal organization of JAINA (Jain Associations in North America) 1990: Temple Pratishtha, The Jain Sangh Cherry Hill, New Jersey 1990: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Society of Metropolitan Washington 1991: Founding of Siddhachalam, the Jain tirtha 1993: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Society of Metropolitan Chicago 1995: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Center of Cincinnati and Dayton 1998: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Society of Greater Detroit 2000: Temple Pratishtha, Jain Center of Northern California (JCNC) 2000: Jain Vishwa Bharati Orlando 2005: the Supreme Court of India declined to grant Jains the status of a religious minority throughout India, leaving it to the respective states to decide on the minority status of Jainis. 2006: the Supreme Court opined that "Jain Religion is indisputably not a part of the Hindu Religion." (Para 25,

10th Century CE

Emergence of vetmbara Gacchas out of which, most prominent are Tap Gachha, and Kharatara Gaccha

Construction of Delwara temples 11th12th Century at Mount bu built by the Jain CE ministers of the king of Gujarat, Vastupla and Tejapla 13th Century CE 1474 CE Emergence of institution of Bhattraka

Establishment of non-image worshipping vetmbara sect of Sthnakvasi established by a Jain layman, Lonka Shah.

1506 CE

Establishment of Taranapantha Digambara sect

1683 CE

Establishment of Digambara sect of Terapantha by a vetmbara layman, Banarasidas

1760 CE

Separation of crya Bhiku from Sthnakavasi and establishment of vetmbara Terpantha sect.

1901 CE

Establishment of Kavi Pantha based on the teachings of Srimad Rjacandra (1867 1901)

1934 CE

Separation of Knjisvmi from Sthnakavasi and establishment of Digambara Knjipantha


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Committee of Management Kanya Junior High School Bal Vidya Mandir, Etah, U.P. v. Sachiv, U.P. Basic Shiksha Parishad, Allahabad, U.P. and Ors., Per Dalveer Bhandari J., Civil Appeal No. 9595 of 2003, decided On: 21.08.2006, Supreme Court of India.) 2008: Delhi city government declares Jain community as a minority as per the Supreme Court Orders.
This article is part of a series on Jainism

Jain philosophy Jainism Tirthankar Shramana Buddhism and Jainism Timeline of Buddhism

Jain Prayers amkra mantra Micchami Dukkadam Philosophy Anekntavda Sydvda Nayavda Cosmology Ahimsa Karma Dharma Nirvana Kevala Jna Moka Dravya Navatattva Asteya Aparigraha Gunasthana Samsara Major figures

1. ^ Helmuth von Glasenapp,Shridhar B. Shrotri. 1999. Jainism: an Indian religion of salvation. P.15 "Jainas consider that religion is eternal and imperishable. It is without beginning and it will never cease to exist. The darkness of error enveloping the truth in certain, periodically occurring aeons clears up again and again so that the brightness of the Jaina-faith can sparkle again anew." 2. ^ Dundas, Paul. 2002. The Jains. P.12 "Jainism is believed by its followers to be everlasting, without beginning or end..." 3. ^ Varni, Jinendra; Ed. Prof. Sagarmal Jain, Translated Justice T.K. Tukol and Dr. Narendra Bhandari. Sama Sutta. New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti. The Historians have so far fully recognized the truth that Tirthankara Mahavira was not the founder of the religion. He was preceded by many tirthankaras. He merely reiterated and rejuvenated that religion. It is correct that history has not been
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able to trace the origin of the Jaina religion; but historical evidence now available and the result of dispassionate researches in literature have established that Jainism is undoubtedly an ancient religion. Pp. xii xiii of introduction by Justice T.K.Tutkol and Dr. K.K. Dixit. 4. ^ Helmuth von Glasenapp,Shridhar B. Shrotri. 1999. Jainism: an Indian religion of salvation. P.24. "Thus not only nothing, from the philosophical and the historical point of view, comes in the way of the supposition that Jainism was established by Parsva around 800 BC, but it is rather confirmed in everything that we know of the spiritual life of that period." 5. ^ Dundas, Paul. 2002. The Jains. P.17. "Jainism, then, was in origin merely one component of a north Indian ascetic culture that flourished in the Ganges basin from around the eighth or seventh centuries BC." 6. ^ Larson, Gerald James (1995) Indias Agony over

The 24 Tirthankaras Rishabha Mahavira Acharya Ganadhara Siddhasena Divakara Haribhadra Sects Digambara vtmbara Texts Kalpa Stra gama Tattvartha Sutra Naaladiyar Sanmatti Prakaran Other Parasparopagraho_Jivanam Jain symbol Jain flag Timeline Topics list Festivals Mahavir Jayanti Paryushana Diwali Jainism Portal

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Timeline of Jainism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



8. 9. 10.

11. 12.

13. 14. 15. 16.

religion SUNY Press ISBN 0-7914-2412-X. There is some evidence that Jain traditions may be even older than the Buddhist traditions, possibly going back to the time of the Indus valley civilization, and that Vardhamana rather than being a founder per se was, rather, simply a primary spokesman for much older tradition. Page 27 ^ Joel Diederik Beversluis (2000) In: Sourcebook of the World's Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and Spirituality, New World Library : Novato, CA ISBN 1-57731-121-3 Originating on the Indian sub-continent, Jainism is one of the oldest religion of its homeland and indeed the world, having pre-historic origins before 3000 BC and the propagation of Indo-Aryan culture.... p. 81 ^ Jainism by Mrs. N.R. Guseva p.44 ^ Long, Jeffrey D. (2009). Jainism: An Introduction. New York: I.B. Tauris. pp. 4556. ISBN 978-1-84511-626-2. ^ Dr. Vilas Sangave (2001) In : Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion, and Culture. Popular Prakashan: Mumbai ISBN 81-7154-839-3 ^ Heinrich Zimmer (1969) Joseph Campbell ed. In: Philosophies of India, Princeton University Press NY, ISBN 0-691-01758-1 ^ Thomas McEvilley (2002) The Shape of Ancient Thought: Comparative Studies in Greek and Indian Philosophies. Allworth Communications, Inc. 816 pages; ISBN 1-58115-203-5 ^ Deshmukh, P. R. (1982) Indus Civilisation, Rigveda, and Hindu Culture, Nagpur : Saroj Prakashan ^ In his article "Mohen-jo-Daro: Sindh 5000 Years Ago" in Modern Review (August, 1932) ^ Patil, Bal In: Jaya Gommatesa, Hindi Granth Karyalay : Mumbai, 2006 ISBN 81-88769-10-X ^ a b Christopher Key Chappel (1993),

17. 18.


20. 21. 22.


24. 25.

Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions SUNY Press ISBN 0-7914-1497-3 Pp. 6-9 ^ Fisher, Mary Pat (1997). Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths. London: I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1-86064-148-2. p. 115 ^ "Parshvanatha" ( . Encyclopdia Britannica. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22. ^ Bowker, John (2000). "Parsva" ( /ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t101.e5504) . The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. /views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main& entry=t101.e5504. Retrieved 2007-10-22. ^ Charpentier, Jarl (1922). "The History of the Jains". The Cambridge History of India. 1. Cambridge. pp. 153. ^ Ghatage, A.M. (1951). "Jainism". In Majumdar, R.C. and A.D. Pusalker. The Age of Imperial Unity. Bombay. pp. 411412. ^ Deo, Shantaram Bhalchandra (1956). History of Jaina monachism from inscriptions and literature. Poona [Pune, India]: Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute. pp. 5960. ^ "Mahavira." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopdia Britannica, Inc., 2006. 28 Nov. 2009. /mahavira ^ Rapson, "Catalogue of the Indian coins of the British Museum. Andhras etc...", p XVII. ^ Full text of the Hathigumpha Inscription in English ( /HISTORY/PRIMARYDOCS/EPIGRAPHY /HathigumphaInscription.htm)

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