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1. INTRODUCTION Examples of Heat Transfer Problems

(1) Slide Projector, (2) Ice Storage (3) Re-entry Aerodynamic Heating (4) Pot Handle (5) Under-window radiator of heating system (6) Refrigerator

Focal Point in Heat Transfer

Determination of the temperature distribution in a region

1

Modes of Heat Transfer

 (i) Conduction: by molecular or atomic activity (ii) Convection: by mass motion (iii) Radiation: by electromagnetic waves

Conduction: Fourier's Law

 A S = wall area L L = wall thickness

T si

T so

&

Q

T
so
T 1
T
T 2
si
S
[m 2 ]
&
q
Q
dx
x
0
x
L

Fig.1.1

T 1 = inside surface temperature

T 2 = outside surface temperature

Is

Is

Is

proportional to L ? How?

x proportional to S ? How?

&

Q x

&

Q x

proportional to (T 1 - T 2 )? How?

2

x

Heat Transfer Rate (tepelný tok)

&

Q

x

=

(

λS T T

1

2

)

L

[W]

1.1.

λ is called thermal conductivity, a property of material

Equation (1.1) is valid for: (i) steady state, (ii) one- dimensional conduction and (iii) constant λ .

Reformulation of (1.1): Apply (1.1) to an element dx:

&

Q

x

T 1

T(x),

T

2

T(x

= λ S

T(x)

T(x + dx)

dx

=

+

dx),

λS

δ dx

T(x + dx)

T(x)

dx

&

Q

x

=

λ S

dT

dx

[W]

Definition: Heat flux (měrný tepelný tok)

(1.2)

q&

x

(1.2) becomes

q &

&

q

=

&

Q

x

x S

= −

λ

dT

x dx

[W/m 2 ]

(1.3)

(1.4)

For 3-D:

&

q

x

=− λ

T

x

,

q &

y

=−

λ

T

y

,

q &

z

= −

λ

T

z

(1.5)

Equation (1.5) is known as Fourier's law

4

Convection: Newton's Law of Cooling

Convection: Energy is transported by means of mass

motion

Classification:

(1) Free convection (2) Forced convection

T
T
T
q&
s
w
w

Heat exchange between a surface and a fluid moving over it

(

q & T T

w

w

)

where

q&

T

w

w

T

[W/m 2 ] (měrný tepelný tok)

= surface (wall) flux

= surface temperature

= fluid temperature far away from the surface

5

Rewrite:

q

w

(

=α T T

w

)

(1.6)

This is Newton's law of cooling.

NOTE:

(1) α is called heat transfer coefficient

(součinitel přestupu tepla)

(2) It is a defined quantity

(3) It depends on geometry, fluid properties and motion

(4) To determine α, the temperature distribution in the fluid must be known

(5) Major objective in convection: Determination of α

6

Typical Values of α

Important:

Use this table as a guide only. Do not use these values to solve problems.

Table 1.1 Typical values of α

Process

Free Convection Gases Liquids

Forced Convection Gases Liquids Liquid metals

Phase change Boiling liquids Condensation

α (W/m 2 K)

5 - 30 20 - 1000

20 - 300 50 - 20,000 5,000 - 50,000

2,000 - 100,000 5,000 - 100,000

Transmission by electromagnetic waves

No medium is needed. Best in a vacuum

Maximum possible radiation: By an ideal surface called blackbody.

Stefan-Boltzmann law for blackbody radiation flux:

E

E

0

= σ T

4 [W]

0 = blackbody radiation flux (zářivost)

(1.7)

T = surface temperature, measured in absolute degrees (Kelvin)

σ = 5.67 x 10 -8 W/m 2 -K 4

Real surface:

(1.8)

E = radiation flux (zářivost šedého povrchu) Emissivity,ε, a surface property defined as

ε=

E

E

0

Combining (1.7) and (1.9)

E =εσT

4

(1.9)

(1.10)

Energy Exchange Between Two Bodies:

&

Q

A Simplified Model

12 = Energy exchange between two surfaces

Absorptivity (absorptance) a : Fraction of radiation incident on a surface which is absorbed

Simplified model: Gray surface: ε = a

Special case: A small gray surface enclosed by a much larger surface

&

Q

12

=

4

4

ε σS (T T

1

1

1

2

)

(1.11)

( ) 1 = small surface, ( ) 2 = large surface

Properties

Heat transfer depends on material and surface properties as:

Conductivity

Density

Viscosity

Specific heat

Emissivity

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Example: Application of Problem Solving Methodology

Square transistor is mounted on a circuit board. Transistor surface is cooled by convection. Size, dissipated power, heat transfer coefficient and ambient temperature are known.

Determine surface temperature.

T
T
s
transistor

board

Fig. 1.3

(1) Observations

(i) Schematic diagram

(ii) Dissipated electric energy is removed by convection and radiation

(iii) Surface temperature is higher than ambient temperature

(iv) Increasing dissipated power increases surface temperature

(2) Problem Definition

Find the relationship between power and surface temperature

(3) Solution Plan

Apply Newton's law of cooling to the surface of the transistor.

13

T
T
s
transistor
board

Fig. 1.3

(4) Plan Execution (i) Assumptions

(2) Dissipated electric energy leaves transistor surface (no energy leaves from the back side)

(3) Negligible heat loss by radiation

(4) Uniform surface temperature

(5) Uniform heat transfer coefficient

(6) Constant ambient temperature

(ii) Analysis

Newton's law of cooling:

14

&

q

w

(

=α T T

w

)

α = heat transfer coefficient = 8

2

[W/m K]

q&

w = surface heat flux,

W/m

2

T

w = ? surface temperature,

o C

T

= ambient air temperature = 26

o

C

(a)

Conservation of energy and assumptions (2) and (3):

Dissipated power = Heat removed from surface

P = Sq&

w

(b)

S = surface area = 1 (cm) × 1 (cm) = 1 = 0.0001 m 2

P = power dissipated in transistor = 0.04 W

(b) into (a)

Solving for

T

w

P

S

=

α (T

w

T

)

T w =

T

+

P

Sα

(iii) Computations

(d) gives

T

w

=

26

+

0,04

0,0001 . 8

= 76

o

C

(c)

(d)

(iv) Checking

Dimensional check: Equation (d) is dimensionally correct. Each term has units of temperature.

Qualitative check: Equation (d) behaves correctly:

Increasing P increases

T

w

T w =

T

+

P

Sα

(d)

Decreasing the surface area increases T

Decreasing α increases

Limiting checks:

Power off (P = 0): surface temperature = ambient temperature

w

T

w

If α = 0 ( no heat is removed) then

T →∞

w

17

(5) Learning and Generalizing

(i)

(ii) Examine assumptions (2) and (3):

T

w < 85 o C

(2) no energy leaves from the back side (3) negligible heat loss by radiation

Heat removed from the back side lowers

calculated

T

w

Radiation heat loss lowers calculated

T

w

Requirements for Energy Conservation

Energy Conservation

a) Balance for Energy flux in every moment, [W].

for a Control Volume

E &

in

+

E &

g

E &

out

=

=

 dE ak = dU du ( = m dt dt dt

) [W]

b) Balance for amount of heat, [J].

E in

+ E E

g

out

=ΔE

ak

[J]

19

Requirements for Energy Conservation Energy Conservation for a Control Surface

E &

in

E &

out

=

0