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5. TRANSIENT CONDUCTION

Simplified Model: Lumped-Capacity Method – Kapacitní metoda

Basic assumption: Neglect spatial temperature variation:

T

=

T(t)

Criterion for Neglecting Spatial Temperature Variation

Consider a wire cooled by convection:

α h ΔT k λ
α
h
ΔT
k
λ
r o 1
r
o
1

=δ

L

α h ΔT k λ
α
h
ΔT
k
λ
r o
r
o

=δ

L

α = heat transfer coefficient λ = thermal conductivity

L

=

r

o = radius (characteristic dimension)

ΔT = temperature drop across wire

Objective: Neglecting temperature drop ΔT across L The Biot number combines the effects of λ, L and α:

Bi =

α L

λ

Criterion for neglecting ΔT in the lumped-capacity model:

Bi =

α L

λ

< 0,1

(5.1)

L/λ

internal resistance

Physical significance of Bi:

Bi = = 1/α
Bi =
=
1/α

external resistance

3

Application to other geometries: Use

Bi<0,

to justify

applying the lumped-capacity model to:

(1) Plate of thickness L, exchanging heat on both surfaces:

L L/2

(2) Sphere of radius

(3) Irregular shape of surface area S and volume V

L = r

o

L =

V

S

(5.2)

Lumped-Capacity Analysis

Consider a body which is exchanging heat with the ambient by convection

which is exchanging heat with the ambient by convection S = surface area α = heat

S

= surface area

α = heat transfer coefficient

T

=

ambient temperature

Objective:

Determine the transient temperature

Assume: Bi < 0.1

T = T ( t )

5

Apply conservation of energy during time interval dt:

&

E

E &

in

+

E &

g

g = energy generated

&

E in

= energy added

&

E

out

= energy removed

E &

out

= ΔE

Δ E

= energy change (storage, i.e. accumulation)

(5.3)

Assume that the body is losing heat and assume no heat

generation: E

&

g

=

E &

in

=

0.

Equation (5.3) becomes

&

E

out

=

ΔE

(5.4)

Neglect radiation and assume that heat is removed by convection

&

E

out

=

αS(T T

For incompressible material

ρ = density c = specific heat

V = volume

ΔE = ρ c V

dT

dt

)

(5.5)

(5.6)

(5.5) and (5.6) into (5.4)

α S (T T ) = ρ c V

dT

dt

or

α S (T T ) ρ c V

=

d(T-T )

dt

7

Separate variables

d(T

T

) =

(T

T

)

αS

ρcV

dt

(5.7)

This is the lumped-capacity equation for all bodies exchanging heat by convection. Valid for Bi < 0.1

Initial condition:

Solution:

T

T

= T

o

T

(5.8)

Assume constant c, α, ρ and T . Integrate of (5.7) .

ln

T

T

=−

αS

t

T

T

o

T

T

=

exp ⎜ ⎛

ρcV

 

T

o

T

 

αS t ρcV

(5.9)

8

Introducing new dimensionless temperature:

Θ

And time constant:

T T

= T

T

o

τ=

ρcV

αS

Rewrite equation (5.9):

Θ = e

t

τ

τ = ρ cV α S Rewrite equation (5.9): Θ = e − t τ Θ

Θ 1,0

Θ

1,0 τ t
1,0
τ
t

Higher accumulation capacity

higher time constant

longer response to changes

9

This is the lumped capacity solution. Valid for:

(1) Bi < 0.1

(2) constant c, α and T and ρ

&

(3) Q

(4) No radiations

0

zdr =

&

Q =

α S (T T )

radiations 0 zdr = & Q = α S (T T ) − ∞ = Objective:

=

Objective: Determine amount of heat exchanged between the body and ambiance in a certain time interval

between the body and ambiance in a certain time interval Q = t ∫ 0 &

Q =

t

0

&

t

(

)

[J]

10

Qdt

αS T T dt

0

T

)

e

t

τ

dt

t

0

(

T

o

Q = αS

After integration and substituting for time constant τ

⎛ t ⎞ − ( ) ⎜ ⎟ T − T Q = ρcV T
t ⎞
(
)
T
− T
Q =
ρcV T T 1 e
τ
o
Θ
= T
− T
o
Heat transferred for time t → ∞
Overview of formulas
Characteristic length as V/S
t
t
α
St
α
t
α λ
L
t
α
L at
=
=
=
=
=
Bi Fo
.
Θ = e
τ
τ ρ
ρ
λ ρ
2
2
cV
cL
c
L
λ
L
-BiFo
Θ= e

Overview of formulas

Θ = e

t

τ

Characteristic length as L=V/S

Θ= e

-BiFo

Bi

=

α

V

S

λ

Characteristic length as a distance where maximum temperature difference occurs

Plane wall – half thickness L=δ/2

Cylinder – radius R, L=R

Sphere – radius R, L=R

Θ= e

Θ= e

Θ= e

-BiFo

-2BiFo

-3BiFo

Bi =

α L

λ