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6. ONE-DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT CONDUCTION For Bi > 0.

.1, lumped capacity is not applicable Spatial temperature variations must be accounted for
Example: One-dimensional transient conduction in a plate or in long cylinder or in a sphere
= heat transfer coefficient /2 = half thickness of plate To = initial temperature T = ambient temperature a = thermal diffusivity

Governing Equations
T T T T & ( ) + ( ) + ( ) + Q = c zdr x x y y z z t For one-dimensional, no energy generation and constant conductivity, heat conduction equation becomes: 2T 1 T = (6.1) 2 a t x

Boundary conditions on both sides:

T x

= T T
x =0,

x =0,

) = (T

(a) (b)

Initial condition:

T(x,0) = To

For symmetrical heating or cooling, only one half of the plate and x=0 placed on the axis of the plate.

T =0 x x=0

x=0

x=/2

(c)

T + = T T = T T x = 2 w x x= 2

) (

Solution to the equation


2T 1 T = 2 a t x
(6.1)

Analytical Fourier method of separation of variables.

Graphical Representation of Solutions: Non-dimensional Form (Heislers Charts)


2T 1 T = 2 a t x
T(x,0) = To

Plates

T + = T T = T T x = 2 w x x= 2

) (

The form of the equation and boundary conditions shows that the temperature T(x,t) depends on:

Two variables: x and t Six physical quantities: , , /2, T ,To and a


T T = f x, t, T ,a, , 0 T , 2

To map the effects of all quantities on T(x,t) can be tedious (boring) and time consuming Alternate approach: Express the result in nondimensional form (by independent dimensionless groups) using Buckingham theorem: Required number of dimensionless groups is equal to the total number of physical quantities n (x,t,,a) minus the number of primary dimensions m required to express the dimensional n quantities.

T T = f x,t,T0 T , ,a,, 2

8 quantities 4 primary dimensions m, s, W, K

Define the following 4 dimensionless variables

Time: Distance:

Fo =

t
2

L x X= L

= Fourier number
Characteristic dimension L for a plate is /2
To T T T

Temperature:

L Bi = = Biot number Relation between two variables and six quantities is replaced by relation between four dimensionless groups = f(X, Fo; Bi)

Heisler charts: Equations of the analytical solution


are used to construct charts to determine transient temperature in plates

Fig. 1: Transient temperature at the center, Tc Fig. 2:Transient temperature at other locations in
terms of Tc

Tc T = c (T0 T )

=
c

T T
c o

1 = Bi L
t L2

T T

For given time t calculate Fo Calculate Bi Determine c temperature at the center

Fo =

Fig. 1: Center-plane transient temperature of a plate of thickness 2L

T T
c

T T

T T = (T c T )
Surface temperature

1/Bi = /L
Fig. 2: Temperature distribution in a plate of thickness 2L

Fig. 3 Center transient temperature of a cylinder

Surface temperature
Fig. 4 Temperature distribution in a Cylinder of radius
ro terms of To

Fig. 5 Center transient temperature of a sphere

Fig. 6 Temperature distribution of a sphere in terms of

To

Multi-dimensional Transient Conduction in bars, prisms, short cylinders etc.


Superposition of 1D solution product solution A short cylinder is the intersection of a long cylinder and a plane wall of the thickness that equals the height of the cylinder.

Similarly, a long rectangular bar is the intersection of two plane walls of the thickness a and b

Product solution:

T ( r , x , t ) T T T short 0

cylinder

T ( x , t ) T T ( r , t ) T = T T plane . T T infinite 0 0
wall

cylinder

Remind:

T(0,t) T c = To T

for x, r=0

Temperature in the center of a finite (short) cylinder:

T (0,0 , t ) T c = T T short 0

= c,plane .c,infinite
wall cylinder

cylinder

Similarly for other locations:

1 = centre .surface
1 2 3 4

cylinder

plane . wall

2 = surface .surface
cylinder

plane . wall

3 = center .center
cylinder

plane . wall plane . wall

4 = surface .center
cylinder

TRANSIENT CONDUCTION IN SEMIINFINITE SOLID


Sudden cooling of surface

Position of no temperature change

Solution procedure
Equation for temperature distribution T=f(x,t)
T T =a 2 T x
2
x=0

B.C.: One initial condition: at t=0, T=T0 , for all x One boundary condition: at t>0, T=Tw for x=0

Solution
T ( x,t ) Tw x = erf = erf T0 Tw 2 at 2
erf - Gauss error function New variable (a)

x = at

T ( x,t ) Tw T0 Tw

Practical impact

T ( x,t ) Tw T0 Tw

/2 = 1,825 For /2 > 1,825, i.e.

for x > 3,65 at


T(x) - Tw > 0.99(To - Tw) i.e. T ( x ) To

Heat flux transferred on the surface


Fourier law

T q & w = x x =0

[W/m2]

After differentiation of (a)

T ( x,t ) Tw x erf = erf = T0 Tw 2 at 2

T0 Tw T = at x x =0
Heat flux

(Tw T0 ) q &w = at

1 &w q t

What about an amount of heat [J]??