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# 7.

EXTENDED SURFACES - FINS The Function of Fins Increase heat transfer rate for a fixed surface
temperature, or

## Lower surface temperature for a fixed heat transfer rate

Newton's law of cooling & =aS (T T ) Q s s s & for a fixed T Extending S increases Q
s

Rewrite (3.63)

T =T +
s

& Q

s s

aS

## & lowers T Extending surface at fixed Q s s

A surface is extended by adding fins Examples of fins: Thin rods on the condenser in back of refrigerator. Honeycomb surface of a car radiator. Corrugated surface of a motorcycle engine. Coolers of PC boards. Types of Fins

(a) constant area (b) variable area straight fin straight fin Fig. 3.12

T
T
Fig. 3.13

## Fin base (pata ebra) Fin tip (konec ebra)

h T ,,T

Heat Transfer and Temperature Distribution in Fins Heat flow through a fin is
axial and lateral (2-D)

## The Fin Approximation

Neglect temperature variation in the lateral direction r and assume uniform temperature at any section: T T(x)

## Criterion for justifying this approximation:

Biot number = Bi = / << 1, Bi < 0.1

## Remind the meaning of the Biot number:

/ internal resistance Bi = = 1/ external resistance

## Conservation of energy for an element for steady state

and no energy generation:

## & in = E & out E

& Energy in by conduction = Q x & + (dQ & /dx)dx Energy out by conduction = Q x x

## & Energy out by convection = dQ

x

conv
dS=P.dx dA s C P qx

(a) (b)

& + Eout = Q x

& dQ x dx

qx +

dqx dx dx

& dQ
x

&c dq dQ

conv

( b)

dx

& dx + dQ

conv

=0

(c)

dT & Q = A x dx
& dQ
conv

(d) (e)

= (T T )P.dx

## is a surface average heat transfer coefficient

A = cross-sectional conduction area P.dx = dS = surface area of element through which heat is convected

## (d) and (e) into

& dQ x dx

& dx + dQ

conv

=0

d dT A dx (T T )Pdx = 0 dx dx

(f)

Assume: constant
d 2T P (T T ) = 0 2 A dx

## Or assuming T constant and replacing T with T T

d 2(T-T ) dx 2 P (T T ) = 0 A

## Heat equation for fins

Boundary Conditions
Two B.C. are needed

## & o = conduction at the base = Q

convection at the surface
&o Two methods to determine Q
(1) Conduction at the base: Fourier's law

d (T T ) & Qo = A dx

x =0

## (2) Convection at the fin surface: Newton's law

& o = [T(x) T ] P.dx Q
S

fin parameter m

P mL = L A
P (T T ) = 0 A

## Rewrite Heat equation for fins

d 2(T-T ) dx 2

d 2 (T - T ) 2 m (T T ) = 0 dx 2

## Heat equation is valid for:

(1) Steady state (2) Constant (3) No energy generation (4) No radiation (5) Bi << 1 (6) Constant fin area (7) Constant ambient temperature T

## Solution to the equation:

d 2 (T - T ) 2 m (T T ) = 0 dx 2

T(x) T = C1e mx + C 2 e mx

## Two boundary conditions: at the base and at the tip

Consider 3 cases of constant area fins (i) (ii) Specified temperature at the base, semi-infinite fin Finite fin, specified temperature at the base, insulated tip (iii) Finite fin, specified temperature at the base, heat transfer at the tip

, T ,h T

0
To

C P

h,T

Fig. 3.16

Ac A

## Remind the solution: T(x) T = C1e mx + C 2 e mx B.C. are:

T(0) =To , T(0) T = T0 T
T() =T , T( ) T = 0

(a) (b)

T(x) T T T
o

= exp( mx)

## &o Fin heat transfer rate Q

d (T T ) & Qo = A dx
x =0

= Am(T0 T )

& o = A P (T0 T ) Q
&o Q = (T0 T ) A P
Obviously, no dependence on the fin length

Case (ii): Finite length fin with specified temperature at the base and insulated tip
Same as Case (i) except the tip is insulated.
0

T & Q x = L = S x
Tip B.C.

,T h ,T
ht h,T , T

=0
x=L

To

Ac

Fig. 3.17

d (T T ) dx

x=L

=0
T(x) T = C1e mx + C 2 e mx

General solution:

## Two B.C. - fin base (specified temperature) and tip

zero heat transfer rate give C1 and C2 ,
sinhx e x e x ex + ex ex ex = x ; tghx = ; coshx = sinhx = coshx e + e x 2 2

Solution:

T ( x ) T cosh m( L - x ) = = cosh mL To T

## Tip temperature (x=L):

TL T 1 = L T0 T cosh mL
d (T T ) & Qo = A dx

x =0

## sinh mL & Qo = Am(T0 T ) cosh ml

&o Q = tgh (mL ) A P (T0 T )

## &o Q = (T0 T ) A P &o Q =1 A P (T0 T )

TL T = 0,014 T0 T

TL T = 0,014.(T0 T )

Case (iii): Finite length fin with specified temperature at the base and heat transfer at the tip
0

,T h ,T
h,T , T

,T
ht

To

Ac

Fig. 3.17

## T ( x ) T cosh[m ( L x )] + ( L / m )sinh[m ( L x )] = T0 T cosh mL + ( L / m )sinh mL

Corrected Length Lc Fins with insulated tips have simpler solutions than
fins with convection at the tip

Simplified model: Assume insulated tip and The corrected length Lc is Error negligible if
Lc = L + Lc

t 0,0625

## Fin Effectiveness (efektivnost) f Fin Efficiency (innost) f

Fin performance is described by two parameters: Fin Effectiveness f : Measures heat transfer enhancement due to fin addition. &o &o Q Q & o = Am(T0 T ) sinh mL Q = Defined as f = cosh ml & A(To T ) Qbase
Ratio of heat transfered by the fin and heat transfered from the original area A of the fin Qbase = A(To T ) A

## For a semi-infinite fin:

f =

AP (To T ) P = A(To T ) A

How to increase fin effectivness: high conductivity material high perimeter to area ratio P/A thin fin and close each to other use fin where heat transfer coefficient is low f must be >2, otherwise dont use the fin.

Fin Efficiency f : Compares heat transfer from a fin with the maximum heat that the fin can transfer. Defined as &o Q f = & o,max Q

## & o,max = heat transfer from fin if its entire surface is at Q

the base temperature & o,max = S f (To T ) Q

## S f = total fin surface area

Introduce the above into equation for f

&o Q f = S f (To T )

TOT =

& TOT,max Q

& TOT Q

## & TOT Q = STOT (To T )

Sf So

STOT
& TOT Q

Total finned surface (including surface between individual fins) STOT = S f + S o Total heat transfer rate from the total finned surface of an actual finned surface

## & TOT = S f f (To T ) + So (To T ) Q

& TOT,max Q
When the entire finned surface is at the base temperature

## Sf & ( QTOT = STOT 1 1 f )(To T ) STOT

Taking the definition of the total efficiency & TOT Q & TOT = STOT TOT (To T ) TOT = Q STOT (To T ) we come to the definition of a total efficiency

TOT = 1

Sf STOT

(1 f )

Practical procedure how to calculate heat transfer rate from a finned surface
1. 2. Specify efficiency of an individual fin f using graphs Calculate total surface of fins and free space between fins STOT = S f + So Calculate total efficiency Sf ( TOT = 1 1 f ) STOT Calculate maximum heat transfer rate
& TOT,max = S TOT (To T ) Q

Sf So

3.
TOT

4. 5.

## Graphs of fin efficiency

Fin efficiency for three types of straight fins

## Graphs of fin efficiency

Fin efficiency for annular fins