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8. BASIC CONCEPTS IN CONVECTION

Introduction

Characteristic of convection: Fluid motion

Focal point: Determination of heat transfer coefficient α - součinitel přestupu tepla

Determination of α:

Temperature distribution in the fluid α

1

General Observations

The Role of Fluid Motion

For the electric bulb:

q&

w

T

w

T

u

= surface flux

= surface temperature

= free stream temperature

= free stream velocity

u

V

T

q& q′′ w T T s s w • + −
q&
q′′
w
T
T
s
s
w
+

Fig. 6.1

For a fixed input power how to lower surface temperature?

Raise or lower

Change the cooling fluid?

?

u

2

Increasing

u

or changing the fluid from air to

water lowers surface temperature

Conclusion:

Fluid motion and fluid nature play important roles in convection

Newton’s law:

Solve for

T

w

q &

w

(

= α T T

w

)

T

w

=

T

+

q &

q & w ( = α T − T w ∞ ) T w = T

w

α

[W/m fixed
[W/m
fixed

2

]

Surface temperature depends on α

(8.1)

3

In general, α

is not uniform over a surface

Local heat transfer coefficient, α = f(S), f(x)

q& w
q&
w

q &

= α T −T ( ) [W/m 2 ] w w ∞ y
= α T −T
(
)
[W/m 2 ]
w
w
y
q& w q & = α T −T ( ) [W/m 2 ] w w ∞

x

Average heat transfer coefficient, α

For α=f(S)

For α=f(x)

1

=

α

S

S

αdS

&

Q w

1

α = L α x dx

α =f(x) 1 = α S ∫ S α dS & Q w 1 α =

L

0

(

)

(

)

= αS T T

w

[W] (8.2)

(8.3)

4

Similarly for Mass Transfer (as for Heat Transfer)

Similarly for Mass Transfer (as for Heat Transfer) Consider a lake or a pond and its

Consider a lake or a pond and its surface from which water evaporates (or an evaporating droplet)

from which water evaporates (or an evaporating droplet) Two substances, one labeled A (water vapor) is
from which water evaporates (or an evaporating droplet) Two substances, one labeled A (water vapor) is
from which water evaporates (or an evaporating droplet) Two substances, one labeled A (water vapor) is
from which water evaporates (or an evaporating droplet) Two substances, one labeled A (water vapor) is

Two substances, one labeled A (water vapor) is transferred into B (dry or humid air).

ρ mass concentration of substance A – density [kg/m 3 ] at surface temperature and assumed in saturated state

A,w

ρ mass concentration of substance A – at free stream conditions (temperature, humidity, pressure)

A,

5

q & = α T ( −T ) w w ∞ Heat transfer is proportional
q &
= α T
(
−T
)
w
w
Heat transfer is proportional to temperature difference
Mass transfer is proportional to concentration difference
(
)
If
ρ
≠ ρ
then
m
=
βρ
ρ
[kg/s.m 2 ]
(8.4)
A,w
A, ∞
A
A,w
A, ∞

β is mass transfer coefficient [m/s] – souč. přestupu hmoty

For the entire surface S:

– sou č . p ř estupu hmoty For the entire surface S: m & A

m&

A

=

(

βS ρ

A,w

ρ

A,

)

[kg/s]

β is an average mass transfer coefficient [m/s]

1 β = ∫ S S
1
β =
S
S

βdS

(8.5)

6

Conclusion:

For a given geometry, heat transfer coefficient depends on fluid motion and fluid nature

What is the objective of this chapter?

Examine thermal interaction between a surface and a moving fluid and determine:

(1) The heat transfer coefficient α

(2) Surface heat flux (3) Surface temperature T w

q&

w

Heat transfer coefficient

(1) How is α determined analytically? (2) Why is α introduced ?

Apply Fourier's law to the fluid at surface

q &

= −

w

λ

f

T

y

y

=

0

(8.6)

Heat conducted across a thin sticky

layer on the surface

Balance between conducted heat and heat convected downstream the surface - consider Newton's law

q &

w

= α T

(

w

T

)

(8.7)

y T(x, y) V u ∞ ∞ x T ∞ • T q& T s
y T(x, y)
V u
x
T
T
q&
T
s
w
w

Fig. 6.2

Combine Newton’s and Fourier’s laws

α =

q &

w

T

w

T

=

∂ T − λ f ∂ y y = 0 T − T w ∞
∂ T
− λ
f ∂ y
y
= 0
T
− T
w

(8.8)

9

To get

α from (8.8), we must determine temperature

distribution

gradient in the fluid

T(x, y)

in the fluid and to obtain temperature

T

/

y

y = 0

α =

q &

w

T

w

T

=

λ

T

f y

y

= 0

T

w

T

(8.8)

Governing Equations for Convection Heat Transfer

Focal point in convection:

Determination of temperature distribution in a moving fluid

Basic laws governing temperature distribution:

(1) Conservation of mass (2) Conservation of momentum

(3) Conservation of energy

Assumptions:

(1) Two-dimensional u(x,y), v(x,y) (2) Single phase flow (water, air, etc)

Conservation of Mass: The Continuity Equation

y dy dx x (a) Fig. 6.4
y
dy
dx
x
(a)
Fig. 6.4
∂ m & y m & dy y + ∂ y ∂ m & m
∂ m &
y
m &
dy
y +
∂ y
∂ m &
m
&
x dx
m&
x +
x
x
dy
dx
m&
y

(b)

Apply conservation of mass to an element dxdy:

Rate of mass added - Rate removed

= Rate of mass change within

(a)

Apply (a) Using previous Figure:

⎡ + ( ⎢ ⎣
+
(
⎢ ⎣

∂

)

dx

(

∂ )

)

=

m

x

⎤ +

⎥ −

⎤ + ⎦ ⎥ − ⎢ ⎣
 

y

dy

 

t

+ =
+ =

+

=

  ∂ y dy ⎥ ⎦   ∂ t + = = − (b) mass flow

=

  ∂ y dy ⎥ ⎦   ∂ t + = = − (b) mass flow

(b)

mass flow rate entering element in the x-direction

mass flow rate entering element in the y-direction m = mass within element

Express (b) in terms of fluid density and velocity:

 
  = ρ VA (c)

=

ρVA

(c)

A = flow area

 

V = velocity normal to A

 

ρ

= density

Apply (c) to the element

 
 
  = ρ udy (d)

= ρudy

(d)

= ρ vdx (e)

=

ρvdx

(e)

u and v are the velocity components in the x and y directions

m = mass of element:

 
 

m = ρdxdy

(f)

(d)–(f) into (b)

(

u

)

(

ρv

) = 0

ρ

ρ

+

+

t

x

y

(8.9)

Incompressible fluid: ρ = constant

u

v

+

x

y

= 0

is the continuity equation

(8.10)

Conservation of Momentum:

The Navier-Stokes Equations of Motion

Assume: 2-D

Newton's law of motion: Apply to element dxdy x-direction

F

x

= ma

x

= acceleration in the x-direction m = mass of the element

a

x

m = ρdxdy

Acceleration we need:

a

x

:

u = u(x,y,t)

in

(a)

(b)

The total change in u is u

du =

dx +

u

dy +

u

x

t

y

dt

Divide by dt and note that dx/dt = u and dy/dt = v

a x

 

du

u

u

u

=

 

=

+

+

 

u

v

 

dt

x

y

t

u

convective acceleration

y

=

u

u

+ v

x

u

t

= local acceleration

F

x

: Two types of external forces:

(c)

Body forces,

F

b

: Gravity

F

b

= ρ

gdxdy

Surface forces,

F :

s

Normal: pressure p and normal stress

σ

xx

Tangential: shearing stress

Total external forces:

F

x

τ

=

xy

F

b

+

F

s

(d)

(e)

Surface forces:

σ τ ∂ p ∂ ∂ yx ( xx F = − + + )
σ
τ
∂ p
yx
(
xx
F
=
+
+
)
dxdy
s
∂ x
∂ x
∂ y
τ yx
(
τ
+
dy dx
)
yx
∂ y
σ
xx
σ
dy
(
σ
+
dx dy
)
xx
xx
∂ x
dy
∂ p
pdy
dx
( p
+
dx dy
)
∂ x
dx τ yx
dx
τ yx

Fig. 6.5

(e) and (f) into (d)

F

x

=

(

ρ

g

p

σ

τ

xx

yx

+

+

x

x

y

)

dxdy

(f)

(g)

19

(b), (c) and (g) into (a)

u

u

 

u

)

 

p

 

σ

xx

 

τ

yx

 

=

   
 

+ u

+

v

ρ

g

+

+

t

v

x

v

y

v

 

p

x

x

σ

yy

σ

y

xy

+ u

+ v

= −

+

+

 
 

)

 

t

x

 

y

y

y

 

x

 

ρ(

By analogy: y-direction

ρ(

(8.11)

(8.12)

Too many unknowns!

Important assumption: The variables

σ

xx

,

σ

yy

,

τ

xy

,

and τ

incompressible fluids:

are eliminated using empirical relations. For

yx

20

τ

xy

σ

xx

σ

yy

= 2μ

=

2μ

u

x

v

y

=

τ

yx

=

μ

u

v

+

y

x

(8.13)

(8.14)

(8.15)

Fluids that obey these relations, such as water, air and oil, are referred to as Newtonian fluids

Polymers, honey, etc. do not follow these relations

and are known as non-Newtonian fluids

(8.13)-(8.15) into (8.11) and (8.12), assume constant viscosity

21

ρ

(

u

+ u

u

+

u

)

=

p

+

(

2

u

+

2

u

t

x

v

y

ρ

g

x

μ

x

2

y

2

and

(

v

+ u

v

+ v

v

)

= −

p

+

2

v

 

+

2

v

ρ

t

x

 

y

(

y

μ

x

2

 

)

y

2

)

(8.16)

(8.17)

(8.16) and (8.17) are the equations of motion in rectangular coordinates. They are also known as the

Na vier-Stokes equations of motion.

Limitations on (8.16) and (8.17):

(1) Newtonian fluids (2) Constant density ρ (3) Constant viscosity μ

(4) Two-dimensional flow

(5) Gravity pointing in the positive x-direction

Conservation of Energy

Assumptions:

(1) Two-dimensional

(2) Negligible changes in kinetic and potential energy

(3) Negligible energy transfer due to normal stresses

σ

xx

and

σ

yy

,

and shearing stress

τ

xy

(viscous dissipation)

(4) Constant properties

24

Apply conservation of energy, to element dxdy :

E &

in

+

E &

g

E &

out

=

E &

ak

dE

=

dt

[W]

dxdy : E & in + E & g − E & out = E &

Energy by conduction and convection

Energy generation and energy change within the element:

E &

g

=

Q &

zdr

dxdy

(a)

& dE

=

T

E ak

= ρ c

dt

t

dxdy

(b)

Energy convected into the element (carried with flowing fluid):

&

Q

&

Q

conv x

,

conv y

,

= ρuidy ρuc Tdy

=

p

= ρuidx = ρuc Tdx

p

incompressible fluid di = c p dT
incompressible fluid
di
= c
p dT

(c)

Energy conducted into the element (carried by molecular motion - Fourier’s law):

&

Q

cond x

,

= −

λdy

T

x

&

Q

cond y

,

= −

λdx

T

y

(d)

26

(a), (b), (c) and (d) into conservation of energy and using the continuity equation

2

2

&

T

+ u

T

+ v

T

(

T

+

T

)

+

Q

zdr

t

x

y

= α

x

2

y

2

ρc

p

(8.18)

a = thermal diffusivity (součinitel tepelné vodivosti):

a =

λ

ρc

p

Equation (8.18) is the energy equation in rectangular coordinates for 2-D constant property fluids

Physical significance of each term in (8.18):

2

2

&

T

+ u

T

+ v

T

(

T

+

T

)

+

Q

zdr

t

x

 

y

= α

x

2

y

2

 

ρc

 
     

p

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(8.18)

(1) First term: Local rate of energy change

(2) Second term: Net energy convected with fluid

(3) Third: Net energy conducted in the x and y directions

(4) Fourth term: Energy generation

Summary of the Governing Equations for Convection Heat Transfer: Mathematical Implications

Assumptions:

(1) Newtonian fluid (2) Two-dimensional (3) Negligible changes in kinetic and potential energy (4) Constant properties (except in buoyancy) (5) Gravity is in the positive x-direction

Continuity:

u

v

+

x

y

= 0

x-momentum:

 

(

u

+ u

u

+ v

u

)

= −

p

(

2

u

2

u

ρ

t

x

y

x

+ μ

x

2

y

2

y-momentum:

 
 

v

v

v

p

 

(

2

v

2

v

ρ

(

+ u

 

+ v

= −

+

 

t

x

y

)

y

μ

x

2

y

2

Energy:

 

T

+ u

T

+ v

T

2

T

+

2

T

+

&

Q

zdr

 

t

 

x

y

= α

x

2

y

2

ρc

p

 

+ )

+ )

The Boundary Layer

Simplification of the Governing Equations

Concept:

Layer Simplification of the Governing Equations Concept: Velocity boundary layer: Under certain conditions the

Velocity boundary layer:

Under certain conditions the

confined to a thin region near a surface called the velocity or viscous boundary layer

effect of viscosity will be

The edge of this region is defined by the thickness δ, which is referred to as a distance where u = 0.99 u

Shear stress (smykové napětí)

τ

w

= μ

∂ u ∂ y
∂ u
∂ y

Friction

coefficient

y

=

0

c

f

=

τ

w

ρu

2

2

31

Conditions for the existence of the velocity boundary layer:

(1) Streamlined body without flow separation

y

layer: (1) Streamlined body without flow separation y y x R Fig. 6.10 (2) High Reynolds
layer: (1) Streamlined body without flow separation y y x R Fig. 6.10 (2) High Reynolds

y

layer: (1) Streamlined body without flow separation y y x R Fig. 6.10 (2) High Reynolds
layer: (1) Streamlined body without flow separation y y x R Fig. 6.10 (2) High Reynolds

x

layer: (1) Streamlined body without flow separation y y x R Fig. 6.10 (2) High Reynolds
R
R

Fig. 6.10

(2) High Reynolds number (Re > 100) Boundary layer features:

δ

(1) Velocity at the surface vanishes. This is the no-slip condition

(2) Velocity changes rapidly across the boundary layer thickness δ . At the edge

(3) Viscosity plays no role outside the velocity boundary layer

u u

32

Thermal boundary layer:

heating
heating

Under certain conditions the effect of thermal interaction between a fluid and a surface will be confined to a thin region near the surface called the thermal boundary layer

The edge of this region is defined by the thickness

where

T

w

(

T = 0,99 T

w

T

Heat flux transferred at the wall:

&

q

)

w

= −

λ

f

∂ T ∂ y
∂ T
∂ y

y

=

0

=

(

α T

w

δ

T

33

T

)

Heat Transfer Coefficient

α =

λ

f

T ∂
T

y

y

=

0

(

T

w

T

)

tangent ∂ T heat flux q w ∂ y y = 0
tangent
T
heat flux q w
y
y
= 0

For (T w -T ) = const, what’s the behavior of α?

α

As the boundary layer increases,

the temperature gradient Why?

The same temperature difference (T w -T )

decreases.

temperature difference ( T w -T ∞ ) decreases. ∂ T ∂ x applies to a

T x

applies to a larger distance – decreases and so α does.

w -T ∞ ) decreases. ∂ T ∂ x applies to a larger distance – decreases

T x

decreases. ∂ T ∂ x applies to a larger distance – decreases and so α does.
decreases. ∂ T ∂ x applies to a larger distance – decreases and so α does.
decreases. ∂ T ∂ x applies to a larger distance – decreases and so α does.

x

Conditions for the existence of the thermal boundary layer:

(1) Streamlined body without flow separation

(2) High product of the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers (Re Pr >100)

Peclet Number =

Pe = (

ρu L

ρc u L

p

c

μ

)(

p

)

μ

λ

λ

=

(4) Temperature changes rapidly across the thermal

boundary layer thickness

δ

t

. At the edge

T T

(5) In general, both velocity and thermal boundary layer are thin

Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow

u

turbulent

turbulent

turbulent

(a)

u laminar t t (b)
u
laminar
t
t
(b)
vs. Turbulent Flow u turbulent (a) u laminar t t (b) Turbulent flow : Random fluctuations

Turbulent flow: Random fluctuations in velocity, temperature Laminar flow: Streamlines are smooth. Fluctuations are absent.

Transition Reynolds number,

Re

t

Used to check if the flow is laminar or turbulent

Re t is determined experimentally

Its value depends on geometry, surface roughness, pressure gradient, …

For uniform flow over a semi-infinite plate:

Re

x,trans =

u

x

trans

ν

500000

y

y

u

x

For flow through smooth tubes:

Re trans =

uD
uD

ν

2300

u
u

Magnitude of

Re

trans

can be changed by manipulating

surface roughness, pressure gradient, …

37

Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow

Laminar vs. Turbulent Flow α x Laminar Turbulent Transition 38

α

x Laminar Turbulent Transition
x
Laminar
Turbulent
Transition

x-momentum:

 

(

u

+ u

u

+ v

u

)

= −

p

(

2

u

2

u

ρ

t

x

y

x

+ μ

x

2

y

2

y-momentum:

 
 

v

v

v

p

 

(

2

v

2

v

ρ

(

+ u

 

+ v

= −

+

 

t

x

y

)

y

μ

x

2

y

2

Energy:

 

T

+ u

T

+ v

T

2

T

+

2

T

+

&

Q

zdr

 

t

 

x

y

= α

x

2

y

2

ρc

p

 

+ )

+ )

Mathematical Simplifications for Boundary Layer Flows

Not always all terms in the momentum equations are necessary to take into account

Often, incompressible flow, ρ=const, often constant physical quantities λ, µ, negligible mass forces (gravitational etc.), no internal heat source.

Often u>>v,

T

T

u

u

v

v

>>

y

x

,

y

,

x

>>

y

x

, ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ T ∂ T u u v v >> ∂ y

y

, ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ T ∂ T u u v v >> ∂ y
, ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ T ∂ T u u v v >> ∂ y

u

, ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ T ∂ T u u v v >> ∂ y

x

Summary of Boundary Layer Equations for Steady Laminar Flow

Assumptions:

(1) Newtonian fluid

(2) Two-dimensional

(3) Negligible changes in kinetic and potential energy

(4) Constant properties (5) Streamlined surface (6) High Reynolds number (Re > 100) (7) High Peclet number (Pe > 100).

(8) Steady state

(9) Laminar flow (10) No dissipation, Φ = 0

(11) No buoyancy, β = 0

(12) No gravity (13) No energy generation,

Continuity:

u

v

 

+

=

 

x

y

0

x-Momentum:

u

2

u

+

u

= −

1 dp

+

u

x

v

y

ρ

dx

 

ν

y

2

Assuming zero pressure gradient

Energy:

u

u

2 ∂ u ∂ u ∂ u + v = ν 2 ∂ x ∂
2
u
u
u
+
v
=
ν
2
x
y
y
2
T
T
T
+ v
= a
2
x
y
∂ y
λ
a =
ρc
p

thermal diffusivity souč. teplotní vodivosti

= ρc p thermal diffusivity sou č . teplotní vodivosti Both equations identical – Velocity and

Both equations identical – Velocity and temperature profiles will be similar – analogy between

momentum and heat transfer

43

Classification of Convection Heat Transfer

1. Forced convection vs. free convection

2. External vs. internal flow

3. Boundary layer flow vs. low Reynolds number flow

4. Compressible vs. incompressible flow

5. Laminar vs. turbulent flow

6. Newtonian vs. non-Newtonian fluid

Fluid Properties

Fluid properties needed to solve convection problems:

Specific heat c p Thermal conductivity λ

Prandtl number Pr Thermal diffusivity a

Dynamic viscosity μ

Kinematic viscosity ν

Density ρ

Heat Transfer Coefficient and Dimensionless Criteria

α =

λ

f

T ∂
T

y

y

=

0

(

T

w

T

)

From boundary layer

General functional dependence for forced convection

α = f (u, L,ρ,ν ,c,λ)

Nu =

Re =

Pr =

αL

λ

uL

ν

Nusselt number

Reynolds number

νρc = ν

a

λ

Prandtl number

7

quantities

4

primary dimensions J/K, kg, m, s

Buckingham π theorem

3 dimensionless similarity parameters - numbers

46

Formula with dimensionless numbers – correlation equations:

Nu = f (Re, Pr)

forced convection

Actual form of the equation depends on the system:

Forced convection in a tube – laminar or turbulent (entrance length L/d, fully developed region)

Cross flow over a cylinder, tube bundle

Forced convection for external flow on a flat plate

Natural convection (another dimensionless number enters into play – Grashoff number)

Flow with viscous dissipation (another dimensionless number enters into play – Eckert number) etc.

How such equations can be obtained? Mostly by experiments or by analytical solution for simple situations or systems (e.g. flow over a flat plate)