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9.

EXTERNAL FORCED CONVECTION FLOW ACROSS CYLINDERS AND SPHERES


For flow over flat plate assumption zero pressure gradient along the plate p = 0 y
x
u x

For flow across a cylinder

p 0 x

At stagnation point the fluid strikes the cylinder, pressure raises, then fluid accelerates and pressure decreases

Similarly like for flat plate region of boundary layer close to the surface and free stream outside

Relation between velocity and pressure given by Bernoulli equation du 1 dp u = dx dx


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Different flow regimes depending on Re number Re =

u d

Red < 2.105

Laminar flow less resistant to separation. Separation at about = 80 Turbulent flow more resistant to separation. Transition to turbulence at about = 80. Separation at about = 145

Red > 2.105

Flow separation visualization

Heat transfer depends on flow regime Local heat transfer coefficient Separation of turbulent boundary layer Turbulent flow Transition to turbulence

Laminar flow separation of laminar boudary layer


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Average heat transfer coefficient


m n Pr Nud = CRed Pr Pr w

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d Nud
0.7<Pr<500, 1<Red<106

All physical parameters defined at the temperature T Exponent n depends on Pr number for Pr10, n=0.37 for Pr>10, n=0.36
Red 1 - 40 40 - 1000 103 - 2 x 105 2 x 105 - 106 C 0.75 0.51 0.26 0.076 m 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

Tube bundle

m 0.36 Pr Nud = CRe Pr d,max Pr w

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Re

d,max

max

Vmax - velocity in the narrowest cross section A1 or A2


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