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CONDENSATION
Similar to natural (free) convection But with phase change steam (vapor) to liquid Liquid film or drops that form by condensation moves always naturally downwards the role of gravitation Takes place where the surface temperature is below the saturation temperature Two modes film and dropwise condensation
Under what conditions the dropwise condensation can be reached and maintained?
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Regardless of the condensation mode, the condensate creates a resistance to heat transfer between the vapor and the surface Resistance increases with condensate thickness How to avoid an increase in condensate thickness?
Dropwise condensation is superior to film condensation Various surfactants used to inhibit wetting (teflon, silicon, waxes, fatty acids etc.) Coatings gradually lose their effectiveness fouling, oxidation film condensation occurs
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Laminar film condensation on a vertical wall


The same momentum PDE as for the natural convection (gravitation in + x direction): y

1 dp u u 2u u +v = + g+ 2 f dx x y y

No movement in y - direction p y = 0 Same p x in the condensate film and in the vapor

p = v g x

Pressure difference results from the weight of the fluid column

u u v u +v = 1 y dx f

g + u 2 y
2

Laminar film condensation on a vertical wall


Energy PDE:

T T 2T +v =a 2 u x y y

Assumption: Momentum and energy transfer by advection in the film is negligible what does it mean? Momentum PDE: Energy PDE:

u u v u +v = 1 y dx f

2 g + u 2 y

T T 2T +v =a 2 u x y y
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Laminar film condensation on a vertical wall


Momentum equation:

d u dy
2

f v

g =0

B.C.: u=0 at y=0

= 0, at

y=
y

Energy equation:

d 2T dy 2

=0

B.C.: T=Tw at y=0 T=Tsat at y=

Solution: ( f v ) g u= + C1 y + C 2 2

( f v ) g 2 y y 2 2 u=
2

T = C1 y + C 2

T = Tw + (Tsat

y Tw ) 5

Laminar film condensation on a vertical wall


In both equations unknown condensate film thickness . How to determine it? And how it develops along the surface? Lets express the condensate mass flow in the film:

m & ( x ) = f udy
0

( x )

( f v ) g 2 y y 2 u= 2
2

m & =

f ( f v ) g 3

( f v ) g 3 =
3

Net inflow of condensate into the film:


2 ( ) g m m & & d f v = d dm = dx =

&

dx

Laminar film condensation on a vertical wall


This inflow of condensate into the film is due to the release of latent heat from the vapor:

& = l 23 dm dQ &
This heat transfer rate (tepeln tok) is transferred through the condensate film by conduction:

Tsat Tw & dQ = dx.1 = l 23 dm & 1 dm (Tsat Tw ) dx & = l 23


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Laminar film condensation on a vertical wall

( f v ) g 2 dm = d
&

from mass balance from energy balance

1 dm (Tsat Tw ) dx & = l 23

Equation for the condensate film thickness:

( f v ) g 2 d =

l 23

(Tsat Tw )dx
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B.C.: = 0 at x = 0

4 (Tsat Tw ) x = gl 23 ( f v )

Heat transfer coefficient


Determine on the basis of the equality of latent heat transfer by conduction and convection across the condensate film:

dT q & = dy

y =0

= x (Tsat Tw )

Linear temperature profile across the film

(Tsat Tw ) = x (Tsat Tw )

gl 23 ( f v ) x = = 4 (Tsat Tw ) x

3 1 4

Try to analyze the influence of major parameters on x


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Heat transfer coefficient


Local Nusselt number:

gl 23 ( f v ) x x x = 0,707 Nu x (Tsat Tw )

3 1 4
y

Average heat transfer coefficient on the wall of the height L :

1L 4 = x dx = L L0 3
Average Nusselt number:
x

gl 23 ( f v ) L = 0,9428 Nu L (Tsat Tw ) L

3 1 4
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Heat transfer coefficient


Or in a different form:

gL3 f v f c p l 23 Nu L = 0.9428 2 f 3 c p (Tsat Tw ) 1 2 14 4 244 3 14 4 244 3 II. I. III.


I II III Archimedes number Prandtl number Jacob (or K) number

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Nu L = 0,9428 ( Ar Pr K )1 4
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Heat transfer coefficient


Experiments reveal that heat transfer more intensive than predicted from the theory. Why? Condensate film waves and the film is thus thinner - lower thermal resistance higher heat transfer

Nu L = 1,13 ( Ar Pr K )1 4

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Heat transfer coefficient on horizontal tubes


Height of the wall is replaced by the diameter of the tube and the constant is lower:

gl 23 ( f v ) d Nud = 0,729 (Tsat Tw )

3 1 4

An obvious question: Whats better for the condensation? Horizontal or vertical tube?

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