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Many engineering applications involve condensation or boiling phase change Refrigerator refrigerant boils in the evaporation section refrigerant condenses in the condenser section Power plant steam production by boiling water in the boiler steam condensation in the condenser
Evaporation - at the liquid-vapor interface when the vapor pressure less than the saturation pressure at the given temperature. Water at 20C And relative humidity =60%. Saturation pressure (see Steam tables) p = 2,3 kPa

p = p

p = . p = 1,38 kPa

Evaporation: human body, drying wet clothes, vegetables, fruits, 1 etc.

Boiling Heat Transfer

Boiling occurs at the solid-liquid interface when the liquid is brought into contact with a surface with temperature Tw above the saturation temperature Tsat. Boiling rapid formation of vapor bubbles. Bubbles detach from the surface and rise in the liquid to reach the free surface. Heat flux:

q &boiling = (Tw Tsat ) = Texcess [W / m 2 ]

In forced and natural convections physical parameters involved , , , cp. In boiling new parameters latent heat lv (or l23 or r) and surface tension

Boiling Heat Transfer

Boiling occurs in two basic modes: Pool boiling (var ve velkm objemu) liquid is quiescent, motion due to free convection near the surface, mixing induced by bubble growth and detachement Convection boiling (flow boiling) motion due to external forces and free convection near the surface, mixing induced by bubble growth and detachement

Boiling Heat Transfer

Boiling also occurs as subcooled (liquid temperature below the saturated temperature bubbles collapse and condense) and saturated

Boiling Curve

Notice extremely high heat flux

Modes of Pool Boiling

Boiling Crisis
In case there is no control of heat flux transfered at the surface

What happens when the heat flux &max is increased beyond the q What happens when the heat flux is decreased below the q &min What happens with the vapor film?

Boiling Heat Transfer

For practical applications the best is to operate devices in the region of nucleate boiling highest heat transfer rates. Which mechanism is responsible for such high heat transfer? Convective motion of bubbles they detach from the surface and move up new liquid is entrained towards the surface - up to 98% of heat transferred from the surface Transfer of latent heat of evaporation Why increasing the heating (temperature of heated plate i.e. Texcess) results in an increase of heat transfer rate? 8

Boiling Heat Transfer

Equilibrium bubble radius

2 R= Puvnit Pvn

q & = f T a n b

a = 1.2, b=1/3 n number of nucleation sites

n T 5 6

q & f T 3


Boiling Heat Transfer

Heat flux in the nucleate boiling region:

c p (Tw Tsat ) l 23 Pr

= C wf

q & l 23

g ( f v )


Cwf and s depends on the combination of the surface and the liquid Heat transfer coefficient in the nucleate boiling region for water at 2.104 < p < 107 (Pa):

= 3,5 q & 0,7 p0,176


Convective (flow) Boiling Heat Transfer


Complication various flow patterns - slug, annular Nucleate boiling region


V TP = 1+ L L

Annular boiling region

1 TP = 3,5 L X tt


Roughly, to which point on the boiling curve corresponds the burn-out point?