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14.

HEAT EXCHANGERS
Energy is transferred between two fluids. The two fluids are separated by a solid wall

Classification of Heat Exchangers


(1) Parallel flow (souproud) (2) Counter flow (protiproud) (3) Cross flow (kov proud)
cold

hot
Parallel

Counter

Cross

Two common modes of operation in cross-flow: (1) Mixed (2) Unmixed

Mixed
hot cold hot cold hot

Unmixed

cold

Hot-cold pairs can be stacked in layers Classification based on construction Tubular heat exchangers: Basic construction: Two concentric tubes The outer tube is called the Shell. Examples:

One-shell-pass, two-tube-pass exchanger

Two-shell-pass, four-tube-pass exchanger

Tube bundles: Used in large exchangers A bundle of four tubes in a one-shell-pass, four-tube-pass mode Baffles: Used to enhance heat transfer by mixing shell fluid

Compact heat exchangers: Used where at least one of the two fluids is gas (low ). Heat transfer surface area to volume ratio of at least 700 m2/m3

Types of Heat Exchanger Problems


(1) Performance problems Objective: Predict outlet temperatures for an existing exchanger. Unique solution (2) Design problems Objective: Design an exchanger to provide specified outlet temperatures. Solution is not unique
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The Role of the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U o & (souinitel prostupu tepla k) Q
For the heat transfer rate we write:

To

S (Two Twi ) & Q = o S (To Two ) = = i S (Twi Ti )

Ti

To Ti To Ti (To Two ) (Two Twi ) (Twi Ti ) & Q= = = = = 1 1 Ro + R + Ri R S oS iS { { {


Ro R Ri
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The total resistance can be written

1 1 1 1 1 1 = + + = + + R = o S S i S S o i kS
Where k is the overall heat transfer coefficient

& Q

1 1 k = + + o i

To

[W / m 2 K ]

Ti

Then the equation for the heat transfer rate can be re-written:

&= Q

To Ti Ro + R + Ri

& = kS (To Ti ) Q
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Heat transfer through the wall of a tube. Surface area is different for the outer and the inner walls. SoSi and also koki But if we express a product kS, then

1 1 1 = = kS ki S i ko So
or

ro To o

ri Ti i

kS = ki S i = ko So

1 1 1 1 1 1 ro = = = + ln + kS ki S i ko So 2ro L o 2L ri 2ri L i

Overall heat transfer coefficient can be related to the innner wall

1 1 1 ri ro ri 1 = + ln + ki S i 2ri L i ri ro o
or to the outer wall

1 1 ri ro ri 1 = + ln + ki i ri ro o

1 ro 1 ro ro 1 1 1 ro 1 ro ro 1 = + ln + = + ln + ko ri i ri o ko So 2ro L ri i ri o
ro To o ri Ti i

Fouling resistance: Added resistance due to surface deposits of dirt and corrosion. Known as fouling factor R f . Values are given here.
Approximate fouling factors Fluid Boiler feed water (<50oC) Boiler feed water (>50oC) Steam (non-oil bearing) Industrial air Rf (m2K)/W 0.0001 0.0002 0.0001 0.0004

ro 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 R fo + R fi = + ln + + ko So 2ri L i 2L ri 2ro L o 2ro L 2ri L


1 1 1 ro ro ro 1 ro R fi . = + ln + + + R fo ri ko So 2ro L ri i ri o
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Axial Temperature Variation


x = distance along exchanger Tc = temperature of cold fluid at x Th = temperature of hot fluid at x T = ( Th Tc ) = temperature difference at x
Thi Tci
(a) parallel flow

Tho Tco

Thi Tco

Tho Tci

Thi Tco

(b) counter flow

ho Tci
(c) counter flow

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Thi = Tho T

T
co

Thi
Tci = Tco

Tci

Tho

(d) parallel or counter

(e) parallel or counter

Conclusion:

In general, T varies along a heat exchanger. Therefore, the heat transfer rate also varies

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Heat Exchanger Analysis: Two Methods


Objectives of analysis: (1) Predict outlet temperatures in performance problems (problm uren vkonnosti vmnku) (2) Design heat exchangers for specified performance (navrhnout vmnk pro danou vkonnost) Methods of analysis: (1) The log mean temperature difference (LMTD): Suitable for solving design type problems Requires iteration to solve performance problems (2) The effectiveness-number of transfer units ( - NTU): Suitable for solving design and performance problems
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The Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) Method Single Pass Parallel Flow Heat Exchangers
(i) Assumptions: (1) No axial conduction through the fluids, tube and shell (2) No heat loss from the shell to the surroundings (3) No changes in potential and kinetic energy (4) Constant overall heat transfer coefficient ko (5) Constant specific heats, c pc and c ph (6) The temperature of each fluid is uniform at any section (7) Negligible pressure drop in both fluids (8) No phase change 14 (9) Steady state

(ii) Formulation Consider an element in a parallel flow exchanger.


insulation Tc cold m &c hot m &h Th
dq

Three infinitesimal control volumes: (1) Cold fluid element (2) Hot fluid element (3) Heat transfer surface separating the fluids
Thi
T1
Tci

insulation

Tho T2 Tco

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Conservation of energy:

& = Heat added to the cold fluid Q

= Heat removed from the hot fluid = Heat transferred through the surface

Apply above equation to the cold and hot fluids:

& =m Q & h (ih,in ih,out ) & =m Q & c (ic ,out ic ,in )


Neglect pressure drop and assume no phase change:
di = c p dT

then above equations become


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& =m Q & hc p,h (Th,in Th,out )


and

& =m Q & c c p,c (Tc ,out Tc ,in )

Heat transfer through the surface separating the two fluids & = ko So (Th Tc ) Q

ko = overall heat transfer coefficient


Major problem: Both temperatures change along the heat exchanger some mean temperature difference T
& = kS T Q
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Define logarithmic mean temperature difference LMTD T1 T2 T ln = T1 Thi ln T T2 Tho T1 Tco T ci T ln = LMTD For parallel flow exchanger:
(a) parallel flow

T2

T1 = Thi Tci and T2 = Tho Tco


For counter flow exchanger:

Thi Tco

T1 = Thi Tco and T2 = Tho Tci

Tho Tci

(b) counter flow

Then equation for overall heat transfer rate


& = kS T ln Q
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NOTE:

& : (1) Three equations are available for determining Q

& =m Q & hc p,h (Th,in Th,out )


& =m Q & c c p,c (Tc ,out Tc ,in )
& = kS T ln Q

(2) To determine T ln , four temperatures Tci , Tco , Thi and Tho must be known

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Extension to Multipass and Cross-flow Exchangers


LMTD results for single pass parallel flow are applicable to multi-pass and cross-flow exchangers by modifying the definition of T ln :

T ln = F T ln,CF T ln,CF = LMTD for equivalent counterflow exchanger F = correction factor


F depends on geometry and 2 temperature parameters P and R F = f ( P , R, geometry )
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P and R are defined as


to ti P= Ti t i
Ti To R= to t i

t = tube fluid temperature T = shell fluid temperature


Solutions for F for various exchangers are available in graphical form. Examples in the following figures
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F factor for one-shell-pass and any multiple of two-tube passes


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F factor for cross-flow with one fluid mixed and the other unmixed

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NOTE: Taking the ratio of

& shell m & c p, shell (Ti To )shell Q = =1 & m Qtube & c p,tube (to t i )tube
gives

& c p,tube (Ti To )shell m = R= (to t i )tube m & c p, shell

R = 0 corresponds to

(m & c p ) shell

W kg J = = s kg.K K

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Application of the LMTD Method to Heat Exchanger Problems


Procedure for applying the LMTD: Correlation equations: give i and o overall heat transfer coefficient for instance: 1 ro ro ro 1 ro R fi = + ln + + + R fo ko ri i ri o ri Equations for Q& & =m Q & hc p,h (Th,in Th,out )

& =m Q & c c p,c (Tc ,out Tc ,in )

& = kS T ln Q

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LMTD T ln

T ln

T1 T2 = T1 ln T2

T ln = F T ln,CF
Charts or equations: give the correction factor F.
& = kS T ln Q

gives the design factor S

NOTE: Properties of the cold and hot fluids are at Tc and Th :

Tc = (Tci + Tco ) / 2 Th = (Thi + Tho ) / 2


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Special Case: Constant Cold or Hot Fluid Temperature


Ch = m & hc p, h Cc = m & c c p ,c
Three limiting cases can appear:

C h >> C c
T hot cold T

C h << C c
hot cold T

Ch = Cc
hot cold

condenser

evaporator, boiler
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Performance Problems
Objective: Use LMTD method to predict outlet temperatures Need outlet temperatures to determine T ln If only two temperatures known (mostly both inlet temperatures), solution is by iteration or trial and error Alternate approach: Use the effectiveness-number of transfer units ( - NTU) method
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Effectiveness-Number of Transfer Units (-NTU) Method Heat Exchanger Effectiveness


Define: Heat capacity rate Cc ,h

Cc =

c pc , C h =

c ph

Define: Effectiveness :

& actual heat transfer rate Q = = & max maximum po ssible heat transfer rate Q

& max is achieved when Tho = Tci or when Tco = Thi Q


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& max = C min (Thi Tci ) Q


where C min is the smaller of C c and C h

Thi = Tco C max C min Tho Tci x

Then from the definition of effectiveness

& = C min (Thi Tci ) Q


& can be obtained Knowing effectiveness , Q without knowing the outlet temperatures
From the definition of effectiveness we can write:
C c Tco Tci = C min Thi Tci C h Thi Tho = C min Thi Tci
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(1) Each equation contains a single unknown outlet temperature

& = C min (Thi Tci ) to determine Q & (2) can be used in Q and from the equations defining effectiveness outlet temperatures Tho , Tco can be calculated

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- NTU Relations
Let:

C h = C min , C c = C max

C max Tco Tci = Definition of effectiveness C min Thi Tci Thi Tho = or on the hot side Thi Tci
Introduce the definition of the number of transfer units NTU:

kS NTU = C min

For each heat exchanger the effectiveness can be expressed:

C min = f NTU, C max

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For a single-pass parallel flow heat exchanger the effectiveness can be determined:

C min 1 exp NTU 1 + C max = C min 1+ C max


Similar formulas for other types of heat exchangers. When designing heat exchanger, the following function is used

C min NTU = f = f (,C r ) , C max


From

kS NTU = C min

the total surface S is calculated


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1. Single pass, counterflow exchanger

1 exp[ NTU (1 C r )] = 1 C r exp[ NTU (1 C r )]


2. One-shell-pass, multiple of two tubes pass 1 + exp( NTU B ) = 2 1 + C r + B 1 exp( NTU B )
1

B=

2 12 1 + Cr

3. Cross-flow, C max mixed, C min unmixed

1 1 = exp[ C r {1 exp( NTU )}] Cr Cr

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Special case: Constant cold or hot fluid temperature.

C max = and C r = 0. Setting C r = 0

= 1 e NTU

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