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Heat conduction and convection - always a fluid which transfers the heat (gas, liquid, solid) motion of atoms or molecules Heat conduction and convection is not possible in a vacuum In most practical applications all three modes occur concurrently at varying degrees

A hot object in a vacuum chamber looses heat by radiation only

n tio c e nv o c

Unlike conduction and convection, heat transfer by radiation can occur between two bodies, even when they are separated by a medium colder than both of them

What will be a final equilibrium temperature of the body surface? Can you write an energy balance equation between the body and 2 surrounding air and the hot source (fire)?

at di ra n io

Theoretical foundation of radiation was established by Maxwell Electromagnetic wave motion or electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light c in a vacuum Electromagnetic waves are characterized by their frequency f or wavelength : =c/f co light speed in a vacuum c=co/n n refraction index of a medium (n=1 for air and most gases, n=1,5 for glass, 1,33 for water) In all material medium, there is attenuation of the energy In a vacuum there is no attenuation of the energy

Electromagnetic radiation covers a wide range of wavelengths Radiation that is related to heat transfer Thermal radiation from 0,1m to 100 m As a result of energy transition in molecules, atoms and electrons. Thermal radiation is emitted by all matter whose temperature is above absolute zero. Everything around us emits (and absorbs) radiation.

Thermal radiation includes entire visible (0,4 to 0,76 m) and infrared light and a portion of ultraviolet radiation. Body that emits radiation in the visible range is called light source. Sun (primary light source) emits solar radiation 0,3 to 3 m almost half is visible, remaining is ultraviolet and infrared. Bodies at room temperature emit radiation in infrared range 0,7 to 100 m. Bodies start emit visible radiation at 800K (red hot) and tungsten wire in the lightbulb at 2000K (white hot) to emit a significant amount of radiation in the visible range.

Spectral and Directional Distribution

Radiation characteristics vary with wavelength and direction
Monochromatic or spectral: Characteristics at a given Total: Integrated values over all wavelengths Directional: At a given direction Hemispherical: Integrated values over all directions Diffuse radiation: Uniform in all directions
The assumption of diffuse radiation will be made throughout

Emissive Power E, Irradiation G and Radiosity J


Emissive Power (zivost): Radiation emitted from a surface Spectral emissive power E :


0 E d

Fig. 10.1

E = rate of emitted radiation per unit area per unit wavelength, W/m 2 m
Total emissive power E:
2 W/m E = Integration of E over all values of , :

E (T ) = E ( , T ) d

Irradiation: Radiation energy incident on a surface Spectral irradiation G : G = rate of radiation energy incident upon a surface 2 m W/m per unit area per unit wavelength, Total irradiation G: G = integration of G over all values of :
G (T ) = G ( , T ) d

Radiosity: The sum of emitted and reflected radiation Spectral radiosity J : J = rate of radiation leaving a surface per unit area per unit wavelength, W/m 2 m

Total radiosity J : J = integration of J over all values of :

J (T ) = J ( , T ) d

In the above definitions, summation in all directions is implied although the term hemispherical is not used

Blackbody Radiation
An ideal radiation surface used as standard for describing radiation of real surfaces

Characteristics of blackbody: (1) It absorbs all radiation incident upon it (2) It emits the maximum energy at a given temperature and wavelength (3) Its emission is diffuse

Planck's Law
E b = spectral emissive power of a blackbody: C 1 5 E b ( , T ) = C1 and C2 are constants exp(C 2 / T ) 1

Blackbody Radiation
Maximum emitted energy at specific temperatures given by Wien law:

maxT = 2879,6
Thermal radiation 0,1 to 100 m

Planck's Law

Note - by qualitative judgment energy emitted in visible range for 2000 K tungsten wire in a light bulb.

Stefan-Boltzmann Law
Based on: Experimental data by Stefan (1879) Theoretical derivation by Boltzmann (1884)

Eb = T 4

Stefan-Boltzmann law

E b = total blackbody emissive power (all wavelengths and all directions), [W/m2]

= 5.67 10 - 8 W/m 2 K 4 is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant

It can also be arrived at using Planck's law

Eb (T ) = Eb ( ,T ) dx =

C 1 5 = d = 0 exp (C / T ) 1 2

= T 4
Stefan-Boltzmann law gives the total radiation emitted from a black body at all wavelengths from =0 to =. Often an interest in radiation over some wavelength band light bulb how much is emitted in the visible range? We use a procedure to determine Eb,0-

Eb,0 (T) = Eb( , T)d


Define a dimensionless quantity f(T):

0 Eb,(T)d 4

f (T) =


Light bulb. Want to know how energy is emitted in the visible range 0,40 to 0,76 m.
1T=0,40.2500=1000 f1 = 0,000321 2T=0, 76.2500=1900 f2 = 0,053035

f2 - f1 = 0,0527
Only about 5% of radiation is emitted in the visible range. The remaining 95% is in the infrared region in the form of heat.


Radiation of Real Surfaces

Objective: Develop a methodology for determining radiation heat exchange between real surfaces. Surface radiation properties The graybody Kirchhoff's law


Absorptivity a, Reflectivity r, Transmissivity t


rG G

Irradiation incident on a real surface can be absorbed, reflected and transmitted. Remind: radiosity J (total radiation leaving the surface) is a sum of emitted E and reflected rG radiation.

tG G
Fig. 10.2

a = total absorptivity = fraction absorbed r = total reflectivity = fraction reflected t = total transmissivity = fraction transmitted
aG + rG + tG = G
a + r + t =1


a + r + t = 1
a = spectral absorptivity r = spectral reflectivity t = spectral transmissivity

Opaque material: Simplification:

t = t = 0
a + r =1


Emissivity (emisivita, pomrn zivost)

Total emissivity (T): Ratio of emissive power of a E surface to that of a blackbody at the same temperature:


real surface

E (T ) (T ) = Eb (T )

Fig. 10.3

Spectral emissivity : Ratio of the spectral emissive power of a surface to that of a blackbody at the same temperature: E ( , T ) ( , T ) = Eb ( , T )

Kirchhoff's Law
It is much easier to determine emissivity than absorptivity a. By experiments. But how we can determine absorptivity? Kirchhoffs law says that under certain conditions: Spectral ( , T ) = ( , T ) Total (T ) = (T ) Kirchhoffs law is used to determine a(,T) from experimental data on (,T) Equality of emissivity and absorptivity Quite different physical quantities Just numerical equality


Graybody Approximation
The graybody concept is introduced to simplify the analysis of radiation exchange between bodies
Graybody: An ideal surface for which the spectral emissivity is independent of

real surface
gray body
Fig. 10.3

approx. 0,75 Eb


gray body

Fig. 10.3



( , T ) = (T ) = constant independent of
(T ) = (T ) for a graybody

It follows from Kirchhoff's Law that

NOTE: (1) Radiation properties , a and r are assigned single

values instead of a spectrum of values

(2) Data on give r and a for opaque surface.


Radiation Exchange Between Black Surfaces

Two black surfaces with areas S1 and S 2 at temperatures T1 and T2
T1 > T2 S2

& 12 Q

T2 E2

Objective: Determine the net & 1 2 between the two surfaces heat transfer Q Important factors: Configuration Surface area Surface temperature Radiation properties (for gray body) Surrounding surfaces Space medium

S1 E 1


The View Factor

(1) Definition and use: The view factor is the fraction of radiation energy leaving surface S1 which is intercepted by S2

It is a geometric factor Also known as shape factor and configuration factor



& 1 2 Q

T2 E2

S1 E 1

& 1 = rate of radiation energy leaving surface 1, = S1E1 Q & 2 = rate of radiation energy leaving surface 2, = S2E2 Q & 1 2 = net radiation energy exchanged between 1 and 2 Q F1 2 = fraction of radiation energy leaving 1 and reaching 2 F21 = fraction of radiation energy leaving 2 and reaching 1

For black surfaces:

Radiation that leaves the surface 1: and is intercepted by the surface 2: Radiation that leaves the surface 2: and is intercepted by the surface 1:

&1 = S1Eb1 Q
F1 2 S1Eb1

& 2 = S 2 Eb 2 Q
F21S 2 Eb 2

The net energy exchanged between the surfaces 1 and 2:

& 1- 2 = S1F1- 2 Eb1 S2 F2-1 Eb 2 Q



&12 = 0. If T1 = T2 then E b1 = E b 2 and Q

S1F1 2 = S2 F21
Reciprocal rule (vztah recoprocity)


Combine (a) and (b) and use Stefan-Boltzmann law

Eb = T 4 :

& 1- 2 = S1F1- 2 ( Eb1 Eb 2 ) = S1F1- 2 T14 T24 Q


(2) Rules: Reciprocal rule can be generalized

S i Fi j = S j F j i
(i=1 to n, j=1 to n)
n 1

i 3 2

Additive rule: Conservation of energy - see the figure.

F1-(2+ 3 ) = F1- 2 + F1- 3

2 1

Multiply by S1
S1F1( 2+ 3) = S1F1- 2 + S1F1- 3

Use the reciprocal rule

Fig. 10.5

( S 2 + S 3 )F(2+ 3)-1 = S 2 F2-1 + S 3 F3-1


Enclosure or summation rule: All energy leaving one surface must be received by some or all other surfaces

F11 + F12 + F13 + K + F1n = 1


Fij = 1
j =1

i = 1,2,3, K , n

Fig. 10.6

Conclusion: Fii = 0 for a plane or convex surface and Fii 0 for a concave surface (3) Determination of view factors: Simple configurations: By physical reasoning:

F12 = 1
Apply the reciprocal rule

A1 A2
1 2

S 2 F21 = S1F1 2 F21 = ( S1 / S2 ) F1 2 = S1 / S2

Other methods: Surface integration method: Can involve tedious double integrals View factor algebra method: Known factors are used in a superposition scheme together with the three view factor rules to construct factors for other configurations

View factor for parallel rectangles


View factor for perpendicular rectangles with a common side


Examples of the View factor algebra method: (i) Figure (a): F1-2 is given in Jcha: Penos tepla a ltky Ploha 2-3a, (ppad 3 ) Determine F1-3 and F3-3 Apply summation rule to surface 1
2 3 1 Figure (a)

F11 + F12 + F13 = 1


F11 = 0

F13 = 1 F12
To determine F33 apply summation rule to surface 3:

F31 + F32 + F33 = 1


Symmetry, Thus,

F31 = F32 F33 = 1 2F31

Reciprocal rule: S1F1- 3 = S3 F3-1

F3-3 = 1 2( S1 S3 ) F1-3


Just to remind the equation for radiation heat exchange between two black objects with a view factor F1-2:

& 1- 2 = S1F1- 2 ( Eb1 Eb 2 ) = S1F1- 2 T14 T24 Q