You are on page 1of 25

STANDARD

AIR LAND SEA APPLICATION (ALSA) CENTER Project Approval Package on MTTP for Airfield Opening Suspense: 7 November 2011

ALSA Center, Langley AFB, VA

STANDARD

AIR LAND SEA APPLICATION (ALSA) CENTER


114 Andrews Street Langley Air Force Base, Virginia 23665-2785 S: 7 November 2011 23 September 2011 MEMORANDUM FOR DtCG, CAC DIR CDD, MCCDC COMNAVWARDEVCOM LEMAY CENTER/CC SUBJECT: Project Approval Package on Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (MTTP) for Airfield Opening 1. The purpose of this memorandum is to request Joint Action Steering Committee approval to revise the MTTP publication for Airfield Opening according to the ALSA standard MTTP timeline. 2. The way ahead for the three-Service Airfield Opening MTTP (FM 3-17.2, NTTP 3-02.18, AFTTP 3-2.68) is up for decision based on its three-year life cycle. Changing operations and combat environments require review and revision of the MTTP on a continuous basis. 3. The attached project approval package (PAP): (1) establishes the purpose and scope for the revised publication; (2) defines responsibilities and authority; (3) defines required resource support; (4) recommends command/unit participation. 4. Please sign the Service endorsement included in the PAP and forward to ALSA by 7 November 2011. The ALSA Center POC for this project is Maj William Wallis, USAF, at DSN: 575-0851, Comm: 757-225-0851, Fax: x-0089, or e-mail: william.wallis@langley.af.mil.

DAVID B. HUME, Colonel, USAF Director 2 Attachments: 1. Project Approval Package 2. Research Paper cc: CADD/ATZL-MCK-D MCCDC/C11 NWDC/N5 LEMAY CENTER/DD

HEADQUARTERS UNITED STATES ARMY COMBINED ARMS CENTER FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS 66027-1300 UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS COMBAT DEVELOPMENT COMMAND QUANTICO, VIRGINIA 22134-5021 UNITED STATES NAVY WARFARE DEVELOPMENT COMMAND NORFOLK, VIRGINIA 23511-2723 CURTIS E. LEMAY CENTER FOR DOCTRINE DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE, ALABAMA 36112-6112

PROJECT STATEMENT Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Airfield Opening
23 September 2011 INTRODUCTION This project statement defines and bounds the Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Center program concerning multi-Service tactics, techniques, and procedures (MTTP) for Airfield Opening. It accomplishes the following: a. Establishes the Purpose and Scope for the proposed MTTP publication. b. Defines responsibilities and authority. c. Defines required resource support. d. Recommends command/unit participation. PURPOSE This publication is a quick-reference guide to opening an airfield in accordance with multiService tactics, techniques, and procedures (MTTP). This MTTP publication contains planning considerations, airfield layout, and logistical requirements for opening an airfield. SCOPE Airfield Opening is intended for operators and planners. It provides considerations for establishing operations that will support air operations at specific points up to large-scale airfields in permissive, uncertain, and hostile environments. The considerations contained in this publication are intended to serve as a reference for operators tasked with establishing the capability to support air operations following an initial entry. In general, it applies during occupation and ends when the airfield is turned over to a follow-on force or host nation (HN), or the airfield is closed.

DISCUSSION The ALSA Centers Land/Sea Branch began the informal research for the Airfield Opening MTTP in December 2010, while awaiting Service Joint Doctrine Directorate response to the request for feedback. There is very limited joint and Service doctrine that discusses interaction between seizure forces and airfield opening forces. Existing doctrine is stove-piped and does not address interaction between joint forces, coalition forces, or host nation partners. In the 1 December 2010 Request for Feedback, ALSA asked subject matter experts if the scope and purpose of the MTTP should expand to include all ports, forcing a title change and including more details on the capabilities and TTP of JTF-Port Opening. The majority of the Services preferred to keep the MTTP at the Airfield Opening scope only, since JTF-Port Opening is but one of the options that a commander has when opening an airfield or port. ALSA released a Project Approval Package (PAP) on 7 March 2011, and requested permission to schedule the first Joint Working Group in advance of PAP signature approval. In April 2011, the Joint Doctrine Directorates recommended expanding the purpose and scope of the Airfield Opening MTTP to include Seaports. The 7 March 2011 PAP was removed from staffing, and a request for feedback (RFF) was released on 1 June 2011. On 30 August 2011, the Joint Doctrine Directorates voted to split Airfield Opening and Seaport Opening into separate projects. RECOMMENDATION ALSA recommends conducting a revision of the Airfield Opening MTTP using the standard process timeline. The US Marine Corps was not a signature authority on the 2007 MTTP for Airfield Opening. HQ USMC is revising Aviation Site Command, and is awaiting the completion of that publication before making a recommendation on the Airfield Opening MTTP. In the meantime, ALSA recommends inclusion of the US Marine Corps, as well as USSOCOM, in the revision of the Airfield Opening MTTP to leverage their expertise in this area. USMC forces are seizure forces, and have been the Senior Airfield Authority or sole Service responsible for an airbase in past operations. It is crucial for the Airfield Opening MTTP to contain current and correct USMC data, in order to promote joint interoperability. Special operations forces play a large role in airfield opening, and the Special Operations Forces SME contribution would be additive to the Joint Working Groups. RESPONSIBILITIES a. Joint Actions Steering Committee (JASC). If the JASC, as project signatories, decides to revise the publication, the JASC will: (1) Provide guidance. (2) Authorize ALSA to conduct working groups and submit the manual for coordination/publication in accordance with the established ALSA process. (3) Upon approval, produce the MTTP. b. Joint Doctrine Directors will: (1) Coordinate and manage project elements for their respective headquarters. (2) Provide subject matter experts (SMEs) for participation in joint working groups (JWG). (3) Coordinate the manual with their Service or command for review.

(4) Provide funding for their prorated share of the manual's printing and dissemination costs IAW Service publication policies and directives. c. Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Center will: (1) Manage the project to revise Airfield Opening per the standard timeline. (2) Coordinate with specific Service and joint organizations, which may have responsibilities for specific project areas. (3) Set suspenses IAW JASC guidelines. (4) Act as single point of administrative management, support, and coordination. (5) Organize, host, and lead joint working groups, as required. (6) Prepare manual drafts and signature versions. (7) Arrange for final GPO printing. d. SMEs will: (1) Attend joint working groups (2) Participate in the drafting of the Airfield Opening MTTP. SUPPORT a. The project will be coordinated primarily from the ALSA facility, 114 Andrews Street, Langley AFB, VA 23665-2785. Proposed JWG dates to revise the publication: Event JWG 1 (Tentative) JWG 2 (Tentative) Location Langley AFB, VA Langley AFB, VA Date 6-9 December 2011 17-20 January 2012

b. Each Service or command will supply SME travel expense funding. c. Commands/units recommended for participation include: (1) ARMY a. COL James Macklin, Air Traffic Services Command (ATSCOM) Commander, james.macklin@us.army.mil b. US Army Aviation Center of Excellence (DOTD), TRADOC c. COL William (Sherry) Brannan, 204th Theater Airfield Operations Group (TAOG) Commander, Comm (985) 373-8797, william.brannanjr@us.army.mil d. Mr. Tony Reininger, IMCOM, Comm (703) 607-2098, tony.reininger@us.army.mil e. LTC Daniel Tanabe, US JAG Center and School, DSN 521-3391, daniel.tanabe@us.army.mil f. US Army Engineers, Maneuver Support Center of Excellence (MSCoE)

(2) MARINE CORPS a. Mr. Lyle Ferrara, MARFORPAC SMO, Comm (808) 477-8353, lyle.ferrara@usmc.mil b. CWO5 Rosa Michel, I MEF Embark Officer, Comm (760) 725-9292, rosa.michel1@usmc.mil c. CWO4 Christopher Parker, III MEF Embark Officer, DSN 315-622-7057, christopher.parker1@usmc.mil (3) NAVY a. CAPT Heron, Naval Expeditionary Combat Command, Comm (757) 462-4316 x398, charles.heron@navy.mil b. Mr. James Edwards, Comm (757) 462-4316 x348, james.m.edwards@navy.mil c. LCDR Rafael Miranda, 1NCD, Little Creek, Comm (757) 462-3648, rafael.miranda@navy.mil d. Mr. Mark Kauber, Comm (619) 437-0809, mark.kauber@navsoc.socom.mil (4) AIR FORCE a. 720th Special Tactics Group, Hurlburt Field, FL, DSN 579-3708 b. HQ AFSOC/A3ON c. HQ AMC/A3M, DSN 779-1270, amc-a3m@scott.af.mil d. 23rd Special Tactics Squadron e. SMSgt Howard Teesdale, MSgt Christopher Williams, HQ AFSOC/A3OV f. Maj Jerry Hickey, HQ AMC/A8XD, DSN 779-4923, jerry.hickey@us.af.mil g. Maj Laura King, HAF/A1XX, DSN 223-4557, Comm (703) 693-4557, laura.king@pentagon.af.mil h. Maj Joseph E. Ringer, HAF/A2DX, DSN 754-1715, joseph.ringer@pentagon.af.mil i. Mr. Robert Reider, HQ ACC/A5SD, DSN 574-7030, robert.reider.ctr@langley.af.mil j. Maj Ernesto Verger, HQ AFSOC/A3OV, DSN 579-8540, ernesto.verger@hurlburt.af.mil k. Mr. Edward Pitts, AFSMO, Comm (703) 428-1539, edward.pitts@pentagon.af.mil l. Mr. Steve Jordan, HQ AMC/A3MM, DSN 779-4293, steven.jordan@scott.af.mil m. Capt Speight Caroon, HQ AFGSC/A8XP, DSN 781-0959, speight.caroon@barksdale.af.smil.mil

n. CMSgt Marshal Farris, HAF/A30-AS, DSN 225-5180, marshall.farris@pentagon.af.mil o. Mr. Roy V. Bousquet, AF/A7CXX, DSN 223-3892, roy.bousquet@pentagon.af.mil (5) JOINT a. National Guard Bureau b. Mrs. Brenda Leon, USTRANSCOM, DSN 576-9621, brenda.leon@ustranscom.mil c. Mr. Ray VanZweinen, USTRANSCOM d. Mr. Jeff Ackerson, USTRANSCOM, DSN 770-4814

1st Endorsement to ALSA, Airfield Opening PAP DtCG, CAC MEMORANDUM FOR ALSA Center

Date:

____________Revise ____________Retain ____________Rescind

DALE A. ORMOND Deputy to the Commanding General US Army Combined Arms Center

1st Endorsement to ALSA, Airfield Opening PAP DIR CDD, MCCDC MEMORANDUM FOR ALSA Center

Date:

____________Revise ____________Retain ____________Rescind

DANIEL J. ODONOHUE BGen, US Marine Corps Director Capabilities Development Directorate

1st Endorsement to ALSA, Airfield Opening PAP COMNAVWARDEVCOM MEMORANDUM FOR ALSA Center

Date:

____________Revise ____________Retain ____________Rescind

TERRY B. KRAFT RADM, US Navy Commander Navy Warfare Development Command

1st Endorsement to ALSA, Airfield Opening PAP LEMAY CENTER/CC MEMORANDUM FOR ALSA Center

Date:

____________Revise ____________Retain ____________Rescind

THOMAS K. ANDERSEN Maj Gen, US Air Force Commander Curtis E. LeMay Center for Doctrine Development and Education

RESEARCH PAPER ON MULTI-SERVICE TACTICS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES FOR AIRFIELD OPENING 1. PURPOSE: Summarize Air Land Sea Application (ALSA) Centers research on the multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (MTTP) for Airfield Opening, with a recommended course of action to revise. 2. BACKGROUND: ALSAs MTTP for Airfield Opening was revised in May 2007, in accordance with the standard ALSA revision process. It is currently distributed throughout the Services as USA FM 3-17.2, USN NTTP 3-02.18, and USAF AFTTP 32.68. 3. OVERVIEW: a. Purpose (from May 2007 Airfield Opening): Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Airfield Opening is a quick-reference guide to opening an airfield in accordance with multi-Service tactics, techniques, and procedures (MTTP). This MTTP publication contains planning considerations, airfield layout, and logistical requirements for opening an airfield. b. Scope (from May 2007 Airfield Opening): Airfield Opening is intended for operators and planners. It provides considerations for establishing operations that will support air operations at specific points up to large-scale airfields in permissive, uncertain, and hostile environments. The considerations contained in this publication are intended to serve as a reference for operators tasked with establishing the capability to support air operations following an initial entry. In general, it applies during occupation and ends when the airfield is turned over to a follow-on force or host nation (HN). c. Methodology: The ALSA Centers Land/Sea Branch reviewed and researched current Service and joint doctrine and interviewed members of the Airfield Opening community. ALSA conducted both telephonic, e-mail, and personal interviews to revalidate the existence of doctrinal voids. 4. DISCUSSION: ALSA began the informal research for the Airfield Opening MTTP in December 2010, while awaiting Service Joint Doctrine Directorate response to the request for feedback. a. There is very limited joint and Service doctrine that discusses interaction between seizure forces and airfield opening forces. Existing doctrine is stove-piped and does not address interaction between joint forces, coalition forces, or host nation partners. ALSA discussed the possibility of expanding the scope and purpose of the MTTP to include all ports (which would force a title change) and including a more detailed section on the capabilities of Joint Task Force-Port Opening (JTF-PO). b. Potential TTP revision: (1) Add all AMP day/night/instrument light patterns to Appendix B.
23 SEPTEMBER 2011 1

(2) Synchronize data with AFTTP 3-1.ECS, General Planning and Employment Consideration for Expeditionary Combat Support, projected for release in March 2011. (3) Add tasks for coordination between seizure forces and airfield opening forces. (4) Update checklists throughout the publication. (5) Delete redundant paragraphs on JTF-Port Opening. (6) Update Appendix A, Service Capabilities. (7) Update Appendix C and D with correct and new information. Add existing Unmanned Aerial Systems. (8) Gather new vignettes, capturing lessons learned and thoughts from Operations IRAQI FREEDOM/NEW DAWN/ENDURING FREEDOM; support to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita; Pakistani Earthquake relief efforts; Operations UNIFIED RESPONSE and TOMODACHI. c. US Army Subject Matter Expert Input: (1) The content provided in this MTTP is not available in other Joint Publications. JP 3-17 provides the framework of Airfield Operations for the joint service, although no mention of component responsibilities is provided. Also, FM 3-04.300 (CHG 1) Airfield and Flight Operations Procedures, and MTTP 3-06.1 Aviation Urban Operations reference topics that this manual deals with however, to the sufficient level of mastery as required by Joint/Service doctrine, JP 4-01.5, and JP 4-09. (2) There is no mention of unmanned aircraft. Does not reflect new aviation equipment being introduced to military inventories. (3) Given the current and projected operational environment, these operations will be multi-Service and nature and require TTP to facilitate synchronization of effort. Expanded details are required in service component (USA/USN/USMC/USAF) responsibilities for Airfield Operations/ Management and as shown in OIF/OEF operations. In addition, a section on host nation capabilities would be prudent to cover all situations in Full Spectrum Operations (FSO) / Range of Military Operations (ROMO). (4) The audience for this MTTP is overall service and joint staffs and anyone involved in Airfield Organizations, tactical and operational level planners and operators. Specifically, the USA recommended audience is the ASCC staff, Theater Support Command staff; Theater Aviation Commands; Theater Airfield Operations Groups and Airfield operations Battalions. (5) The current scope and purpose are adequate and overall information is still relevant. The publication does need to address capabilities offered by other services as well as services that may be provided by civilian contractors and all types of aircraft (Fixed wing, Rotary, Manned, Unmanned).
23 SEPTEMBER 2011 2

(6) Revise to reflect current joint and multinational capabilities and update with a detailed chapter on inter-service responsibilities/operations. As written today it is still relevant and is a good source of information for those personnel involved in establishing airfields. (7) Need more guidance on selection of SAA. Little discussion/detail is provided to guide warfighters when operating as a joint force/JTF. No shortfalls have been identified from a legal perspective. (8) The following areas are not covered sufficiently in current doctrine, and should be included in the MTTP: Inter-service standards, operational requirements, waivers for operations; new systems such as the aerostat type vehicles, unmanned aircraft, vertical lift aircraft; proximity of missile type air defense locations should be addressed more in depth. (9) Since 2007, joint operations have changed in that there is significant reliance on US Army forces to operate and maintain airfields for multi-service aircraft in OIF/OEF. USA has unique training challenges in meeting USAF standards. Also, aircraft types (size and weight), their performance parameters, munitions storage for their weapons capabilities, and planning for unmanned aircraft use within designated areas are different between all Services. (10) MTTP writers need to be aware of the scope and content of forcible entry operations as addressed in the USAs draft FM 3-0 and DoDs draft JP 3-0 that impact this publication. (11) The title does not need to be changed to include a larger scope of Joint Task Force-Port Opening operations. JTF Port-Opening is too narrow of focus and misleads the reader. It does not address Airfield Operations beyond the port/ISB. However, please consider renaming the manual Joint Tactical Planning for Airfield Opening to better lead the future readers as to the true scope of this manual. (12) Recommend retaining the same distribution restriction of DoD and DoD contractors. Distribution authorized to DoD and DoD contractors only to protect technical or operational information from automatic dissemination under the International Exchange Program or by other means. (13) Recommend electronic, full-size print. d. US Navy Subject Matter Expert Input: (1) This subject matter is covered in NTTP 3-10.1 Naval Coastal Warfare Operations, NWP 3-10 Naval Coastal Warfare (in revision with title change to Maritime Expeditionary Security Operations), NTTP 4-01.1 Navy Advanced Base Logistics Ops (2007). NTRP 4-04.2.1 Ref to Naval Construction Force (2010), NTTP 3-15.2 Naval Mine counter-measures (Final Draft), NWP 3-62M Seabasing to some degree (pending revision), NTTP 3-02.3M Maritime Pre-position force.
23 SEPTEMBER 2011 3

(2) Could possibly expand the scope to include seaport opening. Similar forces and capabilities are utilized at both APODs and SPODs (Navy forces specifically with larger role potentially in seaport opening). If expanding the scope, recommend change title to just Port Opening. (3) Recommended audience is Planners/Force providers/Initial forces in support of JTF-PO or engaged in non-JTF-PO assisted port opening requirement. (4) Existing doctrine meets the needs of Air Traffic Control (ATC) ashore integration with ATC afloat (Greencrown, Helicopter Director Center (HDC), etc.). (5) Critical gaps exist in the areas of ATC ashore integration with Naval ATC afloat. This is not critical, but there could be more integration discussion within the Airfield Opening MTTP. (6) Airfield Opening MTTP revision could be affected by the dual signed NWP 362M Seabasing (pending revision kick-off), and finalization of NWP 3-10 revision. Both, depending on granularity, may be sufficient to warrant not having an MTTP pub on Seaport opening. Therefore, decision to retain Airfield Opening would be in order. (7) If expanded to become Air and Sea Port Opening, recommend revise. Otherwise, retain. Other than address and POC changes (administrative changes), the Navy sections in the Airfield Opening MTTP are still confirmed as accurate. (8) Recommend electronic only version, and restriction to DoD, DoD contractor, and Interagency. e. US Air Force Subject Matter Expert Input: (1) Portions of the current MTTP are contained in Joint Publications, AF Doctrine Documents (AFDD), and AF instructions (AFI), pamphlets (AFP), and handbooks (AFH). However, no other publication individually provides the depth and scope of the current MTTP as a repository for multi-Service capabilities and planning factors, for what will likely be a multi-Service operation. Some gaps do exist, based on recent operations and new capabilities and concepts, which should be incorporated into a revised MTTP. (2) Existing Service sources that discuss this topic include: AFDD 3-34 Engineer Operations (in development) AFDD 4-0 (formerly AFDD 2-4) Combat Support (under revision) AFDD 4-11 (formerly AFDD 2-4.4) Bases, Infrastructure, and Facilities (note: as of 29 Apr 2011, the Air Force Doctrine Working Group voted to rescind this publication) AFP 10-219 Vol 5 Bare Base Conceptual Planning Guide AFH 10-222 Vol 1 Guide to Bare Base Development AFH 10-247 Vol 1 Guide to Services Contingency Planning: Beddown AFI 10-404 Base Support and Expeditionary Site Planning
23 SEPTEMBER 2011 4

AFI 13-204 Vol 3 Airfield Operations Procedures and Programs AFI 13-217 Drop Zone and Landing Zone Operations (under revision) AFM 13-220 Deployment of Airfield Operations (under revision) AF Policy Directive (AFPD) 31-1 Integrated Defense AFI 31-101 Integrated Defense (FOUO)

(3) Opening an airfield is a multi-Service interoperability problem, and divergent missions require TTPs accepted by all participating Services. This TTP fulfills ALSAs requirements, as it works well as a companion to Service specific doctrine. This document also provides planners with quick access to multi-Service airfield opening capabilities and planning/support issues. Size and scope of the document is appropriate for the subject matter and publication intent. (4) The recommended audience for this publication includes operational-level planners, and all Service airfield opening forces. This MTTP would be of use to these forces as a reference for airfield opening assessment, planning, and operations. The specific AF audience includes AFFOR staffs, AOC Mobility and Strategy Division staffs, Contingency Response Group planners and personnel, wing/group planners, site survey team personnel, and all airfield operators. (5) The current publication scope and purpose is still relevant and appropriate. However, certain areas should be updated to include recent lessons and TTP changes, and several sections and checklists should be expanded with additional detail. (6) Recommend Revise. No other single document provides this comprehensive multi-Service planning information and checklist-level detail regarding airbase opening. This MTTP should be updated with lessons from recent operations, to include Operation UNIFIED RESPONSE and surge operations from OEF. Several relevant AF publications have been or are undergoing revision and should be reflected in this MTTP, e.g., AFI 31-101 Integrated Defense, and AFM 13-220 Deployment of Airfield Operations. Finally, current Service TTPs and capabilities should be incorporated, and certain sections expanded with additional detail. (7) This MTTP and relevant AF doctrine are adequate to meet todays requirements for airbase opening procedures. However, it should be continually updated to ensure relevance and accuracy, and reflect latest operational lessons and Service capabilities. (8) Recommend the following areas be updated and/or expanded to reflect MTTP/doctrinal gaps: a. References to Intelligence should be changed to Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment (JIPOE), consistent with JP 2-01.3 Joint Intelligence Preparation of the Operational Environment.
23 SEPTEMBER 2011 5

b. Expand discussion of force protection issues and requirements during initial opening and transition. c. Add Security Force Weapons/Armament to mission analysis to ensure US security forces may be armed while performing security and base defense. This has been left out of HN discussion before and delays have impacted the mission. d. Add weapons/armament and ammunition carried to Table II-11. HN security faces have on occasion patrolled unarmed. e. Aircraft capabilities table should add gear type, PCN value, and gross operating weight. f. Add section on airfield vehicle maintenance considerations, and airfield equipment site considerations. g. Base Support Assessment should address personnel accountability. h. Update USAF RED HORSE capabilities in Appendix A, and add a description of USAF Prime BEEF. (9) The current MTTP fairly accurately reflects AF airfield opening TTPs. However, lessons learned from recent operations should be reviewed and incorporated, and several sections should be updated to reflect current capabilities and procedures: a. Mission analysis, planning, and checklists should reflect and consider the expanding role contractors play in airfield opening/operations. b. Expand detail for transition of responsibility between SOF and followon conventional forces. c. Expand and update the description of SOF capabilities in Appendix A. d. Mission planning, analysis, and checklists do not adequately address frequency spectrum deconfliction/management issues with HN, or the full gamut of airfield communication systems/requirements. (10) The following AF publications will likely have an impact on a revision of this MTTP: AFDD 3-34 Engineer Operations (in development); AFDD 4-0 (formerly AFDD 2-4) Combat Support (under revision); AFI 13-204 Vol 3 Airfield Operations Procedures and Programs (revised since 2007); AFI 13217 Drop Zone and Landing Zone Operations (under revision); AFM 13-220 Deployment of Airfield Operations (under revision); AFPD 31-1 Integrated Defense (revised since 2007); AFI 31-101 Integrated Defense (FOUO) (revised since 2007). (11) JTF-PO has added significantly to the capabilities of a joint force to open air and seaports as theater logistics hubs. This can definitely impact airfield opening operations, and is currently reflected in this MTTP. That section should be updated to reflect current JTF-PO procedures and capabilities. However, not all airfields will be opened as theater logistics distribution centers, and not all airfields will use TRANSCOMs JTF-PO capabilities to
23 SEPTEMBER 2011 6

effect an opening. At this time, JTF-PO is a distinct capability for a distinct requirement. As such, it should not be assumed to be associated with all airfield openings. The current generic TTPs should remain distinct. A title change to reflect that this airfield opening MTTP supports JTF-PO capabilities could be useful to make clear the relationship of the two operations. A title change should not confuse more general airfield opening TTPs with JTF-PO unique procedures and requirements. Additionally, as JTF-PO capabilities also include opening seaports, we do not recommend the scope of this MTTP be expanded to include seaports. (12) Current classification and distribution (DoD and DoD contractors) are adequate. Recommend initial foreign disclosure to ABCA, NATO, and ISAF. Recommend an electronic and a small, pocket-size, waterproof format for field use. f. US Transportation Command Subject Matter Expert Input: (1) This topic is not covered at the tactical level in other Joint Pubs. JP 4-01.5 (Joint Terminal Operations) (currently in draft) will be the prescribing joint publication for JP JTF-PO, JP 3-17 coves Air Mobility Operations and has more of a strategic level of detail (although there is some duplication), JP 409, Distribution Operations, and JP 3-35, Deployment and Redeployment Operations ,both cover JTF-PO at a strategic level. (2) The size and scope are both appropriate. The recommended audience would be planner and executors in the Combatant Commands components. (3) Recommend retain the MTTP, and update as needed to correct references, incorporate new terminology, service capabilities, etc. (4) Since 2007, JTF-PO has become an extant capability; we recommend a USTRANSCOM SME review that annex prior to updating. (5) The scope should not change to include all ports or JTF-PO. JTF-PO is one of several options a CCDR has when executing airfield opening. (6) Recommend the same restricted distribution. Recommend electronic only format. g. US Special Operations Command Subject Matter Expert Input: (1) Aspects of airfield opening are discussed in JP 3-17, Mobility Operations. However, based on Operation Unified Response and potential future operations, this appears to be insufficient. This subject does not appear to be sufficiently covered in AF doctrine either. AFMAN 13-220 is in the process of a rewrite and contains similar information. OPR is HQ AMC/A3. Along with other MAJCOM A3 Airfield, ranges, and airspace offices, AFSOC/A3OV is an OCR. Final draft is projected o/a 1 Mar 11 with a planned follow up conference. (2) This is not sufficiently covered in Joint Doctrine, we need a single one source document which lists Service capabilities, procedures, TTP, and
23 SEPTEMBER 2011 7

integration considerations. This publication addresses/captures multiple service interoperability issues. (3) Recommended audience is organizations which participate in Airfield Opening Operations and Follow on Operations to include Airbase Operations (airfield operations personnel, planners, operators, and all users thereof for immediate tactical use). (4) This document should contain information that describes seams / integration considerations between initial forces (usually SOF) and follow on forces. There are seams between SOF and conventional forces that have not been clearly identified, discussed, or practiced. (5) Recommend retain/revise based on lessons learned during Operation UNIFIED RESPONSE and needed for a quick reference guide. (6) Existing/planned Airfield Opening doctrine does not meet the needs of todays units. This document should outline the key capabilities and limitations of Services and Components (i.e. what does the AF have to offer, what does SOF have to offer, and what are their limitations). The discussion in Appendix A-1 is an incomplete picture of SOF capabilities and limitations. In addition, this document should help clarify transition processes/seams between SOF and conventional forces. (7) Depending upon what type of document the information/guidance one extracts from, there are gaps and/or differences from and between documents. Airfield Transition Operations appears to be a simple outline and would be better used if it were expanded. (8) Operation UNIFIED RESPONSE highlighted some gaps in the seams between initial airfield/airbase opening and follow on forces/operations. The USAF is in the process of redefining Airfield Opening TTPs by including them in AFMAN 13-220, which has not been updated since 1993. Recommend reviewing Operation UNIFIED RESPONSE after action reports, and AFMAN 13-220 revision. (9) Do not recommend expanding the scope to include all ports or change the title. (10) Recommend unrestricted distribution. We recommend an ABU/ACU/flight suit size, portable, small, and waterproof format for the MTTP (a booklet similar to the USAFs Airmans Manual). h. 561st Joint Tactics Squadron (USAF) Subject Matter Expert Input: (1) AFI 13-217 covers airfield operations, but the MTTP manual would fill a critical gap by providing a comprehensive planning guide. (2) Recommended audience is everyone involved in opening an airfield (STS, civil engineers, army infantry, USMC, Seabees, etc). They all need a common TTP manual.

23 SEPTEMBER 2011

(3) The MTTP should include recent lessons learned from humanitarian and combat missions (Haiti, etc.). (4) Recommend revise and retain. This is an enduring mission that isnt always trained for, which is why we need a manual to preserve the best TTPs learned through experiences so we dont have to re-invent the wheel. (5) The MTTP needs to be updated to include new technologies (i.e. trimble survey system), and different mission sets (humanitarian, NEO, combat, etc). (6) Most of the document is in checklist format, which could be fleshed out a little more. It would also be beneficial to have a complete example of a sample plan as an attachment. Appendix B shows some planning diagrams, but it would be nice to have a complete planning template, which can be modified for each mission. (7) Recommend UNCLASS format, readily available to all services and allies. Recommend electronic and waterproof versions. 5. SERVICE POSITIONS: a. ALSA requested feedback from the Service Joint Doctrine Directorates to help assess the Airfield Opening publication on 1 December 2010 and decide whether to revise, retain, or rescind the publication. A project approval package (PAP) was released on 7 March 2011. Prior to scheduling the first Joint Working Group, the Joint Doctrine Directorates recommended expanding the title, purpose, and scope to include seaports. The PAP was removed from coordination, and a request for feedback was released on 1 June 2011. On 30 August 2011, the Joint Doctrine Directorates voted to split Airfield Opening and Seaport Opening into separate projects. b. The following informal positions were provided in the 1 December 2011 Service Request for Feedback (RFF) responses: (1) US Army: USA recommends revise. (2) US Marine Corps: USMC is revising Aviation Site Command, and is awaiting the completion of that publication before making a recommendation. (3) US Navy: USN recommends revise, depending on scope; otherwise retain. (4) US Air Force: USAF recommends revise. 6. RECOMMENDATIONS: ALSA recommends conducting a revision of the Airfield Opening MTTP using the standard process timeline. The US Marine Corps was not a signature authority on the 2007 MTTP for Airfield Opening. However, ALSA recommends inclusion of the US Marine Corps and USSOCOM in the revision of the Airfield Opening MTTP. USMC forces are seizure forces, and have been responsible for airbases in past operations. It is crucial that the Airfield Opening MTTP contain current and correct USMC data in order to promote joint interoperability. Special operations forces play a large role in airfield opening, and SOF SMEs should contribute to the Joint Working Groups. a. Proposed Title: Airfield Opening.
23 SEPTEMBER 2011 9

b. Proposed Purpose: This publication is a quick-reference guide to opening an airfield in accordance with multi-Service tactics, techniques, and procedures (MTTP). This MTTP publication contains planning considerations, airfield layout, and logistical requirements for opening an airfield. c. Proposed Scope: Airfield Opening is intended for operators and planners. It provides considerations for establishing operations that will support air operations at specific points up to large-scale airfields in permissive, uncertain, and hostile environments. The considerations contained in this publication are intended to serve as a reference for operators tasked with establishing the capability to support air operations following an initial entry. In general, it applies during occupation and ends when the airfield is turned over to a follow-on force or host nation (HN), or the airfield is closed. d. Proposed Distribution and Foreign Disclosure: ALSA recommends Airfield Opening be revised and published at the unclassified level, and released to ABCA and NATO countries. 7. WAY-AHEAD: a. Update original MTTP structure as described below. (1) (2) (3) (4) Chapter I: Chapter II: Chapter III: Chapter IV: Tactical Planning Airfield Assessment Airfield Establishment/Operations Airfield Transition Operations

b. Host joint working groups to support revision process IAW timeline below: Phase I Phase II Program Approval Program Development JWG #1 JWG #2 Worldwide Review Adjudicate/Edit Command Approval 22 September 20117 November 2011 7 November 201116 March 2012 6-9 December 2011 17-20 January 2012 16 March 201215 May 2012 15 May 20128 August 2012 8 August 201224 September 2012

Phase III Phase IV a. Army:

8. SME SOURCES: COL James Macklin, Air Traffic Services Command (ATSCOM) Commander, james.macklin@us.army.mil US Army Aviation Center of Excellence (DOTD), TRADOC COL William (Sherry) Brannan, 204th Theater Airfield Operations Group (TAOG) Commander, Comm (985) 373-8797, william.brannanjr@us.army.mil Mr. Tony Reininger, IMCOM, Comm (703) 607-2098, tony.reininger@us.army.mil LTC Daniel Tanabe, US JAG Center and School, DSN 521-3391, daniel.tanabe@us.army.mil
23 SEPTEMBER 2011 10

US Army Engineers, Maneuver Support Center of Excellence (MSCoE) National Guard Bureau USA Fires Center of Excellence (FCoE) (Air Defense School) b. Marine Corps: Mr. Lyle Ferrara, MARFORPAC SMO, Comm (808) 477-8353, lyle.ferrara@usmc.mil CWO5 Rosa Michel, I MEF Embark Officer, Comm (760) 725-9292, rosa.michel1@usmc.mil CWO4 Christopher Parker, III MEF Embark Officer, DSN 315-622-7057, christopher.parker1@usmc.mil c. Navy: CAPT Heron, Naval Expeditionary Combat Command, Comm (757) 462-4316 x398, charles.heron@navy.mil Mr. James Edwards, Comm (757) 462-4316 x348, james.m.edwards@navy.mil LCDR Rafael Miranda, 1NCD, Little Creek, Comm (757) 462-3648, rafael.miranda@navy.mil Mr. Mark Kauber, Comm (619) 437-0809, mark.kauber@navsoc.socom.mil d. Air Force: 720th Special Tactics Group, Hurlburt Field, FL, DSN 579-3708 HQ AFSOC/A3ON HQ AMC/A3M, DSN 779-1270, amc-a3m@scott.af.mil 23rd Special Tactics Squadron SMSgt Howard Teesdale, HQ AFSOC/A3OV MSgt Christopher Williams, HQ AFSOC/A3OV Maj Laura King, HAF/A1XX, DSN 223-4557, Comm (703) 693-4557, laura.king@pentagon.af.mil Maj Joseph E. Ringer, HAF/A2DX, DSN 754-1715, joseph.ringer@pentagon.af.mil Mr. Robert Reider, HQ ACC/A5SD, DSN 574-7030, robert.reider.ctr@langley.af.mil Maj Ernesto Verger, HQ AFSOC/A3OV, DSN 579-8540, ernesto.verger@hurlburt.af.mil Maj Jerry Hickey, HQ AMC/A8XD, DSN 779-4923, jerry.hickey@us.af.mil Mr. Edward Pitts, AFSMO, Comm (703) 428-1539, edward.pitts@pentagon.af.mil
23 SEPTEMBER 2011 11

Mr. Steve Jordan, HQ AMC/A3MM, DSN 779-4293, steven.jordan@scott.af.mil Capt Speight Caroon, HQ AFGSC/A8XP, DSN 781-0959, speight.caroon@barksdale.af.smil.mil CMSgt Marshal Farris, HAF/A30-AS, DSN 225-5180, marshall.farris@pentagon.af.mil Mr. Roy V. Bousquet, AF/A7CXX, DSN 223-3892, roy.bousquet@pentagon.af.mil e. Combatant Commands: Mrs. Brenda Leon, USTRANSCOM, DSN 576-9621, brenda.leon@ustranscom.mil Mr. Ray VanZweinen, USTRANSCOM Mr. Jeff Ackerson, USTRANSCOM, DSN 770-4814 f. ALSA POCs: Major William Wallis, ALSA Land/Sea Branch, Langley AFB, VA DSN 575-0851, Comm (757) 225-0851, william.wallis@langley.af.mil Lt Col Richard Freeman, ALSA Land/Sea Branch, Langley AFB, VA DSN 575-0906, Comm (757) 225-0906, richard.freeman@langley.af.mil 9. REFERENCES: a. Joint: JP 3-0, Joint Operations (August 2011) JP 3-06, Joint Urban Operations (November 2009) JP 3-17, Air Mobility Operations (October 2009) JP 3-18, Joint Forcible Entry Operations (June 2008) JP 3-27, Homeland Defense (July 2007) JP 3-28, Civil Support (September 2007) JP 3-29, Foreign Humanitarian Assistance (March 2009) JP 3-30, Command and Control for Joint Air Operations (January 2010) JP 3-34, Joint Engineer Operations (February 2007) JP 3-35, Deployment and Redeployment Operations (May 2007; currently in revision) JP 3-68, Noncombatant Evacuation Operations (January 2007) JP 4-0, Joint Logistics (July 2008) JP 4-01.5, Joint Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Transportation Terminal Operations (April 2002; currently in revision)
23 SEPTEMBER 2011 12

JP 4-01.6, Joint Logistics Over-the-Shore (JLOTS) (August 2005) JP 4-09, Distribution Operations (February 2010) b. Multi-Service: FM 3-52.3/MCRP 3-25A/NTTP 3-56.3/AFTTP 3-2.23, Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Joint Air Traffic Control (July 2009) FM 3-06.1/MCRP 3-35.3A/NTTP 3-01.04/AFTTP 3-2.29, Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Aviation Urban Operations (in revision) c. Army: FM 1-100, Army Aviation Operations (February 1997) FM 3-04.104, Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Forward Arming and Refueling Point (August 2006) FM 3-04.155, Army Unmanned Aircraft System Operations (July 2009) FM 3-04.300, Change 1, Airfield and Flight Operations Procedures (August 2008) FM 3-34, Engineer Operations (April 2009) FM 5-430-00-2, Planning and Design of Roads, Airfields, and Heliports in the Theater of Operations-Airfield and Heliport Design (September 1994) FM 55-60, Army Terminal Operations (April 1996) FM 90-26, Airborne Operations (December 1990) FM 100-10-1, Theater Distribution (September 1999) d. Marine Corps: MCWP 3-17, Engineering Operations (February 2000) MCWP 3-21.1, Aviation Ground Support (October 2001) MCWP 3-21.2, Aviation Logistics (October 2002) MCWP 5-11.1, MAGTF Aviation Planning (June 1995) e. Navy: NWP 4-04, Naval Civil Engineering Operations (December 2007) NTTP 4-04.1M, SEABEE Operations in the MAGTF (February 2008) NTTP 4-04.2, Naval Construction Force Operations (October 2010) NTRP 4-04.2.1, Doctrinal Reference for the Naval Construction Force (July 2010) NTTP 4-04.3, Naval Contingency Engineering Operations (December 2008)
23 SEPTEMBER 2011 13

f. Air Force: AFDD 3-34, Engineer Operations AFDD 4-0, Combat Support (December 2005) AFH 10-222 Volume 1, Guide to Bare Base Development (February 2006) AFH 10-247 Volume 1, Guide to Services Contingency Planning: Beddown (February 2005) AFI 10-404, Base Support and Expeditionary Site Planning (March 2004) AFI 13-204 Volume 3, Airfield Operations Procedures and Programs (September 2010) AFI 13-217, Drop Zone and Landing Zone Operations (May 2007) AFI 31-101, Integrated Defense (September 2010) AFM 13-220, Deployment of Airfield Operations AFP 10-219 Volume 5, Bare Base Conceptual Planning Guide AFPD 31-1, Integrated Defense (April 2009) AMCI 10-202, Volume 4, Expeditionary Air Mobility Support Operations (December 2009) AMCI 10-202, Volume 4, Checklist 1, Expeditionary Air Mobility Support Operations Checklist (May 2006) AFTTP 3-1.ECS, General Planning and Employment Consideration for Expeditionary Combat Support (draft) AFTTP 3-3.CAO, Contingency Airfield Operations (draft) g. Other: Air Land Sea Bulletin 2007-1, Airfield Opening Contingency Operations: Aerial Port, Command and Control, and Maintenance Side of Operation UNIFIED RESPONSE. Capt Brown, 1Lt Fisher, SSgt Straeter, Mr. LeMerque Pierre Eng, Mr. Henry Robert Marc-Charles, Mr. Hantz. Briefing to the Airlift Tanker Association Convention, October 2010. Foreign Disaster Response: Joint Task Force-Haiti Observations. LTG Keen, LTC Elledge, LTC Nolan, LTC Kimmey (USA), Military Review, November-December 2010.

Major William M. Wallis, Land/Sea Branch, william.wallis@langley.af.mil, DSN 575-0851


23 SEPTEMBER 2011 14