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PROJECT REPORT On PLACEMENT, INDUCTION AND TRAINING at DAYANAND MEDICAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL, LUDHIANA

Submitted to: SUBMITTED BY:

ROLL NO.

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION OF DAYANAND MEDICAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL

WHY AT DAYANAND MEDICAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL?

Dayanand Medical College and Hospital is a large organization .At present times hospitals are defined as industry. It has a large number of employees working at different levels. Certain employees are employed at class 4 level and many are working at class 1,2,3 levels respectively. Hence it is important to know that how placement, induction & training is carried out here. It is important because if right type of persons is placed on right jobs and they are properly introduced to the organization and given proper type of training during the jobs then and then only maximum output can be withdrawn from the input utilized. Thus in such a big organization where each day people come, join and resign and recruitments and selections are made, it is most important to study the topic. Being one of the most prestigious institution in north, I feel it is important to present a view to every reader that why this hospital has gained a reputation in the society. It is important for every body to know that in case of such a big institute how the work is being carried out in a smooth manner and each of employee is satisfied with whatever hospital is giving them. Hence I thought it worthwhile knowing the opinions of a big institute like DMC&H. This will give them a chance to know that their opinions are given weight to. It would also enable me to know the problems faced by them.

In this study, I aim at knowing the various procedures of induction and training and how have these processes are helpful in getting right person for the organization.

BRIEF HISTORY OF D.M.C &HOSPITAL

A devoted personality, Dr. Banarsi Dass Soni, Ex. Capt. I.M.S. with a missionary zeal for medical education and patient care, conceived the idea of providing much needed medical care to the people. This noble idea bloomed in the form of Arya Medical School in the year 1934. It was started in a rented building in the Civil Lines, Ludhiana. Admission was limited to only 20 students in the beginning. It was only in the year 1964 that, consistent with the policy of the Government, the Arya Medical School flowered into a full-fledged MBBS College, which came to be known as Dayanand Medical College. The management of this college was taken over by a galaxy of prominent people of Ludhiana, who formed an organization known as the Managing Society of Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, a minority Institution and Late Shri H.R. Dhanda, a prominent industrialist of the town, became its Founder-President. The college is recognized for the MBBS Course by the Medical Council of India and is affiliated to the Baba Farid University of Health Sciences, Faridkot. It admits 70 students every year to the MBBS Course. Super-specialties of Neurosurgery, Neurology, Plastic Surgery including microvascular surgery, kidney Pediatric Surgery, Urology, Cardiology, Gastroenterology, Surgery and Nephrology, Transplant, Oncology, Endocrinology, G.E.

Transfusion Medicine are also functioning at this campus and are providing the most modern care to the patient. The hospital had set up the first Haemo-dialysis unit in Punjab. All these departments are managed by fully qualified doctors who have at their disposal, the latest sophisticated investigative gadgets. We have on faculty, 30 DM and M.Ch doctors. The hospital possesses all kinds of state of art investigative facilities like Fiber optic Endoscopes including upper as well as lower GI Scopes, Bronchoscopes, Nasopharyngo-laryngoscope, Colposcope, Hysteroscope and peritoneoscope, apart from Biochemical Autoanaluysers, Blood Gas analyzer and auto cell counter Somatosensory Evoked Response Testing Whole Body Spiral CT Scan, Ultrasonography, Echocardiography, EEG & EMG etc.

DMC Hospital is the first and the only institution in India having, in its Department of Orthopedics, the facility of a unique technique of external fixtures perfected by the internationally renowned Prof. Organesyan from Russia. Completion of the multipurpose Dumra Auditorium has added a new dimension to the curricular and extra curricular activities of the students and staff of the institution. The aim of the Managing Society of Dayanand Medical College & Hospital is to develop the entire institution into a modern and unique place capable of imparting the best medical education and providing the best opportunity for growth of an all round development. Indeed DMCH is one of the unique institution where: No Compromise is done on Merit, No weightage is given to cast, creed and color.

Will commitment and holistic concern for environment, ethics and society are the beacons to escort the humanity in right direction .

CHAPTER II

INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM)

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Human Resource Management

The Human Resources Management (HRM) function includes a variety of activities, and key among them is deciding what staffing needs you have and whether to use independent contractors or hire employees to fill these needs, recruiting and training the best employees, ensuring they are high performers, dealing with performance issues, and ensuring your personnel and management practices conform to various regulations. Activities also include managing your approach to employee benefits and compensation, employee records and personnel policies. Usually small businesses (forprofit or nonprofit) have to carry out these activities themselves because they can't yet afford part- or full-time help. However, they should always ensure that employees have -- and are aware of -- personnel policies, which conform to current regulations. These policies are often in the form of employee manuals, which all employees have. Note that some people distinguish a difference between HRM (a major management activity) and HRD (Human Resource Development, a profession). Those people might include HRM in HRD, explaining that HRD includes the broader range of activities to develop personnel inside of organizations, including, eg, career development, training, organization development, etc. There is a long-standing argument about where HR-related functions should be organized into large organizations, eg, "should HR be in the Organization Development department or the other way around?" The HRM function and HRD profession have undergone tremendous change over the past 20-30 years. Many years ago, large organizations looked to the "Personnel Department," mostly to manage the paperwork around hiring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider the "HR Department" as playing a major role in staffing, training and helping to manage people so that people and the organization are performing at maximum capability in a highly fulfilling manner.]

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Functional overview and strategy for HRM

These issues motivate a well thought out human resource management strategy, with the precision and detail of say a marketing strategy. Failure in not having a carefully crafted human resources management strategy, can and probably will lead to failures in the business process itself. This set of resources are offered to promote thought, stimulate discussion, diagnose the organizational environment and develop a sound human resource management strategy for your organization. We begin by looking at the seven distinguishable functions human resource management provides to secure the achievement of the objective defined above. Following on from this overview we look at defining a human resource strategy. Finally, some questions are posed in the form of a HRM systems diagnostic checklist for you to consider, which may prove helpful for you to think about when planning your development programs for the human resources in your organization, if they are truely "your most valuable asset."

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Functions Of Human Resource Management Function 1: Manpower planning The penalties for not being correctly staffed are costly. Understaffing loses the business economies of scale and specialization, orders, customers and profits. Overstaffing is wasteful and expensive, if sustained, and it is costly to eliminate because of modern legislation in respect of redundancy payments, consultation, minimum periods of notice, etc. Very importantly, overstaffing reduces the competitive efficiency of the business. Planning staff levels requires that an assessment of present and future needs of the organization be compared with present resources and future predicted resources. Appropriate steps then be planned to bring demand and supply into balance. Thus the first step is to take a 'satellite picture' of the existing workforce profile (numbers, skills, ages, flexibility, gender, experience, forecast capabilities, character, potential, etc. of existing employees) and then to adjust this for 1, 3 and 10 years ahead by amendments for normal turnover, planned staff movements, retirements, etc, in line with the business plan for the corresponding time frames. The result should be a series of crude supply situations as would be the outcome of present planning if left unmodified. (This, clearly, requires a great deal of information accretion, classification and statistical analysis as a subsidiary aspect of personnel management.) What future demands will be is only influenced in part by the forecast of the personnel manager, whose main task may well be to scrutinize and modify the crude predictions of other managers. Future staffing needs will derive from: Sales and production forecasts The effects of technological change on task needs Variations in the efficiency, productivity, flexibility of labor as a result of training, work study, organizational change, new motivations, etc.

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Changes in employment practices (e.g. use of subcontractors or agency staffs, hiving-off tasks, buying in, substitution, etc.) Variations, which respond to new legislation, e.g. payroll taxes or their abolition, new health and safety requirements Changes in Government policies (investment incentives, regional or trade grants, etc.)

What should emerge from this 'blue sky gazing' is a 'thought out' and logical staffing demand schedule for varying dates in the future which can then be compared with the crude supply schedules. The comparisons will then indicate what steps must be taken to achieve a balance. That, in turn, will involve the further planning of such recruitment, training, retraining, labor reductions (early retirement/redundancy) or changes in workforce utilization as will bring supply and demand into equilibrium, not just as a oneoff but as a continuing workforce planning exercise the inputs to which will need constant varying to reflect 'actual' as against predicted experience on the supply side and changes in production actually achieved as against forecast on the demand side.

Function 2: Recruitment and selection of employees Recruitment of staff should be preceded by: An analysis of the job to be done (i.e. an analytical study of the tasks to be performed to determine their essential factors) written into a job description so that the selectors know what physical and mental characteristics applicants must possess, what qualities and attitudes are desirable and what characteristics are a decided disadvantage;

In the case of replacement staff a critical questioning of the need to recruit at all (replacement should rarely be an automatic process). Effectively, selection is 'buying' an employee (the price being the wage or salary multiplied by probable years of service) hence bad buys can be very expensive. For that reason some firms (and some firms for particular jobs) use external expert consultants for recruitment and selection.

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Equally some small organizations exist to 'head hunt', i.e. to attract staff with high reputations from existing employers to the recruiting employer. However, the 'cost' of poor selection is such that, even for the mundane day-to-day jobs, those who recruit and select should be well trained to judge the suitability of applicants.

The main sources of recruitment are:

Internal promotion and internal introductions (at times desirable for morale purposes) Careers officers (and careers masters at schools) University appointment boards Agencies for the unemployed Advertising (often via agents for specialist posts) or the use of other local media (e.g. commercial radio)

Where the organization does its own printed advertising it is useful if it has some identifying logo as its trade mark for rapid attraction and it must take care not to offend the sex, race, etc. antidiscrimination legislation either directly or indirectly. The form on which the applicant is to apply (personal appearance, letter of application, completion of a form) will vary according to the posts vacant and numbers to be recruited. It is very desirable in many jobs that claim about experience and statements about qualifications are thoroughly checked and that applicants unfailingly complete a health questionnaire (the latter is not necessarily injurious to the applicants chance of being appointed as firms are required to employ a percentage of disabled people). Before letters of appointment are sent any doubts about medical fitness or capacity (in employments where hygiene considerations are dominant) should be resolved by requiring applicants to attend a medical examination. This is especially so where, as for example in the case of apprentices, the recruitment is for a contractual period or involves the firm in training costs. Interviewing can be carried out by individuals (e.g. supervisor or departmental manager), by panels of interviewers or in the form of sequential interviews by different experts and can vary from a five minute 'chat' to a process of several days. Ultimately

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personal skills in judgment are probably the most important, but techniques to aid judgment include selection testing for:

Aptitudes (particularly useful for school leavers) Attainments General intelligence

(All of these need skilled testing and assessment.) In more senior posts other techniques are:

Leaderless groups Command exercises Group problem solving

(These are some common techniques - professional selection organizations often use other techniques to aid in selection.) Training in interviewing and in appraising candidates is clearly essential to good recruitment. Largely the former consists of teaching interviewers how to draw out the interviewee and the latter how to rate the candidates. For consistency (and as an aid to checking that) rating often consists of scoring candidates for experience, knowledge, physical/mental capabilities, intellectual levels, motivation, prospective potential, leadership abilities etc. (according to the needs of the post). Application of the normal curve of distribution to scoring eliminates freak judgments Function 3: Employee motivation To retain good staff and to encourage them to give of their best while at work requires attention to the financial and psychological and even physiological rewards offered by the organization as a continuous exercise. Basic financial rewards and conditions of service (e.g. working hours per week) are determined externally (by national bargaining or government minimum wage legislation) in many occupations but as much as 50 per cent of the gross pay of manual workers is often the result of local negotiations and details (e.g. which particular hours shall be worked) of conditions of service are often more important than the basics. Hence there is scope for financial and other motivations to be used at local levels.

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As staffing needs will vary with the productivity of the workforce (and the industrial peace achieved) so good personnel policies are desirable. The latter can depend upon other factors (like environment, welfare, employee benefits, etc.) but unless the wage packet is accepted as 'fair and just' there will be no motivation. Hence while the technicalities of payment and other systems may be the concern of others, the outcome of them is a matter of great concern to human resource management. Increasingly the influence of behavioral science discoveries are becoming important not merely because of the widely-acknowledged limitations of money as a motivator, but because of the changing mix and nature of tasks (e.g. more service and professional jobs and far fewer unskilled and repetitive production jobs). The former demand better-educated, mobile and multi-skilled employees much more likely to be influenced by things like job satisfaction, involvement, participation, etc. than the economically dependent employees of yesteryear. Hence human resource management must act as a source of information about and a source of inspiration for the application of the findings of behavioral science. It may be a matter of drawing the attention of senior managers to what is being achieved elsewhere and the gradual education of middle managers to new points of view on job design, work organization and worker autonomy. An organization needs constantly to take stock of its workforce and to assess its performance in existing jobs for three reasons:

To improve organizational performance via improving the performance of individual contributors (should be an automatic process in the case of good managers, but (about annually) two key questions should be posed:
o o

What has been done to improve the performance of a person last year? And what can be done to improve his or her performance in the year to come?).

To identify potential, i.e. to recognize existing talent and to use that to fill vacancies higher in the organization or to transfer individuals into jobs where better use can be made of their abilities or developing skills.

To provide an equitable method of linking payment to performance where there are no numerical criteria (often this salary performance review takes place about

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three months later and is kept quite separate from 1. and 2. but is based on the same assessment). On-the-spot managers and supervisors, not HR staffs, carry out evaluations. The personnel role is usually that of:

Advising top management of the principles and objectives of an evaluation system and designing it for particular organizations and environments. Developing systems appropriately in consultation with managers, supervisors and staff representatives. Securing the involvement and cooperation of appraisers and those to be appraised.

Assistance in the setting of objective standards of evaluation / assessment, for example:


o o o o

Defining targets for achievement; Explaining how to quantify and agree objectives; Introducing self-assessment; Eliminating complexity and duplication.

Publicizing the purposes of the exercise and explaining to staff how the system will be used. Organizing and establishing the necessary training of managers and supervisors who will carry out the actual evaluations/ appraisals. Not only training in principles and procedures but also in the human relations skills necessary. (Lack of confidence in their own ability to handle situations of poor performance is the main weakness of assessors.)

Monitoring the scheme - ensuring it does not fall into disuse, following up on training/job exchange etc. recommendations, reminding managers of their responsibilities.

Full-scale periodic reviews should be a standard feature of schemes since resistance to evaluation / appraisal schemes is common and the temptation to water down or render schemes ineffectual is ever present (managers resent the time taken if nothing else). Basically an evaluation / appraisal scheme is a formalization of what is done in a more casual manner anyway (e.g. if there is a vacancy, discussion about internal moves and internal attempts to put square pegs into 'squarer holes' are both the results of casual 18

evaluation). Most managers approve merit payment and that too calls for evaluation. Made a standard routine task, it aids the development of talent, warns the inefficient or uncaring and can be an effective form of motivation. Function 4: Employee education, training and development In general, education is 'mind preparation' and is carried out remote from the actual work area, training is the systematic development of the attitude, knowledge, skill pattern required by a person to perform a given task or job adequately and development is 'the growth of the individual in terms of ability, understanding and awareness'. Within an organization all three are necessary in order to: Develop workers to undertake higher-grade tasks; Provide the conventional training of new and young workers (e.g. as apprentices, clerks, etc.); Raise efficiency and standards of performance; Meet legislative requirements (e.g. health and safety); Inform people (induction training, pre-retirement courses, etc.); From time to time meet special needs arising from technical, legislative, and knowledge need changes. Meeting these needs is achieved via the 'training loop'. (Schematic available in PDF version.) The diagnosis of other than conventional needs is complex and often depends upon the intuition or personal experience of managers and needs revealed by deficiencies. Sources of inspiration include:

Common sense - it is often obvious that new machines, work systems, task requirements and changes in job content will require workers to be prepared; Shortcomings revealed by statistics of output per head, performance indices, unit costs, etc. and behavioral failures revealed by absentee figures, lateness, sickness etc. records;

Recommendations of government and industry training organizations; Inspiration and innovations of individual managers and supervisors; Forecasts and predictions about staffing needs;

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Inspirations prompted by the technical press, training journals, reports of the experience of others; The suggestions made by specialist (e.g. education and training officers, safety engineers, work-study staff and management services personnel).

Designing training is far more than devising courses; it can include activities such as:

Learning from observation of trained workers; Receiving coaching from seniors; Discovery as the result of working party, project team membership or attendance at meetings; Job swaps within and without the organization; Undertaking planned reading, or follow from the use of selfteaching texts and video tapes; Learning via involvement in research, report writing and visiting other works or organizations.

So far as group training is concerned in addition to formal courses there are:


Lectures and talks by senior or specialist managers; Discussion group (conference and meeting) activities; Briefing by senior staffs; Role-playing exercises and simulation of actual conditions; Video and computer teaching activities; Case studies (and discussion) tests, quizzes, panel 'games', group forums, observation exercises and inspection and reporting techniques.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of training is done to ensure that it is cost effective, to identify needs to modify or extend what is being provided, to reveal new needs and redefine priorities and most of all to ensure that the objectives of the training are being met. The latter may not be easy to ascertain where results cannot be measured mathematically. In the case of attitude and behavioral changes sought, leadership abilities, drive and ambition fostered, etc., achievement is a matter of the judgment of

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senior staffs. Exact validation might be impossible but unless on the whole the judgments are favorable the cooperation of managers in identifying needs, releasing personnel and assisting in training ventures will cease. In making their judgments senior managers will question whether the efforts expended have produced:

More effective, efficient, flexible employees; Faster results in making newcomers knowledgeable and effective than would follow from experience; More effective or efficient use of machinery, equipment and work procedures; Fewer requirements to implement redundancy (by retraining); Fewer accidents both personal and to property; Improvements in the qualifications of staff and their ability to take on tougher roles; Better employee loyalty to the organization with more willingness to innovate and accept change

Function 5: Industrial relations Good industrial relations, while a recognizable and legitimate objective for an organization, are difficult to define since a good system of industrial relations involves complex relationships between: (a) Workers (and their informal and formal groups, i. e. trade union, organizations and their representatives); (b) Employers (and their managers and formal organizations like trade and professional associations); (c) The government and legislation and government agencies l and 'independent' agencies like the Advisory Conciliation and Arbitration Service. Oversimplified, work is a matter of managers giving instructions and workers following them - but (and even under slavery we recognize that different 'managing' produces very different results) the variety of 'forms' which have evolved to regulate the conduct of parties (i.e. laws, custom and practice, observances, agreements) makes the giving and receipt of instructions far from simple. Two types of 'rule' have evolved: 21

'Substantive', determining basic pay and conditions of service (what rewards workers should receive); 'Procedural,' determining how workers should be treated and methods and procedures. Determining these rules are many common sense matters like:

Financial, policy and market constraints on the parties (e.g. some unions do not have the finance to support industrial action, some have policies not to strike, some employers are more vulnerable than others to industrial action, some will not make changes unless worker agreement is made first, and rewards always ultimately reflect what the market will bear);

The technology of production (the effect of a strike in newspaper production is immediate -it may be months before becoming effective in shipbuilding); The distribution of power within the community - that tends to vary over time and with economic conditions workers (or unions) dominating in times of full employment and employers in times of recession.

Broadly in the Western style economies the parties (workers and employers) are free to make their own agreements and rules. This is called 'voluntarism'. But it does not mean there is total noninterference by the government. That is necessary to:

Protect the weak (hence minimum wage); Outlaw discrimination (race or sex); Determine minimum standards of safety, health, hygiene and even important conditions of service; To try to prevent the abuse of power by either party.

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RESPONSIBILITY OF HR MANAGERS The HR Manager's involvement in the system of industrial relations varies from organization to organization, but normally he or she is required to provide seven identifiable functions, thus: To keep abreast of industrial law (legislation and precedents) and to advise managers about their responsibilities e.g. to observe requirements in respect of employing disabled persons, not to discriminate, not to disclose 'spent' convictions of employees, to observe codes of practice etc. in relation to discipline and redundancy, and similarly to determine organizational policies (in conjunction with other managers) relevant to legal and moral requirements (see also 4.). To conduct (or assist in the conduct) of either local negotiations (within the plant) or similarly to act as the employer's representative in national negotiations. This could be as a critic or advisor in respect of trade etc. association policies or as a member of a trade association negotiating team. Agreements could be in respect of substantive or procedural matters. Even if not directly involved the personnel manager will advise other managers and administrators of the outcome of negotiations. To ensure that agreements reached are interpreted so as to make sense to those who must operate them at the appropriate level within the organization (this can involve a lot of new learning at supervisory level and new pay procedures and new recording requirements in administration and even the teaching of new employment concepts like stagger systems of work - at management level). To monitor the observance of agreements and to produce policies that ensures that agreements are followed within the organization. An example would be the policy to be followed on the appointment of a new but experienced recruit in relation to the offered salary where there is a choice of increments to be given for experience, ability or qualification. To correct the situations which go wrong. 'Face' is of some importance in most organizations and operating at a 'remote' staff level personnel managers can 23

correct industrial relations errors made at local level without occasioning any loss of dignity (face) at the working level. 'Human resource management' and the obscurity of its reasoning can be blamed for matters which go wrong at plant level and for unwelcome changes, variations of comfortable 'arrangements' and practices and unpopular interpretation of agreements. To provide the impetus (and often devise the machinery) for the introduction of joint consultation and worker participation in decision-making in the organization. Formal agreement in respect of working conditions and behavior could never cover every situation likely to arise. Moreover the more demanding the task (in terms of the mental contribution by the worker to its completion) the more highly educated the workers need to be and the more they will want to be consulted about and involved in the details of work life. Matters like the rules for a flextime system or for determining the correction of absenteeism and the contents of jobs are three examples of the sort of matters that may be solely decided by management in some organizations but a matter for joint consultation (not negotiation) in others with a more twenty-first-century outlook and philosophy. Human resource management is very involved in promoting and originating ideas in this field. To provide statistics and information about workforce numbers, costs, skills etc. as relevant to negotiations (i.e. the cost of pay rises or compromise proposals, effect on differentials and possible recruitment/retention consequences of this or whether agreement needs to be known instantly); to maintain personnel records of training, experience, achievements, qualifications, awards and possibly pension and other records; to produce data of interest to management in respect of personnel matters like absentee figures and costs, statistics of sickness absence, costs of welfare and other employee services, statements about development in policies by other organizations, ideas for innovations; to advise upon or operate directly, grievance, procedures. redundancy, disciplinary and other

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Chapter -III INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT AT D.M.C. & HOSPITAL

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HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT DMCH

1.

INTRODUCTION: In any industry where the end product is through a series of operations, the

basic requirements are capital, machine and the man behind the machine. Hospital is a service industry where the most important part is the human behavior of the different categories of workers, Para-medical staff: technical staff: nursing staff junior doctors and the Consultants. It is, therefore imperative that the human resources are not only properly. selected after thorough planning, a properly managed Interview process to include testing but also the necessary skill assessment be carried .out so that every single person selected fits into the job for which he or she has been selected. It is equally important thereafter that the Human Resources inducted into the organization are properly received, oriented, guided, trained, nurtured and made useful members of the organization. To do that we need Human Resource Management par-excellence STRUCTURE OF ORGANIZATION: For the Hospital, a separate Cell of Human Resource Management (Development is part of Management) has been formed and the members of this Cell are qualified, experienced, and have the necessary spark to carry forward the normally neglected but the onerous task of Human Resource Management. The Manager HR & ER & Sr.Personnel Manager are efficiently and effectively performing their assigned duties without any interference to each others domain. The following areas are studied and A programme for orientation is made out to implement with the co-operation of the concerned Head's of Department for specific services, advice and coordination: I) II) III) An assessment and planning for the future needs of the staff. Recruiting and selecting process including interviews, tests and skill assessment. Analyses the task, duties, knowledge and personality as part of job analysis.

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IV) V)

Lay down Standards of Conduct and Results to be achieved for all categories of staff. Since this will entail a long process, prioritizing will have to be done. Improve the existing system of performance appraisal so as to get Higher Performance through proper feedback, guidance and advice.

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PROCESS OF ORIENTATION: Induction training for all new workers so as to instill in them a sense of belonging, pride in the institution and orientation with various systems and procedures so that the new staff member fits into the team smoothly. In this, the important aspect is the attitude of the colleagues and the superiors so that the newcomer feels wanted, made welcome and is considered an important part of the system. This training to include: a) b) Orientation to the organization and different departments. Training in his own area of work.

Test for fitness for the job.


SKILL UPGRADATION: For the exiting staff: it is imperative that there should be continuous up gradation of skills, capability and expertise to fit into the next seniors lot as part of promotion system. At a later stage, the Skill Standards will also have to be laid down and a Certification System evolved.

TRAINING: We already have a Training Team but it has been functioning without a qualified and experienced officer. There is a need to upgrade it that the training is better organized with proper Training Aids and the training made more interesting, useful and result orientated. The Training Team will be part of Human Resource Management. Some of the areas which .may require action are. Personal Development in an environment of enthusiasm. Positive thinking vs. Negative thinking (Pygmalion effect)

Making Decisions. Persuasion. Monitoring tasks directly and indirectly. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: Following needs to be done: Design and implement Development programme. Building effective teams in each department. Career plans for development. Review of system of appraisal including self-appraisal. Compensation and benefits. Employee/Union relations: Intermediary. Discipline and Grievance handling including that of the female staff. Procedure to handle grievance of Sexual Harassment and violence against women. Safety, Health and Insurance. Communication forums inter and intra departments. Human Resource Info base. Design and implement employee communication system. EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION: We all know that customer (patient) is always right and we are all there to satisfy his/her needs. However, it is emphasized that employee's satisfaction" high morale, work-culture and climate of complete faith in each other will result in better performance at all levels and convert itself into better satisfaction of the customer i.e. the patient and their attendants. Job Description and Design: It is equally important that every member of the staff should have a clear idea about his job for which he is responsible and what are the standards of efficiency laid

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down for him and the authority to whom he is answerable. It is to include who, what, where, when, why and how the job will be performed. THE CONTROL OVER THE WASTAGE RATE OF HUMAN RESOURCE: It is also a known fact that in a competitive' world the middle rung and senior administrators are likely to move horizontally due to global competition. Whenever offered a better package, security of job, better environment, more percentage of such staff members are likely to move out to the competitive organizations. Such wastage, if quantified, is likely to be a heavy drain on our resources. It is, therefore, essential that our staff is kept satisfied and there is a need to design and implement programme to improve personal management and administration. It may also be useful to analyses the reasons when a good staff member leaves the organization, the causes and the attractions of the alternative job by informal socialization and it is a must to carry out Exit Interviews for feedback.

INSTITUTION BUILDING AND MANAGEMENT AT THIS JUNCTURE: Some specific steps are given as under: Good Leader with professional Managerial skills and a enter- pre-neural manager. Professional Management - need for reorganization and orientation at the top level of Administration. Clear defined goals and missions to be widely shared with employees at successive levels. Encouragement of staff at all levels by more communication at Formal and informal forums. This area needs special emphasis as most of the problems raise their heads due to lack of Communication by the main functionaries. Mechanism to facilitate continuous learning - Interest of staff in self-development. Use of superannuated consultants as visiting faculty. Mechanism for interaction with-clients groups- e.g. big Industry, University, Village/Town Reps., NGO's, Lions/Rotary clubs etc. 30

Flow of Information - feed back - surveys. Delegation and Decentralization combined with measure of Financial autonomy. Professionalism - The job of administration is as technical and Specific as any technical stream. Therefore adherence to set of Professional norms for the staff in the administrative hierarchy must be oriented to their professional competence. Innovative and Adaptive Organization - Where no set solutions are forthcoming, there is need to innovate at all levels. The organization also must adapt with the passage of time, change in circumstances and work environment. Structural Charges: Down sizing need, out sourcing (contract System) re-engineering (redesign to improve quality of service By the Service provider to the user department) cost reduction And efficiency achieved through Benchmarking.

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CHAPTER IV

INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECT OF PLACEMENT, INDUCTION & TRAINING

PLACEMENT DEFINITION: Placement is a process of assigning a specific job to each one of the selected candidates .it also implies assigning a specific rank and responsibility to an individual. Matching the requirements of the job with the qualification of a candidate is a essence of placement. In the words of Pigors & Myers: Placement is the determination of the job to which an accepted candidate is to be assigned and his assignment to that job. It is matching of what the supervisor has reason to think he can do with the job demands. It is a matching of what he imposes and what he offers Placement implies assigning a specific rank and responsibility to an individual. PRINCIPLES OF PLACEMENT Man should be placed on the job according to the requirements of the job. The job should not be adjusted according to the qualification or requirements of the man. Job first, man next, should be the principle of placement The job should be offered to the man according to his qualifications. The placement should neither be higher nor lower than the qualifications The employee should be made conversant with the working conditions prevailing in the industry and all things relating to the job. He should also be made aware of the penalties if he commits a wrong. While introducing the job to the new employee an effort should be made to develop a sense of loyalty in cooperation in him so that he may realize his responsibilities better towards the job and the organization. The placement should be ready before the joining date of the newly selected person.

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The placement in the initial period may be temporary as changes are likely after the completion of training. The employee may be later transferred to the job where he can do the better justice.

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PLACEMENT PROCEDURE

Collect details about the employee Construct his profile Match individual profile with the best-suited sub group profile Compare sub group profile to the job family profile Match the sub group profile with the best-suited job family profile Assign the individual to the job family Assign the individual to specific job after further counseling and assessment After a candidate has been selected, he should be placed on a suitable job. Placement is the actual posting of an employee to a specific job. It involves assigning a specific rank and responsibility to an employee. The line manager takes the placement decisions after matching the requirements of a job with the qualifications of a candidate. Most organizations put new recruits on probation for a given period of time, after which their services are confirmed. during this period the performance of the probationer is closely monitored. if the new recruit fails to adjust himself to the job and turns out poor performance the organization may consider his name for placement elsewhere. Such second placement is called differential placement. Placement is an important human resource activity. If neglected it, may create employee adjustment problems leading to absenteeism, turnover, accidents, poor performance, etc,the employee will also suffer seriously. He may quit the organization in frustration, complaining bitterly about everything. proper placement is ,therefore ,important to both the employee and organization.

Major Benefits of proper placement: The employee is able to: Show good results on the job Get along with people easily Keep his spirits high, report for duty regularly Avoid mistakes and accidents.

Placement, it should be remembered, should be made with as little disruption to the employees and organization as possible. To this end, new recruits must be oriented properly so that they become productive contributors. There should be a conscious and determined effort to adapt the new recruit to the organizations culture. when new employees know what is expected of them, they have better organizational performance and less frustration and uncertainty. INDUCTION Inductions may be viewed as the socializing process by which the organization seeks to make an individual its agent for the achievement of its objectives and the individual seeks to make an agency of the organization for the achievement of his personal goals. Induction is the process of indoctrination, welcoming, acclimitatization, acculturisation and socialization. Induction is the welcoming process to make the new employee feel at home and generate in him a feeling of belongingness in the organization. It is a Process of inducting or installing somebody formally into office or it is a preparatory training (formal introduction) for new employees. Soon after joining the employees in general are put through an induction schedule. The objective of this schedule is to familiarize the newcomer with the organizations values, philosophies, objectives, functions and operations as quickly as possible. 36

OBJECTIVES OF INDUCTION An induction program is designed to achieve the following objectives: To help the newcomer overcome his natural shyness and nervousness in meeting new people in a new environment. To build up the new employees confidence in the organization and in himself so that he may become an efficient employee. To foster a close and cordial relationship between the newcomers and the old employees and their supervisors. To reduce start-up time and costs. To reduce Labour turnover and absenteeism. To increase the performance level of the existing employees. INDUCTION PROGRAMME 1) Organizational issues History of company Names and titles of key executives Employees title and department Layout of physical facilities Probationary period Products/services offered Overview of production process company polices and rules disciplinary procedures employees hand book safety steps

2) Employee benefits Pay scales, pay days Vacations, holidays Rest pauses training avenues counseling insurance, medical, recreation, retirement 3) Introductions To supervisors To co-workers 37 to trainers to employee counselor

4) Job duties Job location Job tasks Job safety needs TRAINING Training may be viewed as a systematic and planned process which has organizational purpose to impart and provide learning experiences, that will bring about improvement in an employee and thus enabling him to make his contribution in greater measure in meeting the goals and objectives of an organization. overview of jobs job objectives relationship with other jobs

Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a specified job. Training is used to indicate the only process by which the aptitudes, skills and abilities of employees to perform specific jobs are increased.

The function of training is the process of aiding employees to gain effectiveness in their present and future work. FEATURES: Increases knowledge and skills for doing a particular job; it bridges the gap between job needs and employees skills, knowledge and behaviors Focuses attention on the current job; it is job specific and addresses particular performance deficits or problems.

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Concentrates on individual employees; changing what employees know, how they work, their attitude toward their work or their interactions with their coworkers or their supervisors. Tends to be more narrowly focused and oriented toward short-term performance concerns.

Why training is indispensable in any organization? Newly recruited employees required training so as to perform their tasks effectively. Instruction, guidance, coaching help them to handle jobs competently, without any wastage. Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher- level jobs (promotion). Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest developments in job operations. In the face of rapid technological changes, this is an absolute necessity. Training is necessary when a person moves from one job to another (transfer). After training, the employee can change jobs quickly, improve his performance level and achieve career goals comfortably. Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. They can be placed on various jobs depending on organizational needs. Training is needed to bridge the gap between what the employees has and what the job demands. It is needed to make employees more productive and useful in the long run. Training is needed for employees to gain acceptance from peers (learning a job quickly and being able to pull their own weight is one of the best ways for them to gain acceptance).

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OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING: The training objectives are lead down keeping in view the organization goals and objectives. General objectives of any training program are as follows: To help develop capacities and capabilities of the employees-both new and old by upgrading their skills and knowledge so that the organization could gainfully avail of their services better for higher grade professional, technical, sales or production positions within the organization To help existing employees in improving their levels of performance on their present job assignments. In case of new employees, training has its objective to provide them with basic knowledge and skill they need for an intelligent performance of their specific task. To bring about efficiency and effectiveness in an organization, so that the organization may remain competitive in highly competitive market situations and for the achievement of organizational goals

The aim of training is to create in them self consciousness and a greater awareness to recognize their responsibilities and contribute their very best to the organization they serve. The apprenticeship programmers aiming at improving the skills of the present employees come to the aid of the company to tide over the position by making available their requirements of the personnel from within the organization. Training plays a significant role in dynamic companies, which are more than often on the run for their survival, to bring about technological changes like automation, highly mechanized, and computer oriented systems, which may in their turn create new problems, new methods, new procedures, new equipments, new skills and knowledge, new jobs, new products and services.

BENEFITS OF TRAINING Training makes an employee more useful to a firm 40

Training makes employees more efficient and effective and by using their skills effectively, they can produce more with minimum effort Training enables employees to secure promotions through which they can realize their career goals comfortably Effective Training would minimize mistakes and would lead to job satisfaction among employees and increase their morale. Effective use of resources would lead to elimination of wastage to a great extent thus help in increasing the productivity. Training improves the knowledge of employees regarding the tools and equipments and hence trained employees need not to be put under close supervision.

Implementation of training methods: Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction. On the Job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills and abilities at the actual work place; Off-the-job training, on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at a location other than the real works part. Some of the widely used methods are listed below.

I) ON THE JOB METHODS

JOB INSTRUCTION TRAINING (JIT) The JIT method is a fourth step instructional process involving preparation, presentation, performance try out & follow up. It is used primarily to teach workers, how to do their current jobs. The four steps followed are: i) The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its desired outcomes, with a clear focus on the relevancy of training, 41

ii)

The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. The trainer shows a right way to handle the job.

iii)

Next, the employee is permitted to copy the trainers way. Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job.

iv)

Finally, the employee does the job independently without supervision.

COACHING Coaching is a kind of daily training and feedback given to employees by immediate supervisors. It involves a continuous process of learning by doing. It may be defined as an informal, unplanned training and development activity provided by supervisors and peers. Coaching could be put to good use when: An employee demonstrates a new competency An employee expresses interest in a different job within the organization. An employee seeks feedback An employee is expressing low morale, violating company policies or practices or having performance problems An employee needs help with a new skill following a formal training programme. MENTORING Mentoring is a relationship in which a senior manager in an organization assumes the responsibility for grooming a junior person. Technical, interpersonal and political skills are generally conveyed in such a relationship from the more experienced person. A mentor is a teacher, counselor developer of skills and intellect, host. Guide, example and most importantly, supporter and facilitator. In the realization of the vision the young person has about the kind of life he wants as an adult. The 42

main objective of mentoring is to help an employee attain psychological maturity and effectiveness and get integrated with the organization. In a work situation, such mentoring can take place at both formal and informal levels, depending on the prevailing work culture and the commitment from the top management. The important feature of mentoring may be presented as follows :

Good mentees

Good Mentors

Listen and understand Challenge and stimulate learning Coach Build self confidence Provide wise counsel Teach by example Act as role model Share experiences Offer encouragement

Successfu l mentorin g

Listen Act on advice Show commitment to learn Check ego at the door Ask for feedback Are open minded Are willing to change Are pro-active

JOB ROTATION: This kind of training involves the movement of trainee from one job to another. This helps him to have a general understanding of how the organization functions. The purpose of job rotation is to provide trainees with a larger organizational perspective and a greater understanding of different functional areas as well as better sense of their own career objectives and interests. The cross-trained personnel offer a great amount of flexibility for organizations when transfers, promotions, or replacements become inevitable Job rotation may pose several problems, especially when the trainees are roled on various jobs at frequent intervals. In such a case, trainees do not usually stay long enough in any single face of the operation to develop a high degree of expertise. To get the best result out of the system it should be tailored to the needs, interest, and capabilities of the individual trainee and not be standard sequence that all trainees undergo 43

Merits Improves participants job skills, job satisfaction Provides valuable opportunities to network within the organization Offers faster promotions and higher salaries to quick learners Lateral beneficial talents. transfers in may be

Demerits Increased participants Constant job change may produce stress and anxiety Mere multiplications of duties dont enrich the life of a trainee. Development cost may shoot up when trainees commit mistakes, handle tasks less optimally. work load for

rekindling

enthusiasm and developing new

APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING Most craft workers such a plumbers and carpenters are trained through formal apprenticeship program. Apprentices are trainees who spent a prescribed amount of time working with an experience guide, coach or trainer. Assistantships and internships are similar to apprenticeships because they also demand high levels of participation from the trainee. An internship is a kind of on-the job training that usually combines job training with classroom instruction in trade schools, colleges or universities. One important disadvantage of the apprenticeship methods is the uniform period of training offered to the trainees. People have different abilities and learn at varied rated. Those who learn fast may quit the programme in frustration. slow learners may need additional training time. Trainees who spent years learning specific skills may find, upon completion of their programme, that the job skills they acquired are more longer appropriate.

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COMMITTEE ASSIGNMENTS In this method, trainees are asked to solve an actual organizational problem. The trainees have to work together and offer solution to the problem. Assigning talented employees to important committees can give their employees a broadening experience and can help them to understand the personalities, issues and processes governing the organization. It helps them to develop team spirit and work united towards common goals.

II) OFF THE JOB METHODS: Under this method of training, the trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by job requirements, he can focus his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. Off the job training methods are as follows: VESTIBULE TRAINING: In this method actual work conditions are stimulated in a classroom. Material, files and equipments that are used in actual job performance are also used in training. this type of training is commonly used for training personal for clerical and semi skilled jobs. ROLE-PLAYING: It is defined as the method of human interaction that involves realistic behaviour in imaginary situation. This method of training involves action, doing and practice. The participants play the role of certain characters such as the production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineer, quality control inspectors, foreman workers etc. LECTURE METHOD:

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The lecture is a traditional and direct method of instruction. The instructor organizes the material and gives it to a group of trainees in the form of a talk. To be effective, the lecture must motivate and create interest among the trainees. Advantage: It is a direct method and can be used for a large group of trainees. Thus cost and time involved are reduced. Limitation: It does not provide anything for transfer of training effectively. CONFERENCE/DISCUSSION APPROACH In this method the trainer delivers a lecture and involves the trainee in a discussion so that his doubts about the job are clarified. When big organizations used this method, trainer uses audio visual aids such as blackboards, mockups and slides, in some cases the lectures are videotape or audiotape. Even the trainees presentation can be tape for self-confrontation and self-assessment. The conference is thus a group-centered approach where there is clarification of ideas, communication of procedures and standards to the trainees. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONS The subject matter to be learned is presented in a series of carefully planned sequential units. Theses units are arranged from simple to more complex levels of instruction. The trainee goes through these units by answering questions or filling the blanks. This method is, thus, expensive and time consuming. EVALUATION OF A TRAINING PROGRAMME The specification of values forms a basis for evaluation. The basis of evaluation and the mode of collection of information necessary foe evaluation should be determined at the planning stage. The process of training evaluation has been defined as any attempt to obtain information on the effects of training performance and to assess the value of training programme five levels at which evaluation of training can take place.

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CHAPTER V PLACEMENT, INDUCTION & TRAINING IN D.M.C.& HOSPITAL

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PLACEMENT After a candidate has been selected, he should be placed on a suitable job. Placement is the actual posting of an employee to a specific job. It involves assigning a specific rank and responsibility to an employee. The line manager takes the placement decisions after matching the requirements of a job with the qualifications of a candidate. Most organizations put new recruits on probation for a given period of time, after which their services are confirmed. During this period the performance of the probationer is closely monitored. if the new recruit fails to adjust himself to the job and turns out poor performance the organization may consider his name for placement elsewhere. Such second placement is called differential placement. The following areas are studied and a programme for orientation is made out to implement with the co-operation of the concerned Head's of Department for specific services, advice and coordination: An assessment and planning for the future needs of the staff. Recruiting and selecting process including interviews, tests and skill assessment. Analyses the task, duties, knowledge and personality as part of job analysis. Lay down Standards of Conduct and Results to be achieved for all categories of staff. Since this will entail a long process, prioritizing will have to be done. Improve the existing system of performance appraisal so as to get Higher Performance through proper feedback, guidance and advice. Test for fitness for the job. SKILL UPGRADATION:

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For the exiting staff: it is imperative that there should be continuous up gradation of skills, capability and expertise to fit into the next seniors lot as part of promotion system. At a later stage, the Skill Standards will also have to be laid down and a Certification System evolved

INDUCTION
Induction training for all new workers so as to instill in them a sense of belonging, pride in the institution and orientation with various systems and procedures so that the new staff member fits into the team smoothly. In this, the important aspect is the attitude of the colleagues and the superiors so that the newcomer feels wanted, made welcome and is considered an important part of the system. This induction includes: a) b) Orientation to the organization and different departments. Training in his own area of work. INDUCTION PROGRAMME The HR Department initiates the following steps while organizing the Induction Programme: Welcome to the organization Explain about the company Show the location / department where the new recruit will work Give the companys manual to the new recruit Provide details about various work groups and the extent of unionism within the company Give details about pay, benefits, holidays; leave, etc. emphasize the importance of attendance or punctuality Explain about future training opportunities and future prospects 49

Clarify doubts, by encouraging the employees to come out the with questions Take the employee on a guided tour of buildings, facilities etc. Hand him over to his supervisor. Induction Program of Safai Karamchari & Ward Boys: When Safai Karamcharis & CCH (ward boys) are appointed in D.M.C.& Hospital, the respective person is sent to sanitation Department where the supervisor gives a brief introduction about the duties to be performed to the individual. They are further sent for Biomedical Waste Training where Biomedical Waste Coordinator familiarizes them with the methods of disposing different types of waste. After this training they are issued a certificate for completion of training, which is maintained in their personal file records. (ANNEXURE I) Induction Program of Staff Nurses: When staff nurses are appointed they report to Nursing Supridendent, who introduces them to various authorities connected to Nursing Department. They are briefed about the rules and regulations of the hospital and nursing protocols. They are further sent for Biomedical Waste Training where Biomedical Waste Coordinator familiarizes them with the methods of disposing different types of waste. After this training they are issued a certificate for completion of training, which is maintained in their personal file records. (ANNEXURE I) Induction Of other categories like clerk cum Computer Operator, Profesionals etc: An induction schedule is prepared by the Personnel Officer in HR Department, which is a one-week program, wherein a new appointee has to spend one hour a day as per schedule and has to meet various Officers, Hospital visit etc. (ANNEXURE II)

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TRAINING: Training though is an important function of Human resource management and is an essential for any type of organization but the training team has been functioning without a qualified and experienced officer. There is a need to upgrade it that the training is better organized with proper Training Aids and the training made more interesting, useful and result orientated. The Training Team should be an important part of Human Resource Management. Some of the areas which .may require action are. Personal Development in an environment of enthusiasm. Positive thinking vs. Negative thinking (Pygmalion effect) Making Decisions. Persuasion. Monitoring tasks directly and indirectly. Following training sessions were conducted by the HR Trainees to cater the need of training to some extent.

TRAINING TO SECURITY GUARDS IN DMC&H A training session was organized for security guards of DMCH & HDHI A training session in the form of presentation was given to the security guards highlighting their duties, importance and general obligations of security guard towards the hospital. Why the presentation was given? This presentation was given to security because of following reasons:

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Training session was organized for them at frequent intervals. This time we were given the opportunity to impart training to them. Problem of absenteeism was on increase in them, so it was very much necessary to make them aware of the pros and cons of their action. Their grievances were brought into light after the training session. This would not have been possible in its absence. It was an attempt to act as a mediator between the HR department and the security guard so that the departments as well as the security guards interact face to face. This would facilitate to strengthen their relationship and any issue pertaining to HR Dept. Would be easily solved in near future. It was found that there existed some sort of problem in working relationships in the hospital. So it was an endeavor to highlight the importance of healthy working relationship. Through this presentation better clarity and expectations of the management from security guards were brought into notice. The knowledge and skills that were expected for a security guard to possess were highlighted in the presentation.

After the training session, security guard came up their with grievances. Their grievances are as follows: 1. 2. When security guard give any sort of instruction to the ward boys. The ward boys Attitude of canteen workers: Security guards complained that canteen workers

dont listen to the instruction given to the security guards and argue with them. just roam around in the corridors in the night shift. and according to Security Guards point of view it is a sort of indiscipline.

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3.

Security guards wanted to have a separate place to have their meal: They feel

that there should be appropriate arrangement of the reliever so that incase if the security guard has to go somewhere than there is someone to work at his place of duty. 4. A Security Guard complained that some security guards dont go to there home and instead roam in the hospital. This may lead to some problem in future. 5.Contractual Security Guards want that there should be on regular rolls of DMC. 6. Rude behavior of exchange employees: Whenever the security guards ask any exchange operator to dial a number, they behave in an objectionable manner and treat their request as unnecessary. 7. Lesser pay to contractual workers as compare to those on regular basis. The security guards are working on contract through Hawks and Vision expressed their grievance that they are given lesser pay as compared to their co-workers who are permanent employees of DMC. 8. The Security Guards who are giving duty on the front of gate complained that the doctor sometimes behave rudely with them when they ask the staff members to park their vehicles at the appropriate place. Steps taken to solve the problems of Security guards: The grievance related to the misbehavior of ward boys was duly considered and the stress of good working relationship was given when training session was given to ward boys. The Security Guards were told that a change in duty timings can be a solution to the problem of having a convenient place to sit and have their meal.

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As far as difference in the pay scale of contractual workers and regular employees is concerned. The hospital authorities cannot solve this difference as the ultimate decision is of the contractor.

INDUCTION PROGRAM FOR NURSES IN DMC Every newly joined nurse is kept under training for one year Every nurse is given two sets of documents i.e. List of topics and list of procedures Every nurse is required to prepare for the test from these documents every week. Viva is conducted twice a week. Final viva is conducted at the end of the year. After one year of training screening committee reviews the performance of nurses for putting them on regular grade. .

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CHAPTER-VI RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Introduction The word research refers to finding the truth about something through a systematic study. Research may be done to -Gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it: -Portray accurately the characteristics of the particular individual, situation or a group: -Determination the frequency with which phenomenon occurs or with which it is associated with another: -Test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables. Justification of the study As already mentioned in the introduction, I have taken up to do this study, first of all, considering the importance of employee welfare both in the life of the employees for they constitute the largest population of the country and important for the employees as well, since their concern to have the employee morale kept high and productivity kept high. Besides the morale of the employees are kept high their loyalty gained, if only the management is concerned about the welfare of the employees. It is in this context that I decided to study the aspect of Labour Welfare at the company.

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Establishing objectives of the study First and foremost, it is important in a research study, to have the objective(s) of the study clearly in mind, i.e. what the researcher looks forward to study. This may require that the researcher do an extensive review of available literature on the specific topic or similar topics. It also requires that he discuss it with colleagues and experts. The Main objective of the current study is: To find out if Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana being a big institution takes adequate cares of the Welfare of its Employees, and how the employees perceive. This objective may be further explained/subdivided as follows: 1. To study the different welfare facilities provided in this establishment and how the employee feels satisfied about it: Any industry is bound by laws of the country to provide certain amenities for the welfare of its members. The companies also give extra welfare facilities in view of the good of the employees and to improve their morale. This study aims at finding out those facilities. 2. To find out if the facilities provided are satisfactory for the employee: Any Management can project themselves as providing the various welfare facilities to the employee. However, this may be only to fulfill the obligations towards the employees and the government. This may result in dissatisfaction of the employee and the welfare facilities resulting in not improving their morale. Therefore it is both important to find if the facilities are given to the employees and also to find out if they are positively benefiting them. 3. To know the extent of awareness of the workers regarding welfare facilities. The workers need to be aware of the various facilities that they can avail from the organization and from the government and conditions for getting them. If not, they may not be able to enjoy the privileges which are their rights and those organizations is willing to give to them.

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4.

To appreciate the organization for the good that it does to the employees and to suggest to remedial measures for bettering the morale of the workers.

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CHAPTER VII DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE Q.No.1 Do you find the present induction programme effective? A. Yes B. No

Q.No.1

25% A B 75%

Q.No.2 Do you feel that there should be any improvement in the induction programme? A. Yes B. No
Q.No.2

B 53%

A 47%

A B

Q. No.3 How should the induction Programme be organized? A. Individually B. Group wise C. Department wise

Q.No.3

12% A B 56% 32% C

Q.No.4 Out of the following which topics had been covered in your Induction Programme? o Organizational Issues like history of the Hospital o Employees Benefits like pay scales, benefits o Introduction to supervisors, co-workers o Job duties like Job location, overview of jobs A. All B. Employee benefits, Introduction to supervisors, job duties

Q.No.4

48% 52%

A B

Q.No.5 After the induction Programme how much time does your socialization process takes ? A. 1 day B. 3-7 days

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Q.No.5

22% A B 78%

Q. No. 6 is there any checklist approach to check the effectiveness of the Induction Programme? A. Yes B. No
Q.No.6

37%

A B

63%

Q.No.7 Do you feel that there should be any checklist approach ? A. Yes B. No
Q.No.7

37%

A 63% B

Q.No.8 According to you what method should be followed to implement the checklist approach? A. Observation method B. Questionnaire

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Q.No.8

32% A B 68%

Q.No9 How is training programme given to you ? A. Lectures B. Practical Training C. Seminars

Q.No.9

22% A B 15% 63% C

Q.No.10 How frequently is the training given to employees in a year? A. Weekly B. Monthly C. Quarterly
Q.No.10

8% 49% 43% A B C

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Q.No.11 Do you feel that the existing training programme is effective? A. Yes B. No

Q.No.11

18% A B 82%

Q.No.12 According to you who should be imparted training? A. Fresher B. Seniors C. Both

Q.No.12

17% 12% A B 71% C

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