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SOLUTIONS TO CONCEPTS circular motion;;

CHAPTER 7

1. Distance between Earth & Moon


5 8
r = 3.85 × 10 km = 3.85 × 10 m
6
T = 27.3 days = 24 × 3600 × (27.3) sec = 2.36 × 10 sec
2r 2  3.14  3.85  10 8
v= = = 1025.42m/sec
T 2.36  10 6
v2 (1025.42)2 2 –3 2
a= = = 0.00273m/sec = 2.73 × 10 m/sec
r 3.85  10 8
2. Diameter of earth = 12800km
5
Radius R = 6400km = 64 × 10 m
2R 2  3.14  64  10 5
V= = m/sec = 465.185
T 24  3600
V2 ( 46.5185 )2 2
a= = = 0.0338m/sec
R 64  10 5
3. V = 2t, r = 1cm
a) Radial acceleration at t = 1 sec.
v2 22 2
a= = = 4cm/sec
r 1
b) Tangential acceleration at t = 1sec.
dv d
a= = (2t ) = 2cm/sec2
dt dt
c) Magnitude of acceleration at t = 1sec
2
a= 4 2  22 = 20 cm/sec
4. Given that m = 150kg,
v= 36km/hr = 10m/sec, r = 30m
mv 2 150  (10 )2 150  100
Horizontal force needed is = = = 500N
r 30 30
5. in the diagram
R cos  = mg ..(i)
2
mv
R sin  = ..(ii) R
r
Dividing equation (i) with equation (ii) mv2/R
2 2
mv v
Tan  = =
rmg rg mg
v = 36km/hr = 10m/sec, r = 30m
v2 100
Tan  = = = (1/3)
rg 30  10
–1
  = tan (1/3)
6. Radius of Park = r = 10m
speed of vehicle = 18km/hr = 5 m/sec
v2
Angle of banking tan =
rg
v2 25
–1 –1 –1
  = tan rg = tan 100 = tan (1/4)

7.1
Chapter 7
7. The road is horizontal (no banking)
R
mv 2
= N
R g mv2/R
and N = mg
mv 2
So =  mg v = 5m/sec, R = 10m
R
mg
25 25
 = g   = = 0.25
10 100
8. Angle of banking =  = 30°
Radius = r = 50m
v2 v2
tan  =  tan 30° =
rg rg
1 v2 2 rg 50  10
 = v = =
3 rg 3 3
500
v= = 17m/sec.
3
9. Electron revolves around the proton in a circle having proton at the centre.
Centripetal force is provided by coulomb attraction.
–11 –3
r = 5.3 t 10 m m = mass of electron = 9.1 × 10 kg.
–19
charge of electron = 1.6 × 10 c.
mv 2 q2 2 kq2 9  10 9  1.6  1.6  10 38 23.04
= k 2 v = = =  1013
r r rm 5.3  10 11  9.1 10  31 48.23
2 13 12
 v = 0.477 × 10 = 4.7 × 10
6
 v = 4.7  1012 = 2.2 × 10 m/sec
10. At the highest point of a vertical circle
mv 2
= mg
R
2
 v = Rg  v = Rg
11. A celling fan has a diameter = 120cm.
Radius = r = 60cm = 0/6m
Mass of particle on the outer end of a blade is 1g.
n = 1500 rev/min = 25 rev/sec
 = 2 n = 2  ×25 = 157.14
2
Force of the particle on the blade = Mr = (0.001) × 0.6 × (157.14) = 14.8N
The fan runs at a full speed in circular path. This exerts the force on the particle (inertia). The particle
also exerts a force of 14.8N on the blade along its surface.
1
12. A mosquito is sitting on an L.P. record disc & rotating on a turn table at 33 rpm.
3
1 100
n = 33 rpm = rps
3 3  60
100 10
 = 2  n = 2  × = rad/sec
180 9
r = 10cm =0.1m, g = 10m/sec2
2
 10 
0.1  2
2 r  9 
mg  mr   = 
g 10
2
 
81
7.2
Chapter 7
13. A pendulum is suspended from the ceiling of a car taking a turn
2
r = 10m, v = 36km/hr = 10 m/sec, g = 10m/sec
 mv2/R
mv 2
From the figure T sin  = ..(i)
r
T cos  = mg ..(ii) mg

–1  v 
2
sin  mv 2 v2
 =  tan  =   = tan  
cos  rmg rg  rg 
 
100
–1 –1
= tan 10  10 = tan (1)   = 45°

14. At the lowest pt.


T
mv 2
T = mg +
r
Here m = 100g = 1/10 kg, r = 1m, v = 1.4 m/sec mg
2 2
mv 1 (1.4)
T = mg + =  9 .8  = 0.98 + 0.196 = 1.176 = 1.2 N
r 10 10 mv2 /r
15. Bob has a velocity 1.4m/sec, when the string makes an angle of 0.2 radian.
m = 100g = 0.1kg, r = 1m, v = 1.4m/sec.
From the diagram, T
2
mv
T – mg cos  =
R
mg sin 
mg cos 
mv 2
T= + mg cos 
R
0.1 (1.4)2  2 
T=  (0.1)  9.8  1  
1  2 

 (.2)2  2
 T = 0.196 + 9.8 × 1   ( cos  = 1  for small )
 2  2

 T = 0.196 + (0.98) × (0.98) = 0.196 + 0.964 = 1.156N  1.16 N
16. At the extreme position, velocity of the pendulum is zero.
T
So there is no centrifugal force.
So T = mg cos o
17. a) Net force on the spring balance. mg sin 
mg cos
2
R = mg – m r 
So, fraction less than the true weight (3mg) is
2
mg  (mg  m2r ) 2  2  6400  10 3 –3
= = =    = 3.5 × 10 R
mg g  24  3600  10 mg
b) When the balance reading is half the true weight, m /R
2

2
mg  (mg  m r )
= 1/2
mg

2 g 10
 r = g/2    rad/sec
2r 2  6400  10 3
 Duration of the day is
2 2  6400  10 3 64  10 6 2  8000
T= = 2  sec = 2  sec = hr = 2hr
 9 .8 49 7  3600

7.3
Chapter 7
18. Given, v = 36km/hr = 10m/s, r = 20m,  = 0.4
The road is banked with an angle,
 v2   1
–1   –1  100 
 = tan  2  or tan  = 0.5
–1 2
 = tan  rg  = tan   mv1 /r
   20 10 
When the car travels at max. speed so that it slips upward, R1  R1
R1
acts downward as shown in Fig.1  mg
2
mv 1
So, R1 – mg cos  – sin  = 0 ..(i) R2
r
2
mv 1 mv2 /r
2
And R1 + mg sin  – cos  = 0 ..(ii)
r
Solving the equation we get,  R2
tan    0 .1  mg
V1 = rg = 20  10  = 4.082 m/s = 14.7 km/hr
1   tan  1 .2
So, the possible speeds are between 14.7 km/hr and 54km/hr.
19. R = radius of the bridge
L = total length of the over bridge mv2/R
a) At the highest pt.
mv 2 2
mg =  v = Rg  v = Rg
R
mg
1
b) Given, v = Rg 2
2= L/R
2
mv2/R
mv 2
suppose it loses contact at B. So, at B, mg cos  =
R
2
 v = Rg cos 
2 
 Rv  mg
   Rg
 2  = Rg cos   = Rg cos   cos  = 1/2   = 60° = /3 2
  2
2= L/R
 R
 =  ℓ = r =
r 3
R
So, it will lose contact at distance from highest point
3
c) Let the uniform speed on the bridge be v.
L mv2/R
The chances of losing contact is maximum at the end of the bridge for which  = .
2R
mv 2  L 
So, = mg cos   v =gR cos  
R  2R 
2
20. Since the motion is nonuniform, the acceleration has both radial & tangential 2= L/R
component
2 m
v
ar =
r
dv  mg mv2/R
at = =a
dt mv2/R
2
 v2  m dv/dt
Resultant magnitude =    a2
 r 
 
2 2
 v2   v2   v4  m N
Now N = m    a 2   mg = m    a 2  2g2 =   2
 r  r   r2   a
     
4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1/4
 v = ( g – a ) r  v = [( g – a ) r ]
7.4
Chapter 7
21. a) When the ruler makes uniform circular motion in the horizontal mg
plane, (fig–a)

 mg = mL  mg 12L
g
 
L L R
(Fig–a)
b) When the ruler makes uniformly accelerated circular motion,(fig–b)
1/ 4
 g  2   mg m22L
2 2 2 4 2  2 g2
 mg = (m2 L )  (mL  )  2 + =  2 =     2 
L2  L  
(Fig–b)
mL
(When viewed from top)
22. Radius of the curves = 100m
Weight = 100kg
Velocity = 18km/hr = 5m/sec
mv 2 100  25
a) at B mg – = N  N = (100 × 10) – = 1000 – 25 = 975N
R 100
mv 2
 B C
E
At d, N = mg + = 1000 + 25 = 1025 N A
R D
b) At B & D the cycle has no tendency to slide. So at B & D, frictional force is zero.
1 mv2/R
At ‘C’, mg sin  = F  F = 1000 × = 707N
2 B
mg
mv 2 mv 2 N
c) (i) Before ‘C’ mg cos  – N =  N = mg cos  – = 707 – 25 = 683N
R R
mv 2 mv 2
(ii) N – mg cos  = N= + mg cos  = 25 + 707 = 732N
R R
d) To find out the minimum desired coeff. of friction, we have to consider a point just before C. (where
N is minimum)
Now,  N = mg sin    × 682 = 707
So,  = 1.037
23. d = 3m  R = 1.5m F m2r
R = distance from the centre to one of the kids
N = 20 rev per min = 20/60 = 1/3 rev per sec
= 2r = 2/3 15kg 15kg
m = 15kg
mg
2 ( 2 ) 2 2 2
 Frictional force F = mr = 15 × (1.5) × = 5 × (0.5) × 4 = 10
9
2
 Frictional force on one of the kids is 10 
24. If the bowl rotates at maximum angular speed, the block tends to slip upwards. So, the frictional force
acts downward.
Here, r = R sin 
From FBD –1
2
R1 – mg cos  – m (R sin ) sin  = 0 ..(i) [because r = R sin ]
2
and R1 mg sin  – m1 (R sin ) cos  = 0 ..(ii)
Substituting the value of R1 from Eq (i) in Eq(ii), it can be found out that
1/ 2
 g(sin    cos )  R2
1 =  
 R sin (cos    sin ) 
Again, for minimum speed, the frictional force m12 r m22 r
R2 acts upward. From FBD–2, it can be proved R1  
that, R1 R2
(FBD – 1) (FBD – 2)

7.5
Chapter 7
1/ 2
 g(sin    cos ) 
2 =  
 R sin (cos    sin ) 
 the range of speed is between 1 and 2
25. Particle is projected with speed ‘u’ at an angle . At the highest pt. the vertical component of velocity is
‘0’
So, at that point, velocity = u cos  mv2/r
 u sin 
centripetal force = m u cos  r 
2 2
u cos 

At highest pt. mg
mv 2 u2 cos 2 
mg = r= 
r g
26. Let ‘u’ the velocity at the pt where it makes an angle /2 with horizontal. The
horizontal component remains unchanged
u cos  mv2/
So, v cos /2 =  cos   v = ...(i)  /

cos 
2 mgcos/2
mg

From figure  cos
mv 2 v2
mg cos (/2) = r=
r g cos / 2
putting the value of ‘v’ from equn(i)
u 2 cos 2 
r= 
g cos 3 ( / 2)
27. A block of mass ‘m’ moves on a horizontal circle against the wall of a cylindrical room of radius ‘R’
Friction coefficient between wall & the block is .
mv 2
a) Normal reaction by the wall on the block is =
R
mv 2
b)  Frictional force by wall =
R
m
mv 2 v 2 
c) = ma  a = – (Deceleration) R
R R
2
dv dv v R dv
d) Now, = v =–  ds = –
dt ds R  v
R
s=  In V + c
mv2/R
At s = 0, v = v0
R mv 2/R
Therefore, c = In V0

R v v –s/R
so, s =  In  =e
 v0 v0
–2
For, one rotation s = 2R, so v = v0e
28. The cabin rotates with angular velocity  & radius R
2
 The particle experiences a force mR .
2
The component of mR along the groove provides the required force to the particle to move along AB.
2 2
 mR cos  = ma  a = R cos 
B
length of groove = L
2 2 2 A 
L = ut + ½ at  L = ½ R cos  t 2
mv /R
2 2L 2L R
t = =t= 1 
R2 cos  R2 cos 

7.6
Chapter 7
29. v = Velocity of car = 36km/hr = 10 m/s
r = Radius of circular path = 50m
m = mass of small body = 100g = 0.1kg.
 = Friction coefficient between plate & body = 0.58
a) The normal contact force exerted by the plate on the block
mv 2 0.1 100
N= = = 0.2N
r 50
b) The plate is turned so the angle between the normal to the plate & the radius of the road slowly
increases
mv 2
N= cos  ..(i)
r
mv 2
N= sin  ..(ii)
r
Putting value of N from (i)
mv 2 mv 2 –1 –1
 cos  = sin    = tan    = tan  = tan (0.58) = 30° 
r r
30. Let the bigger mass accelerates towards right with ‘a’.
From the free body diagrams, m
T – ma – mR = 0 …(i) 2m
2
T + 2ma – 2m R = 0 …(ii) R
a
2
Eq (i) – Eq (ii)  3ma = m R
m2R ma T
a= m2R
3
2 2ma T
Substituting the value of a in Equation (i), we get T = 4/3 m R.
2m2R

****

7.7