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Matthew Effects in Reading Stanovich begins his article by exploring the problems with the existing evidences on the

issue. The author observes that for many years, research on individual differences was plagued by the failure to carry out thorough process analyses on the experimental tasks employed (Stanovich, 1986, p. 361). Researches on cognitive psychology have made it clear that one can never come to a comprehensive conclusion regarding performance difference in reading based on observation of a single task. As such studies on the cognitive processes on reading need to take into account the casual and reciprocal relationships among variables. The author argues that an effective model of the development of individual differences in reading should give primary importance to phonological awareness as it is the most significant predictor in reading success even though cognitive functioning such as nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary, and listening comprehension facilitate the development of reading skills. This emphasises the significance of phonological awareness tasks rather than general intelligence tests or reading readiness tests. One should also bear in mind that there is a reciprocal causative relationship between phonological awareness and reading acquisition. Children during their early reading stages need to grasp the spelling to sound code which will promote independent decoding in the long run. The researcher and his colleagues employed a longitudinal research design to test the hypothesis that poor readers do not rely on context to facilitate word recognition. The study conducted by the researchers among the first graders in the fall and Spring showed that at a comparable level of context free decoding ability the recognition efficiency scores of the less skilled readers actually displayed somewhat more contextual facilitation than those of the skilled readers (Stanovich, 1986, p. 371-72). This shows that the skilled readers have better context-free decoding efficiency and superior prediction abilities. Stanovich considers the Phenomenon of Word Calling as an inappropriate reading strategy as no semantic

activation takes place in the reader. The consequences of reading history and practice also exert great influence on reading skill acquisition. The longitudinal research designs and the reading level match designs employed by the author for the purpose of the study answer the research question to a certain extent and keep the doors open for further researches as to the strategies by which the reading disabilities of the poor readers can best be addressed.