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Affective Domain The Taxonomy of the Affective Domain The Affective Domain in the Mathematics Classroom The Role

of the Curriculum Affective refers to those actions that result from and are influenced by emotions. Consequently, the affective domain relates to emotions, attitudes, appreciations, and values. It is highly personal to learning, demonstrated by behaviors indicating attitudes of interest, attention, concern, and responsibility. According to the National Guidelines for Educating EMS (Emergency Medical Service) Instructors, the following words describe the affective domain: defend, appreciate, value, model, tolerate, respect. In the mathematics classroom, the affective domain is concerned with students' perception of mathematics, their feelings toward solving problems, and their attitudes about school and education in general. Personal development, self-management, and the ability to focus are key areas. Apart from cognitive outcomes, teachers stress attitude as the most common affective outcome. The Taxonomy of the Affective Domain Most psychologists describe five "levels of understanding" within the affective domain. These five levels define the path from passively observing a stimulus, such as watching a movie or reading a textbook ("receiving"), to becoming self-reliant and making choices on the basis of well formed beliefs ("characterization").

Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Characterization.

The major work in describing the affective domain was written by David R. Krathwohl in the 1950s. In his book, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook II: Affective Domain (1956), he described the five levels mentioned above. These five levels are restated below with definitions, based on Krathwohl's book, as well as classroom examples. Krathwohl's Taxonomy of Affective Objectives Receiving

Commitment to Specific Levels The student has an

Examples in the Classroom Listens

awareness of and attends to what surrounds her and she is willing to take notice of the stimulus. She pays attention to particular stimuli, such as classroom activities, textbooks, and homework assignments. From a teaching standpoint, this level is concerned with getting, holding, and directing the student's attention. Responding The student demonstrates active participation by asking and responding to questions. At this level, the student not only attends to a stimulus, but reacts to it in some way.

attentively Demonstrates an understanding of the importance of learning

Completes assigned homework Participates in class discussions Volunteers for tasks Shows interest in the subject Helps others (when requested) Asks relevant questions Contributes material for the bulletin board and school newspaper Shows concern for the welfare of others Demonstrates a positive problem solving attitude Appreciates cooperation with his classmates during discussions Offers help to others (without


The student accepts and believes a principle and demonstrates acceptance by debating the issue or making a personal stand on certain value systems. The student sees worth or value in the subject, activity, or assignment. At this level, the student responds not because he has been asked to but as a result of adhering to a particular value.

being requested) Shares material with others Encourages other students in the class Asks permission before using another student's materials As appropriate, offers gratitude and congratulations to others Organization The student actively participates and shows commitment by organizing activities such as meetings, working committees, and support groups related to a value system. The student develops an internally consistent value system that results from bringing together a set of values and resolving any conflicts between them. The student begins to develop a "philosophy of life." Accepts responsibility for her own behavior Acknowledges and accepts her own strengths and weaknesses Formulates a life plan consistent with her abilities, interests, and beliefs Formulates well-constructed rationale Considers the needs of others in addition to personal needs Considers the pros and cons of a situation before making a decision Demonstrates self confidence when working


Beliefs are integrated into the student's personality to become part and parcel of

his whole value system and character. The student's behavior has reflected these values for a period of time sufficiently long enough that he can be said to have developed a characteristic "lifestyle." The student's behavior is pervasive, consistent, and predictable.

independently Cooperates in group activities Shows punctuality and self discipline

In the mathematics classroom, and indeed in all classrooms, instructors are role models. Sometimes, we lose sight of this inherent fact, yet we must remember that our actions model the behavior that students will emulate. When focusing on content, we model the procedures and strategies that we would like students to employ when they solve problems on their own. In the same way, we must model the attitudes and behaviors that we would like students to exhibit when interacting with others and making personal decisions. Model the behaviors and values that you would like your students to emulate, such as:

Honesty Punctuality Fairness Competence Sensitivity Preparedness Dependability Helpfulness Self-reliance.

Remember that students constantly observe and scrutinize your actions, and immediately correct behaviors that do not model appropriate values. Consider affective objectives when assessing student work. Establish classroom procedures that support affective objectives; that is, through classroom rules, encourage students to be honest, punctual, fair, and so forth, and provide opportunities for them to develop as independent thinkers and self-reliant problem solvers. Effective teachers promote inquisitiveness and perseverance, and they do not make statements such as "This is an easy problem." Successful teachers establish good relationships with students by acting more friendly than formal, and they share personal anecdotes about their own problemsolving that reveal their strengths and weaknesses. Effective teachers hold students accountable for performance and base assessment on strategies and communication of conjectures, not simply on finding the correct answer.

Observable Verbs for Affective Domain Instructional Objectives

acclaims agrees argues assumes attempts avoids challenges

cooperates defends disagrees disputes engages in helps is attentive to

joins offers participates in praises resists shares volunteers